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ECS 152A Computer Networks Fall 2002

Homework 3 Solution

1. (15 pts) Consider a baseband transmission channel with a bandwidth of 10MHz.

a) In Manchester and Differential Manchester encoding scheme, what are the sequence of
bits that will generate the maximum signaling rate?

SOLUTION:

Manchester: All 0s or all 1s will generate the maximum signaling rate.


Differential Manchester: All 0s will generate the maximum signaling rate.

In each of the cases above, it needs 2 pulses to send 1 bit.

b) What bit rates can be supported by the Bipolar line code and the Manchester line code?

SOULUTION:

Bipolar: needs 1 pulse to send 1 bit;


bit rate = (10M pulses/sec) * (1 bit/pulse) = 10Mbps

Manchester: needs 2 pulses to send 1 bit;


bit rate = (10M pulses/sec)*(1 bit / 2 pulses) = 5Mbps
2. (15 pts.) A new broadcast service is to transmit digital music using the FM radio band.
Stereo audio signals are to be transmitted using a digital modem over the FM band. The
specifications for the system are the following: Each audio signal is sampled at a rate of
40 kilosamples/second and quantized using 16 bits; the FM band provides a transmission
bandwidth of 200 kHz.

a) What is the total bit rate produced by each stereo audio signal?

SOLUTION:

bit rate for each signal = (40 kilosamples/sec) x (16 bits/sample) = 640 kbps
bit rate for the pair of signals = 2 * 640 kbps = 1.28 Mbps

b) How many points are required in the signal constellation of the digital modem to
accommodate the stereo audio signal?

SOLUTION:

A transmission bandwidth of 200 kHz allows 200 kilopulses/second.


To obtain a bit rate of 1.28 Mbps:
# bits/pulse = data rate / # of pulses/second = 1280 / 200 = 6.4 bits/pulse
= 7 bits/pulse

If we use a 27 = 128 point constellation, we can then meet the desired bit rate.

3. (10 pts.) A twisted-wire pair has an attenuation of 0.7 dB/kilometer at 1 kHz.

a) How long can a link be if an attenuation of 20 dB can be tolerated?

SOLUTION:

20 db / (0.7 db/km) = 28 km

b) A twisted pair with loading coils has an attenuation of 0.2 dB/kilometer at 1 kHz. How
long can the link be if an attenuation of 20 dB can be tolerated?

SOLUTION:

20 db / (0.2 db/km) = 100 km


4. (10 pts.) Calculate the bandwidth of the range of light covering the range from 1200 nm
to 1400 nm. Keep in mind that the speed of light in fiber is approximately 2 x 108
meters/second.

SOLUTION:

Frequency and wavelength are related by the expression: f = v/. In this case,
v=2x108 m/s.

The resulting frequencies for the 1200nm and 1400nm light are:
f1 = 2x108 /1.2x10-9 = 1.6667x1017 Hz
f2 = 2x108 /1.4x10-9 = 1.4286x1017 Hz

The resulting bandwidth is: B = f1 -f2 = 2.38095x1016 Hz = 23.8 THz

5. (20 pts.) Suppose a transmission channel has a bit error rate of 10-3 . Bit errors occur at
random and independent of each other. Suppose that the following code is used:
To transmit a 1, the codeword 111 is sent; to transmit a 0, the codeword 000 is sent.
The receiver takes the three received bits and decides which bit was sent by taking
the majority vote of the three bits.
Find the probability that the receiver makes a decoding error.

SOLUTION:
The receiver makes an error when two or more of the three bits are in error. It is given
that the probability of any single bit error is 10-3 ( Pr[1 bit error] = 1/103 ).

Since an error in each bit is independent, we have a series of binomial events (each bit
represents one event). Whose probability of k-occurrences of X in n trials is:
n
Pr[ X = k ] = p k (1 p) n k
k

Let X be a random variable representing a bit error. In this case, n=3, since were
concerned with three events (bits). Since a decoding error occurs when there are two bit
errors, we want k=2. p = 10-3 . Thus our goal is: Pr[X>=2] = Pr[X=2]+Pr[X=3]

3
Pr[ X = 2] = (10 3 ) 2 (1 10 3 ) 3 2
2
3!
= 10 6 * 0.999 = 3 * 9.9 x10 7
( 3 2)!2!
3
Pr[ X = 3] = (10 3 ) 3 (1 10 3 ) 33
3
= 1 * (10 9 ) * 1 = 10 9
Pr[ X 2] = Pr[ X = 2] + Pr[ X = 3]
3x10

= 3 * 9.9 x10 7 + 10 9 = 2.998 x10 6


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6. (15 pts.) ATM uses an eight-bit CRC on the information contained in the header. The
header has six fields:
First 4 bits: GFC field
Next 8 bits: VPI field
Next 16 bits: VCI field
Next 3 bits: Type field
Next 1 bit: CLP field
Next 8 bits: CRC

a) The CRC is calculated using the following generator polynomial: x 8 +x 2 +x+1. Find
the CRC bits if the GFC, VPI, Type, and CLP fields are all zero and the VCI field is:
00000000 00001111. Assume the GFC bits correspond to the highest-order bits in the
polynomial.

SOLUTION:

The generator polynomial, g(x), can be represented by: 1 0000 0111.


The bits to be checked are: 1111 0000 0000 0000
Dividing we have:
1111 0010
1 0000 0111 1111 0000 0000 0000
1000 0011 1
111 0011 10
100 0001 11
11 0010 010
10 0000 111
1 0010 1010
1 0000 0111
10 1101 000
10 0000 111
1101 1110

Thus, CRC = 1101 1110

b) Can this code detect single bit errors? Explain why or why not.

SOLUTION:
Yes since g(x) has more than one term.
7. (15 pts.) A television transmission channel occupies a bandwidth of 6 MHz.

a) How many two-way 30 kHz analog voice channels can be frequency-division


multiplexed in a single television channel?

SOLUTION:
6 x10 6 Hz
= 200 channels
30 x10 3 Hz / channel

b) How many two-way 200 kHz GSM channels can be frequency-division multiplexed
in a single television channel.

SOLUTION:

6 x10 6 Hz
= 30 channels
200 x10 3 Hz / channel

c) Discuss the tradeoffs involved in converting existing television channels to cellular


telephony channels.

SOLUTION:

The biggest advantage of using existing television channels to provide cellular


telephony channels is the very large bandwidth that they occupy. In theory, one could
divide each television channel into many cellular telephone channels, as shown in
parts (a) and (b).

However, a significant trade-off would soon become apparent. . Cellular telephone


networks use low-power base transmitters to create relatively small cells so that
frequency re-use is possible. This dramatically increases the number of users that a
network can accommodate.

Television stations transmit at a very high power over very long distances (as one
would expect for a broadcast medium). Thus, in the region that currently receives a
given television network broadcast (say, the larger part of a city), only 200 analog
channels or 30 GSM channels could be accommodated.