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I.

Level of the Olfactory Placode

STRUCTURE FUNCTION FORERUNNER FATE


Epidermis Covering of embryo Epidermal ectoderm Epidermis
Telencephalon Motor function, Prosencephalon Cerebrum
sensory impulses
Olfactory Placode Gives rise to the nasal Ectoderm Nasal epithelium
epithelium
Notochord Structural support Mesoderm Cranial floor
and source of signals
that pattern
surrounding tissues
Parachordal Cartilage Unite and form the Notochord Cranial floor
cranial floor
Head Mesenchyme Undifferentiated and Mesoderm Muscles, bones
migratory
Melanophores Contain pigment Ectoderm Melanohpores
granules
(melanosomes)
Pharynx Passageway of air to Endoderm Pharynx
lungs and food to
stomach
Mandibular Cartilages Ossifies to form jaw Mandibular arch Jaw parts
parts
Tooth Germ Forms the tooth Mesoderm Pseudoteeth
Lip Surround entrance to Ectoderm Lip
oral cavity
Mouth Receives food Ectoderm and Mouth
Endoderm

II. Level of the Optic Cup

STRUCTURE FUNCTION FORERUNNER FATE


Diencephalon Functions in receiving terminal Ectoderm Tuberculum
nerve information; integrates posterius
sensory inputs and motor
outputs
Anterior Choroid Where Cerebrospinal fluid is Ectoderm Telocoel
plexus produced
Infundibulum Gives rise to the posterior part Ectoderm Posterior part of
of the pituitary gland the pituitary
gland
Hypophysis Combines with the Ectoderm Anterior part of
infundibulum to form pituitary the pituitary
gland gland
Optic cup For vision of spatial Ectoderm Posterior eye
arrangements in stationary chamber
schools in some species
Retina Receives and processes light Ectoderm Retained
energy with two basic receptor
types, three kinds of
interneurons, and ganglia that
project into the brain
Lens For focusing image on retina Ectoderm Retained
(shape is changed)
Cornea Protects optic cup Ectoderm and Retained
Mesoderm
Optic nerve Sends visual information to the Ectoderm Retained
brain
Anterior Cardinal Vein Major drainage blood vessel Mesoderm Retained
from the cephalic portion of the
tadpole body
Trabecular cartilage Makes the framework skeleton Mesoderm Orbital cartilage
of the tadpole body
Pharynx For filter-feeding purposes Ectoderm
Ceratohyal Cartilage Makes the visceral skeleton Mesoderm Meckels
developing within the cartilage
pharyngeal arches
Basihyoid cartilage Makes the visceral skeleton Mesoderm Meckels
developing within the cartilage
pharyngeal arches
Mandibular muscles Help join the quadrate of the Mesoderm Retained
skull
Hyoid muscle Help form the depressor Mesoderm Retained
mandibulae of adult
Thyroid bodies Regulation of tadpole growth Endoderm and Retained
and development via synthesis mesoderm
of steroids or polypeptides
Lymph sinus For immunity purposes Ectoderm Retained
Oral suckers For adhesion purposes Ectoderm Mucous glands

III. Level of the Heart


PART FORERUNNER FATE FUNCTION
Myelencephalon Rhombencephalon Medulla oblongata Gives rise to part of
hindbrain; medulla oblongata
has several vasomotor and
autonomic functions
Otic vesicle Saccular Epithelial lining of Balance
invagination of the membranous
ectoderm (otic labyrinth;
placode) vertebrate inner
ear
Utricle Epidermal placode Utricle Otolith organ; detects motion
and orientation
Anterior semilunar Cranial ectodermal Anterior semilunar Part of vestibular system;
canal thickening (otic canal balance
placode)
Saccule Epidermal placode Saccule Detects movements along
vertical plane
Endolymphatic duct Invagination from Endolymphatic Absorptive, secretory, and
ectoderm duct immune functions
Ganglion VIII Cranial ectodermal Auditory nerve Innervates nearby developing
thickening (otic ear
placode)
Anterior cardinal Mesenchyme Common cardinal Forms internal jugular veins,
vein vein forms superior vena cava
(with common cardinal vein)
Pharynx Endoderm Pharynx Passageway of air to lungs
and food to stomach
Velar plate Ectoderm Part of jaw Involved in swallowing and
breathing
Gill rakers Ectoderm Degenerates Filter feeding minute prey
Aortic arch Aortic arch Incorporated into Part of circulatory system;
body wall blood circulation
Heart Mesoderm Heart Pumps blood
Bulbus arteriosus Mesoderm Degenerates Regulates blood flow in gill
arches
Atrium Mesoderm Atrium Receives blood from other
areas of the body
Ventricle Mesoderm Ventricle Pumps blood
Pericardial cavity Splanchnic Pericardial cavity Contains heart
mesenchyme
Opercular chamber Pharynx and Incorporated into Seismic signal detection
ectoderm body wall
Internal gills Pharynx Degenerates Respiration
Gill filaments Pharynx Degenerates Respiratory organ

IV. Level of Glottis

PART FORERUNNER FATE FUNCTION


Rhombencephalon Ectoderm Brain Attention, sleep, autonomic
functions, reflex movement ,
conduction pathway for nerve
tracts
Notochord Mesoderm Disappears Gives structural integrity as a
(chordamesoderm) major axial supporting
structure
Parachordal Mesoderm Fuse to form the Initial step in formation of
Cartilage basioccipital and chondrocranium
the anterior third
of the occipital
condyles
Dorsal Aorta Mesoderm Persists as Dorsal Carries blood away from the
Aorta heart
Internal Carotid Mesoderm Persists as Supply blood to the brain
Artery Internal Carotid
Artery
Glottis Endoderm Persists as Glottis Keep food and water out of
the windpipe; Sound
production
Sinus Venosus Mesoderm Perists as Sinus 1st chamber in the heart;
venosus(pacemak Receives blood from the veins
er) and contracts to force the
blood into the atrium.

Duct of Cuvier Mesoderm Persists as Duct Return channel; carries blood


of Cuvier ventrally into the sinus
venosus.
Intestines Endoderm Persists as Large-reabsorbs and recycles
intestines water; excretion
Small-absorbs nutrients

V. Level of the Lung Buds

STRUCTURE FUNCTION FORERUNNER FATE


Esophagus Passageway from mouth to Endoderm Esophagus
stomach
Lung Buds Develop into lungs Endoderm Lungs
Pronephros Earliest nephric Splanchnic mesoderm Degenerates
developmental stage, but
eventually disappears
Spiracle Exit of water Pharynx Incorporated into
body wall
Intestines Digestion Endoderm (lining) and Intestines
mesoderm
Stomach Digestion Foregut (esophagus) Stomach
Gall Bladder Stores bile Endoderm Gall Bladder
Liver Digestion Endoderm Liver
Peritoneal Space where viscera are Mesoderm Peritoneal Cavity
Cavity located

VI. Level of the Mesonephros

STRUCTURE FORERUNNER FATE FUNCTION


Spinal cord Neural tube Spinal cord Part of central nervous
system
Myotomes Mesoderm Muscle segments, Motor functions, give
dorsal fin rise to body wall
muscle
Mesonephric duct Nephrotomes Ureter Store and mature
sperm
Mesonephros Nephrotomes Kidneys Excretory organ
Hindgut Endoderm Intestines Absorption of excess
water
Intestines Endoderm Intestines Absorption of
nutrients

VII. Level of Cloaca


PART FORERUNNER FATE FUNCTION
Dorsal Fin tail Mesoderm Disappear Aids in
movement(swimming)
Spinal cord Ectoderm Persists as Spinal Relay motor and sensory
cord information to the brain
HIndleg Bud Mesoderm Hind Limbs For swimming and leaping
Blood Vessels Mesoderm Persists as the Transport of blood throughout
Blood Vessels the body
Cloaca Endoderm Persists as Cloaca For excretion and region where
females eggs come out