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AIM; To study Frequency division multiplexing and Demultiplexing

APPARATUS :- FDMD trainer kit , CRO , probes patch cords etc.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

THEORY :
In many communication systems , a single large frequency band is assigned
to the system & is shared among a group of users example A Microwave transmission
line connection to sites over a long distance each site has a no. of sources generating
independent stream s that are transmitted simultaneously over the Microwave line ex.
AM & FM Radio Bands which are divided among many channel or stations the stations
are selected with the radio dial by tuning variable frequency filter.
FDM means that the total bandwidth to the system is
divided into a series of non overlapping frequency sub band that are arranged to each
communication system & user points each transmitter modulate s its source into a signal
that lies in a different frequency sideband
The block dig. For FDM would mainly consist of the following blocks : as shown in the
figure the signals are then transmitted across a common channel.
At the receiving end of the system ,BPF are used to
pass the appropriate signal to the desired user and to block all unwanted signal to ensure
that the transmitted signal do not spray outside their assigned sub bands , it is also
common to place appropriate pass band filters at the o/p stage of each transmitter it is
also appropriate to design an FDM system so that the BW allocated to each sub band is
slightly larger than the BW needed by each source .This extra b/w called a guard band
allows system to use less expensive filters .
The main advantage of FDM over TDM is that it
is not sensitive to propagation delays. It therefore require less complex channel
equalization techniques .On the other hand , FDM needs large no. of BPF which are
expensive & complicated to construct and design . TDM uses less simplex and complex
design circuits.
Another disadvantage of FDM is that in many practical communication circuits
, the power amplifier in the transmitter has non linear characteristics. Non linear
amplification leads to creation of out- of- band spectral component that may interfere
with other fdm channel . Thus it is necessary to use more complex linear amplifier in fdm
system.
FDM is used in commercial FM receiver radio. The frequency band 88-108Mhz
is divided into 200khz sub-bands so there can be up to 100 different radio station with
each station identified by the centre frequency within the channel.

Multiplexing is the transmission of information from more than one source on the same
media. In frequency^Siivision multiplexing (FDM), many information channels are
transmitted simultaneously, with each channel occupying a different frequency band .If
each information channel originally occupied the same frequency range, the frequencies
must be translated to different areas of the frequency spectrum before they are combined.
To achieve frequency separation, each channel amplitude-modulates a different carrier
frequency. If a carrier is amplitude-modulated with a single frequency, the resultant
waveform is mathematically described as

Asinwct+mA/2cos(wc-wm)t-Ma/2cos (wc+wm)t
(a) (b) (c)

where A = peak carrier amplitude


m = modulation coefficient
fc = carrier frequency
fm = modulating frequency
wc=2fc
wm=2fm

Expression (a) is the original carrier frequency, (b) the lower side or difference frequency,
and (c) the upper side or sum frequency.
Frequency-division multiplexing.
{If a Carrier is amplitude - modulated by a band of frequencies, an upper and a lower
sideband are produced. The upper sideband (USB) is made up of the sum of the carrier
frequency and the individual frequencies present in the modulating signals: the lower
sideband (LSB) is the made up of the difference between the carrier frequency and the
individual frequencies present in the modulating signal (Figure 8-2)
In amplitude modulation the carrier contains no intelligence: therefore, it is suppressed
through some from of balanced modulator ("Ring Modulator").
Since the upper and lower sideband contain identical information, the transmission of
only a single sideband is necessary to convey to the information. With FDM, a single
sideband is transmitted without the carrier. This signal is described as single-sideband
suppressed carrier (SSBSC)A
An A-type (analog) channel bank performs frequency division multiplexing of twelve-
voice band channel. Each voice band channel can carry either voice information or digital
information from a modem. Each channel amplitude - modulates a different carrier
frequency. The lower sideband of each modulation process is extract and combines with
the lower sidebands from the eleven other channels to form a group (Figure 8-3). A group
has a bandwidth of 48 KHz (12 X 4 KHz) and occupies the frequency baud from 60 to
108 KH/.. Although each Voice channel is allocated a frequency range of 0 to 4 KHz,
Signal Information is normally limited to a 300-to 3000 Hz pass and. Consequently, a
group has a natural guard band of 1.3 KHz (Fig 8- 4) Between adjacent channel signals.
If further multiplexing is desire, five groups may be similarly combining to produce a
super group (SG). The bandwidth of an SG, which results from combining.
t^ = 300 Hz to 3 kHz fc - 60 kHz
60 kHz
57 to 59.7 kHz

The LSB of each mod. Process is , 240 kHz and extended from 312-552 kHz.
Super groups may be combine to form a master group . A master group is made up of
10 super groups & contain information from 600 voice band channel

DETAILS FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLEXING

[The Frequency Division Multiplexing/Demultiplexing System consists of following


sections.
1. Modulating Audio Signal Generator - 1 |
2. Modulating Audio Signal Generator - 2
3. Sub Carrier Generator )
4. Double Balanced Amplitude Modulator -1
5. Double Balanced Amplitude Modulator -2
6. Band Pass Filter- 12-16 KHz j
7. Band Pass Filter - 28-32 KHz
8. Summing Amplifier
9. R.F. Carrier Oscillator
10. Main Final Amplitude Modulator I
11. Main Balanced Demodulator (Product Detector)
12. Band Pass Filter - 12-16 KHz
13. Band Pass Filter - 28-32 KHz
14. Channel-1 Amplitude Demodulator -1
15. Channel-1 Amplitude Demodulator -2
16. Low pass Filter -1
17. Low pass Filter -2
18. Power supply.

1. Modulating Audio Signal Generator -1: -

1C 8038 waveform generator 1C is used generate sine wave signal. 10K Pot is used to
vary its frequency. The frequency range is 300 Hz to 3.4 KHz. Two 100K Presets are
adjusted for proper peaks of sine wave signal. IK reset is used to adjust duty cycle.
The sine wave output signal is available at pin 2 of 8038 and it is then amplified by
1C 356. The amplified output is available output terminals 2?K Pot is used to vary
the amplitude of Sine rave signal. The output amplitude vary from 0 to lO Vpp. 10K
Pot is used to vary the frequency of output signal
.
2. Modulating Audio Signal Generator -1 :-
|This section is similar to above section 1

3. SUB CARRIER GENERATOR SECTION;


-
Two Sub Carrier signals of Frequencies 16 KHz and 32 KHz are required for
modulation of two modulating Audio signals. Here 1C 74HC04 is used to generate
1.28 MHz high frequency stable TTL signal. Then this signal I divided by lO by 1C
4017 to get 128 KHz signal. Then it is divided by 8 end 4 top get 16KHz and
32KHz rf carriers
.
4 Double Balanced Amplitude Modulator - 1: -

1C 1496 is used as Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier amplitude modulator. The
modulating audio signal-1 is connected at pin 1 through buffer transistor Ql. This
1C has two inputs as it works as it balanced modulator. The second input can be
connected at pin 4 through buffer transistor Q2. The RF Sub carrier signal is
connected at pin 8 through coupling capacitor from Sub carrier generator section.
The modulated outputs are available at pin 12 and 6 of this 1C, which are then
balanced amplified by Q3, Q4, Q5 and Q6. The final balanced modulated o/p signal
M-l is available at output terminal. Bal-A preset is used to balance carrier signal
while Bal-Preset is used to balance input audio signal. IK presets is used to adjust
output zero DC level.
The output M-l is DSB-SC output. It contains side bands at frequencies '16 + 4 KHz
i e 12-16 KHz (Lower Side "and) and 16-20 KHz (Upper Side Band), because input
modulating frequency is maximum 4 KHz only and carrier is 16 KHz.

5. Double Balanced Amplitude Modulator - 2: -


his section is similar to above section 4. Here final balanced modulated output
signal M-2 is available at put terminal. It contains side band: at frequencies 32 + 4
KHz i.e. 28-32 KHz (Lower Side Band) and 32-36 z (Upper Side Band), because
input-modulating frequency is maximum 4 KHz only and Carrier is 32 KHz.

6 Band Pass Filter - 12-16 KHz section:-


he Band pass active filter is made by two Op-amps - 1C 353. It passes signal
between 12 to 16 KHz frequencies : DSB-SC output M-l is applied as a input to this
filter. As M-l signal has side bands 12-16KHz & 1620KHz I filter has band pass of
12-16 KHz, Upper side band 16-20 KHz will be blocked by this filter and Lower
Side id 12-16 KHz will be available at the output II.

7 .Band Pass Filter - 28-32 KHz section: -

'he Band pass active filter is made by two Op-amps - 1C 353. It passes signal
between 28 to 32 KHz frequencies i DSB-SC output M-2 is applied as a input to
this filter. As M-2 signal has side bands 28-32 KHz & 32-36Khz 1 filter has band
pass of 28-32 KHz, Upper side band 32-36KHz will be blocked by this filter and
Lower Side id 28-32 KHz will be available at the output 12
.
8.Summing Amplifier: -

this section is Op-amps adder. It adds two signals II and 12 of Band Pass
filter the added output is available at pin no 6 of IC356

9.R.F. Carrier Oscillator section :-


transistor Ql (BC107B) is used generate RF sine wave signal. Pot PI (15) is used to
van- its frequency. The frequency range is 200KHz to 1 MHz. Transistor Q2
(BC177), Q3 (BC107), Q4 (BC177) & Q5 (BC107) are used to amplified the RF
oscillation signal of Ql. 22pf trimmer capacitor and IK preset are adjusted for
proper peaks of sine wave signal. The amplified sine wave output signal is available
at emitters junction of Q4 and Q5. Pot P2 is used to vary the amplitude of Sine
wave signal. The output amplitude vary from 0 to lOVpp. Here 455 KHz frequency
is set for final modulation.

10) Main Final Amplitude Modulator: -


this section is similar to modulator -1 and modulator -2. Here one input is 455 KHz
from main RF carrier Oscillator and other modulating input is final added output
(Two band pass signals- 12-16 & 28-32 KHz). The output this modulator is
Frequency Division Multiplexed DSB-SC signal. It is complex signals having many
side band d harmonics. This output is then given to "SIGMA" Frequency Division
Demultiplexing Trainer Model 3M128B for DemuItiplexing to recover original
modulating input signals.

11.Main Balanced Demodulator (Product Detector) : -


This section is similar to Final Amplitude Modulator used in-multiplexing section.
Here one input is 455 KHz, which is from multiplexing section, and other
modulating input is FDM DSB-SC signal, which also comes from multiplexing
section. The output of this product detector is mix signal of two modulated band
pass signals of frequency bands (12-16 & 28-32 KHz).

12) Band Pass Filter - 12-16 KHz section:-

The Band pass active filter is made by two Op-amps - 1C 353. It passes signal
between 12 to 16 KHz frequencies the output is modulated signal between band
12-16 KHz.
I
31 Band Pass Filter - 28-32 KHz section: -

The Band pass active filter is made by two Op-amps - 1C 353. It passes signal
between 28 to 32 KHz frequencies the output is modulated signal between band 28-
32 KHz. and band pass active filter is made by two Op-amps - 1C 353. It passes
signal between 28 to 32 KHz frequencies -SC output M-2 is applied as a input to
this filter. As M-2 signal has side bands 28-32 KHz & 32-36Khs filter has band pass
of 28-32 KHz, Upper side band 32-36KHz will be blocked by this filter and Lower
Sid< 32 KHz will be available at the output 12.

14.Channel-1 Amplitude Demodulator - 1: -

This section is similar to used in multiplexing board. One input is from 28-32 KHz
filter section. The other i/p signal is 32KHz synchronized carrier signal
Low generated by PLL section. The output of demodulator is mixed signal of input
audio-1 and audio-2
.
15. Channel-2 Amplitude Demodulator - 2: -
This section is similar to used in multiplexing board. One input is from 12-16 KHz
filter section. The other signal is 16KHz synchronized carrier signal generated by
PLL section. The output of demodulator is mixer of input audio-1 and audio-2.

17 Pass Filter -1:-

low pass filter is made by Op-amp - 1C 353. It accepts output from Amplitude
Demodulator-1. It passes signal below 4KHz. The output is recovered Audio signal-
1
.
18 Low Pass Filter -2:-

low pass filter is made by Op-amp - 1C 353. It accepts output from Amplitude
Demodulator-2. It passes below 4KHz. The output is recovered Audio signal-2.

19. Power supply section: -


The regulated power supply is used for different supply voltages, following output
D.C. Voltages are required to operate system.
+15, 250mA,
-15v, 250mA ,
+5v. 250mA
three terminal regulators are used for different output voltages i.e. 1C 7805 for +
5V, 1C 7815 for +15V, 1C for-15V,
these ICs are supplied different dc input voltages by two Half-wave rectifiers
consisting of D1-D4 and D5-D8 and c1, C2, C3, C4. The capacitors at each input
and each output are for filtering purpose. SW1 is main AC ON/FF Switch.

PROCEDURE FOR FDMD


1. Connect 1 KHz sine wave &2 KHz sine wave signals to balanced modulators
2. Connect CRO channel-1 at 1Khz sine wave audio signal & adjust its amplitude to
1Vpp
3. Connect CRO channel-1 at 2Khz sine wave audio signal & adjust its amplitude to
1Vpp
4. Connect CRO channel-1 at 16Khz sub career in sub career generator &observe it
5. Connect CRO channel-1 at 32Khz sub career in sub career generator &observe it
6. Connect CRO channel-1 at 1Khz sine wave audio signal &Connect CRO
channel-2 at balanced modulator-1 section. Trigger CRO by channel-1. the DSB-
SC amplitude modulated wave will be observed & also observed BPF o/p-1
7. Connect CRO channel-1 at 2Khz sine wave audio signal &Connect CRO
channel-2 at balanced modulator-2 section. Trigger CRO by channel-1. the DSB-
SC amplitude modulated wave will be observed & also observed BPF o/p-2
8. Connect CRO channel-1 at 1Khz sine wave o/p Trigger CRO by channel connect
CRO Channel 2 at added o/p of summing amplifier & observe o/p
9. Connect CRO channel 2 at main rf career of rf oscillator section. Trigger CRO by
channel 2. set o/p frequency of rf oscillator to 455 KHz & amplitude to 10Vpp
10. Connect CRO channel-1 at 1Khz sinewave-1 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1
connect CRO Channel 2 at modulated o/p of final modulator section & observe
the FDM DSB-SC wave
11. Connect CRO channel-1 at sinewave-1 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1 connect
CRO Channel 2 at o/p of main demodulator section in demultiplexing board &
observe o/p1Khz s
12. Connect CRO channel-1 at inewave-1 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1 connect
CRO Channel 2 at o/p of BPF 28-32Khz in demultiplexing board & observe o/p
13. Connect CRO channel-1 at sinewave-2 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1 connect
CRO Channel 2 at o/p of BPF 16-32Khz in demultiplexing board & observe o/p
14. Connect CRO channel-1 at sinewave-1 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1 connect
CRO Channel 2 at o/p channel-1 demodulator section in demultiplexing board \
15. Connect CRO channel-1 at sinewave-2 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1 connect
CRO Channel 2 at o/p channel-2 demodulator section in demultiplexing board
&observe o/p
16. Connect CRO channel-1 at sinewave-1 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1 connect
CRO Channel 2 at o/p LPF-1 in demultiplexing board &observe recover o/p
17. Connect CRO channel-1 at sinewave-2 o/p Trigger CRO by channel-1 connect
CRO Channel 2 at o/p LPF-2 in demultiplexing board &observe recovered .o/p

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

SRNO SIGNAL AMPLITUDE FREQ.


1. MOD SIG. -1 (AUDIO-1) 5V 100Hz
2. MOD SIG. -1 (AUDIO-2) 5V 200Hz
3. SUBCARRIER1 0.4V 4Khz
4. SUBCARRIER2 0.4V 2Khz
5. MOD CHANNEL-1 1.4V -
6. MOD CHANNEL-2 0.8 -
7. FDM O/P 3V
8. RF CARRIER 13V 416Khz
9. DEMOD O/P 635mv

10. CH1 DEMOD 90MV -


11. CH2 DEMOD 80MV -
12. LPF-1 60MV 100Hz
13. LPF-2 60MV 200Hz

CONCLUSION:-

Thus FDM was studied two modulating signals were modulated by two sub carrier and
then demodulated and recovered.