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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

PLANE FRAMES

A frame is a structure composed of straight-line members. The members


may be connected by rigid joints, pin-connected joints and semi-rigid joints.
If all the joints are pins (which transmit no bending moments), the frame is
commonly called a truss. Rigid joints are capable of transmitting both
forces and bending moments.

A rigid frame is one in which some or all of its joints are rigid. Rigid frames
are usually statically indeterminate. Our study will be confined to
determinate plane frames. In a plane frame, all the members and loading
must be in the same plane.

A frame is completely analyzed when its support reactions, and the


variations in axial forces, shear forces and bending moments along all its
members are found.

Frame with an
internal hinge

Rigid Frame

Truss (Pin-jointed Frame)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Rigid Joints

At rigid joints, the ends of connected members must not only move together
vertically and horizontally but must all rotate by the same amount. A rigid
joint preserves the angle between members connected to it.

In steel structures, rigid and pin-joints consist of welded connections and


simple bolted connections respectively. There is another type of connection
in between of these two extremes and it is called a semi-rigid connection
(the connection is neither rigid nor pinned, it is in between these two
extremes). In reinforced concrete structures, beams and columns are
usually formed together resulting in substantially rigid joints.

B B' C C'
P.I.

H P.I. P.I.

A D

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DETERMINATE PLANE


FRAMES

1. Find the support reactions. (By using the equations of equilibrium


and the equations of condition if any).

2. Find the member end forces.


(a) Take each member and joint as free-body, find the axial force,
shear force and bending moment at the ends of the member
and joint.
(b) Each free-body diagram must show all external loads, support
reactions and possible internal forces acting on the member
and joint.
(c) A rigid joint can transmit two force components (V & N) and
a moment.
At a hinge, the internal moment is zero.

3. Plot the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams on an
outline of the frame.
(a) A common convention is to draw the bending moment
diagram on the tension side of the frame. (For reinforced
concrete frames, designers often draw the bending moment
diagram on the tension side. This allows the designer to tell at
a glance on which side of the frame steel reinforcement
should be placed.)
(b) The axial force diagram may be plotted on either side of the
member, with proper indication for tension and compression.
(Tension --- +ve, compression --- -ve)
(c) The shear force diagram may be plotted on either side of the
member but normally follows the convention used for the
bending moment diagram. (i.e. follows the convention of
plotting shear force and bending moment of beam). This can
be done by treating each individual member as a beam
element, plot the shear force diagram from the left end to the
right end of the member and draw the bending moments on
the tension side of the member.

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 1

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint.

10 kN
2 kN
B
C
6m

A
4m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:
10 kN
2 kN
B
6m C

A
HA V
MA A
4m

X = 0, HA = 2 kN

Y = 0, VA = 10 kN

Take moment about A,


MA = 10*4 + 2*6 = 52 kNm

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joint, and their member end
forces.

10 kN

40 40 B
B 10
10 2 2
10 2 C 2kN
40
40
10
2
B

Free-body Diagrams

A
2 kN 10 kN
52 kNm

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

10 10

2 2
-10 B + 2
B
C C

-10 A 2 A
Axial Force (kN) Shear Force (kN)

- 40

- 40

B C

Bending Moment (kNm)

A
- 52

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 2

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint.

A B

4m
C

12 kN
6m 3m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

MA
HA A B
VA

4m
C

12 kN
6m 3m

X = 0, HA = 0kN

Y = 0, VA = 12kN

Take moment about A,


MA = 12*9 = 108 kNm

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joint, and their member end
forces.

108 kNm B 36 B
36
A 36
12 kN 12 12
12
36
B
12

Free-body Diagrams
C

12 kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

In order to draw the axial force and the shear force diagram of member BC,
we have to resolve the member end forces so that the member end forces are
perpendicular and along the member axis. This is because member BC is
an inclined member.

12
9.6 7.2
B
36


4 5

3
C
123/5 = 7.2
124/5 = 9.6

12

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

A B 9.6

9.6
Axial Force (kN) C

12 12
7.2
A B

7.2
Shear Force (kN) C

-108

-36
-36
A B

0
Bending Moment (kNm) C

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 3

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints C and E are rigid joints.

96 kN
C E
D
3m

48 kN

5m
B

F
4.5 m

A
3m 3m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

96 kN
C E
D
3m

5m
48 kN
B

F
4.5 m

VF

A
HA
VA
3m 3m

X = 0, HA = 48 kN

Take moment about A,


48*4.5 + 96*3 = VF*6, VF = 84 kN

Y = 0, VA + VF = 96 kN VA = 12 kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

216 216 96 kN
C C E E
12 84
12 12 D 84 84
216
216
12
84
C E

48 kN
B

F
Free-body Diagrams 84

A
48
12

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

C E
-12 -84
D

-
B
-
F -84

Axial Force (kN)


-12 A

12 12 D
E
C

48
B
-84 -84
F

A Shear Force (kN)


48

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

C 216 D E

216
B 252
216
F

A
Bending Moment (kNm)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 4

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints C and E are rigid joints.

96 kN
C E
D
3m

5m
48 kN
B

F
4.5 m

A
3m 3m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

96 kN
C E
D
3m

5m
48 kN
B

F
4.5 m

A
HA V
MA A
3m 3m

X = 0, HA = 48 kN

Y = 0, VA = 96 kN

Take moment about A,


48*4.5 + 96*3 = MA, MA = 504 kNm

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

288 288 96 kN
C 96
C E E
96 96 D
288
288
96
C
E

48 kN
B

F
Free-body Diagrams

A
96 48

504

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

-96 C E
D

B
-
F

Axial Force (kN)


A
-96

96 96

E
C D

48
B

48 A Shear Force (kN)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-288

0 E
-288
C D

-288 B

A
-504 Bending Moment (kNm)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 5

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and C are rigid joints.

15 kN/m
50 kN
B C

2m
20 kN
D
6m

2m
E

A
8m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

15 kN/m
50 kN
B C

2m
20 kN
D
6m

2m
E
VE
A
HA
VA
8m

X = 0, HA + 20 = 50, HA = 30 kN

Take moment about A,


50*6 + 15*8*8/2 20*4 VE*8 = 0
VE = 87.5 kN

Y = 0, VA + VE = 15*8 kN, VA = 32.5 kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

15 kN/m
50 kN B
32.5
180 180
20 40 40 87.5
C
20 20
32.5 30 32.5 B C 20
20 87.5
180 87.5
40
180 40
30 32.5 87.5
20

B C
20 kN
D

E
Free-body Diagrams
87.5
A
30
32.5
Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

-20 -20
-32.5 - -87.5
B C

D -
-
E -87.5
Axial Force (kN)
A
-32.5

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

2.17m
32.5
30 20
B C

20
D
-87.5
E
Shear Force (kN)
A
30

2.17m
180 -40
-40
B C

180 D
215.2
E

A Bending Moment (kNm)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 6

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and D are rigid joints.

30 kN

B D
C

3m
10 kN
E
8m

3m
F

5kN/m A
3.5m 3.5m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

30 kN

B D
C

3m
10 kN
E
8m

3m
F

VF
5kN/m A
HA V
A
3.5m 3.5m

X = 0, HA + 10 = 5*8/2, HA = 10 kN

Take moment about A,


5*(8/2)*(8/3) + 30*3.5 - 10*(3+2) VF*7 = 0
VF = 15.5 kN

Y = 0, VA + VF = 30 kN, VA = 14.5 kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

30 kN

26.7 26.7 B D 10 30 30
B C
10 14.5 10 10 10
10 14.5 C 15.5
14.5 15.5 15.5
26.7 30
26.7 30
14.5
10 10 15.5
B D

10 kN
E

F
Free-body Diagrams

15.5kN
5kN/m A
10kN
14.5kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

Determination of the position of zero shear force and the maximum bending
moment of member AB.

5x/8 kN/m

M 14.5 26.7
14.5
V
B
10
x

Free-body Diagram for Part of Member AB

Consider the free-body diagram for part of member AB. The loading
intensity of the triangular load = (5x/8) kN/m. Set V = 0, and determine x.

To determine the position of zero shear force (i.e. V = 0 kN), take moment
about the cut,
Y = 0, (5x/8)*(x/2) 10 = 0, x = 5.66 m

To determine the value of maximum moment of member AB, consider


M = 0, M + 26.7 + (5*5.66/8)*(5.66/2)*(5.66/3) 10*5.66 = 0
M = 11.0 kNm

To determine the position of zero moment of member AB, we have to use


trial and error method to solve a cubic equation. Consider the free-body
diagram for part of member AB. Set M = 0, to determine x

M = 0, 26.7 + (5*x/8)*(x/2)*(x/3) 10*x = 0


0.1042x3 10x + 26.7 = 0
Solving this equation by trial and error, we get x = 2.93m.

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-10 -10
B - D
-14.5 -15.5
C

E -
-
F
-15.5

-14.5
Axial Force (kN)
A

14.5 14.5
B C D
10
-10

-15.5
5.66m

E 10

F
2.34m

A Shear Force (kN)


10

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-26.7 -30
-26.7 C D
-30
2.93m

B
24.3
E

F
11.0
2.34m

A Bending Moment (kNm)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 7

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joint B is a rigid joint and joint C
is an internal hinge of the frame.

15 kN/m
30 kN
B C

4m
A D

6m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

15 kN/m
30 kN
B C

4m
A D
HA HD
VA VD
6m
Take moment about A,
30*4 + 15*6*6/2 VD*6 = 0
VD = 65 kN

Y = 0, VA + VD = 15*6 kN, VA = 25 kN

Consider the free-body of CD,


65
HC
C

D
HD
65
Take moment about C,
HD*4 = 0, HD = 0 kN

X = 0, HA + HD = 30, HA = 30 kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

120 120 15 kN/m


30 kN B C
25 25 65 65
25 30
B C 65
120

120
25 65
30
B C

Free-body Diagram
A D
30 25 65

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

-25 -65
B C

- -

A D
-25 -65

Axial Force (kN)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

1.67m
25

30
B C

A D -65
30
Shear Force (kN)

1.67m

120
B C
120
140.9

A D

Bending Moment (kNm)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 8

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and C are rigid joints,
and joint E is an internal hinge of the frame.

20 kN
3m

B F E C
3 kN/m

4m
A D

4m 4m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:
3m 20 kN

3 kN/m B F E C

4m
A D
HA HD
VA VD
4m 4m

Take moment about A,


20*3 + 3*4*4/2 VD*8 = 0
VD = 10.5 kN
Y = 0, VA + VD = 20 kN, VA = 9.5 kN

Consider the free-body of ECD,


VE
HE E C

D
HD
10.5
Take moment about E,
HD*4 = VD*4, HD = 10.5 kN

Consider the whole frame,


X = 0, HA + HD = 3*4, HA = 1.5 kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.

20 kN
18 18 10.5
B B C 10.5 C10.5
10.5 9.5 10.5 9.5 10.5
F E 10.5 42 42 10.5 10.5
9.5
18 42

18 42
9.5 10.5
10.5 10.5
B C
3 kN/m

A Free-body Diagrams D
1.5 9.5 10.5 10.5

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

-10.5 -10.5

-
-9.5 -10.5
B F E C

- -

A D
-9.5 Axial Force (kN) -10.5

9.5 9.5

-10.5 F
10.5
B E C

-10.5 -10.5
0.5m

1.5
A D 10.5
Shear Force (kN)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

-42
-18
-18
F
-42
B E C
10.5
0.5m

0.375
D
A Bending Moment (kNm)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Example 9

Determine the support reactions, and draw the axial force, shear force and
bending moment diagrams for the frame. Joints B and E are rigid joints, and
joint D is an internal hinge of the frame.

40 kN

B E
C D

5 kN/m
4m
6m

1m 2m 3m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Solution:

40 kN

B E
C D

5 kN/m
4m
6m

F
HF
VF
A
HA
VA
1m 2m 3m

Take moment about F,


5*4*4/2 + 40*5 + HA*2 VA*6 = 0
3VA HA - 120 = 0
3VA = HA + 120 (1)

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Consider the free-body diagram of ABCD,

40 kN
VD
B HD
C D

HA
VA

Take moment about D,


40*2 + HA*6 VA*3 = 0
3VA 6HA - 80 = 0 (2)

Sub. (1) into (2)


HA + 120 - 6HA 80 = 0
HA = 8 kN (3)

Sub. (3) into (1),


3VA = 8 + 120
VA = 42.7 kN

Consider the whole frame,


Y = 0, VA + VF = 40 kN, VF = -2.7 kN
VF = 2.7 kN ()

Consider the whole frame,


X = 0, HA + HF = 5*4, HF = 12 kN

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Free-body diagrams for the members and joints, and their member end
forces.
40 kN
2.7
48 48 8 8
B B E E8
8 42.7 8 8 42.7 8 8
42.7
C D 2.7
2.7
48 8
48 8
42.7 8 2.7
8
B E

5 kN/m
F
Free-body Diagrams 12 2.7
A
8 42.7

Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams

-8 -8
-42.7
B - E 2.7
C D

- +
F 2.7

A Axial Force (kN)


-42.7

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

42.7 42.7

2.7 2.7 E
B C 8
-8 D

2.4m
F
-12

A -8
Shear Force (kN)
-48

-5.3 E
-48 B C 8
D 8
14.4
2.4m

A
Bending Moment (kNm)
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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Tutorial 3 (Analysis of Frames)

Find the support reactions, and draw the axial force diagram, shear force
diagram and bending moment diagram for the frames shown below.

Q1.
6 kN/m

C D
2.5m

30 kN
B

5m
2.5m

A E
6m

Q2.
50 kN 40 kN
1.5m 2m 1.5m
E is an internal hinge

B C D E
4m

15 kN/m
6m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q3.
60 kN 30 kN

B C D E
6 kN/m

B & E are internal hinges

5m
F
A
3m 3m 3m

Q4.
24 kN
E 20 kN
2m

D
B C
2 kN/m
4m

3m 3m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q5.
20 kN
10 kNm 6 kNm
B
C D E

C is an internal hinge
2 kN/m

4m
A F

2m 1m 1m
Q6.
15 kN/m

C D E F G
3m

E is an internal hinge
65 kN
B
3m

A H

3m 5m 5m 2m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q7.
10 kN/m
30 kN
C D E

3m
B F

3m
A G
3m 3m
B, D & F are internal hinges

Q8.
2 kN/m

B C D
C is an internal hinge
4m
6m

E
3 kN/m

A
3m 3m

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CBE2027 Structural Analysis I Chapter 3 Analysis of Determinate Plane Frames

Q9.
200 kN

C
B

3m
100 kN
D

3m
C is an internal hinge

A E

3m 4m

Q10.
4 kN/m

B C 4m

A D
4m 6m 4m

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