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Dear Respondents,

Christian Greetings!

As part of our Practical Research, we would like to ask permission to allow us


to interview you about what are some Electronics Problems?

This research will allow us to know the problem under electronics.


May I therefore ask your approval of the above-mentioned interview

Thank you for your unceasing support.

Yours truly,

CHRISTIAN JADE M. ROMERO


Grade 11 Student-Sanchez Mira School of Arts and Trades

EUGINE MARK OBISPO


Grade 11 Student-Sanchez Mira School of Arts and Trades

Approved by:

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Respondents
AUTOMOTIVE PROBLEMS
Automobile engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine
engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements
of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as
applied to the design, manufacture and operation
of motorcycles, automobiles and trucks and their respective engineering
subsystems. It also includes modification of vehicles. Manufacturing domain
deals with the creation and assembling the whole parts of automobiles is
also included in it.The automotive engineering field is research -intensive
and involves direct application of mathematical models and formulas. The
study of automotive engineering is to design, develop, fabricate, and testing
vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage.
Production, development, and manufacturing are the three major functions in
this field.

Automobile Engineering is mainly divided into three streams such as


production or design engineering focuses on design components, testing of
parts, co-ordinating tests, and system of a vehicle.

The modern automotive product engineering process


Studies indicate that a substantial part of the modern vehicle's value comes
from intelligent systems, and that these represent most of the current
automotive innovation. To facilitate this, the modern automotive engineering
process has to handle an increased use of mechatronics. Configuration and
performance optimization, system integration, control, component,
subsystem and system-level validation of the intelligent systems must
become an intrinsic part of the standard vehicle engineering process, just as
this is the case for the structural, vibro-acoustic and kinematic design. This
requires a vehicle development process that is typically highly simulation-
driven.

A development engineer has the responsibility for coordinating delivery of


the engineering attributes of a complete automobile (bus, car, truck, van,
SUV, motorcycle etc.) as dictated by the automobile
manufacturer, governmental regulations, and the customer who buys the
product.

Much like the Systems Engineer, the development engineer is concerned


with the interactions of all systems in the complete automobile. While there
are multiple components and systems in an automobile that have to function
as designed, they must also work in harmony with the complete automobile.
As an example, the brake system's main function is to provide braking
functionality to the automobile. Along with this, it must also provide an
acceptable level of: pedal feel (spongy, stiff), brake system noise (squeal,
shudder, etc.), and interaction with the ABS (anti-lock braking system)

Another aspect of the development engineer's job is a trade-off process


required to deliver all of the automobile attributes at a certain acceptable
level. An example of this is the trade-off between engine
performance and fuel economy. While some customers are looking for
maximum power from their engine, the automobile is still required to deliver
an acceptable level of fuel economy. From the engine's perspective, these
are opposing requirements. Engine performance is looking for
maximum displacement (bigger, more power), while fuel economy is looking
for a smaller displacement engine (ex: 1.4 L vs. 5.4 L). The engine size
however, is not the only contributing factor to fuel economy and automobile
performance. Different values come into play.

Other attributes that involve trade-offs include: automobile


weight, aerodynamic drag, transmission gearing, emission
control devices, handling/roadholding, ride quality, and tires.

The development engineer is also responsible for organizing automobile level


testing, validation, and certification. Components and systems are designed
and tested individually by the Product Engineer. The final evaluation is to be
conducted at the automobile level to evaluate system to system interactions.
As an example, the audio system (radio) needs to be evaluated at the
automobile level. Interaction with other electronic components can
cause interference. Heat dissipation of the system and ergonomic placement
of the controls need to be evaluated. Sound quality in all seating positions
needs to be provided at acceptable levels.

Automobile Engineering is a branch study of engineering which teaches


manufacturing, designing, mechanical-mechanisms as well operations of
automobiles. It is an introduction to vehicle engineering which deals with
motorcycles, cars, buses trucks etc. It include branch study of mechanical,
electronic, software and safety elements. Some of the engineering attributes
and disciplines that are of importance to the automotive engineer and many
of the other aspects are included in it:
Safety engineering: Safety engineering is the assessment of various crash
scenarios and their impact on the vehicle occupants. These are tested
against very stringent governmental regulations. Some of these
requirements include: seat belt and air bag functionality testing, front and
side impact testing, and tests of rollover resistance. Assessments are done
with various methods and tools, including Computer crash
simulation (typically finite element analysis), crash test dummies, and partial
system sled and full vehicle crashes.

Fuel economy/emissions: Fuel economy is the measured fuel efficiency of


the vehicle in miles per gallon or kilometers per litre. Emissions testing
includes the measurement of vehicle emissions, including
hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide
(CO2), and evaporative emissions.
Vehicle dynamics: Vehicle dynamics is the vehicle's response of the
following attributes: ride, handling, steering, braking, comfort and traction.
Design of the chassis systems of suspension, steering, braking, structure
(frame), wheels and tires, and traction control are highly leveraged by the
vehicle dynamics engineer to deliver the vehicle dynamics qualities desired.
NVH engineering (noise, vibration, and harshness): NVH is the
customer's feedback (both tactile [felt] and audible [heard]) from the vehicle.
While sound can be interpreted as a rattle, squeal, or hoot, a tactile response
can be seat vibration, or a buzz in the steering wheel. This feedback is
generated by components either rubbing, vibrating, or rotating. NVH
response can be classified in various ways: powertrain NVH, road noise, wind
noise, component noise, and squeak and rattle. Note, there are both good
and bad NVH qualities. The NVH engineer works to either eliminate bad NVH,
or change the bad NVH to good (i.e., exhaust tones).
Vehicle Electronics: Automotive electronics is an increasingly important
aspect of automotive engineering. Modern vehicles employ dozens of
electronic systems.[1] These systems are responsible for operational controls
such as the throttle, brake and steering controls; as well as many comfort
and convenience systems such as the HVAC, infotainment, and lighting
systems. It would not be possible for automobiles to meet modern safety and
fuel economy requirements without electronic controls.
Performance: Performance is a measurable and testable value of a vehicles
ability to perform in various conditions. Performance can be considered in a
wide variety of tasks, but it's generally associated with how quickly a car can
accelerate (e.g. standing start 1/4 mile elapsed time, 060 mph, etc.), its top
speed, how short and quickly a car can come to a complete stop from a set
speed (e.g. 70-0 mph), how much g-force a car can generate without losing
grip, recorded lap times, cornering speed, brake fade, etc. Performance can
also reflect the amount of control in inclement weather (snow, ice, rain).
Shift quality: Shift quality is the drivers perception of the vehicle to
an automatic transmission shift event. This is influenced by the powertrain
(engine, transmission), and the vehicle (driveline, suspension, engine and
powertrain mounts, etc.) Shift feel is both a tactile (felt) and audible (heard)
response of the vehicle. Shift quality is experienced as various events:
Transmission shifts are felt as an upshift at acceleration (12), or a downshift
maneuver in passing (42). Shift engagements of the vehicle are also
evaluated, as in Park to Reverse, etc.
Durability / corrosion engineering: Durability and corrosion engineering
is the evaluation testing of a vehicle for its useful life. Tests include mileage
accumulation, severe driving conditions, and corrosive salt baths.
Package / ergonomics engineering: Package engineering is a discipline
that designs/analyzes the occupant accommodations (seat roominess),
ingress/egress to the vehicle, and the drivers field of vision (gauges and
windows). The package engineer is also responsible for other areas of the
vehicle like the engine compartment, and the component to component
placement. Ergonomics is the discipline that assesses the occupant's access
to the steering wheel, pedals, and other driver/passenger controls.
Climate control: Climate control is the customers impression of the cabin
environment and level of comfort related to the temperature and humidity.
From the windshield defrosting, to the heating and cooling capacity, all
vehicle seating positions are evaluated to a certain level of comfort.
Drivability: Drivability is the vehicles response to general driving
conditions. Cold starts and stalls, RPM dips, idle response, launch hesitations
and stumbles, and performance levels.
Cost: The cost of a vehicle program is typically split into the effect on
the variable cost of the vehicle, and the up-front tooling and fixed
costs associated with developing the vehicle. There are also costs associated
with warranty reductions, and marketing.
Program timing: To some extent programs are timed with respect to the
market, and also to the production schedules of the assembly plants. Any
new part in the design must support the development and manufacturing
schedule of the model.
Assembly feasibility: It is easy to design a module that is hard to
assemble, either resulting in damaged units, or poor tolerances. The
skilled product development engineer works with the
assembly/manufacturing engineers so that the resulting design is easy and
cheap to make and assemble, as well as delivering appropriate functionality
and appearance.
Quality management: Quality control is an important factor within the
production process, as high quality is needed to meet customer requirements
and to avoid expensive recall campaigns. The complexity of components
involved in the production process requires a combination of different tools
and techniques for quality control. Therefore, the International Automotive
Task Force (IATF), a group of the worlds leading manufacturers and trade
organizations, developed the standard ISO/TS 16949. This standard defines
the design, development, production, and when relevant, installation and
service requirements. Furthermore, it combines the principles of ISO 9001
with aspects of various regional and national automotive standards such as
AVSQ (Italy), EAQF (France), VDA6 (Germany) and QS-9000 (USA). In order to
further minimize risks related to product failures and liability claims of
automotive electric and electronic systems, the quality discipline functional
safety according to ISO/IEC 17025 is applied.
Since the 1950s, the comprehensive business approach total quality
management, TQM, helps to continuously improve the production process of
automotive products and components. Some of the companies who have
implemented TQM include Ford Motor Company, Motorola and Toyota Motor
Company
COMMON PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES
Shakes, bumps, noises and faulty air-con what the heck is going on with my
car?

Like people, cars sometimes experience little hiccups and need a bit of a
health check and some extra attention to get back on track. So, theres no
need to panic if your near-new car is suddenly acting strangely. Even if
your car is new, taking some precautions will ensure you help prevent these
common car problems in the future. Here are some common car troubles,
and what you can do to sort them out.

The problem: Uneven tyre wear.

Recognise it: It may not be obvious when driving that your cars tyres are
unevenly worn, but worn tyres can be dangerous due to their reduced grip on
the road. A quick check will tell you if your tyres are worn unevenly. The
easiest way is to jack up your car and inspect each tyre individually, noting
whether there are any bald spots on the inside or outside of the tyre, or
whether there are any dips and dents in the tyre tread.

Fix it: Rotating your tyres and having your wheels aligned regularly.

In terms of how often you should get your tyres rotated, its different for
every vehicle and type of tyre, but having them rotated at every oil change
is a good rule of thumb. Check with the tyre manufacturer for a more specific
time frame. Remember that the more often you rotate your tyres, the more
evenly theyll wear, and when you have the tyres rotated, you should also
get them checked for balance and alignment.

The problem: Problems starting the engine.

Recognise it: Your car either takes a long time to start, or the car simply
wont start at all.

Fix it: There are a number of reasons which can cause a car engine not to
start, the most common, of course, being a dead battery. Pay special
attention to the noise it makes when you turn the key. Is the car completely
silent? If so, there may be a problem with your battery terminal cable
connections. Does your car crank over but not start? Then it may be your
spark plugs or fuel supply to your engine. In any case, if youre out on the
road, try jumpstarting your car then investigating the cause further when
youre safely back at home.

The problem: Air conditioner not working.

Recognise it: Your air con will switch on, but you notice its just blowing
room-temperature air around rather than cold air.

Fix it: The most likely cause of this is that there is no refrigerant left in your
system. This could be caused by a leak in your system somewhere, which
will have to be fixed before refilling the refrigerant. If youre car-savvy and
you own a set of air conditioning gauges, refilling the refrigerant is usually
easy to do yourself. However, if youre not so confident, enlist the help of a
knowledgeable friend or take a quick trip to the mechanic.

The problem: Engine overheating.

Recognise it: You may notice steam or smoke coming from your bonnet, or
the needle on your engine temperature gauge may be through the roof.
Fix it: Overheating can be caused by a few different factors. The simplest
cause may be that your car needs more coolant. Yet depleted coolant can be
caused by bigger problem, like leaks or faulty hoses, so always check for the
underlying cause before simply filling it up with more. Another common
reason for overheating may be that the radiator fan which keeps your engine
cool is faulty, so check your fan motor connection and fan thermostat.

The problem: Noisy brakes.

Recognise it: Youll know it when you hear it!

Fix it: There could be a number of reasons for noisy brakes. It could be that
your brake pads are loose, worn out, or you may have brake dust inside the
drum. If you cant see anything wrong with your brake pads, and you suspect
it may be brake dust, it may be best to leave this to a professional brake
dust can be extremely dangerous if accidentally inhaled.
GUIDE QUESTIONS

1. Know what is the meaning of Automotive?


2.