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In this paper we discuss the graphical and
simplex method to maximize the profit of chair maker
with his limited constraints( resources). Here we find the
solution with both the method to solve a class of linear
programming problem having all constraints ≤ type.

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Optimal Solution

M.V.Sarode

Dept. of Mathematics, Priyadarshini Indira Gandhi College of Engineering, Nagpur.

Abstract In this paper we discuss the graphical and initial basic solution is obtained that is not feasible. In

simplex method to maximize the profit of chair maker other words, one starts with infeasible solution. Methods

with his limited constraints( resources). Here we find the are developed to solve linear programming problem by

solution with both the method to solve a class of linear starting with infeasible solution and force the solution to

programming problem having all constraints type. be feasible as well as optimal at some iteration. One such

method namely dual simplex method devised by Lemke

Keywords- Linear programming problem, Simplex

(5) is most popular. In dual simplex method, starting

method, Graphical method, Profit.

from infeasible solution feasible solution is obtained step

INTRODUCTION by step. Another basis-exchange pivoting algorithm is

the criss-cross algorithm by Terlaky, Tams (4) .There

are polynomial-time algorithms for linear programming

Linear programming model is extensively used to that use interior point methods: These include

Khachiyan's ellipsoidal algorithm, Karmarkar's

solve the variety of problems in Engineering and

projective algorithm, and path-following algorithms.

Management field particularly for production planning

Interested readers can refer Robert J. Vanderbeib (1). In

and optimum resources allocation. To solve linear

the proposed method in this article, we start with initial

programming problem, Dantzig devised simplex method

basic solution that is infeasible. Then by judicious

in 1947. Asimplex algorithm of Dantzig is one of the top

selection of entering and leaving vector in and from the

10 algorithms of 20 th century [Barry Cipra (3)]. The

initial simplex table, feasible solution is obtained in the

computational complexity in simplex method depends

first iteration only and optimal solution then can be

on the number of variables and the number of constraints

obtained using regular simplex method. Notations: The

and is directly proportional to both. To reduce the

proposed method can be used to solve the linear

complexity, several variants of simplex method are

programming problem of the type furniture manufacture-

developed by various researchers. For details Gass (2)

turer wishes to maximize profit. Information about

can be referred. If in the given linear programming

available resources (board feet of wood and hours of

problem, one or more constraints are type or equality,

labor) and the object-tive criterion is presented in

simplex method with artificial basis techniques is used.

Table1.

Big-M method and two phase simplex method are quite

Table 1

commonly used. In these methods artificial variables are

used to get the standard basis artificially. Artificial

Resource Table (X1) Chair (X2) Available

variables are then forced to leave the basis step by step.

Once all the artificial variables are removed from the Wood (bf) 30 20 300

basis, optimal solution is then obtained by using regular

Labor (hr) 5 10 110

simplex method. However, use of artificial variables to

get the standard basis increases the computational Unit profit Rs.6 Rs.8

complexity due to the reason mentioned above. To Maximize: Z = 6 X1 + 8X2 (objective function)

avoid the use of artificial variables, the type

constraints are converted into type constraints by Subject to: 30 X1 + 20 X2 < 300 (wood constraint: 300

multiplying by -1. Then using slack variables only, bf available)

21

e-ISSN: 2456-3463

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Science, Vol. 2, No.2, 2017

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available)

X2 = 180/20 X2 = 90/10

X1 , X2 > 0 (nonnegative conditions)

X2= 9 chairs X2 = 9 chairs

Based on the above information, graphically solve the

LP (Figure 1). Graph the two constraint equation lines. Now, determine the value of the objective function for

Then plot two objective function lines by arbitrarily the optimal solution. Substitute into the equation the

setting Z = 48 and Z = 72 to find the direction to move to number of tables and chairs, and solve for Z.

determine the most attractive corner. The coordinates for

the most attractive corner (where the wood and labor Z = Rs.6(4) + Rs.(9) = Rs.96

constraint equations intersect) can be found by simulta-

The optimal solution is to manufacture four tables and

nine chairs for a profit of Rs.96.

resources) to the tables and chairs problem, we can add

two more variables to the problem. With four variables,

we cant solve the LP problem graphically. Well need

to use the simplex method to solve this more complex

problem. Well briefly present the steps involved in

using the simplex method before working through an

example. Table 2 shows an example of a simplex

tableau. Although these steps will give you a general

overview of the procedure, youll probably find that they

become much more understandable as you work through

neously solving the constraint equations with two

the example. Using the simplex method, the first step is

unknowns.

to recognize surplus resources, represented in the

problem as slack variables. In most real-life problems,

To simultaneously solve the two constraint equations, its unlikely that all resources (usually a large mix of

first multiply the labor equation by -2, and add it to the many different resources) will be used completely.

wood equation: While some might be used completely, others will have

some unused capacity. Also, slack variables allow us to

30 X1 + 20X2 = 300 (wood) change the inequalities in the constraint equations to

equalities, which are easier to solve algebraically. Slack

-2 (5 X1 + 10X2 = 110) (labor) variables represent the unused resources between the

left-hand side and right-hand side of each inequality; in

-----------------------------------

other words, they allow us to put the LP problem into the

20X1 + 0X1 = 80= 4 tables stan- dard form so it can be solved using the simplex

method. The first step is to convert the inequalities into

Next, substitute into either of the constraint equations to equalities by adding slack variables to the two constraint

find the number of chairs. We can substitute into both inequalities. With S W representing surplus wood, and S

equations to illustrate that the same value is found. L representing surplus labor, the constraint equations can

Wood constraint Labor constraint be written as:

30(4) + 20X2= 300 5(4) + 10X2 = 110 5X1 + 10X2 + SL= 110 (labor constraint: 110 hours)

120 + 20X2 = 300 20 + 10X2 = 110

All variables need to be represented in all equations.

20X2 = 300 - 120 10X2= 110 - 20 Add slack variables to the other equations and give them

22

e-ISSN: 2456-3463

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Science, Vol. 2, No.2, 2017

www.ijies.net

objective function and constraint equations as:

Basic 6 8 0 0

mix

Maximize: Z = 6 X1 + 8X2 + 0SW+ 0 SL(objective X1 X2 SW SL Solution

function)

0 SW 30 20 1 0 300 300/20

Subject to: 30 X1 + 20X2 + SW + 0 SL= 300 (wood =15

constraint: 300 bf)

0 SL 5 10 0 1 110 110/10

5X1 + 10X2+ 0SW + SL = 110 (labor constraint: 110 =11

hours) Sacrifice 0 0 0 0 0 Current

profit

X1 , X2, SW , SL > 0 (non negativity conditions)

Improve 6 8 0 0 --

We can think of slack or surplus as unused resources that ment

dont add any value to the objective function. Thus, their

coefficients are 0 in the objective function equation.

Now well find the values for the S W row. Referring to

Unit Profit Table 8a, find the value in the S W row in the old

tableau in the pivot element column (20). Multiply it

Basic mix 6 8 0 0

times the first value in the new X 2 row (0.5 from Table

8b). Subtract your answer from the value in the first

X1 X2 SW SL Solution

position of the old S W row.

SW 30 20 1 0 300

Unit Profit

SL 5 10 0 1 110

Basic mix 6 8 0 0

X1 X2 SW SL Solution

The next step is to determine the exiting variable. The 0 SW 20 0 1 -2 80 300/20

exiting variable is the variable that will exit the basic =15

mix when you construct your next simplex tableau. 8 SL 0.5 1 0 0.1 11 110/10

Well find the exiting variable by calculating the =11

exchange ratio for each basic variable. The exchange Sacrifice 4 8 0 0.8 88 Current

ratio tells us how many tables or chairs can be made by profit

using all of the resource for the current respective basic

Improve 2 0 0 -0.8 --

variable. To find the exchange ratio, divide the solution ment

value by the corresponding exchange coefficient in the

entering variable column.

We now see that profit has been improved from 0 to Rs.

The exchange ratios are: 88. Replace the entering variable in the basic mix where

300/20 = 15 (SWbasic mix row) the exiting variable left. Bring over the unit profit from

and 110/10 = 11 (S L basic mix row) the top row of the old table to the new table. Fill in the

pivot element row by dividing through by the pivot

By using all 300 board feet of wood, we can make 15 element. The greatest per-unit improvement is2 (X 1

chairs because it takes 20 board feet of wood to make a column). The others offer no improvement (either 0 or a

chair. By using all 110 hours of labor, we can make 11 negative number). X1 becomes the new entering

chairs because it takes 10 hours of labor per chair. Thus, variable. Mark the top of its column with an arrow

its easy to see the plant cant manufacture 15 chairs. We (Table 8e). Remember, when no improvement can be

have enough wood for 15 chairs but only enough labor found at this step, the current tableau represents the

for 11. optimal solution. Now determine the exiting variable. To

do so, first determine the exchange ratios:

23

e-ISSN: 2456-3463

International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Science, Vol. 2, No.2, 2017

www.ijies.net

80/20 = 4

Now choose the [1] Jervin Zen Lobo Department of Mathematics, St Xaviers

College, Mapusa, Goa, India.'Two Square Determinant

Unit Profit Approach for Simplex Method'. IOSR Journal of Mathematics

(IOSR-JM) e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11,

Issue 5 Ver. IV (Sep. - Oct. 2015), PP 01-04.

Basic 6 8 0 0

mix [2] Md. Mijanoor Rahman, Md. Kamruzzaman Department of Civil

Engineering, Presidency University, Gulshan-2, Dhaka,

X1 X2 S SL Solution Bangladesh' NETWORK SIMPLEX METHOD USED TO

W TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM'American International Journal

of Research in Science, Technology, Engineering &

0 SW 20 0 1 -2 80 80/20=4 MathematicsAvailable online at http://www.iasir.net ISSN

(Print): 2328-3491, ISSN (Online).

8 X2 0.5 1 0 0.1 11 11/0.5=22

[3] Dr. R.G. Kedia Assistant Professor & Head Department of

Sacrifice 4 8 0 0.8 88 Statistics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities,

Amravati, INDIA 'A New Variant of Simplex Method'

nternational Journal of Engineering and Management Research

Improve 2 0 0 -0.8 -- Volume-3, Issue-6, December-2013, ISSN No.: 2250-0758.

ment

[4] H. Hashamdar* Z. Ibrahim, M. Jameel, A. Karbakhsh , Z. Ismail

and M. Kobraei'Use of the simplex method to optimize analytical

condition in structural analysis' International Journal of Physical

Unit Profit Sciences Vol. 6(4), pp. 691-697, 18 February, 2011 Available

online at http://www.academicjournals.org/IJPS ISSN 1992 -

1950 2011 Academic Journals

Basic 6 8 0 0

mix [5] Kirtiwant P. Ghadle,Tanaji S. Pawar NEW APPROACH FOR

X1 X2 SW SL Solution WOLFES MODIFIED SIMPLEX METHOD TO SOLVE

QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS IJRET:

6 X1 1 0 0.05 -0.1 4 International Journal of Research in Engineering and

Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

8 X2 0 1 -0.025 0.1 9

ment

row. Thus, we no longer can improve the solution to the

problem. This simplex tableau represents the optimal

solution to the LP problem

and is interpreted as: X 1 = 4, X 2 = 9, S W = 0, S L = 0,

and profit or Z = Rs.96

The optimal solution (maximum profit to be made) is to

manufacture four tables and nine chairs for a profit of

Rs.96.

CONCLISION

solution. Here we find out that there is restriction to

graphical method that which is applies only two

objective variables whereas simplex methods apply two

or more objective variable.

24

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