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Homework 3 Solution

a) In Manchester and Differential Manchester encoding scheme, what are the sequence of

bits that will generate the maximum signaling rate?

SOLUTION:

Differential Manchester: All 0s will generate the maximum signaling rate.

b) What bit rates can be supported by the Bipolar line code and the Manchester line code?

SOULUTION:

bit rate = (10M pulses/sec) * (1 bit/pulse) = 10Mbps

bit rate = (10M pulses/sec)*(1 bit / 2 pulses) = 5Mbps

2. (15 pts.) A new broadcast service is to transmit digital music using the FM radio band.

Stereo audio signals are to be transmitted using a digital modem over the FM band. The

specifications for the system are the following: Each audio signal is sampled at a rate of

40 kilosamples/second and quantized using 16 bits; the FM band provides a transmission

bandwidth of 200 kHz.

a) What is the total bit rate produced by each stereo audio signal?

SOLUTION:

bit rate for each signal = (40 kilosamples/sec) x (16 bits/sample) = 640 kbps

bit rate for the pair of signals = 2 * 640 kbps = 1.28 Mbps

b) How many points are required in the signal constellation of the digital modem to

accommodate the stereo audio signal?

SOLUTION:

To obtain a bit rate of 1.28 Mbps:

# bits/pulse = data rate / # of pulses/second = 1280 / 200 = 6.4 bits/pulse

= 7 bits/pulse

If we use a 27 = 128 point constellation, we can then meet the desired bit rate.

SOLUTION:

20 db / (0.7 db/km) = 28 km

b) A twisted pair with loading coils has an attenuation of 0.2 dB/kilometer at 1 kHz. How

long can the link be if an attenuation of 20 dB can be tolerated?

SOLUTION:

4. (10 pts.) Calculate the bandwidth of the range of light covering the range from 1200 nm

to 1400 nm. Keep in mind that the speed of light in fiber is approximately 2 x 108

meters/second.

SOLUTION:

Frequency and wavelength are related by the expression: f = v/. In this case,

v=2x108 m/s.

The resulting frequencies for the 1200nm and 1400nm light are:

f1 = 2x108 /1.2x10-9 = 1.6667x1017 Hz

f2 = 2x108 /1.4x10-9 = 1.4286x1017 Hz

5. (20 pts.) Suppose a transmission channel has a bit error rate of 10-3 . Bit errors occur at

random and independent of each other. Suppose that the following code is used:

To transmit a 1, the codeword 111 is sent; to transmit a 0, the codeword 000 is sent.

The receiver takes the three received bits and decides which bit was sent by taking

the majority vote of the three bits.

Find the probability that the receiver makes a decoding error.

SOLUTION:

The receiver makes an error when two or more of the three bits are in error. It is given

that the probability of any single bit error is 10-3 ( Pr[1 bit error] = 1/103 ).

Since an error in each bit is independent, we have a series of binomial events (each bit

represents one event). Whose probability of k-occurrences of X in n trials is:

n

Pr[ X = k ] = p k (1 p) n k

k

Let X be a random variable representing a bit error. In this case, n=3, since were

concerned with three events (bits). Since a decoding error occurs when there are two bit

errors, we want k=2. p = 10-3 . Thus our goal is: Pr[X>=2] = Pr[X=2]+Pr[X=3]

3

Pr[ X = 2] = (10 3 ) 2 (1 10 3 ) 3 2

2

3!

= 10 6 * 0.999 = 3 * 9.9 x10 7

( 3 2)!2!

3

Pr[ X = 3] = (10 3 ) 3 (1 10 3 ) 33

3

= 1 * (10 9 ) * 1 = 10 9

Pr[ X 2] = Pr[ X = 2] + Pr[ X = 3]

3x10

6

6. (15 pts.) ATM uses an eight-bit CRC on the information contained in the header. The

header has six fields:

First 4 bits: GFC field

Next 8 bits: VPI field

Next 16 bits: VCI field

Next 3 bits: Type field

Next 1 bit: CLP field

Next 8 bits: CRC

a) The CRC is calculated using the following generator polynomial: x 8 +x 2 +x+1. Find

the CRC bits if the GFC, VPI, Type, and CLP fields are all zero and the VCI field is:

00000000 00001111. Assume the GFC bits correspond to the highest-order bits in the

polynomial.

SOLUTION:

The bits to be checked are: 1111 0000 0000 0000

Dividing we have:

1111 0010

1 0000 0111 1111 0000 0000 0000

1000 0011 1

111 0011 10

100 0001 11

11 0010 010

10 0000 111

1 0010 1010

1 0000 0111

10 1101 000

10 0000 111

1101 1110

b) Can this code detect single bit errors? Explain why or why not.

SOLUTION:

Yes since g(x) has more than one term.

7. (15 pts.) A television transmission channel occupies a bandwidth of 6 MHz.

multiplexed in a single television channel?

SOLUTION:

6 x10 6 Hz

= 200 channels

30 x10 3 Hz / channel

b) How many two-way 200 kHz GSM channels can be frequency-division multiplexed

in a single television channel.

SOLUTION:

6 x10 6 Hz

= 30 channels

200 x10 3 Hz / channel

telephony channels.

SOLUTION:

telephony channels is the very large bandwidth that they occupy. In theory, one could

divide each television channel into many cellular telephone channels, as shown in

parts (a) and (b).

networks use low-power base transmitters to create relatively small cells so that

frequency re-use is possible. This dramatically increases the number of users that a

network can accommodate.

Television stations transmit at a very high power over very long distances (as one

would expect for a broadcast medium). Thus, in the region that currently receives a

given television network broadcast (say, the larger part of a city), only 200 analog

channels or 30 GSM channels could be accommodated.

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