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DESIGN OF REACTANGULAR UNDER GROUND WATER TANK

Name of work :- pkn 0.26 10.00 m 0.26


1 Tank size 10.00 x 4.00 x 3.00 m
2 Tank capacity 120000 ltr 0.16 m
3 Angle of repose 30 Degree Saturated soil unit wt 17.00 kN/m 3

4 Conrete M 20 unit weight 25000 N/m3 10 mm bars 12 mm bars 220 mm


cbc 7 N/mm 2
m 13 170 mm c/c 12 mm bars 110 mm
5 Steel fy 415 Tensile stress 150 N/mm 2
short span
0.16
6 Nominal Cover 35 mm Water unit wt 9.81 kN/m3 top roof
7 Thickness Walls 260 mm 0.26 m 16 mm bars 4.00 m
Top roof 200 mm 20 cm 0.20 m 90 mm c/c 16 mm bars 170 mm
Bottom slab 300 mm 0.30 m 8 mm bars 140 mm
7 Reinforcement Wall 0.60 16 mm bars 90 mm 0.60
Long out side vertical 16 mm 100 mm c/c 0.85 m height
Out side vertical 16 mm 200 mm c/c upto top 0.30
in side vertical 16 mm 130 mm c/c 0.85 m height
in side vertical 16 mm 260 mm c/c upto top Bottom slab steel detail
Distribution 8 mm 150 mm c/c on each face
Short out side vertical 12 mm 170 mm c/c 0.85 m height 0.26 12 mm bars 170 mm c/c 0.26
Out side vertical 12 mm 340 mm c/c upto top 8 mm bars 150 mm c/c
in side vertical 12 mm 170 mm c/c 1.00 m height 16 mm bars 200 mm c/c
in side vertical 12 mm 340 mm c/c upto top 2.00 m 12 mm bars 170 mm c/c
Out side Horizontal 12 mm 90 mm c/c 0.85 m height 12 mm bars 340 mm c/c
Out side Horizontal 12 mm 170 mm c/c upto top 16 mm bars 260 mm c/c
In side Horizontal 12 mm 100 mm c/c 0.85 m height 12 mm bars 340 mm c/c
In side Horizontal 12 mm 170 mm c/c upto top 12 mm Bars 170 mm c/c
8 Roof 12 mm f bars 100 mm c/c
Main 12 mm 110 mm c/c 1.00 m 16 mm f bars 130 mm c/c
Distribution 10 mm 170 mm c/c 12 mm bars 90 mm c/c
9 Base Main 16 mm 90 mm c/c at the Bottom face 16 mm bars 100 mm c/c
Main 16 mm 170 mm c/c at the top face 12 mm bars 170 mm c/c
Distribution 8 mm 140 mm c/c
0.30

long wall steel deail Short wall steel detail


pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in Drawing not to the scale
DESIGN OF REACTANGULAR UNDER GROUND WATER TANK
Name of work :- pkn
Tank size 10.00 x 4.00 x 3.00 m
Tank capacity 120 # 120000 mm
Angle of repose 30 Degree Saturated soil unit wt = 17.00 kN/m3 17000
Conrete M 20 unit weight = ### N/m3
Steel fy 415 N/mm 2
Tensile stess = 150 N/mm2
cbc 7 N/mm2 m = 13
Nominal cover 35 mm unit wt. of water = 9.81 N/mm3 9810

###
Solution, general:- There are four components of design.
(I) Design of long wall (II) Design of short wall
(III) Design of roof slab (IV) Design of base slab
The design of walls will be done under two condition.
(a) Tank full with water, with no earth fill out side.
(b) Tank empty, with full earth pressure due to saturated earth fill.
The base slab will be designed for uplift pressure and the hole tank is to be tasted against
floatation. As the L/B ratio is greater than 2 the long wall will be designed as cantilever. The bottom one metre
( >H /4) of short walls will be designed as cantilever while the top portion will designed as slab supported by
long walls .

### Design Constants:- For HYSD Bars Cocrete M = 20


st 150 N/mm2 wt. of concrete = 25000 N/mm2
cbc 7 N/mm2 m 13
m*c 13 x 7
k= = = 0.378
m*c+st 13 x 7 + 150
j=1-k/3 1 - 0.378 / 3 = 0.874
R=1/2xc x j x k 0.5 x 7 x 0.874 x 0.378 = 1.155

### Design of Long wall :-


(a) Tank empty with pressure satureted soil from outside.
Pa = KaY'H +YwH
1 - sin 30 1 - 0.5 0.5 1
Here, Ka = = = = = 0.333
1 + sin 30 1 + 0.5 1.5 3
Y' = 17.00 - 9.81 = 7.19 kN/m3 = 7190 N/m3
Yw = 9.81 kN/m3 = 9810 N/m3
Pa = 0.333 x 7190 x 3.00 + 9810 x 3.00 = 36620 N/m2
3.00 3.00
Maximum B.M. at the base of wall = 36620 x x = 54930 N-m or 54930000 N-mm
2 3
54930000
Required depth = = 218 mm
1.155 x 1000
Provide total depth 218 + 35 = 260 mm so that available d = 225 mm
54930000
Ast = = 1862 mm2
150 x 0.874 x 225
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 16 x 16
using ### mm bars A = = = 201 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 201 / 1862 = 108 say = 100 mm
Hence Provided 16 mm bar, @ 100 mm c/c on out side face, at bottom of long wall
Cutailment of reinfocrement. Since B.M. is proportional to h3, we have:
Asth h3 Asth 1/3
= = From which h = H x
Ast H3 Ast
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
If Asth =1/2. Ast (i.e.half the bars being curtailed). H= H(1/2)'1/3 = 3.00 x( 0.5 )1/3 = 2.38 m
Height from the base = 3.00 - 2.38 = 0.62 m However as per code requirement,
the bars are to be continued further for distance of 12 F = 12 x 16 = 192 mm or d = 225 mm,
whichever is more, beyond this point. Hence curtail half the bars at 0.62 + 0.225 = 0.85 m from base.
Similarly, depth where only 0.25% reinforcement is requiredd is h=H(0.25)1/3= 3.00 x( 0.25 )1/3= 1.89
Height from the base = 3.00 - 1.89 = 1.11 m However as per code requirement,
the bars are to be continued further for distance of 12 F = 12 x 16 = 192 mm or d = 225 mm,
whichever is more, beyond this point. Hence curtail half the bars at 1.11 + 0.225 = 1.35 m from base.
260 - 100
Minimum, % Reinforcement = 0.3 - 0.1 x = 0.254 %
450 - 100
260 x 1000
Min = 0.2543 x = 661 mm2
100
This is > Than 0.25 % of Ast at bottom . Hence above curtalment is not permissible
Hence the reinforcement will be provid as under,
(I) At base : 16 mm bars @ 100 mm c/c
(II) At 0.85 m above base , up to top : 16 mmbars @ 200 mm c/c
Distribution steel :-
260 - 100
% of distribution steel = 0.3 - 0.1 x = 0.254 %
450 - 100
260 x 1000
Astd = 0.254 x = 661 mm2, Area of each face = 330.5 mm2
100
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 8 x 8
using 8 mm bars A = = = 50.2 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 50.2 / 331 = 152 say = 150 mm
Hence Provided 8 mm bar, @ 150 mm c/c on Each face,
1000 x 50.2
having, Ast = 2x = 670 mm2
150
Direct compression in long walls:- The earth pressure acting on short walls will cause compression
in long walls, because top portion of shorts walls act as slab supported on long walls
At h = 3.00 / 4 = 0.75 or 1.00 m above the base of walls .
Pa=KaY' (H-h) + Yw (H-h) = 0.333 x 7190 x( 3.00 - 1.00 )+ 9810 x 2.00 = 24413
This direct compression devloped on long walls and wall section. N/m2
4.00
PLC =Pa.x B/2 24413 x = 48827 N
2
This will be well taken by distribution steel and wall section
(b) Tank full with water and no earth fill out side.
P = Y x wh = 9810 x 3.00 = 29430 N/m2
HxH 3.00 x 3.00
M=p x = 29430 x = 44145 N-m or 44145000 N-mm
2x3 2 x 3
44145000
Ast = = 1496 mm2
150 x 0.874 x 225
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 16 x 16
using ### mm bars A = = = 201 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 201 / 1496 = 134 say = 130 mm
Hence Provided 16 mm bar, @ 130 mm c/c at the in side face.
Curtailement of reinforcement:-
Asth h3 Asth 1/3
= = From which h = H x
Ast H3 Ast
If Asth =1/2. Ast (i.e.half the bars being curtailed). H= H(1/2)'1/3 = 3.00 x( 0.5 )1/3 = 2.38 m
Height from the base = 3.00 - 2.38 = 0.62 m However as per code requirement,
the bars are to be continued further for distance of 12 F = 12 x 16 = 192 mm or d = 225 mm,

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
whichever is more, beyond this point. Hence curtail half the bars at 0.62 + 0.225 = 0.85 m from base.
Similarly, depth where only 0.25% reinforcement is requiredd is h=H(0.25)1/3= 3.00 x( 0.25 )1/3= 1.89
Height from the base = 3.00 - 1.89 = 1.11 m However as per code requirement,
the bars are to be continued further for distance of 12 F = 12 x 16 = 192 mm or d = 225 mm,
whichever is more, beyond this point. Hence curtail half the bars at 1.11 + 0.225 = 1.35 m from base.
260 - 100
Minimum, % Reinforcement = 0.3 - 0.1 x = 0.254 %
450 - 100
260 x 1000
Min = 0.2543 x = 661 mm2
100
This is > Than 0.25 % of Ast at bottom . Hence above curtalment is not permissible
Hence the reinforcement will be provid as under,
(I) At base : 16 mm bars @ 130 mm c/c
(II) At 0.85 m above base , up to top : 16 mmbars @ 260 mm c/c

Direct tensio on long wall:- Since the top portion of short wall act as slab supported on long walls,
the water pressure acting on short walls will cause in long walls.
B 4.00
PL= P x Where p= 9810 x = 19620 N/m2 at 1.00 m height
2 2
4.00
PL = 19620 x = 39240 N, As required = 39240 / 150 = 262 mm2
2
Area of distribution steel provided in horizontal direction = 670 mm2
Hece distribution steel will take direct tension.
### Design of short walls :-
(a) Tank empty, with pressure of satureted soil from outside.
(I) Top Portion . The bottom 1.00 m act as cantilever, while the remaining 2.00 m
act as slab supported on long walls.
Pa = KaY' (H-h) + Yw (H-h) = 0.33 x 7190 x 2.00 + 9810 x 2.00 = 4793 + 19620
= 24413 N/m2
PaL2 24413 x 4.00 2
Mf (at supports ) = = = 32551 N-m (causing tension out side )
12 12
PaL2 PaL2 24413 x 4.00 2 N-m (causing
M ( at centre ) = - Mf = = = 16275
8 24 24 tension in side )
d = 260 - ( 35 + 16 ) = 209 mm
32551000
At Supports, Ast = = 1188 mm2
150 x 0.874 x 209
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 113 / 1188 = 95 say = 90 mm
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 90 mm c/c at the out side face at 2.00 m below the top
At mid span, Ast = 1188 x 0.5 = 594 mm 2
minimum Ast = 661 mm2
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 113 / 661 = 171 say = 170 mm
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c at inner side face
(III) Bottom portion The bottom 1.00 m will bend as cantilever.
Intensity of earth pressure at bottom = 36620 N/m2
1 1 (with tension at out side
M = x 36620 x 1 x = 6103 N-m
2 3 face)

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6103 x 1000
Ast = = 207 mm2
150 x 0.874 x 225
Minimum steel @ 0.254 % "= 661 mm2
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 113 / 661 = 171 say = 170 mm
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c at out side face, in vertical direction for
bottom 1.00 m height. The spacing can be doubled for upper portion.
(III) Direct compression in short walls:-
Though the long walls bend as cantilever, it is observed that end 1.00 metre
width of long wall contributes to push in short walla, due to earth pressure, and its magnitude is given by
PBC = Pa x 1 = 24413 x 1 = 24413 N
This is quite small, and hence its effect has not been considered.
(b) Tank full with water , and no earth fill out side.
(I) Top Portion . The bottom 1.00 m act as cantilever, while the remaining 2.00 m
act as slab supported on long walls.
p = w (H-h) = 9810 x( 3.00 - 1.00 )= 19620 N/m2
PB2 19620 x 4.00 2 causing tension at
Mf (at supports ) = = = 26160 N-m
12 12 the inside
PB2 19620 x 4.00 2 causing tension at
Mc (At centre) = = = 13080 N-m
24 24 the outside
Direct tension in short wall:- Due to water pressure on the end 1.00 metre width of long wall is
pB = w (H-h) x1 = 9810 x( 3.00 - 1.00 )x 1.0 = 19620 N/m2
Effective d, for horizontal steel = 209 mm
Distance = (x - d ) x T / 2 = 209 - 260 / 2 = 79 mm
Mf - PB.x PB
Hence net B.M. = M - PB. x Ast1 = Ast2 =
st,j.d s
At inside face (end of short walls)
Mf - PB.x 26160 x 1000 - 19620 x 79
Ast1 = = = 898 mm2
st,j.d 150 x 0.874 x 209
PB 19620
Ast2 = = = 131 mm2 \ total Ast = 898 + 131 = 1029 mm2
s 150
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 113 / 1029 = 110 say = 100 mm
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 100 mm c/c at the inner face,
At the out side face (middle of short walls)
Mc - PB.x 13080 x 1000 - 19620 x 79
Ast1 = = = 421 mm2
st , j . d 150 x 0.874 x 209
PB 19620
Ast2 = = = 131 mm2 \ total Ast = 421 + 131 = 552 mm2
s 150
Minimum reinforcement required = 661 mm2
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 113 / 661 = 171 say = 170 mm
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c at the outside face,

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(III) Bottom portion The bottom 1.00 m will bend as cantilever.
P (at bottom) = 29430 N/m2 (stap 3)
1 1 with tension at in side
M = x 29430 x 1 x = 4905 N-m
2 3 face
4905 x 1000
Ast = = 166 mm2
150 x 0.874 x 225
Minimum steel @ 0.254 % = 661 mm2
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 113 / 661 = 171 say = 170 mm
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c at out side face, in vertical direction for
bottom 1.00 m height. The spacing can be doubled for upper portion.
( C) Summary of reinforcement in short walls.
(I) Horizontal reifocement at inner face:
For lateral earth pressure, horizontal reinfocement require is 12 mm @ 170 mm c/c in the mid span
For water pressure, horizontal reinforcement required is 12 mm @ 100 mm c/c at the ends.
Hence provided greater one of two reinforcement.
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 100 mm c/c at inner face at, 2.00 m from top.
At top 1 m height, the pressure will be reduced to half the value ;
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c at for the top 1.00 m height.
(II) Horizontal reinfocement for outer face;
For lateral earth pressure, horizontal reinfocement require is 12 mm @ 90 mm c/c in the mid span
For water pressure, horizontal reinforcement required is 12 mm @ 170 mm c/c at the ends.
Hence provided greater one of two reinforcement.
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 90 mm c/c at inner face at, 0.00 m from top.
At top 1 m height, the pressure will be reduced to half the value ;
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c at for the top 1.00 m height.
(III) Vertical reinforcement at inner face;
provide 12 mm F bar, @ 170 mm c/c at the inner face, for bottom 1.00 m height
the spacing can be double for upper portion.
(IV) Vertical reinforcement at outer face;
provide 12 mm F bar, @ 170 mm c/c at the Outer face, for bottom 1.00 m height
the spacing can be double for upper portion.
### Design of top slab:-
L/B = 10.00 / 4.00 = 2.5 Hence top slab will be design as one way slab.
Let the live load of slab = 2000 N/m2
Assuming a thickness of 20 cm including finishing etc.
self weight = 0.20 x 1 x 1 x ### = 5000 N/m2
Total weight = 2000 + 5000 = 7000 N/m2
w . B2 7000 x( 4.00 + 0.26 )2= 15879 N-m or 15879000 N-mm
M = =
8 8
15879000
Required depth = = 117 mm
1.155 x 1000
Provide total depth 117 + 35 = 160 mm so that available d= 125 mm
15879000
Ast = = 969 mm2
150 x 0.874 x 125
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using ### mm bars A = = = 113 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
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Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 113 / 969 = 117 say = 110 mm
Hence Provided 12 mm bar, @ 110 mm c/c
Distribution steel :-
160 - 100
% of distribution steel = 0.3 - 0.1 x = 0.283 %
450 - 100
160
x 1000
Astd = 0.283 x = 453 mm2,
100
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 10 x 10
using ### mm bars A = = = 78.5 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 78.5 / 453 = 173 say = 170 mm
Hence Provided 10 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c the other direction.

### Design of bottom slab:- If ther is no sub-soil water nominal reinforcement would required .
However, because of saturated sub-soil, there will uplift pressure on the bottom slab, of the magnitude given by.
pu = wH1 = 9810 x 3.30 = 32373 N/m2 (assuming base slab thickness = 300 mm)
Chech against flotation.; The hole tank must be check against flotation when the tank is empty.
Total upward flotation force. = Pu = pu x B x L
Pu = 32373 x 4.00 x 10.00 = 1294920 N
Total down ward force consists of weight of tank. Base slab thickness = 300 mm
Weight of walls = 0.26 x 2.00 x( 4.00 + 10.00 )x 3.00 x ### = 546000 N
Weight of roof slab and finishing = 0.2 x 4.00 x 10.00 x ### = 200000 N
Weight of base slab = 0.3 x 4.00 x 10 x ### = 300000 N
Total weight W = 1046000 N
1294920 > 1046000 upward force is more than dpown ward force

hence provide projection in slab, beyond the face of vertical walls, by an amount x m alround, so that weight of
soil column supported by projection will provide additional down war force. It is assumed that if the tank is floted,
the earth would rupture on vrtical planes shown by dotted lines. (fig ) .Most soil would tend torupture on an
inclined planes, thus tendind to increase the effective down ward load from the earth but this might be small in
waterlogged non-cohesive ground.

Weigt of soil supported by projection:


x = 2(L+B)x H.Ysat = 2 x( 4.52 + 10.52 )x 3.00 x ### = 1534080 xN
Weight of roof slab and finishing = 0.2 x 4.00 x 10.00 x ### = 200000 N
Weight of walls = 0.26 x 2.00 x( 4.00 + 10.00 )x 3.00 x ### = 546000 N
Total "= 746000 N
Weight of base slab=( 4.00 + 2 x 0.26 + 2 x)
( 10.00 + 2 x 0.26 + 2 x) 0.3 x ###
=( 4.52 + 2 x)( 10.52 + 2 x) 7500 =
Assuming that S.F. = 1.10 is needed because
(I) concrete may weight less than ### N/m3
(II) Earth may weight les than ### N/m3
(III) Ground water may turn saline weight more than 9810 N/m3
Total up lift force = 1.10 x 29430 x( 4.52 + 2 x)( 10.52 + 2 x)
Equating total upward force to the total down ward force, we get
4.52 + 2 x) ( 10.52 + 2 x)= 1534080 x + 746000 )/ 24873
4 x + 30.08 x + 47.55 )= 61.68
2
x + 29.99
4 x 2
31.597 x + 17.56 = 0
1 x2 7.90 x + 4.39 = 0 hence x = 0.60

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Chech : width B1 = 4.52 +( 2 x 0.60 ) = 5.72 m
Length = 10.52 +( 2 x 0.60 ) = 11.72 m
Weight of soil suppoted on projection: x = 2 x( L 1 +B1)x Hysat
x = 2 x( 11.72 + 5.72 )x 0.60 x 3 x ### = 1067328 N
The Bottom slab will be design as one way slab. Cosidered one metre length
Upward water pressure Pu = 32373 N/m2
Self weight of slab : 1 x 1 x 0.3 x ### = 7500 N/m2
Net upward pressure, p = 32373 - 7500 = 24873 N/m2
Weight of wall per m. run = 0.26 x 3.00 x 1 x 25000 = 19500 N/m
weight of roof slab, transferred to each wall, per m run
= 0.20 x( 2 + 0.26 )x 1 x ### = 11300 N
Weight of earth projection = 17000 x 3 x 1 x 0.60
= 51000 x 1 x 0.60 = 30600 N/m
Net unbalanced force/m run = 32373 ( 5.72 x 1 )- 2 x( ### +
30600 + 11300 = 62374 N
Reaction on each wall = 62374 / 2 = 31187 N
Pa '= Ka yH +wH = 36620 N/m 2
pa = ### x 3 / 2 = 54930 N/m
Acting at = 3 / 3 + 0.3 = 1.3 m above the bottom of base slab
B.M. at the edge of 24873 x 0.60 2+ 51000 x 0.60 2
54930 x 1.3 -
cantilever portion '= 2 2.00
= 66706 N-m or 66706000 N-mm Causing tension at bottom face
B.M. At center of span = 24873 x 5.72 2+ ### x 1.3 -( ### + 30600
2 x 2
4.26 5.72
+ 11300 )x - 51000 x 0.60 x( - 0.30 )'=
2 2
= 101726 + 71409 "- 130782 - ###
= -35983 N-m or -35983000 N-mm Causing tension at top face
66706000
Required depth = = 240 mm
1.155 x 1000
Provide total depth 240 + 50 = 290 mm so that available d= 240 mm
66706000
Ast = = 2120 mm2
150 x 0.874 x 240
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 16 x 16
using ### mm bars A = = = 201 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 201 / 2120 = 95 say = 90 mm
Hence Provided 16 mm bar, @ 90 mm c/c at bottom Face
For top face,
35983000
Ast = = 1143 mm2
150 x 0.874 x
240
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 16 x 16
using ### mm bars A = = = 201 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 201 / 1143 = 176 say = 170 mm
Hence Provided 16 mm bar, @ 170 mm c/c
Disrtibution reinforcement in longitudinal direction
290 - 100
= 0.30 - 0.1 x = 0.25 %
450 - 100
0.25 x 1000 x 290
Area of steel = = 713 mm2 On each face = 357 mm2
100
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 8 x 8
using 8 mm bars A = = = 50.2 mm2
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of hoop Bars = 1000 x 50.2 / 357 = 141 say = 140 mm
Hence Provided 8 mm bar, @ 140 mm c/c. on each face

### Detail of reinforcement:-


Shown in drawing
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
DESIGN OF REACTANGULAR UNDER GROUND WATER TANK

Name of work :- pkn


16 mm@ 100 mm c/c
8 mm@ 150 mm c/c
0.26 4.00 0.26
0.26

16 mm @ 130 mm c/c 8 mm@


150 mm c/c
mm @ mm c/c
mm @ mm c/c 4.00 2.00 16 mm@ 200
12 mm @ mm c/c 16 mm@ 260
mm @ mm c/c
mm@ mm c/c 1.00 16 mm@ 100
12 mm @ 90 mm c/c 0.60 16 mm@ 130

0.30
0.26
mm@ mm c/c

0.26 10.00 m 0.26


12 mm @ 220 mm c/c
10 mm @ 170 mm c/c
12 mm @ 110 mm c/c

0.16
12 mm @ 340 mm c/c
12 mm @ 340 mm c/c
mm @ mm c/c 2.00 m
3.00 mm @ mm c/c
12 mm @ 100 mm c/c
12 mm @ 170 mm c/c
12 mm @ 90 mm c/c 1.00 m
0.60 12 mm @ 170 mm c/c 0.60

0.3
0.3

Reinforcement detail for short wall pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in


0.16

3.00

0.60
ana@yahoo.co.in
VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS
Grade of concrete M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 Grade of concrete
Modular Ratio 18.67 13.33 10.98 9.33 8.11 7.18 bd (N / mm2)
cbc N/mm2 5 7 8.5 10 11.5 13
m cbc 93.33 93.33 93.33 93.33 93.33 93.33
kc 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
(a) st =
140 jc 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867
N/mm2 Rc 0.867 1.214 1.474 1.734 1.994 2.254 Grade of
(Fe 250) Pc (%) 0.714 1 1.214 1.429 1.643 1.857 concrete
kc 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 M 15
(b) st = jc 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 M 20
190
Rc 0.732 1.025 1.244 1.464 1.684 1.903 M 25
N/mm2
Pc (%) 0.433 0.606 0.736 0.866 0.997 1.127 M 30
kc 0.289 0.289 0.289 0.289 0.289 0.289 M 35
(c ) st =
jc 0.904 0.904 0.904 0.904 0.904 0.904 M 40
230
N/mm2 Rc 0.653 0.914 1.11 1.306 1.502 1.698 M 45
(Fe 415) Pc (%) 0.314 0.44 0.534 0.628 0.722 0.816 M 50
kc 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.253
(d) st =
jc 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.914 0.916 0.916
275
N/mm2 Rc 0.579 0.811 0.985 1.159 1.332 1.506
(Fe 500) Pc (%) 0.23 0.322 0.391 0.46 0.53 0.599

Permissible shear stress Table v in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


100As Permissible shear stress in concrete tv N/mm2
bd M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40
Grade of
< 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.2 0.2
concrete
0.25 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
0.50 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.32 M 10
0.75 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.38 M 15
1.00 0.37 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42 M 20
1.25 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.46 M 25
1.50 0.42 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.49 0.49 M 30
1.75 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.52 0.52 M 35
2.00 0.44 0.49 0.51 0.53 0.54 0.55 M 40
2.25 0.44 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.57 M 45
2.50 0.44 0.51 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 M 50
2.75 0.44 0.51 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62
3.00 and above 0.44 0.51 0.57 0.6 0.62 0.63

Maximum shear stress c.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


Permissi

Grade of concrete M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 Grade of concrete
c.max 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.5 ct.max

Shear stress tc Reiforcement %


100As 100As Value
M-20 M-20
bd bd Degree
0.15 0.18 0.18 0.15 1
0.16 0.18 0.19 0.18 1.5
0.17 0.18 0.2 0.21 2
0.18 0.19 0.21 0.24 2.5
0.19 0.19 0.22 0.27 3
0.2 0.19 0.23 0.3 3.5
0.21 0.2 0.24 0.32 4
0.22 0.2 0.25 0.35 4.5
0.23 0.2 0.26 0.38 5
0.24 0.21 0.27 0.41 5.5
0.25 0.21 0.28 0.44 6
0.26 0.21 0.29 0.47 6.5
0.27 0.22 0.30 0.5 7
0.28 0.22 0.31 0.55 7.5
0.29 0.22 0.32 0.6 8
0.3 0.23 0.33 0.65 8.5
0.31 0.23 0.34 0.7 9
0.32 0.24 0.35 0.75 9.5
0.33 0.24 0.36 0.82 10
0.34 0.24 0.37 0.88 10.5
0.35 0.25 0.38 0.94 11
0.36 0.25 0.39 1.00 11.5
0.37 0.25 0.4 1.08 12
0.38 0.26 0.41 1.16 12.5
0.39 0.26 0.42 1.25 13
0.4 0.26 0.43 1.33 13.5
0.41 0.27 0.44 1.41 14
0.42 0.27 0.45 1.50 14.5
0.43 0.27 0.46 1.63 15
0.44 0.28 0.46 1.64 15.5
0.45 0.28 0.47 1.75 16
0.46 0.28 0.48 1.88 16.5
0.47 0.29 0.49 2.00 17
0.48 0.29 0.50 2.13 17.5
0.49 0.29 0.51 2.25 18
0.5 0.30 18.5
0.51 0.30 19
0.52 0.30 19.5
0.53 0.30 20
0.54 0.30 20.5
0.55 0.31 21
0.56 0.31 21.5
0.57 0.31 22
0.58 0.31 22.5
0.59 0.31 23
0.6 0.32 23.5
0.61 0.32 24
0.62 0.32 24.5
0.63 0.32 25
0.64 0.32 25.5
0.65 0.33 26
0.66 0.33 26.5
0.67 0.33 27
0.68 0.33 27.5
0.69 0.33 28
0.7 0.34 28.5
0.71 0.34 29
0.72 0.34 29.5
0.73 0.34 30
0.74 0.34 30.5
0.75 0.35 31
0.76 0.35 31.5
0.77 0.35 32
0.78 0.35 32.5
0.79 0.35 33
0.8 0.35 33.5
0.81 0.35 34
0.82 0.36 34.5
0.83 0.36 35
0.84 0.36 35.5
0.85 0.36 36
0.86 0.36 36.5
0.87 0.36 37
0.88 0.37 37.5
0.89 0.37 38
0.9 0.37 38.5
0.91 0.37 39
0.92 0.37 39.5
0.93 0.37 40
0.94 0.38 40.5
0.95 0.38 41
0.96 0.38 41.5
0.97 0.38 42
0.98 0.38 42.5
0.99 0.38 43
1.00 0.39 43.5
1.01 0.39 44
1.02 0.39 44.5
1.03 0.39 45
1.04 0.39 45.5
1.05 0.39 46
1.06 0.39 46.5
1.07 0.39 47
1.08 0.4 47.5
1.09 0.4 48
1.10 0.4 48.5
1.11 0.4 49
1.12 0.4 49.5
1.13 0.4 50
1.14 0.4 50.5
1.15 0.4 51
1.16 0.41 51.5
1.17 0.41 52
1.18 0.41 52.5
1.19 0.41 53
1.20 0.41 53.5
1.21 0.41 54
1.22 0.41 54.5
1.23 0.41 55
1.24 0.41 55.5
1.25 0.42 56
1.26 0.42 56.5
1.27 0.42 57
1.28 0.42 57.5
1.29 0.42 58
1.30 0.42 58.5
1.31 0.42 59
1.32 0.42 59.5
1.33 0.43 60
1.34 0.43 60.5
1.35 0.43 61
1.36 0.43 61.5
1.37 0.43 62
1.38 0.43 62.5
1.39 0.43 63
1.40 0.43 63.5
1.41 0.44 64
1.42 0.44 64.5
1.43 0.44 65
1.44 0.44 65.5
1.45 0.44 66
1.46 0.44 66.5
1.47 0.44 67
1.48 0.44 67.5
1.49 0.44 68
1.50 0.45 68.5
1.51 0.45 69
1.52 0.45 69.5
1.53 0.45 70
1.54 0.45 70.5
1.55 0.45 71
1.56 0.45 71.5
1.57 0.45 72
1.58 0.45 72.5
1.59 0.45 73
1.60 0.45 73.5
1.61 0.45 74
1.62 0.45 74.5
1.63 0.46 75
1.64 0.46 75.5
1.65 0.46 76
1.66 0.46 76.5
1.67 0.46 77
1.68 0.46 77.5
1.69 0.46 78
1.70 0.46 78.5
1.71 0.46 79
1.72 0.46 79.5
1.73 0.46 80
1.74 0.46 80.5
1.75 0.47 81
1.76 0.47 81.5
1.77 0.47 82
1.78 0.47 82.5
1.79 0.47 83
1.80 0.47 83.5
1.81 0.47 84
1.82 0.47 84.5
1.83 0.47 85
1.84 0.47 85.5
1.85 0.47 86
1.86 0.47 86.5
1.87 0.47 87
1.88 0.48 87.5
1.89 0.48 88
1.90 0.48 88.5
1.91 0.48 89
1.92 0.48 89.5
1.93 0.48 90
1.94 0.48
1.95 0.48
1.96 0.48
1.97 0.48
1.98 0.48
1.99 0.48
2.00 0.49
2.01 0.49
2.02 0.49
2.03 0.49
2.04 0.49
2.05 0.49
2.06 0.49
2.07 0.49
2.08 0.49
2.09 0.49
2.10 0.49
2.11 0.49
2.12 0.49
2.13 0.50
2.14 0.50
2.15 0.50
2.16 0.50
2.17 0.50
2.18 0.50
2.19 0.50
2.20 0.50
2.21 0.50
2.22 0.50
2.23 0.50
2.24 0.50
2.25 0.51
2.26 0.51
2.27 0.51
2.28 0.51
2.29 0.51
2.30 0.51
2.31 0.51
2.32 0.51
2.33 0.51
2.34 0.51
2.35 0.51
2.36 0.51
2.37 0.51
2.38 0.51
2.39 0.51
2.40 0.51
2.41 0.51
2.42 0.51
2.43 0.51
2.44 0.51
2.45 0.51
2.46 0.51
2.47 0.51
2.48 0.51
2.49 0.51
2.50 0.51
2.51 0.51
2.52 0.51
2.53 0.51
2.54 0.51
2.55 0.51
2.56 0.51
2.57 0.51
2.58 0.51
2.59 0.51
2.60 0.51
2.61 0.51
2.62 0.51
2.63 0.51
2.64 0.51
2.65 0.51
2.66 0.51
2.67 0.51
2.68 0.51
2.69 0.51
2.70 0.51
2.71 0.51
2.72 0.51
2.73 0.51
2.74 0.51
2.75 0.51
2.76 0.51
2.77 0.51
2.78 0.51
2.79 0.51
2.80 0.51
2.81 0.51
2.82 0.51
2.83 0.51
2.84 0.51
2.85 0.51
2.86 0.51
2.87 0.51
2.88 0.51
2.89 0.51
2.90 0.51
2.91 0.51
2.92 0.51
2.93 0.51
2.94 0.51
2.95 0.51
2.96 0.51
2.97 0.51
2.98 0.51
2.99 0.51
3.00 0.51
3.01 0.51
3.02 0.51
3.03 0.51
3.04 0.51
3.05 0.51
3.06 0.51
3.07 0.51
3.08 0.51
3.09 0.51
3.10 0.51
3.11 0.51
3.12 0.51
3.13 0.51
3.14 0.51
3.15 0.51
Permissible Bond stress Table bd in concrete (IS : 456-2000)
M-10 M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 M-45 M-50
-- 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Development Length in tension

Plain M.S. Bars H.Y.S.D. Bars


bd (N / mm2) kd = Ld bd (N / mm2) kd = Ld
0.6 58 0.96 60
0.8 44 1.28 45
0.9 39 1.44 40
1 35 1.6 36
1.1 32 1.76 33
1.2 29 1.92 30
1.3 27 2.08 28
1.4 25 2.24 26

Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


Permission stress in compression (N/mm2) Permissible stress in bond (Average) for
Bending cbc Direct (cc) plain bars in tention (N/mm2)
(N/mm2) Kg/m2 (N/mm2) Kg/m2 (N/mm2) in kg/m2
3.0 300 2.5 250 -- --
5.0 500 4.0 400 0.6 60
7.0 700 5.0 500 0.8 80
8.5 850 6.0 600 0.9 90
10.0 1000 8.0 800 1.0 100
11.5 1150 9.0 900 1.1 110
13.0 1300 10.0 1000 1.2 120
14.5 1450 11.0 1100 1.3 130
16.0 1600 12.0 1200 1.4 140

Permissible direct tensile stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)

Grade of concrete M-10 M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40


ct.max 1.2 2.0 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4
Value of angle
sin Degree cos tan cot
0.017 1 1.000 0.017 57.295
0.026 1.5 1.000 0.262 56.300
0.035 2 0.999 0.035 28.644
0.044 2.5 0.999 0.044 22.913
0.052 3 0.999 0.052 19.083
0.061 3.5 0.998 0.061 16.362
0.070 4 0.998 0.070 14.311
0.078 4.5 0.997 0.079 12.707
0.087 5 0.996 0.087 11.437
0.096 5.5 0.995 0.096 10.385
0.104 6 0.995 0.105 9.563
0.113 6.5 0.994 0.114 8.777
0.122 7 0.993 0.123 8.149
0.131 7.5 0.991 0.132 7.597
0.139 8 0.990 0.140 7.119
0.148 8.5 0.989 0.149 6.691
0.156 9 0.988 0.158 6.315
0.165 9.5 0.986 0.168 5.963
0.174 10 0.985 0.176 5.673
0.182 10.5 0.983 0.185 5.396
0.191 11 0.981 0.194 5.142
0.199 11.5 0.980 0.203 4.915
0.208 12 0.978 0.213 4.704
0.819 12.5 0.976 0.839 1.192
0.225 13 0.974 0.231 4.332
0.233 13.5 0.972 0.240 4.166
0.242 14 0.970 0.249 4.011
0.250 14.5 0.968 0.259 3.867
0.259 15 0.966 0.268 3.732
0.259 15.5 0.964 0.269 3.723
0.276 16 0.961 0.287 3.488
0.284 16.5 0.959 0.296 3.376
0.292 17 0.956 0.306 3.272
0.301 17.5 0.954 0.315 3.172
0.309 18 0.951 0.325 3.078
0.317 18.5 0.948 0.335 2.989
0.326 19 0.946 0.344 2.905
0.334 19.5 0.943 0.354 2.824
0.342 20 0.940 0.364 2.747
0.350 20.5 0.937 0.374 2.674
0.358 21 0.934 0.384 2.605
0.367 21.5 0.930 0.394 2.539
0.375 22 0.927 0.404 2.475
0.383 22.5 0.924 0.414 2.414
0.391 23 0.921 0.424 2.356
0.399 23.5 0.917 0.435 2.300
0.407 24 0.924 0.440 2.271
0.415 24.5 0.910 0.456 2.194
0.422 25 0.906 0.466 2.148
0.431 25.5 0.905 0.476 2.103
0.438 26 0.898 0.488 2.049
0.446 26.5 0.895 0.499 2.006
0.454 27 0.891 0.510 1.963
0.462 27.5 0.887 0.521 1.921
0.469 28 0.883 0.532 1.881
0.477 28.5 0.879 0.543 1.842
0.485 29 0.875 0.554 1.804
0.492 29.5 0.870 0.566 1.767
0.500 30 0.866 0.577 1.732
0.508 30.5 0.862 0.589 1.698
0.515 31 0.857 0.601 1.664
0.522 31.5 0.853 0.613 1.632
0.530 32 0.848 0.625 1.600
0.537 32.5 0.843 0.637 1.570
0.545 33 0.839 0.649 1.540
0.552 33.5 0.834 0.662 1.511
0.559 34 0.829 0.675 1.483
0.566 34.5 0.834 0.679 1.473
0.573 35 0.819 0.700 1.429
0.581 35.5 0.814 0.713 1.402
0.588 36 0.809 0.726 1.377
0.595 36.5 0.804 0.740 1.351
0.602 37 0.799 0.754 1.327
0.609 37.5 0.793 0.767 1.303
0.616 38 0.788 0.781 1.280
0.623 38.5 0.783 0.795 1.257
0.629 39 0.777 0.810 1.235
0.636 39.5 0.772 0.824 1.213
0.643 40 0.766 0.839 1.191
0.649 40.5 0.760 0.854 1.171
0.656 41 0.755 0.869 1.150
0.663 41.5 0.749 0.885 1.130
0.669 42 0.743 0.900 1.111
0.676 42.5 0.737 0.916 1.091
0.682 43 0.731 0.933 1.072
0.688 43.5 0.725 0.949 1.054
0.695 44 0.719 0.966 1.036
0.701 44.5 0.713 0.983 1.018
0.707 45 0.707 1.000 1.000
0.713 45.5 0.701 1.018 0.983
0.719 46 0.695 1.036 0.966
0.725 46.5 0.688 1.054 0.949
0.731 47 0.682 1.072 0.933
0.737 47.5 0.676 1.091 0.916
0.742 48 0.669 1.109 0.902
0.749 48.5 0.663 1.130 0.885
0.755 49 0.656 1.150 0.869
0.760 49.5 0.649 1.171 0.854
0.766 50 0.643 1.192 0.839
0.772 50.5 0.636 1.213 0.824
0.777 51 0.629 1.235 0.810
0.786 51.5 0.623 1.262 0.792
0.788 52 0.616 1.280 0.781
0.793 52.5 0.609 1.303 0.767
0.799 53 0.602 1.327 0.754
0.804 53.5 0.595 1.351 0.740
0.809 54 0.588 1.376 0.727
0.814 54.5 0.581 1.402 0.713
0.819 55 0.574 1.428 0.700
0.824 55.5 0.566 1.455 0.687
0.829 56 0.559 1.483 0.675
0.834 56.5 0.552 1.511 0.662
0.839 57 0.545 1.540 0.649
0.843 57.5 0.537 1.570 0.637
0.848 58 0.530 1.600 0.625
0.853 58.5 0.522 1.632 0.613
0.857 59 0.515 1.664 0.601
0.862 59.5 0.508 1.698 0.589
0.866 60 0.500 1.732 0.577
0.870 60.5 0.492 1.767 0.566
0.875 61 0.485 1.804 0.554
0.879 61.5 0.477 1.842 0.543
0.883 62 0.470 1.880 0.532
0.887 62.5 0.462 1.921 0.521
0.891 63 0.454 1.963 0.510
0.895 63.5 0.446 2.006 0.498
0.899 64 0.438 2.051 0.488
0.903 64.5 0.431 2.097 0.477
0.906 65 0.423 2.145 0.466
0.910 65.5 0.415 2.195 0.456
0.914 66 0.407 2.246 0.445
0.917 66.5 0.399 2.300 0.435
0.921 67 0.391 2.356 0.424
0.924 67.5 0.383 2.414 0.414
0.927 68 0.375 2.475 0.404
0.930 68.5 0.819 1.136 0.880
0.934 69 0.358 2.605 0.384
0.937 69.5 0.350 2.674 0.374
0.940 70 0.342 2.747 0.364
0.943 70.5 0.556 1.696 0.590
0.946 71 0.326 2.904 0.344
0.948 71.5 0.317 2.989 0.335
0.951 72 0.309 3.078 0.325
0.954 72.5 0.301 3.172 0.315
0.956 73 0.292 3.271 0.306
0.959 73.5 0.284 3.376 0.296
0.961 74 0.276 3.488 0.287
0.964 74.5 0.267 3.606 0.277
0.966 75 0.259 3.732 0.268
0.968 75.5 0.250 3.868 0.259
0.970 76 0.242 4.011 0.249
0.982 76.5 0.233 4.209 0.238
0.974 77 0.225 4.332 0.231
0.976 77.5 0.216 4.511 0.222
0.978 78 0.208 4.705 0.213
0.980 78.5 0.199 4.915 0.203
0.982 79 0.191 5.145 0.194
0.983 79.5 0.182 5.396 0.185
0.985 80 0.174 5.673 0.176
0.986 80.5 0.165 5.977 0.167
0.988 81 0.156 6.315 0.158
0.989 81.5 0.148 6.691 0.149
0.999 82 0.139 7.178 0.139
0.991 82.5 0.131 7.597 0.132
0.993 83 0.122 8.145 0.123
0.994 83.5 0.113 8.777 0.114
0.995 84 0.105 9.517 0.105
0.995 84.5 0.096 10.389 0.096
0.996 85 0.087 11.431 0.087
0.997 85.5 0.078 12.716 0.079
0.998 86 0.070 14.302 0.070
0.998 86.5 0.061 16.362 0.061
0.999 87 0.052 19.083 0.052
0.999 87.5 0.044 22.913 0.044
0.999 88 0.035 28.637 0.035
1.000 88.5 0.026 38.299 0.026
0.9998 89 0.017 57.295 0.017
0.9999 89.5 0.009 114.931 0.009
1.000 90 0.000 1.000 0.000