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Determination of the length

between pipe supports by Requirements


the method of the "Maximum
Bending Stress" [1] The ratio Lenght/deflection
is defined with a minimum
Data value of
Nominal pipe size (NPS) (L/y)min = 600
dn = 300 mm
Material: A 312 TP316L Maximum bending stress
Pipe pressure and temperature ratio
P= 20 bar b/allow = 0.3
t= 22 C b : Maximum allowed
Pipe filled with water bending stress
allow : Pipe allowed stress
It will be considered the weight in tension according B31.3
of two men at the center of Table A-1
the pipe.
Concentrated weight The lenght is designed for the
mc = 200 kg pipe working with the
wc = 1961 N maximum allowed bending
Pipe insulation weigth stress b.
wi = 0 N/m
Pipe shedule is to be determined

Water load Concentrated weight


ww = w * g * V wc = 1961 N
w = 1000 kg/m
V= #VALUE! m/m
ww = #VALUE! N/m

Pipe load (steel)


wp = p*g*(/4)*(de^2-di^2)
(from sheet SS 316)
p = 7861 kg/m
de = #VALUE! m
di = #VALUE! m
wp = #VALUE! N/m
Insulation load (no insulation)
wi = 0 N/m

Total load
w= ww + w p + wi
ww = #VALUE! N/m
wp = #VALUE! N/m
wi = 0 N/m
w= #VALUE! N/m

Shedule Maximum bending stress


Material A 312 TP316L Material: A 312 TP316L
Nominal pipe size (NPS) Ref. 2a. Table A-1
dn = 300 mm
Schedule, to be determined Yield strength Table A-1
Pressure in pipe yield = 25 ksi
P= 20 bar
Temperature Allowed stress Table A-1
t: 22 at the temperature
allow = 16.7 ksi
Pipe thickness allow = 115.1 MPa
Equation 3a, ASME B312.3-2008
t= P*D / ( 2*(S*E*W + P*Y) ) Maximum bending stress
t: Pressure design thickness b = 34.54 MPa
P: Internal design gauge pressure
D: Outside pipe diameter Quality factor "E"
d: Inside pipe diameter Ref. 2b. Table A-1B
c: sum of mechanical, corrosion Seamless tube A 316L
and erosion allowances E= 1
S: Material stress value. Table A-1
E: Quality factor from table A-1A or A-1B Exterior pipe diameter
W: Weld joint strength reduction factor per dn = 300 mm
para. 302.3.5 and Table 302.3.5 de = #VALUE! mm
Y: Coefficient from Table 304.1.1, valid for t <D/6

For t>= D/6, Y = (d + 2*c) / ( D + d + 2*c )

Presure design thickness (acc. Eq. 3a)


tdis = #VALUE! mm
Corrosion allowance TC = 1.59 mm
Thread depth TD = 0 mm
Over thickness OT = TC + TD
OT = 1.59 mm
Required thickness treq = tdis + OT
treq = #VALUE! mm

Mill tolerance MT = 12.5 %


Minimum thickness tmin = treq * (100 /(100 - MT))
treq = #VALUE! mm
MT = 12.50 %
tmin = #VALUE! mm

For more information on these correction factors, see


www.piping-tools.net
Pipes. Wall thickness calculation according ASME B31.3

t = 9.2 mm
Pipe yield strength Corrosion allowance
Ref. 2a. Table A-1 TC = 1.59 mm
t = 25 ksi Thread depth
TD = 0 mm
Pipe basic allowable stress at Mill tolerance
given temperature MT = 12.5 %
Ref. 2a. Table A-1
t= 72 F Note.
allow = 16.7 ksi The above values are not considered
allow = 115.1 MPa in the example of the reference [1].

Maximum bending stress


b = allow * 0.3
allow = 115.1 MPa
b = 34.54 MPa
b = 3.5E+07 Pa

Steel elasticity module


Sheet SS 316
E= 2.0E+011 Pa www.piping-tools.net
Pipes. Maximum span between pi

cjcruz@piping-tools.net

Pipe length (eq. (h)


w wc I L =(-b + (b^2 - 4*a*c)^0.5 ) / (2*a)
L2 L- b 0 (h)
16 8 d b= 245
a= #VALUE!
a= w/16 c= #VALUE!
w= #VALUE! N/m L= #VALUE! m
a= #VALUE! Let
L= 10 m
b= wc /8
wc = 1961 N
b= 245

c= -sb * I /de
b = 3.5E+07 Pa
I= #VALUE!
de = #VALUE! m
c= #VALUE!

Weld joint strenght reduction Design thickness


factor W Ref. 2 ASME B31.3
Ref. 2c. Table 302,3,5 ASME B31.3 paragraph 304.1.2, Ec. (3a)
W= 1 ASME B31.3 - 2008
P d ext
t (3a)
Coefficient Y 2 E W P Y
Table 304.1.1
Ref. 2 ASME B31.3 t = P * dext / ( 2* (allow * E*W + P* Y) )
Y= 0.4 P= 2.0 Mpa
dext = #VALUE! mm
Check requirement b = 34.54 Mpa
P / S*E <= 0.385 E= 1.0 -
P= 2 Mpa W= 1.00 -
S= 34.54 MPa Y= 0.4 -
E= 1 t= #VALUE! mm
P / S*E = 0.057899
Design thickness requirement
Eq. (3a) is applicable, since P/(S*E t= #VALUE! mm
dext = #VALUE! mm
dext/6 = #VALUE! mm
#VALUE!

For a SS pipe
dn = 300 mm For the given data, a span L =
sch = 40S will ensure that the maximum
s= #VALUE! mm bending stress is less than b =
It was considered b =
A schedule of 40S gives a thickness Additionally it holds that L/y>=
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! The model used is a simple supported beam
#VALUE!

Selecting the next schedule The selected shedule is sch =


For a SS pipe
dn = 300 mm
sch = 80S Since the model used is a simple supported beam
s= #VALUE! mm which gives a deflection much larger than the
case of a double cantilever beam, the schedule
A schedule of 80S gives a thickness will not be incremented as reference [1] does.
#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
#VALUE!

Selected shedule 80S

ASME B31.3 - 2008


P d ext
t (3a)
2 E W P Y

t= P * dext / ( 2* (sallow * E*W + P* Y) )


P= 2 MPa
de = #VALUE! m
Sb = 34.53 MPa
E= 1
W= 1
y= 0.4
t= #VALUE! m
t= #VALUE! mm
The reference has a calculation mistake
Rev. cjc. 04.07.2016
Page 1 of 5

Pipe dimensions Equatorial inertia moment


The schedule is to be determined I= (/64) *( de^4-di^4)
de = #VALUE! m
Schedule initially assumed di = #VALUE! m
Sch = 40S I= #VALUE! m4

Exterior diameter (of SS pipe) Area of pipe section


dn = 300 mm A= (/4) * di^2
de = Pipe_SS_Dext_dn di = #VALUE! m
de = #VALUE! mm A= #VALUE! m
de = #VALUE! m
Water volume per meter pipe
Interior diameter V= A*1
dn = 300 mm A= #VALUE! m/m
di = Pipe_SS_Dint_dn_sch V= #VALUE! m/m
Sch = 40S
di = #VALUE! mm
di = #VALUE! m

www.piping-tools.net
Pipes. Maximum span between pipe supports for a given maximum bending stress.xlsm

cjcruz@piping-tools.net

Page 2 of 5
Deflection
Deflection at ther center of a
simple supported beam with a
uniform load "w" and a
concentrated load "wc"

5 w L4 8 w c L3
y (q)
384 E I

y = (5*w*L^4 + 8*wc*L^3) / (384*E*I)


w= #VALUE! N/m
L= 10.0 m
wc = 1961
E= 2.00E+11 Pa
I= #VALUE! m4
y= #VALUE! m
y= #VALUE! mm

(L/y)min = 600 -

L= 10 m
y= #VALUE! m
L/y = #VALUE!
#VALUE!

Page 3 of 5

ASME B31.3-2008

Page 4 of 5

10 m
34.5 Mpa
allow * 0.3 L= 10 m
600 -
ple supported beam y= ### m

spipe = ### mm
80S
srequired = ### mm

a simple supported beam


much larger than the
ver beam, the schedule
as reference [1] does.

g= 9.80665 m/s

Page 5 of 5
[1]
[1]
t= P * dext / ( 2* (allow * E*W + P* Y) )

Pipe seamless SS
Mater: ASTM A 312 TP 316L
D: Outside diameter
dn = 300 NPS
de = #VALUE! mm

t= P * dext / ( 2* (sallow * E*W + P* Y) )


P= 2 MPa
de = #VALUE! mm
b = 34.53 MPa
E= 1
W 1
Y= 0.4
t= #VALUE! mm

Stainless steel Stainless steel


dn = 300 mm dn = 300
sch = 40S sch = 80S
s= #VALUE! mm s= #VALUE!

Shedule to be selected: 80S

Note. This example is for a stainless steel pipe.


The reference uses for the selection the dimensions
of carbon steel pipes
Stainless steel
dn = 300 mm dn = 300
sch = 20S sch = 30S
s= #VALUE! mm s= #VALUE!

Carbon steel Carbon steel


dn = 300 mm dn = 300
sch = 20 sch = 30
s= #VALUE! mm s= #VALUE!
Sabin Crocker. Piping Handbook, 4th edition
McGraw Hill N.Y. Pg. 744-745

[4]The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1995)


ASME B31.3 - 2000 Edition, Process Piping, ASME, New York pp 18
mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm
eers (1995)
SME, New York pp 182
Length of a beam to achieve that
Bending stress
the resulting beam stress has the
defined maximum value M c
(b)
I
Assumed a simply supported case M : moment N m
c : distance to the neutral axis m
M oments at the center of a simp le
I : equatorial inercia moment m4
supp orted beam . [5], Figure 7

Concentrat ed load w c at center M aximum bending stress


L M cmax
M wc max (c)
4 I
Uniformly distributed load w In case of a p ip e
L2 d
M w cmax (d)
8 2
Total moment and rep lacing equation (d) into (c)
L2 L M ( d / 2)
M w wc (a) max (e)
8 4 I

allowed = y

Beam stress b
Beam stress
For the stainless steel A 312 TP316L,
Literature [1] recom
ASM E B31.3 - 2006, Table A - 1 gives acual ap p lication, f
the relation between the allowable margin
stress allow (t 300 F) to the y ield 3
b allow
value y as 10
rep lacing equation
2
allo w y (n) 2
allo w y
3 3
into equation (o)
3 2
b y
10 3
rep lacing equation
2
allo w y
3
into equation (o)
3 2
b y
10 3
1
b y
5

Deflection at the center of a simp le


sup p orted beam . [5], Figure 7 5 w L4 8 w
y
384 E I
Concentrat ed load w c at center
w c L3
y
48 E I
Uniformly distributed load w
5 w L4
y
384 E I
Total deflection
5 w L4 w c L3
y
384 E I 48 E I
5 w L 4
8 w c L3
y
384 E I 384 E I
5 w L 8 w c L3
4
y (q)
384 E I
Rep lacing equation from equation
L2 L w wc d
(b) b L2 L
M w wc (a) 16 8 I
8 4
b I w wc
into equation (e) L2 L
ral axis m d 16 8
L2 L d /2 w wc I
moment m 4
max w w c (f) L2 L- b 0
16 8 d
8 4 I
.a..............b............c
where the maximum stress will have with
ress
the value corresponding to the given w
a
(c) 16
ap p lication, and will be denoted
w
simp ly as the beam stress b b c
8
L2 L d /2 b I
(d) b w w c c-
d
8 4 I equation (h) becomes
n (d) into (c)
L2 L d a L2 b L c 0
(e) b w w c (g)
16 8 I
w wc I
L2 L- b
16 8 d

In the following application the


Beam stress b
value of the beam stress given
by equation (n) will be used.
Literature [1] recommends for the This value is 20% of the yield stress
The in the standard indicated allowed
cual ap p lication, following security value is 67% of the yield stress.
margin
3 1
b allow (o) b = y ( p)
10 5
ep lacing equation
2
allo w y (n)
3
nto equation (o)
3 2
b y
10 3
ep lacing equation
2
allo w y (n)
3
nto equation (o)
3 2
b y
10 3
1
b y (p )
5

y=
5 w L 8 wc L
4 3
(q) y=
384 E I
Page 1 of 3

on
Note that the length obtained from
wc d
2
L (g) equation (m) corresp onds to the
8 I
wc case when the sy stem is assumed
L2 L
8 to be similar to a simp ly sup p orted
I
c
L- b 0 (h) beam. A continuos pip e would be
d
............c better rep resented by sections
corresp onding to a beam fixed at
both ends.
(i)

(j)

(k)

) becomes
c 0 (m)

wc I
L- b 0 (h)
8 d

Page 2 of 3
Page 3 of 3

P*L^3/(48*E*I)

(5/384)*(w*L^4)/(E*I)
Ferritic Steel
A term usually applied to a group of stainless steels with a chromium content in the ran
whose structure consists largely of ferrite.
Such steels possess good ductility and are easily worked but do not respond to any hard
Types of applications include automotive trim and architectural cladding.

Austenitic Steels
Steels containing high percentages of certain alloying elements such as manganese and
and cannot be hardened by normal heat-treatment but do work harden. They are also n
Typical examples of austenitic steels include the 18/8 stainless steels and 14% mangan

Martensitic Stainless Steels


(400 SERIES WHICH HAVE HIGH CARBON). These grades of stainless have chromium in t
This is the same as the ferritic grades. However, carbon is added in amounts from 0.10
The high carbon enables the material to be hardened by heat treatment.
ASME B31.3-2008
Process Piping
ASME Code for Oressure Piping, B31

ASME B31.3 - 2008


P d ext
t (3a)
2 E W P Y

t= P*D / ( 2*(S*E*W + P*Y) )

t: Pressure design thickness


P: Internal design gauge pressure
D: Outside pipe diameter
d: Inside pipe diameter
c: sum of mechanical, corrosion and erosion allowance
S: Material stress value. Table A-1
E: Quality facto from table A-1A or A-1B
W: Weld joint strength reduction factor per
para. 302.3.5
Y: Coefficient from Table 604.1.1, valid for t <D/6
and for materials shown.
For t>= D/6, Y = (d + 2*c) / ( D + d + 2*c )
Equation 3a, ASME B312.3-2008

(b) Equations (3a) and (3b) are not valid for


t >= d/6 or
P / S*E > 0.385

m content in the range of 12- 18o and "Y" values for ferritic steels (t < D/6)
Table 304.1.1, ASME B31.1-2008, page 20.
t respond to any hardening or tempering processes. Y<482 C = 0.4
Y482 to 510 C = 0.5
Y > 510 C = 0.7

ch as manganese and nickel which are austenitic at room temperature


rden. They are also non-magnetic.
els and 14% manganese steel.

s have chromium in the range of 11% to 17% as the sole major alloying addition.
n amounts from 0.10 % to 0.65% to radically change the behavior of the martensitic alloys.
nd erosion allowances

valid for t <D/6

+ d + 2*c )

Coefficient Y
Table 304.1.1
Ref. 2 ASME B31.3

Y= 0.4
t y allow
allow y t
yield
Spec Grade ksi
A 312 TP316L 25

at tmin to 100 F
allowed = yield

t allowed
Spec Grade F ksi
A 312 TP316L < 100 16.7
< 200 16.7

allowed = 16.7 ksi


allowed = 16,700 psi
allowed = 115.1 MPa
Quality factor

E= 1
Weld joint strenght reduction fac

Weld joint strenght reduction fac

W= 1
renght reduction factor W

renght reduction factor W


http://www.azom.com/properties.aspx?ArticleID=863

https://www.google.com/fusiontables/DataSource?docid=1wvrlddD8tQHoDc7feP9pqJ2Aw
Density of stainless steel
kg/m

SS 316
=
Elasticity modulus
Emin = 190
Emax = 205

Selected value
wvrlddD8tQHoDc7feP9pqJ2AwImBdcPJpEqV4ic E= 200
E= 2.0E+011

7861 kg/m
Gpa
Gpa

Gpa
Pa
http://www.advancepipeliner.com/Resources/Others/Beams/Beam_Deflection_Formulae.pdf
http://www-classes.usc.edu/engr/ce/457/moment_table.pdf

http://www.awc.org/pdf/codes-standards/publications/design-aids/AWC-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710
Beam simp ly s
M aximum defle

a) Uniformly di
5 w L4
y
384 E I
b) Concentrat ed
8 P L3
y
384 E I
c) Both cases, a
5 w L4 8
y
384 E

flection_Formulae.pdf

Beam fixed at both ends


M aximum deflection at beam center

a) Uniformly distributed load w


w L4
M aximum deflection at beam center

a) Uniformly distributed load w


w L4
y
384 E I
b) Concentrat ed load P at the center
16 P L3
y
384 E I
c) Both cases, a and b
w L4 16 P L3
y
384 E I

C-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710.pdf
y=
Beam simp ly sup portedat ends
M aximum deflection at beam center

a) Uniformly distributed load w


5 w L4
y
384 E I
b) Concentrat ed load P at the center
8 P L3
y
384 E I
c) Both cases, a and b
5 w L4 8 P L3
y
384 E I

center

w
center

center

Simple beam. - Uniformly distributed load

Maximum moment
M= w * l^2 / 8
y= (5/384)*(w*L^4)/(E*I)

Simple beam. - Concentrated load at the center

Maximum moment
M= P*l/4
M= w * l^2 / 8
M= P*l/4

P*L^3/(48*E*I)
[1] Determination of maximum span between pipe supports using maximum bending stre
Dr. D.P. Vakharia, Mohd Farroq A.

http://ijrte.academypublisher.com/vol01/no06/ijrte0106046049.pdf

[2] ASME B31.3-2008


Process Piping
ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31

[3] Sabin Crocker. Piping Handbook, 4th edition


McGraw Hill N.Y. Pg. 744-745

[4] The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1995)


ASME B31.3 - 2000 Edition, Process Piping, ASME, New York pp 182

[5]

http://www.awc.org/pdf/codes-standards/publications/design-aids/AWC-DA6-BeamForm
ximum bending stress theory

WC-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710.pdf