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A PROJECT REPORT ON

DESIGN OF 4 - CHANNEL RF REMOTE CONTROL


USING DTMF ICs

SUBMITTED TO

THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS (INDIA)

As a Fulfillment of Project Work Assigned For Completion of


AMIE Exam (Section-B)

(Year 2017 Term Dec-Jan)

Submitted By Guided By
Lokesh Kumar Joshi Prof. Ashok Kumar Jetawat, M.I.E.
Branch- Electronics & Comm. Engg. Udaipur, Rajasthan
ST-389554-3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This Project is the end of my journey in obtaining my AMIE Degree. This project has been

kept on track and been seen through to completion with the support and encouragement of

numerous people including my well wishers, my friends, colleagues and my guide. At the end of my

Project, it is a pleasant task to express my thanks to all those who contributed in many ways to the

success of this study and made it an unforgettable experience for me.

This project report was prepared for The Institution of Engineers (INDIA), Kolkata,

basically for student in AMIE Section B to complete the program that leads to the degree of

AMIE. This report is based on the methods given by the Institute. I will be thankful to the

Director (EEA), The Institution of Engineers (INDIA), Kolkata for providing me this opportunity

to accomplish the project work. I place on record my deep sense of gratitude to my project guide

Prof. Ashok Kumar Jetawat, M.I.E., for his encouragement and valuable guidance for the

successful completion of Project work. Deepest thanks and appreciation to my parents and family

for their cooperation, encouragement, constructive suggestion and full of support for the

preparation, from the beginning till the end. Also thanks to all of my friends and everyone, those

have been contributed by supporting my work and help myself during the project progress till it is

fully completed. Thank again to all persons who helped me directly and indirectly for the successful

of this project work.

LOKESH KUMAR JOSHI


Electronics & Comm. Engg.
ST389554-3
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

This is to certify that project report entitled DESIGN OF 4-

CHANNEL RF REMOTE CONTROL USING DTMF ICs is an

original work of the student and is being submitted for fulfillment of the project

work for INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERS, INDIA in Electronics &

Communication Engineering under my supervision and guidance.

The report has not been submitted, earlier, either to this or to any other

University/Institution for fulfillment of the requirement of a course of study.

PROJECT GUIDE:

PROF. ASHOK KUMAR JETAWAT,


M.I.E.,
(UDAIPUR, RAJ.)
DECLARATION

Myself LOKESH KUMAR JOSHI student of AMIE (ST-389554-3)

section B, hereby declare that the project report permitted DESIGN OF 4-

CHANNEL RF REMOTE CONTROL USING DTMF ICs submitted

to INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERS, INDIA, Kolkata in fulfillment of

AMIE degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering is the original work

conducted by me. The information and data have been given in the report is

authentic to the best of my knowledge. This project report is not being submitted to

any other University for award of any other Degree, Diploma and Fellowship.

LOKESH KUMAR JOSHI


Electronics & Comm. Engg.
ST389554-3
SYNOPSIS

This is to certify that the synopsis for the project entitled DESIGN OF

4- CHANNEL RF REMOTE CONTROL USING DTMF ICs has

been approved prior to the project work initiated by MR. LOKESH KUMAR

JOSHI (ST-389554-3), for fulfillment of the project work for AMIE (section B) in

Electronics and Communication Engineering under my supervision and guidance.

The project and report work completed as per the mentioned format of the Institute

Of Engineers, India

PROJECT GUIDE:

PROF. ASHOK KUMAR JETAWAT,


M.I.E.,
(UDAIPUR, RAJ.)

SYNOPSIS
PROJECT TITLE

DESIGN OF 4- CHANNEL RF REMOTE CONTROL USING DTMF ICs.

Objectives of the study

Detail study of remote controlled operation circuits, describes an investigation into the potential

for electrical appliances which is to be operated remotely.

Study of line-of-sight pointing, Limited Operating Angle, Short Transmission Range, Reflection

Problem, Low Battery Life etc. Problems in existing IR (Infrared System) systems for this

purpose:

To study and design of VHF transmitter & receiver circuit.

To Study of DTMF encoding, decoding process for control four electrical

appliances remotely by radio frequency (RF) communication.

RATIONALE FOR STUDY:

Detail study of remote controlled operation circuits, describes an investigation into the potential for

electrical appliances which is to be operated remotely.

This is useful in following cases-

To reduce utilization of wires and cables for controlling loads located away from the

control panel.

Where human accessibility is impossible i.e., High temperature zones, nuclear radiation

zone, underwater zone, overhead location, chemical and fume zones.


Most of the common remote controls use infrared (IR) technologies but these IR-based controls

suffer from many shortcoming like,

Requiring line-of-sight pointing

Limited operating angles

Short transmission range

Reflection problems

High current consumption associated with the IR LEDs, which leads to low battery

life.

Designing RF remote controls are allow solving the various above mentioned problems with

maximum transmission range, ensuring long battery life and maintain low system costs.

Following Points are having importance during this Study.

This project deals with remote control of four channel ONOFF control.

The aim of the project to increase the range of remote control and obstruction free by

VHF communication.

The number of loads can be controlled independently.

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

The methodology of study shows the process or methods that will follow to complete the

assign project.

DTMF Technique
The DTMF technique is utilized for encoding and decoding the remote control signals having the

great advantage of interfacing this type of remote controls can be connected with telephone,

mobile phone and satellite phone. The load can be controlled from anywhere in the world by

suitably interfacing the remote control receiver to the above mentioned gadgets. Hence DTMF

technology is the standard dialing technique used globally.

The large bandwidth of radio frequency spectrum allows the number of channel frequencies used

for remote control transmission without interference each other. Following Points also included

during this Study:

Detailed study of DTMF coding in telephone system.

Survey the faults/drawbacks in present remote control system.

Finding solution against problem.

Selection of VHF Transmitter, receiver, DTMF ICs, relay circuits, power supply suitable

for the system.

Contribution (from the study):

This study of remote controlled operation circuits, describes an investigation into the potential

for electrical appliances which is to be operated remotely. This study will boost the information

about following:

Complete Knowledge of 4-Ch. RF Remote Control Circuit Using DTMF ICs.

Technical Information of Electronic and Instrumentation equipments used in These RF

Remote Control Circuits.

Operational conditions, and Troubleshooting


Given Benefits Related to RF Tech. w.r.t. IR Tech. Such As Requiring line-of-sight

pointing, Limited operating angles, Limited operating angles, Reflection problems, Low

Battery Life Etc. Problem minimized Using These System.

Following fields of knowledge are used to find out the solution for the problem.

Analog and digital circuits.

DC Power supplies.

DTMF coding and encoding.

Relay circuits.

VHF Transmitter and receiver circuits.

Agenda

Following activities are require to complete the project

(Bar chart is mentioned also herewith)

Planning of project steps : 05 days


Finding problems in present system : 10 days
Remedial action : 10 days
Design & testing. : 15 days
Project report : 05 days
Figure 1: Project Schedule

Tools and Equipments

During This Project Work, various Tools & Equipments required, which was being used during

Designing Circuits.

Following Tools & Equipments was being used:

Soldering iron

Digital multi meter

Regulated DC power supply 0 to 12 V

PCB, test bread board and relays

Electronic components.

During Tools Using, Safety Precautions was being used such as:

Proper Ground Mat or Sheet to be used (Safety for Power Shock).

Aprin (White Clothes as Coat) for wearing purpose to be used.

Selection of Proper tools & Equipments during project.


Problems envisaged in carrying out the project, if any:

No any specific problem raised in study & project report preparation, But Collection of

the Study Materials from Reference Books, Manuals, Web. Sites & their Conclusions is Some

what Difficulties.

Project Guide Submitted By

Ashok Kumar Jetawat, Lokesh Kumar Joshi


M.I.E. Membership No: ST-389554-3
Udaipur, Rajasthan Branch: Electronics &
Communication Engg
FINAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENT

S.No. Contents Page

1 Project Title

2 Objectives of the study

3 Rational for Study

4 Statement of the problem

5 Methodology of the study

6 Input Data/Structure for design

7 Description of Circuit and Components

8 Final Results

9 Conclusion

10 Scope of Future Study

11 Bibliography
DESIGN OF 4- CHANNEL RF REMOTE CONTROL

USING DTMF ICs

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Detail study of remote controlled operation circuits, describes an investigation into the potential

for electrical appliances which is to be operated remotely.

Study of line-of-sight pointing, Limited Operating Angle, Short Transmission Range, Reflection

Problem, Low Battery Life etc. Problems for existing IR (Infrared System) systems. for this

purpose:

To study and design of VHF transmitter &receiver circuit.

To Study of DTMF encoding, decoding process for control four electrical appliances

remotely by radio frequency (RF) communication.


RATIONALE FOR STUDY

Detail study of remote controlled operation circuits, describes an investigation into the potential for
electrical appliances which is to be operated remotely.

This is useful in following cases-

To reduce utilization of wires and cables for controlling loads located away from the

control panel.

Where human accessibility is impossible i.e., High temperature zones, nuclear radiation

zone, underwater zone, overhead location, chemical and fume zones.

Most of the common remote controls use infrared (IR) technologies but these IR-based controls

suffer from many shortcoming like,

Requiring line-of-sight pointing

Limited operating angles

Short transmission range

Reflection problems

High current consumption associated with the IR LEDs, which leads to low battery life.

Designing RF remote controls are allow solving the various above mentioned problems with

maximum transmission range, ensuring long battery life and maintain low system costs.

Following Points are having importance during this Study.

This project deals with remote control of four channel ON OFF control.
The aim of the project to increase the range of remote control and obstruction free by
VHF communication.

The number of loads can be controlled independently.


STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

During analysis most common remote controls have been used with infrared (IR) technology

because of the relatively low cost of IR components, but IR-based controls have many

drawbacks including requiring line-of-sight pointing problem , limited operating angles, short

transmission ranges, reflection problem and high current consumption. The problems require

immediate remedial action by suitable design Such as RF Technology Based Remote Control

Circuit Using DTMF ICs.


METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

The methodology of study shows the process or methods that will follow to complete the assign

project.

DTMF technique

The DTMF technique is utilized for encoding and decoding the remote control signals

having the great advantage of interfacing this type of remote controls can be connected with

telephone, mobile phone and satellite phone. The load can be controlled from anywhere in the

world by suitably interfacing the remote control receiver to the above mentioned gadgets. Hence

DTMF technology is the standard dialing technique used globally.

The large bandwidth of radio frequency spectrum allows the number of channel frequencies used

for remote control transmission without interference each other.

Following Points also included during this Study:

Detailed study of DTMF coding in telephone system.

Detail Study of IC Decoder 4013.

Survey the faults/drawbacks in present remote control system.

Finding solution against problem.

Selection of VHF Transmitter, receiver, DTMF ICs, relay circuits, power supply suitable

for the system.


Input Data/Structure/Questionnaire

During This Study, VHF Transmitter, Receiver Circuit used, by which Decoding & Encoding

Process was done. For this Purpose Various types of Circuit Elements as CD4013B Flip-Flop

IC ,TDA 7000 IC for FM VHF Receiver Circuit UM91214B IC for generating DTMF

Frequencies, 6V DC Regulator Using 7806 IC etc. have been used. During Project Study

Following Points introduced as :

Load to be controlled four electrical appliances from the distance of 100 meter.

Method of Communication between remote control transmitter and receiver is VHF FM

Communication.

Technique used for Decoding and Encoding is DTMF encoder and receiver.

Power supply used is DC 6v, 9v, 12v.

QUESTIONNAIRE

During frequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices

and the switching

Following Questionnaires was put-up during This Project Study:

What is DTMF?

Dual tone multiple frequency (DTMF) signaling is being used for telecommunication

signaling over analog telephone lines in the voice g centers. The version of DTMF has been

used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone (canceled

March 13, 1984). It is being also known as a MF4 in the UK. Other multi-frequency systems

are used for signaling internal to the telephone network.

What is DTMF Receiver?


The KT3170 is being completed the term Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (DTMF) Receiver that

is being fabricated by low power CMOS and the Switched-Capacitor Filter technology. This LSI

consists of band split filters, which operates counting section which verifies the frequency and

duration of the received tones before passing the corresponding code to the output bus.

What are the basic components of a communication system?

The basic components of a communication system are as under:

1. The Source 2. Channel

3. Transmitter 4. Receiver

What is Microcontroller?

A microcontroller (also microcontroller unit, MCU or C) is a small computer on a single

integrated circuit consisting of a relatively simple CPU has been combined with support

functions such as a crystal oscillator, timers, watchdog, serial and analog I/O etc. Program

memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is being also often integrated on chip, as well as

a typically small read/write memory.

Microcontrollers are designed for small applications. Thus, in contrast to the microprocessors

used in personal computers and other high-performance applications, simplicity is emphasize.

Some microcontrollers may operate at clock frequencies as low as 32kHz, as this is adequate for

many typical applications, enabling low power consumption (miliwatts or microwatts). They will

generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event.

What is an oscillator?
An oscillator is basically a waveform generator which is being generated an output waveform,

which oscillates constant amplitude and constant desired frequency. So it is an amplifier, which

uses a positive feedback and without any external-input signal, generates an out waveforms of a

desired frequency.

What is an Antenna?

An antenna is basically a length of a conductor and acts as a conversion device, it serves as a link
between the transmitter and the receiver the first type of conversion takes place when an antenna
is used for transmission where electrical energy is converted into electro magnetic waves.

The second conversion occurs at the receiving end where electro magnetic waves are
transformed into electrical signal i.e applied to the input of the receiver.

What is an Modulation?

Modulation is the process of superimposing or embedding the original information into a high
frequency (energy) carrier signal so that long haul transmission/ communication is accomplished.

What is an Digital RF Modulation?

Where longer distances are involved, it may be necessary to use RF (Radio Frequency)
techniques to transmit information.

In radio frequency telemetry, multiplexing is used. Microwave is a special case of Radio


transmission. Multiplexing is commonly is accomplished by either time or frequency sharing of
transmission channel between the individual quantities.
ANALYSIS/SOLUTIONS/DEISCRIPTION

Description of Circuit and Components

General Description CD 4013B

The CD4013B Dual D-type flip flop is being worked as a monolithic complementary MOS

(CMOS) integrated circuit construct with P & N channel enhancement mode transistors. Each

flip-flop has been worked as a independent data, set, reset, and clock inputs and Q and Q

outputs. These devices can be use for shift register applications and by connecting Q output to

the data input for counter and toggle applications. The logic level which present at the D input

is being transferred to the Q output during positive going transition of the clock pulse. Set or

reset is independent of the clock and is accomplished by a high level on the set or reset line

respectively.

Features

Wide supply voltage range: 3.0 to 15V

High noise immunity: 0.45 VDD (typical)

Low Power TTL: fan out of 2 driving 74L

Compatibility: or 1 driving 74LS

Applications

Automotive

As a Data terminals
As a Instrumentation

As a Medical electronics

Alarm system

Industrial electronics

Remote metering

As a Computers

Absolute Maximum Ratings

DC Supply Voltage (VDD) 0.5 to 18 VDC

Input Voltage (VIN) 0.5 to 0.5 VDC

Storage Temperature Range (TS) 65C to 150C

Power Dissipation (PD)

Dual-In-Line 700 mw

Small Outline 500 mw

Lead Temperature

(Soldering in 10 seconds) 260C

Recommended Operating Conditions

DC Supply Voltage (VDD): 3 to 15 VDC

Input Voltage (VIN): 0 to 0.5 VDC

Operating Temperature Range (TA) : 55C to 125C


Low Power DTMF Receiver (KT3170)

Introduction:

The KT3170 is being a complete Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (DTMF) receiver that is being

fabricated by low power CMOS and the Switched-Capacitor Filter technology. This LSI consists

of band split filters, which operates counting section which verify the frequency and duration of

the received tones before passing the corresponding code to the output bus. It decodes all 16

DTMF tone pairs into a 4 bits digital codes. The externally required components are being

minimized by chip provision of a differential input AMP, clock oscillator and latched three state

interfaces. The ON chip clock generator require only a low cost TV crystal as an external

component.

Features

Detects all 16 standard tones.

Low power consumption: 15mW

Single power supply: 5V

Uses inexpensive 3.58MHz crystal

Three state outputs for microprocessor interface


Figure 1 : 18-DIP-300A IC
Good quality and performance for using in exchange system

Power down mode/input inhibit


In 1 18
Applications
+2 VC
In 3 C
KT
PABX

Central Office
- 4 17
G 5 31
Paging Systems

Remote Control
SV
S 6 70 GT
Credit Card Systems

Key Phone System

Answering Phone

Home Automation System


V7 O
Mobile Radio

KT3170N - 25C ~ + 75
R8 16
Remote Data Entry EF9 ES
Device Package Operating Temperature
II O
N 15
P DS
D O
N 14
O Q4
S 13
C Q3
1 12
O
LOW POWER DTMF RECEIVER Q2
KT3170 PIN DESCRIPTION:
S 11
C Q1
Pin Symbol Description

No
1 IN + Non inverting input of the op amp.
2
3
IN -
GS 2
Inverting input of the op amp.
Gain Select. The output used for gain adjustment of10
G OE
analog input signal with a feedback resistor

4 VREF Reference Voltage output (VDD/2, Type) can be used to

5 IIN
N
bias the op amp input of VDD/2.

Input inhibits. High input states inhibit the detection of

6 PDN
D
tones. This pin is pulled down internally
Control input for the stand-by power down mode.

Power down occurs when the signal on this input is in

high states. This pin is pulled down internally


7, 8 OSC1 , Clock input/output. A inexpensive 3.579545MHz crystal

OSC2 connected between these pins completes internal

oscillator. Also, external clock can be used.


9 GND Ground pin.
10 OE Output Enable input. Outputs Q1-Q4 are CMOS push

pull when OE is High and open circuited (High

impedance) when disabled by pulling OE low. Internal

pull up resistor built in.


11 Q1 - Q4 Three state data output. When enabled by OE, these

-14 digital outputs provide the hexadecimal code

corresponding to the last valid tone pair received


15 DSO Delayed Steering Output. Indicates that valid

frequencies have been present for the required guard


time, thus constituting a valid signal. Presents a logic

high when a received tone pair has been registered

and the output latch is updated. Returns to logic low

when the voltage on SI/GTO falls below VTH.


16 ESO Early Steering Outputs. Indicates detection of valid

tone output a logic high immediately when the digital

algorithm detects a recognizable tone pair. Any

momentary loss of signal condition will cause ESO to

return to low.
17 SI/GTO Steering Input/Guard Time Output. A voltage greater

the VTS detected at SI causes the device to register the

detected tone pair and update the output latch. A

voltage less than VTS frees the device to accept a new

tone pair. The GTO output acts to reset the external

steering time constant, and its state is a function of

ESO and the voltage on SI


18 VDD Power Supply (+5V, Typ)

General Description TDA7000

The TDA7000 is being introduced as a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radio,

where a minimum ON peripheral components is important (small dimensions and low costs).

The IC has been introduced FLL (Frequency-Locked-Loop) system with an Intermediate

Frequency of 70 kHz.

The Intermediate Frequency selectivity is obtained by active RC filters. The only function which

needs alignment is being represented as a resonant circuit for the oscillator, thus selecting the
reception frequency. False reaction is avoided by means of a mute circuit, which also eliminates

too noisy input signals. Special precautions are being taken to meet the radiation requirements.

The TDA7000 includes the following functions:

Radio Frequency (RF) input stage

Mixer & Local oscillator

Intermediate Frequency (IF) amplifier/limiter

Phase demodulator

Mute detector

Mute switch

Ratings

Limiting values find in accordance with the Absolute Maximum System (IEC 134)

D.C. CHARACTERISTICS

VP = 4,5 V; Tamb = 25 C;

Supply voltage (pin 5) VP max. 12 V

Oscillator voltage (pin 6) V6-5 VP0,5 to VP + 0,5 V

Storage temperature range Tstg 55 to 150 C

Operating ambient temperature range Tamb 0 to 60 C


Remote Control Transmitter Circuit
VHF FM Receiver Circuit

Notes :-

For L1 and L2 wind 5 turns of 0.6 mm enameled Copper wire on a 4 mm dia plastic

Former.

For antenna use a 50mm long insulated copper wire.

IC TDA 7000 can withstand up to 10 V supply voltage. But I recommend 6V.


Description FM VHF Receiver Circuit

Here is a compact low cost FM VHF Receiver circuit using IC TDA 7000. This circuit is

designed as per the data sheet and the result is excellent. Ideal for all categories of electronic

enthusiasts.

The TDA7000 IC is a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radios, where a

minimum ON peripheral components are crucial. The IC TDA 7000 has a Frequency-

Locked-Loop system with an intermediate frequency of 70 kHz. The intermediate

frequency selectivity is achieved by active RC filters. The only function which needs

alignment is the resonant circuit for the oscillator, thus selecting the reception frequency.

Spurious reception is avoided by means of a mute circuit, which also eliminates too noisy

input signals. Special steps are taken to meet the radiation requirements.
Remote Control Receiver & Load Control Circuit
Here is a circuit of a remote control unit which makes use of the radio frequency signals to

control various electrical appliances. This remote control unit has 4 channels which may be

easily extended up to 12. This circuit differs from similar circuits in view of its simplicity and a

totally different concept of generating the control signal. Usually remote control circuits make to

use of infrared light to transmit control signals. Their use is thus limited to a very confined area

and line-of-sight.

However, this circuit makes to use of radio frequency to transmit the control signals and hence it

can be used for control from almost anywhere in the house. Here DTMF signals are being used

as a control codes. The DTMF tones are used for frequency modulation of the carrier. At the

receiver unit, these frequency modulated signals are intercepting to obtain DTMF tones at the

speaker terminals. Then DTMF signal is being connected to a DTMF-to-BCD converter whose

BCD output is used to switch-on and switch-off various electrical appliances (4 in this case

used). The remote control transmitter consists of DTMF generator and an FM transmitter circuit.

For generating the DTMF frequencies, IC UM91214B (which is being used as a dialer IC in

telephone instruments) is being used here. This IC requires 3 volts for its operation. This is

provided by a simple zener diode voltage regulator which changes 9 volts into 3 volts for use by

this IC. For its time base, it requires a quartz crystal of 3.58 MHz which is easily available from

electronic component shops. Pins 1 and 2 are being used as a chip select and DTMF mode select

pins respectively. When the row and column pins (pin number 12 and 15) are being shorted to

each other, DTMF tones corresponding to digit 1 are output from its pin-7. Similarly pins 13, 16

and 17 are being required additionally to dial digits 2, 4 and 8. Rest of the pins of this IC may be

left as they are. The output of IC1 is given to the input of transmitter circuit which effectively
frequency modulates to the carrier and transmits it in the air. The carrier frequency is determined

by coil L1 and trimmer capacitor VC1 (which may be adjusted for around 100 MHz operations).

An antenna of 10 to 15 cms (4 to 6 inches) length will be stand to sufficient to provide adequate

range. The antenna is also necessary because the transmitter unit has to be housed in a metallic

cabinet to protect the frequency drift caused by stray EM fields. Four key switches (DPST push-

to-on spring loaded) are required to transmit the desired DTMF tones. The switches when

pressed generate the specific tone pairs as well as power to the transmitter circuit simultaneously.

In this way when the transmitter unit is not in use, it consumes no power at all sides and the

battery stands at lasts much longer. The receiver unit consists of an FM receiver (these days

simple and inexpensive FM kits are readily available in the market which work exceptionally

well with a DTMF-to-BCD converter and a flip-flop toggle latch section. The frequency

modulated DTMF signals are being received by the FM receiver and the output (DTMF tones) is

being fed to the dedicated IC KT3170 which is a DTMF-to-BCD converter.

This IC when fed with the DTMF tones gives equivalent BCD output; for example, when digit 1

is pressed, the output is 0001.When digit 4 is pressed the output is 0100. This IC also requires a

3.58MHz crystal for its operation. The tone input is being connected to its pin 2 and the BCD

outputs are taken from pins 11 to 14 respectively. These outputs are being fed to 4 individual D

flip-flop latches which have been converted into toggle flip-flops which built around two

CD4013B ICs,whenever a digit is pressed, the receiver decodes it and gives a clock pulse which

is being used to toggle the equivalent flip-flop to the alternate state. The flip-flop output is used

to drive a relay which in turn can latch or unlatch any electrical appliances. We may upgrade the

circuit to control as many as 12 channels since IC UM91214B can generate 12 DTMF tones.
For this purpose some modifications have to be done in receiver unit and also in between IC2

and toggle flip-flop section in the receiver. A 4-to-16 lines de-multiplexer (IC 74154) has to be

used and the numbers of toggle flip-flops have also to be increased to 12 from the existing 4.
6 Volt regulator circuit using 7806

Description

Here is the elementary 6 volts elementary power supply circuit using 7806 IC .The 7806 three

terminal positive voltage regulator is available in TO -220 package making them useful in a wide

range of applications 7806 employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe

operating area protection, making it essentially permanent. If proper heat sinking is provided, it

can deliver over 1 ampere output current.

Voltage Regulator Circuit Diagram with Parts List -


FINAL RESULTS/OUTPUT

The 4 Channel RF Remote control is designed to control four electrical loads has been tested for

domestic use. It is found working satisfactorily within 200 meter distance from the transmitter.

Individual loads can be switched ON / OFF independently without any disturbance. Presently the

transmitter is connected with small wire telescopic antenna for the purpose of hand held

operation.
CONCLUSION

The design of multi-channel remote control under the

project using solid state devices like DTMF ICs, Decoders,

Transistor and relays increases the system reliability. This

also reduces power consumption and occupies less space.

I learned lot about DTMF ICs Decoding methods, VHF

transmitter and receiver circuit using modern ICs, DC power

supply, load control circuits.


SCOPE OF FUTURE STUDY

There is never end of techniques which used for Various Problems reduction in Existing

IR(Infrared System) System. Circuit design is a very vast field. Circuit designing is depends on

application, regulation approval, size of the product, environment in which it is operated. In this

entire project, we have covered lot of Problems as Line of Sight Pointing, Limited Operating

Angles, Short Transmission Range, Reflection Problems, Low Battery Life etc. mentioned

problems in existing System by introducing RF Remote Control Circuits.

By this Study Following Points Also Introduced:

Presently this project is design to control only four loads, this can be increased up to any

desired number of loads by connecting more DTMF ICs, suitable encoding decoding ICs

In this project mode of communication is VHF FM this operates distance within LOS

(Line of Sight) communication within few km range this can be increased to operate from

any range by using global communication systems like telephone, mobile phone, satellite

phone system by using DTMF / Pulse mode dialing of digits by designing suitable

peripheral interface circuit.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Communication systems by Simon Haykin

Modern Communication Circuits by Jack R Smith

National semiconductor product guide.

Philips semiconductor product guide.

Electronics & Communication Engineering by A.K. Maini