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You are on page 1of 69

the method of the "Maximum

Bending Stress" [1] The ratio Lenght/deflection

is defined with a minimum

Data value of

Nominal pipe size (NPS) (L/y)min = 600

dn = 300 mm

Material: A 312 TP316L Maximum bending stress

Pipe pressure and temperature ratio

P= 20 bar b/allow = 0.3

t= 22 C b : Maximum allowed

Pipe filled with water bending stress

allow : Pipe allowed stress

It will be considered the weight in tension according B31.3

of two men at the center of Table A-1

the pipe.

Concentrated weight The lenght is designed for the

mc = 200 kg pipe working with the

wc = 1961 N maximum allowed bending

Pipe insulation weigth stress b.

wi = 0 N/m

Pipe shedule is to be determined

ww = w * g * V wc = 1961 N

w = 1000 kg/m

V= #VALUE! m/m

ww = #VALUE! N/m

wp = p*g*(/4)*(de^2-di^2)

(from sheet SS 316)

p = 7861 kg/m

de = #VALUE! m

di = #VALUE! m

wp = #VALUE! N/m

Insulation load (no insulation)

wi = 0 N/m

Total load

w= ww + w p + wi

ww = #VALUE! N/m

wp = #VALUE! N/m

wi = 0 N/m

w= #VALUE! N/m

Material A 312 TP316L Material: A 312 TP316L

Nominal pipe size (NPS) Ref. 2a. Table A-1

dn = 300 mm

Schedule, to be determined Yield strength Table A-1

Pressure in pipe yield = 25 ksi

P= 20 bar

Temperature Allowed stress Table A-1

t: 22 at the temperature

allow = 16.7 ksi

Pipe thickness allow = 115.1 MPa

Equation 3a, ASME B312.3-2008

t= P*D / ( 2*(S*E*W + P*Y) ) Maximum bending stress

t: Pressure design thickness b = 34.54 MPa

P: Internal design gauge pressure

D: Outside pipe diameter Quality factor "E"

d: Inside pipe diameter Ref. 2b. Table A-1B

c: sum of mechanical, corrosion Seamless tube A 316L

and erosion allowances E= 1

S: Material stress value. Table A-1

E: Quality factor from table A-1A or A-1B Exterior pipe diameter

W: Weld joint strength reduction factor per dn = 300 mm

para. 302.3.5 and Table 302.3.5 de = #VALUE! mm

Y: Coefficient from Table 304.1.1, valid for t <D/6

tdis = #VALUE! mm

Corrosion allowance TC = 1.59 mm

Thread depth TD = 0 mm

Over thickness OT = TC + TD

OT = 1.59 mm

Required thickness treq = tdis + OT

treq = #VALUE! mm

Minimum thickness tmin = treq * (100 /(100 - MT))

treq = #VALUE! mm

MT = 12.50 %

tmin = #VALUE! mm

www.piping-tools.net

Pipes. Wall thickness calculation according ASME B31.3

t = 9.2 mm

Pipe yield strength Corrosion allowance

Ref. 2a. Table A-1 TC = 1.59 mm

t = 25 ksi Thread depth

TD = 0 mm

Pipe basic allowable stress at Mill tolerance

given temperature MT = 12.5 %

Ref. 2a. Table A-1

t= 72 F Note.

allow = 16.7 ksi The above values are not considered

allow = 115.1 MPa in the example of the reference [1].

b = allow * 0.3

allow = 115.1 MPa

b = 34.54 MPa

b = 3.5E+07 Pa

Sheet SS 316

E= 2.0E+011 Pa www.piping-tools.net

Pipes. Maximum span between pi

cjcruz@piping-tools.net

w wc I L =(-b + (b^2 - 4*a*c)^0.5 ) / (2*a)

L2 L- b 0 (h)

16 8 d b= 245

a= #VALUE!

a= w/16 c= #VALUE!

w= #VALUE! N/m L= #VALUE! m

a= #VALUE! Let

L= 10 m

b= wc /8

wc = 1961 N

b= 245

c= -sb * I /de

b = 3.5E+07 Pa

I= #VALUE!

de = #VALUE! m

c= #VALUE!

factor W Ref. 2 ASME B31.3

Ref. 2c. Table 302,3,5 ASME B31.3 paragraph 304.1.2, Ec. (3a)

W= 1 ASME B31.3 - 2008

P d ext

t (3a)

Coefficient Y 2 E W P Y

Table 304.1.1

Ref. 2 ASME B31.3 t = P * dext / ( 2* (allow * E*W + P* Y) )

Y= 0.4 P= 2.0 Mpa

dext = #VALUE! mm

Check requirement b = 34.54 Mpa

P / S*E <= 0.385 E= 1.0 -

P= 2 Mpa W= 1.00 -

S= 34.54 MPa Y= 0.4 -

E= 1 t= #VALUE! mm

P / S*E = 0.057899

Design thickness requirement

Eq. (3a) is applicable, since P/(S*E t= #VALUE! mm

dext = #VALUE! mm

dext/6 = #VALUE! mm

#VALUE!

For a SS pipe

dn = 300 mm For the given data, a span L =

sch = 40S will ensure that the maximum

s= #VALUE! mm bending stress is less than b =

It was considered b =

A schedule of 40S gives a thickness Additionally it holds that L/y>=

#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! The model used is a simple supported beam

#VALUE!

For a SS pipe

dn = 300 mm

sch = 80S Since the model used is a simple supported beam

s= #VALUE! mm which gives a deflection much larger than the

case of a double cantilever beam, the schedule

A schedule of 80S gives a thickness will not be incremented as reference [1] does.

#VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!

#VALUE!

P d ext

t (3a)

2 E W P Y

P= 2 MPa

de = #VALUE! m

Sb = 34.53 MPa

E= 1

W= 1

y= 0.4

t= #VALUE! m

t= #VALUE! mm

The reference has a calculation mistake

Rev. cjc. 04.07.2016

Page 1 of 5

The schedule is to be determined I= (/64) *( de^4-di^4)

de = #VALUE! m

Schedule initially assumed di = #VALUE! m

Sch = 40S I= #VALUE! m4

dn = 300 mm A= (/4) * di^2

de = Pipe_SS_Dext_dn di = #VALUE! m

de = #VALUE! mm A= #VALUE! m

de = #VALUE! m

Water volume per meter pipe

Interior diameter V= A*1

dn = 300 mm A= #VALUE! m/m

di = Pipe_SS_Dint_dn_sch V= #VALUE! m/m

Sch = 40S

di = #VALUE! mm

di = #VALUE! m

www.piping-tools.net

Pipes. Maximum span between pipe supports for a given maximum bending stress.xlsm

cjcruz@piping-tools.net

Page 2 of 5

Deflection

Deflection at ther center of a

simple supported beam with a

uniform load "w" and a

concentrated load "wc"

5 w L4 8 w c L3

y (q)

384 E I

w= #VALUE! N/m

L= 10.0 m

wc = 1961

E= 2.00E+11 Pa

I= #VALUE! m4

y= #VALUE! m

y= #VALUE! mm

(L/y)min = 600 -

L= 10 m

y= #VALUE! m

L/y = #VALUE!

#VALUE!

Page 3 of 5

ASME B31.3-2008

Page 4 of 5

10 m

34.5 Mpa

allow * 0.3 L= 10 m

600 -

ple supported beam y= ### m

spipe = ### mm

80S

srequired = ### mm

much larger than the

ver beam, the schedule

as reference [1] does.

g= 9.80665 m/s

Page 5 of 5

[1]

[1]

t= P * dext / ( 2* (allow * E*W + P* Y) )

Pipe seamless SS

Mater: ASTM A 312 TP 316L

D: Outside diameter

dn = 300 NPS

de = #VALUE! mm

P= 2 MPa

de = #VALUE! mm

b = 34.53 MPa

E= 1

W 1

Y= 0.4

t= #VALUE! mm

dn = 300 mm dn = 300

sch = 40S sch = 80S

s= #VALUE! mm s= #VALUE!

The reference uses for the selection the dimensions

of carbon steel pipes

Stainless steel

dn = 300 mm dn = 300

sch = 20S sch = 30S

s= #VALUE! mm s= #VALUE!

dn = 300 mm dn = 300

sch = 20 sch = 30

s= #VALUE! mm s= #VALUE!

Sabin Crocker. Piping Handbook, 4th edition

McGraw Hill N.Y. Pg. 744-745

ASME B31.3 - 2000 Edition, Process Piping, ASME, New York pp 18

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

eers (1995)

SME, New York pp 182

Length of a beam to achieve that

Bending stress

the resulting beam stress has the

defined maximum value M c

(b)

I

Assumed a simply supported case M : moment N m

c : distance to the neutral axis m

M oments at the center of a simp le

I : equatorial inercia moment m4

supp orted beam . [5], Figure 7

L M cmax

M wc max (c)

4 I

Uniformly distributed load w In case of a p ip e

L2 d

M w cmax (d)

8 2

Total moment and rep lacing equation (d) into (c)

L2 L M ( d / 2)

M w wc (a) max (e)

8 4 I

allowed = y

Beam stress b

Beam stress

For the stainless steel A 312 TP316L,

Literature [1] recom

ASM E B31.3 - 2006, Table A - 1 gives acual ap p lication, f

the relation between the allowable margin

stress allow (t 300 F) to the y ield 3

b allow

value y as 10

rep lacing equation

2

allo w y (n) 2

allo w y

3 3

into equation (o)

3 2

b y

10 3

rep lacing equation

2

allo w y

3

into equation (o)

3 2

b y

10 3

1

b y

5

sup p orted beam . [5], Figure 7 5 w L4 8 w

y

384 E I

Concentrat ed load w c at center

w c L3

y

48 E I

Uniformly distributed load w

5 w L4

y

384 E I

Total deflection

5 w L4 w c L3

y

384 E I 48 E I

5 w L 4

8 w c L3

y

384 E I 384 E I

5 w L 8 w c L3

4

y (q)

384 E I

Rep lacing equation from equation

L2 L w wc d

(b) b L2 L

M w wc (a) 16 8 I

8 4

b I w wc

into equation (e) L2 L

ral axis m d 16 8

L2 L d /2 w wc I

moment m 4

max w w c (f) L2 L- b 0

16 8 d

8 4 I

.a..............b............c

where the maximum stress will have with

ress

the value corresponding to the given w

a

(c) 16

ap p lication, and will be denoted

w

simp ly as the beam stress b b c

8

L2 L d /2 b I

(d) b w w c c-

d

8 4 I equation (h) becomes

n (d) into (c)

L2 L d a L2 b L c 0

(e) b w w c (g)

16 8 I

w wc I

L2 L- b

16 8 d

Beam stress b

value of the beam stress given

by equation (n) will be used.

Literature [1] recommends for the This value is 20% of the yield stress

The in the standard indicated allowed

cual ap p lication, following security value is 67% of the yield stress.

margin

3 1

b allow (o) b = y ( p)

10 5

ep lacing equation

2

allo w y (n)

3

nto equation (o)

3 2

b y

10 3

ep lacing equation

2

allo w y (n)

3

nto equation (o)

3 2

b y

10 3

1

b y (p )

5

y=

5 w L 8 wc L

4 3

(q) y=

384 E I

Page 1 of 3

on

Note that the length obtained from

wc d

2

L (g) equation (m) corresp onds to the

8 I

wc case when the sy stem is assumed

L2 L

8 to be similar to a simp ly sup p orted

I

c

L- b 0 (h) beam. A continuos pip e would be

d

............c better rep resented by sections

corresp onding to a beam fixed at

both ends.

(i)

(j)

(k)

) becomes

c 0 (m)

wc I

L- b 0 (h)

8 d

Page 2 of 3

Page 3 of 3

P*L^3/(48*E*I)

(5/384)*(w*L^4)/(E*I)

Ferritic Steel

A term usually applied to a group of stainless steels with a chromium content in the ran

whose structure consists largely of ferrite.

Such steels possess good ductility and are easily worked but do not respond to any hard

Types of applications include automotive trim and architectural cladding.

Austenitic Steels

Steels containing high percentages of certain alloying elements such as manganese and

and cannot be hardened by normal heat-treatment but do work harden. They are also n

Typical examples of austenitic steels include the 18/8 stainless steels and 14% mangan

(400 SERIES WHICH HAVE HIGH CARBON). These grades of stainless have chromium in t

This is the same as the ferritic grades. However, carbon is added in amounts from 0.10

The high carbon enables the material to be hardened by heat treatment.

ASME B31.3-2008

Process Piping

ASME Code for Oressure Piping, B31

P d ext

t (3a)

2 E W P Y

P: Internal design gauge pressure

D: Outside pipe diameter

d: Inside pipe diameter

c: sum of mechanical, corrosion and erosion allowance

S: Material stress value. Table A-1

E: Quality facto from table A-1A or A-1B

W: Weld joint strength reduction factor per

para. 302.3.5

Y: Coefficient from Table 604.1.1, valid for t <D/6

and for materials shown.

For t>= D/6, Y = (d + 2*c) / ( D + d + 2*c )

Equation 3a, ASME B312.3-2008

t >= d/6 or

P / S*E > 0.385

m content in the range of 12- 18o and "Y" values for ferritic steels (t < D/6)

Table 304.1.1, ASME B31.1-2008, page 20.

t respond to any hardening or tempering processes. Y<482 C = 0.4

Y482 to 510 C = 0.5

Y > 510 C = 0.7

rden. They are also non-magnetic.

els and 14% manganese steel.

s have chromium in the range of 11% to 17% as the sole major alloying addition.

n amounts from 0.10 % to 0.65% to radically change the behavior of the martensitic alloys.

nd erosion allowances

+ d + 2*c )

Coefficient Y

Table 304.1.1

Ref. 2 ASME B31.3

Y= 0.4

t y allow

allow y t

yield

Spec Grade ksi

A 312 TP316L 25

at tmin to 100 F

allowed = yield

t allowed

Spec Grade F ksi

A 312 TP316L < 100 16.7

< 200 16.7

allowed = 16,700 psi

allowed = 115.1 MPa

Quality factor

E= 1

Weld joint strenght reduction fac

W= 1

renght reduction factor W

http://www.azom.com/properties.aspx?ArticleID=863

https://www.google.com/fusiontables/DataSource?docid=1wvrlddD8tQHoDc7feP9pqJ2Aw

Density of stainless steel

kg/m

SS 316

=

Elasticity modulus

Emin = 190

Emax = 205

Selected value

wvrlddD8tQHoDc7feP9pqJ2AwImBdcPJpEqV4ic E= 200

E= 2.0E+011

7861 kg/m

Gpa

Gpa

Gpa

Pa

http://www.advancepipeliner.com/Resources/Others/Beams/Beam_Deflection_Formulae.pdf

http://www-classes.usc.edu/engr/ce/457/moment_table.pdf

http://www.awc.org/pdf/codes-standards/publications/design-aids/AWC-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710

Beam simp ly s

M aximum defle

a) Uniformly di

5 w L4

y

384 E I

b) Concentrat ed

8 P L3

y

384 E I

c) Both cases, a

5 w L4 8

y

384 E

flection_Formulae.pdf

M aximum deflection at beam center

w L4

M aximum deflection at beam center

w L4

y

384 E I

b) Concentrat ed load P at the center

16 P L3

y

384 E I

c) Both cases, a and b

w L4 16 P L3

y

384 E I

C-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710.pdf

y=

Beam simp ly sup portedat ends

M aximum deflection at beam center

5 w L4

y

384 E I

b) Concentrat ed load P at the center

8 P L3

y

384 E I

c) Both cases, a and b

5 w L4 8 P L3

y

384 E I

center

w

center

center

Maximum moment

M= w * l^2 / 8

y= (5/384)*(w*L^4)/(E*I)

Maximum moment

M= P*l/4

M= w * l^2 / 8

M= P*l/4

P*L^3/(48*E*I)

[1] Determination of maximum span between pipe supports using maximum bending stre

Dr. D.P. Vakharia, Mohd Farroq A.

http://ijrte.academypublisher.com/vol01/no06/ijrte0106046049.pdf

Process Piping

ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31

McGraw Hill N.Y. Pg. 744-745

ASME B31.3 - 2000 Edition, Process Piping, ASME, New York pp 182

[5]

http://www.awc.org/pdf/codes-standards/publications/design-aids/AWC-DA6-BeamForm

ximum bending stress theory

WC-DA6-BeamFormulas-0710.pdf

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