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Alberta Power Industry Consortium

& University of Alberta


Professional Development Course

Understanding
Insulation Coordination

Organized
By
Alberta Power Industry Consortium & University of Alberta
AESO AltaLink ATCO Enmax Epcor FortisAlberta

Instructed
By

Dr. David Peelo

May 13 & 15, 2014

Calgary & Edmonton, Alberta, Canada


Abstract

Insulation coordination is fundamental to the design and operation of power systems. In turn,
overvoltage limitation is an important part of insulation coordination. Means for overvoltage
limitation have evolved from rod gaps through gapped type surge arresters to the metal oxide
surge arresters of today. This course will discuss the basic principles of insulation coordination
and will then cover arrester application and selection. The course is intended for APIC company
staffs who are not specialized in insulation coordination but want to gain an adequate
understanding on the basics of insulation coordination and surge arrester application. It is hoped
that the knowledge will help them to better appreciate the challenges and requirements of
insulation coordination and equipment protection, which, in turn, will facilitate the execution of
engineering projects involving multiple technical subjects including insulation coordination for
T&D equipment.

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Confidentiality Requirement

This course material was prepared by the University of Alberta for the ultimate benefit of the
Alberta Power Industry Consortium members (hereinafter called SPONSORS). It may contain
confidential research findings, trade secrets, proprietary materials (collectively called
Proprietary Information). The term Proprietary Information includes, but is not limited to,
plans, drawings, designs, specifications, new teaching materials, trade secrets, processes,
systems, manufacturing techniques, model and mock-ups, and financial or cost data.

The document is made available to the sponsors only. The Sponsors will use all reasonable
efforts to treat and keep confidential, and cause its officers, members, directors, employees,
agents, contractors and students, if any, (Representatives) to treat and keep confidential, and
Proprietary Information in the document and the document itself. This course material shall not
be disclosed to any third party without the consent of the Alberta Power Industry Consortium.

Disclaimer

This document may contain reports, guidelines, practices that are developed by the University of
Alberta and the members of the Alberta Power Industry Consortium (APIC).

Neither the APIC members, the University of Alberta, nor any of other person acting on his/her
behalf makes any warranty or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy of any
information or for the completeness or usefulness of any apparatus, product or process disclosed,
or accept liability for the use, or damages resulting from the use, thereof. Neither do they
represent that their use would not infringe upon privately owned rights.

Furthermore, the APIC companies and the University of Alberta hereby disclaim any and all
warranties, expressed or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, whether arising by law, custom, or conduct, with respect to any of the
information contained in this document. In no event shall the APIC companies and the University
of Alberta be liable for incidental or consequential damages because of use or any information
contained in this document.

Any reference in this document to any specific commercial product, process or service by trade
name, trademark, manufacture, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its
endorsement or recommendation by the University of Alberta and/or the APIC companies.

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About the Alberta Power Industry Consortium:

The Alberta Power Industry Consortium consists of six Alberta utility companies (AESO,
AltaLink, ATCO, Enmax, Epcor and FortisAlberta) and the University of Alberta. Established in
the fall of 2007, its goal is to bring Alberta power companies together, with the University of
Alberta as the coordinating organization, to solve technical problems of common interest, to
produce more power engineering graduates, to support the professional development of current
employees, and to promote technical cooperation and exchange in Albertas power utility
community.

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About the instructor:

Dr. David Peelo, P.Eng., is an independent consultant. He graduated from University College
Dublin in 1965 and worked first for the ASEA Power Transmission Products Division in
Sweden. He joined BC Hydro in 1973 where he rose to the position of specialist engineer for
switchgear and switching and took early retirement in 2001 to pursue a second career as a
consultant. In 2004 the Eindhoven University of Technology awarded him a PhD for original
research on current interruption using air-break disconnect switches. He has published more than
60 papers on switching and surge arrester application and is actively involved with IEEE, CIGRE
and IEC. He is a past convener of IEC Maintenance Team 32 Inductive Load Switching and IEC
Maintenance Team 42 Capacitive Current Interrupting Capability of Disconnectors and a
member of the Canadian IEC National Committees for switching equipment and for surge
arresters. He is the author of a textbook on current interruption transients calculation and a co-
author of a textbook on switching in power systems both due for publication in 2014.

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Course Outline

1. Basic principles of insulation coordination


Overvoltages in power systems
The concept of insulation levels
The role of surge arresters
Simplified approach to insulation coordination

2. Power system overvoltages


Origins of overvoltages: lightning, switching and temporary overvoltages
Characteristics of overvoltages in power systems
Traveling waves

3. Metal oxide surge arresters


Evolution of overvoltage protection devices
The design of metal oxide surge arrester
Characteristics and applications of metal oxide surge arrester

4. Surge arrester standards


Evolution of surge arrester standards
IEC versus IEEE standards
Which is the recommended standard to follow?

5. Arrester application in substations


Types and characteristics of incoming surges
Distance effects
Arrester selection

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Understanding Insulation
Coordination
David Peelo
DF Peelo & Associates Ltd.

DF Peelo & Associates 2014

APIC 2014

Basic principles of insulation coordination

Overvoltages in power systems


Concept of insulation levels
Role of surge arresters
Simplified approach to insulation coordination

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What is insulation coordination?


IEEE definition: The selection of insulation strength
consistent with expected overvoltages to obtain an
acceptable risk of failure
IEC definition: The selection of dielectric strength of
equipment in relation to voltages which can appear on
systems for which the equipment is intended and taking
into account the service environment and the
characteristics of available protective devices

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Types of overvoltages and their causes:

Insulation types and strengths:


External insulation
Internal insulation
Self-restoring insulation
Non self-restoring insulation

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Internal insulation - transformers

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Insulation strengths:
Atmospheric air: statistical based on overvoltage type and
insulation terminal configuration
Liquids and gases: deterministic or statistical based on
type of equipment

Insulation Coordination Course

Overvoltage limitation:
Air gaps: dependent on electrode configuration and type
of overvoltage
Silicon carbide surge arresters: voltage limited rating basis
Metal oxide surge arresters: energy absorption limited
rating basis

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Basic definitions:

Terms that we will encounter throughout the various part of the


course

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Nominal voltage of a system: A suitable approximate value of


voltage used to designate or identify a system: example 230 kV
system.
Highest voltage of a system: The highest value of operating
voltage which occurs under normal operating conditions at any
time and at any point in the system: 245 kV on 230 kV system.
Highest voltage for equipment (Um): The highest rms value of
phase-to-phase voltage for which the equipment is designed in
respect of its insulation as well as other characteristics which
relate to this voltage in the relevant equipment Standards

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Isolated neutral system: A system where the neutral point is not


intentionally connected to earth (ground)
Solidly earthed (grounded) neutral system: A system where the
neutral point or points are directly connected to earth (ground)
Impedance earthed (grounded) system: A system whose neutral
points are earthed (grounded) through impedances to limit fault
current

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Earth (ground) fault factor: The ratio of the highest power


frequency voltage on an unfaulted phase during a line-to-earth
(ground) fault to the
phase-to-earth (ground) power frequency voltage without the
fault
Overvoltage: Voltage, between one phase and earth (ground)
or between two phases, having a crest value exceeding the
corresponding crest of the highest voltage of the system.
Overvoltages may be classified by shape or duration as either
temporary or transient

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Performance criterion: The basis on which the insulation is


selected so as to reduce to an economically and operationally
acceptable level the probability that the resulting voltage
stresses imposed on the equipment will cause damage to the
equipment insulation or affect continuity of service. This
criterion is usually expressed in terms of an acceptable failure
rate of the insulation configuration

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Examples of performance criteria

Transmission lines:
2 lightning flashovers per 100 km-years exposure
1 switching surge flashover per 100 switching operations
Substations:
Generally, station reliability criteria is 10 times line criteria
Also, transformers and other non-self restoring insulation
equipment arrester protected due to failure
consequences
Air insulated stations: MTBF of 50 to 200 years
Gas insulated stations: MTBF up to 800 years due to failure
consequences

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Withstand voltage: The value of the test voltage to be


applied under specified conditions during which a specified
number of disruptive discharges may be tolerated:
conventional assumed withstand voltage: number of
disruptive discharges tolerated is zero and
corresponds to a probability of withstand Pw = 100%
statistical withstand voltage: number of disruptive
discharges tolerated is related to a specified withstand
probability and is specified at Pw = 90%

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Representative overvoltages (Urp): Overvoltages assumed to


produce the same dielectric effect on the insulation as
overvoltages of a given class occurring in service due to various
origins
Coordination withstand voltage (Ucw): For each class of voltage,
the value of the withstand voltage of the insulation
configuration, in actual service conditions, that meets the
performance criterion

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Insulation coordination procedure

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Required withstand voltage (Urw): The test voltage that the


insulation must withstand in a standard withstand test to
ensure that the insulation will meet the performance criterion
when subjected to a given class of overvoltages in actual
service conditions and for the whole service duration
Standard withstand voltage (Uw): The standard value of the test
voltage applied in a standard withstand test. It is the rated
value of the insulation and proves that the insulation complies
with one or more required withstand voltages

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Coordination factor (Kc): The factor by which the value of the


representative overvoltage must be multiplied in order to
obtain the value of the coordination withstand voltage
Atmospheric correction factor (Ka): The factor to be applied to
the coordination withstand voltage to account for the
difference between the average atmospheric conditions in
service and the standard reference atmospheric conditions. The
factor applies only to external insulation

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Standard reference atmospheric conditions: The standard


reference atmospheric conditions are:
temperature to = 20C
pressure bo = 101.3 kPA (1013 mbar)
absolute humidity hao = 11 g/m

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Safety factor (Ks): The factor to be applied to the coordination


withstand voltage, after application of the atmospheric
correction factor (if required), to obtain the required withstand
voltage, accounting for all the differences between the
conditions in service and those in the standard withstand test
Test conversion factor (Kt): The factor to be applied to the
required withstand voltage, in the case where the standard
withstand voltage is selected of different shape, so as to obtain
the lower limit of the standard withstand test voltage that can
be assumed to prove it

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Insulation coordination procedure

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Insulation coordination simplified approach

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Source IEC 62271-1 27

Insulation Coordination Course

Source IEC 62271-1 28

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References:
1. IEC and IEEE insulation coordination standards noted earlier.
2. IEC 60099-4 Surge arresters Part 4: Metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps
for a.c. systems.
3. IEC 60099-5 Surge arresters Part 5: Selection and application
recommendations.
4. Insulation Coordination for Power Systems (Book), A.R. Hileman, Marcel
Dekker, Inc 1999.
5. Insulation Coordination for High-Voltage Electric Power Systems (Book), W.
Diesendorf, Butterworth & Co. 1974.
6. Surge arrester manufacturer websites: ABB and Siemens in particular have
comprehensive selection and application guides.

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Power system overvoltages

Lightning, switching and temporary overvoltages


Characteristics of overvoltages in power systems
Travelling wave basics
How do surge arresters work?

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Spectrum of power system overvoltages:

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Overvoltage class: transient

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Overvoltage class: low frequency continuous and temporary

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Temporary overvoltages: causes and characteristics


1. Ferranti effect:
Steady state voltage (V2) at the open receiving end of
an uncompensated line (no shunt reactors) is always
higher than the voltage (V1) at the sending end; occurs
because the (leading) capacitive charging current
flows through the series inductance of the line

V2 1
=
V1 cos(BL )

where L is the line length in km and B the phase


constant (7.2 degrees/100 km at 60 Hz)
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Ferranti effect

V1 and V2 sending and receiving end voltages.


1: no compensation 2: 50% series capacitor compensation 3: 50% series capacitor and 70% shunt reactor
compensation.

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2. Faults:
A line to ground fault represents a typical example
of a temporary undamped overvoltage that may be
sustained on the unfaulted phases for up to
hundreds of milliseconds
The magnitude of the overvoltages on the
unfaulted phases depends on the shift of the
electrical neutral caused by the fault earth fault
factors

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SLG EFFs:

Maximum line to ground voltage at any fault location and under any fault condition for effectively grounded system.
Numbers on curves are maximum line to ground voltages on any phase in percent of line-to-line voltage.

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Earth fault TOVs:

Category EFF (pu) Duration


Grounded
Network, high SC* 1.2 1.4 1s
Line radial line, low SC 1.2 1.5 1s
Resonant grounded
Network or mesh 1.73 8 hours 2 days
Long radial line 1.2 1.5 1s
Isolated/Ungrounded
Distribution with O/H lines 1.73 12s
Industrial with cable (with fault clearing)

SC short circuit

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3. Load rejection:
Load rejection occurs when a remote circuit breaker on a
transmission line carrying a substantial load is opened due
to system condition or an error. A voltage rise follows
because:
the reduced current means a lower voltage drop across
the internal system impedance
generators tend to overspeed to produce higher
voltages

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Load rejection overvoltages:

Category Magnitude Duration (s)


Load rejection
in a system 1.05 > 10
generator-transformer
steam turbine 1.1 1.4 1
hydro 1.15 1.5 1

Note: Load rejection may be combined with the occurrence of a fault


producing a combined effect

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4. Resonance:
Resonance in power systems can take two forms:
linear resonance when inductive and capacitive
elements in series form a series resonant circuit; for
example, an unsaturated transformer and a shunt
capacitor bank
ferroresonance when saturated iron-cored inductive
and capacitive elements in series form a series circuit;
for example, the grading capacitors on an open circuit
breaker in series with a magnetic PT

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Overvoltages associated resonance situations can be very


significant and rapid intervention is necessary

Resonance Magnitude (pu) Duration (s)


Unsaturated phenomena <2 0.5
Saturated phenomena 2 3+ 0.5 10
Coupled circuits 3 5+ 0.5 10

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5. Other TOV situations:

TOVs due to Magnitude (pu) Duration


Line energization and
1.5 <1s
re-energization
Stuck breaker pole 2 Steady state

Backfeeding 2 Seconds

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Interesting facts about TOVs:

1. TOVs DO NOT CONTRIBUTE TO INSULATION


DESIGNHOWEVER

2. TOVs DETERMINE THE VOLTAGE RATINGS OF


THE METAL OXIDE ARRESTERS TO BE APPLIED
ON THE SYSTEM

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Slow front switching surges:


Line switching
Making and breaking reactive currents
TRVs across circuit breakers

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Line switching:
Due to travelling wave effects, line switching can result
in overvoltages of significant magnitude. Worst case is
re-energization of a line with a full DC trapped charge
The resulting switching surges are slow-front with
times to peak in the order of hundreds of microseconds

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Switching surge overvoltage distribution with various control


measures

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Voltage profile on line

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Typical switching overvoltage magnitudes:

Condition Magnitude (pu)

Energizing discharged line 1.5 2.0


Re-energizing with no overvoltage
3 3.4
control
Re-energizing with pre-insertion
2 2.2
resistors
Re-energizing with controlled closing
1.2 1.7

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Making and breaking reactive currents:


Inductive current switching
transformer magnetizing current
shunt reactors at EHV, HV and MV
Capacitive current switching
shunt capacitor banks
lines and cables

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Fast front overvoltages:


Fast front overvoltages are those due to lightning and have the
dimensioning role at system voltages below EHV levels (at EHV
levels switching surges have the dimensioning role)
The overvoltages are characterized by fast rise times of 0.1 to 20
s and associated in the range 5 to 200 kA.

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Very fast front overvoltages:


Very fast front overvoltages are generally associated with gas
insulated switchgear (GIS) applications and in particular with the
live operation of disconnect switches
The overvoltage are not dimensioning with respect to the
insulation coordination of GIS; however, present standards for
disconnect switches now incorporate very severe tests to
demonstrate that live operation of the switches does not
compromise the GIS insulation structure

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What is lightning?

Lightning is the breakdown of atmospheric air; in dry air at


sea level breakdown voltage is 30 kV/cm but, at higher
altitudes in a region filled with water droplets, it is about one-
third this value
Lightning strikes are not instantaneous starting as local
events and progressing in steps to the other electrode which
could be earth (ground) or another cloud
Lightning strikes are very statistical in terms of current
magnitude, number of strokes per strike and striking point

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Global electric circuit

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Travelling wave basics:


Fundamental circuit for travelling waves

Vi = incident voltage
Zi = surge impedance of Vi
Zt = surge impedance of Vt
Vr = reflected voltage = Vi where = (Zt Zi)/(Zt + Zi)
Vt = transmitted voltage = Vi where = 2Zt/(Zt + Zi)
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Voltage waves:

Vr Vt
Surge Reflected Transmitted
Case Impedance Voltage Voltage
No change Zi = Zt 0 Vi

Open circuit Zt >> Zi Vi 2 Vi


50% reduction Zt = 0.5 Zi -0.33 Vi 0.67 Vi

Short circuit Zt = 0 -Vi 0

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Surge current (directional): I = V/Z

Surge Ir Inet
Case Impedance Reflected Current (Zi side)
No change Zi = Zt 0 Ii

Open circuit Zt >> Zi Ii 0


50% reduction Zt = 0.5 Zi -0.33 Ii 0.67 Ii

Short circuit Zt = 0 -Ii 2 Ii

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CO operation on 100 km unloaded transmission line

Sending end

Receiving end

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We can now consider the principle of overvoltage surge


protection using arresters:

V1 V2

Z1 Z2
I3

V2 = V3

V3 Z3

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We can write:

V2 = V3

2Z T
= V1
Z
1 + Z T

Z2Z3
where Z T =
Z2 + Z3

1 (1 + Z 2 Z 3 )
V2 = 2V1Z 2
Z1 + Z 2 (1 + Z 2 Z 3 )
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If no arrester, Z3 =

2V1Z 2
V2 = V3 =
Z1 + Z 2

If Z2 also as at open-ended line or transformer

V2 = V3 = 2V1 (voltage doubling)

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We can also write:

I3 = V2 Z3 = V3 Z3

Z 2 Z Z
= 2V1 Z1 + 2 3
Z 2 + Z 3 Z 2 + Z3

If ideal arrester (short-circuit), Z3 = 0 and

I3 = 2V1 Z 1
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We now have the two extreme points on the circuit


load line:
Z2
2V1*Z2

(2V1 Z1 I3 )
Z1+Z2
V2 =
Z1 + Z 2

V2

I3 2V1
Z1

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Add the arrester VI-characteristic:


2V1*Z2
Z1+Z2

Z2
Var = (2V1 Z1 Iar )
Z1 + Z 2

V2

Var

Arrester VI-characteristic

Iar
I3 2V1
Z1

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Load line for transformer case: Z2 =

2V1

Var = 2V1 Z1 Iar

V2

Var

Arrester VI-characteristic

Iar
I3 2V1
Z1

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Question: how does travelling wave theory treat the


effect of a surge arrester in clamping the voltage to
the protective level at its location?

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Metal oxide surge arresters

Evolution of overvoltage protective devices


Design of metal oxide surge arresters
Characteristics and application of metal oxide surge
arresters

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History of surge arresters:

1898 rod gap design


1908 electrolyte arrester with non-linear resistive
element to limit follow current and enable arc
interruption
1930 silicon carbide arresters with silicon carbide
resistive elements in series with gaps
1957 silicon carbide arresters with current limiting
gaps
1976 metal oxide surge arresters with extreme
non-linear characteristics

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Structure of metal oxide surge arresters:


Consist simply of zinc oxide varistor disks of
varying sizes connected in series
Zinc oxide varistors are ceramic semiconductor
devices with very
non-linear voltage-current characteristics and very
good energy absorption capability

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Zinc oxide disks are about 90% zinc oxide (ZnO) by


weight plus various other metal oxides to provide
specific properties for example:
bismuth + CaO, CoO, BaO, SrO, MnO:
non-linearity of the VI characteristic
K2O: inhibits grain growth
Cr2O3: enhances thermal stability
Ga2O3: increases exponent () of VI characteristic
Sb2O3: grain grown enhancer

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Varistor microstructure key elements:


Zinc oxide grains
Bismuth-rich intergranular layer
Spinel grains

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Varistor microstructure:

Source: ABB
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VI characteristic: three conductive regions

2.5
P er unit peak rated voltage

2
Region 1 Region 2 Region 3

LIPL
1.5
SIPL
Rated voltage
1
MCOV

0.5 25 C 150 C
Resistive leakage current

0
1E-05 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Current (A)

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Region 1: pre-breakdown region is the low current region


associated with steady state operation; material
resistivity temperature dependent with negative
temperature coefficient
Region 2: breakdown region is the highly non-linear region
associated with TOVs and switching surges; very
small temperature dependence and exponent =
30 to 50
Region 3: high current region is the region associated impulse
currents > 1 kA due to lightning;
non-linearity much less than in the breakdown
region

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Current conduction: equivalent circuit

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Pre-breakdown: in this region current conduction is


determined by the high resistance
associated with grain boundaries with a
significant temperature dependence
Breakdown: at a certain applied voltage across grain
boundaries, the intergranular layer
resistance drops allowing a large increase
in current; energy is therefore being
absorbed in the intergranular layer
High-current: the zinc oxide grain resistance dominates in
this region

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Comparison: metal oxide versus gapped silicon carbide


arresters fundamentally different:
Metal oxide arresters are rated on the basis of
ability to absorb energy and maintain thermal
stability at rated voltage followed by MCOV
Gapped silicon carbide arresters are rated on the
basis of ability to reseal interrupt follow current
after discharging a lightning or switching surge

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Active gaps

SiC resistors

Grading resistors
and capacitors

ZnO arrester
SiC gapped arrester
Courtesy of ABB
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Rated voltage and energy considerations: metal oxide


arresters are energy (temperature) limited

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Effects of aging: over lifetime

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IEC 60099-4 specifies five (5) line classes:

7
Specific energy (kJ/kV U r )

Line class 1
6
Line class 2
5 Line class 3
Line class 4
4
Line class 5
3

0
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Ures/Ur
Former IEC rating basis now changed to a
thermal energy rating and a repetitive
charge transfer rating 90

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Former IEC rating basis now changed to


a thermal energy rating and a
repetitive charge transfer rating

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Thermal Energy Rating Wth

Maximum specified energy given in kJ/kV of Ur that may be


injected into an arrester within 3 minutes time duration
without causing thermal runaway.
This rating is verified in the revised operating duty test
above injection preceded by conditioning consisting of two
high current impulses only.
The rating is strictly thermal and no longer relates rated
energy to protective levels; temperature coefficient for metal
oxide material 0.33 C/J/cm3.

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Repetitive Charge Transfer Rating Qrs

Maximum specified charge transfer capability of an arrester in


the form of a single event or group of surges that may
transferred through an arrester without causing mechanical
failure or unacceptable electrical degradation to the MO
resistors.
The charge is calculated as the absolute value of current
integrated over time. This is the charge that is accumulated in
a single event or a group of surges lasting for no more than 2
seconds and which may be followed by a subsequent event at
a time interval not shorter than 60 seconds.

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TOV versus time curves:


1.3
With prior energy
1.2 Without prior energy
MCOV
TOV factor k tov

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.7
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Time (s)

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Overvoltages: types and shapes

Source: IEC 60071-1

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Energy absorption:
TOVs: system is a voltage source
lightning and switching surges: system is a current
source
For energy absorption studies, the minimum VI
characteristics should be used

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Overvoltages and associated energies:


Energy
kJ/kV rated
Type/Cause Magnitude Waveshape voltage

Atmospheric Overvoltages:
Lightning strikes or induced by Front: 1 6 s
lightning (multiple strikes may > 5 pu 0.5
Tail @ 50%: 50 s
occur)

Switching Overvoltages:
Line autoreclosing, switching Front: 30 300 s
capacitor banks, shunt reactors, 2 4 pu 35
Tail @ 50%: 100 2000 s
issue more at EHV

Temporary Overvoltages:
SLG faults in ungrounded systems, Very high
Power frequency
Ferranti effect, loading shedding++ 1 1.5 pu (fast remedial
(may be distorted)
action required)

97

Protective and related characteristics: 192 kV arrester

700

600

LIPL 470 kV peak


Voltage (kV peak)

500
SIPL 384 kV peak
400

300
Rated voltage 272 kV peak
200 MCOV 218 kV peak

100

0
1E-05 1E-04 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 1E+05
Current (A)

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Because we are dealing with a VI characteristic, the respective


protective levels are defined at standard normal discharge
currents. For lightning protection:

Standard nominal
System voltage discharge current*
(8/20 s)
Distribution 5 kA
Sub-transmission up to 72.5 kV 5 or 10 kA
72.5 to 245 kV 10 kA
245 kV and up 10 kA or 20 kA
500 kV 20 kA
* values also define so-called Arrester Classification
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For switching surges:

Peak currents*
Arrester classification
(A)
20 kA 500 and 2000
10 kA 250 and 1000
10 kA distribution class 125 and 500

* in switching impulse residual voltage test, higher numbers used to


define the protective level

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VI characteristic: switching and lightning currents

1.5
Voltage (pu of 10 kA value)

1.4
4/10micros
1.3
8/20micros
1.2
36/90micros
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000

Current (A)

101

Extract from ABB surge arrester catalog:

Guaranteed protective characteristics


Maximum residual voltage with current wave
Max. cont.
Recommended operating MCOV as
for system Rated voltage per ANSI TOV
voltage voltage (COV) tests capability for Switching surges 8/20 s
1s 10 s 1 kA 2 kA 3 kA 5 kA 10 kA 20 kA 40 kA
kVrms kVrms kVcrest kVcrest kVcrest kVcrest kVcrest kVcrest kVcrest
kVrms kVrms kVrms kVrms

EXLIM P-A and P-B


180 144 144 209 198 351 362 371 392 414 452 497
245
192 154 154 223 211 374 386 396 418 442 482 530

198 156 160 230 218 386 398 408 431 456 497 547

210 156 170 244 231 409 423 433 457 483 528 580

219 156 177 254 241 426 441 452 477 504 550 605

228 156 180 264 251 444 459 470 496 525 573 630

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Energy absorption:
TOVs: system is a voltage source
lightning and switching surges: system is a current
source
For energy absorption studies, the minimum VI
characteristics should be used

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Insulation Coordination Course

Selection procedure:
Electrical characteristics
Rated voltage and MCOV
Nominal discharge current
Thermal energy rating Wth
Repetitive charge transfer rating Qrs
Lightning and switching surge protection levels
Mechanical characteristics
Strike and creepage distances
Short-circuit withstand
Seismic and tensile loads

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Selecting the housing: briefly the following applies


Arresters are self-protecting and the housings do not
require the same withstand capability as other station
equipment
Creepage distances should be the same as for all station
equipment
Pollution or exposure to salt contamination can require
longer creepage distances but consideration should also
be given to using higher rated voltage arresters or more
appropriate arrester designs

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Insulation Coordination Course

Short-circuit testing is required on all arrester types over a


range of current; for example, an arrester with a rated
short-circuit current rating of 50 kA would also be tested at
25 kA, 12 kA and 600 kA
Selection of the short-circuit current rating should be based
on the maximum expected short-circuit current magnitude at
the arrester location

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Insulation coordination iterative process

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Insulation Coordination Course

Station layout considerations:


Location of the arrester relative to the protected
equipment is important and will be discussed later
Location of the arrester relative to other energized
equipment on the same phase also requires
attention
Question: how does the protected equipment
know that the arrester is ahead of it?

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Testing:
Type testing is covered in great detail in IEC
60099-4 as is basic routine testing
As noted earlier routine testing is at least as
important as type testing; in making comparisons
between arresters from different manufacturers,
compare the tests performed on each block
before considering award

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Insulation Coordination Course

Surge arrester standards

Evolution of surge arrester standards


IEC versus IEEE standards
Which is the recommended standard to use

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IEEE and IEC differ in approaches:


IEEE: rated voltage is the duty cycle rating
which is a holdover from gapped
silicon carbide arresters and has no
relationship to absorbed energy
IEC: rated voltage is a TOV to be withstood
following absorption of defined energy
under specific circumstances

111

Insulation Coordination Course

IEEE rating basis: from IEEE C62.11-2005

3.29 duty cycle voltage rating: The designated maximum


permissible voltage between its terminals at which an
arrester is designed to perform its duty cycle.

8.14 Duty-cycle test

The purpose of the duty-cycle test is verify that the arrester


can withstand multiple lightning type impulses without
causing thermal instability or dielectric failure.

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Insulation Coordination Course

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Former IEC rating basis now changed to


a thermal energy absorption rating

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Importance of routine testing:


Absolutely no redundancy in metal oxide surge
arresters: one bad block and the arrester will fail
guaranteed!
Routine testing has therefore equal or arguably
greater importance than type testing

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Arrester application in stations

Type and characteristic of incoming surges


Distance effects
Arrester selection

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Stations: insulation coordination

Transmission lines are normally shielded except where the


soil resistivity is such that it is not possible to achieve low
tower footing impedances at a justifiable cost
Lines, however, are typically shielded about 1 km or more out
from the station in order to limit the occurrence, magnitude
and steepness of incoming surges
Two types of lightning related failures are of interest:
shielding failures where a lightning strike occurs directly to
the line conductor and back flashover (also known as a
backflash) where the tower or ground wire is struck and a
flashover then occurs to a phase conductor.

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Insulation Coordination Course

Lightning strike to a phase conductor

Only close-in strikes are of interest because of the damping effect of


corona on the traveling wave.

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Travelling wave damping due to corona

Conductors Zo(ohms) Kc (km-kV/us)


Single 450 700
2 Conductor Bundle 350 1000
3 or 4 Conductor Bundle 320 1700
6 or 8 Conductor Bundle 300 2500

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Insulation Coordination Course

1500000
Voltage Surge Distortion Due to Corona
0.5 km
1.0 km

1000000 2.0 km
3.0 km
V oltage (V )

4.0 km
500000

-500000
0 10 20 30 40
Time (us)

V@ 3.0 km V@ 4.0 km V@ 0.5 km V@ 1.0 km V@ 2.0 km


Electrotek Concepts TOP, The Output Pro
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Back flashover

123

Insulation Coordination Course

Lightning currents
Shielding failure: 4 kA or greater at
89% probability: 20 kA or greater at
80% probability.
Back flashover: 20 kA or greater at
probability of 80%; 90 kA or greater
at probability of 5%
Median current: 32 kA

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Station insulation coordination: determine the representative


incoming lightning overvoltage.

Two approaches are possible:

1. Comprehensive approach: requires a computer study because of the


complexity of the calculations.

2. Deterministic approach: a more general approach but does take into


account the lightning stress severity of the station under study.

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Comprehensive approach flow diagram:

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Comprehensive approach - need to consider:

Statistical (stochastic) variation of the lightning flash and


stroke parameters
Dependence of the flash strike point on these parameters
Response of the line to the lightning flash including the tower
footing impedance current dependence
Propagation of the surge from the strike point to the station
and the deformation effect of corona

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Insulation Coordination Course

Station insulation coordination: deterministic approach

1. Determine the lightning performance of incoming


transmission line based on parameters discussed earlier
ground flash density, line height etc.

2. Determine steepness of incoming surge based on the above


and system fault tolerance.

3. Determine the protective zones based on selected arrester


locations; may need a number of iterations and this type of
study is usually done using EMTP simulations.

4. Transformer protection tends to get most attention but open


breaker protection is also a consideration

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Insulation Coordination 101

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Basic case: arrester at transformer only


CASE1>B-B1 (Type 1)
1000000

800000

600000
Voltage (V)

400000

200000

VB-B1
0 V-CB
V-JTN
VSA-1
-200000 VTX
0.03300 0.03400 0.03500 0.03600
Time (mS)
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Insulation Coordination Course

1000000
Entrance Bus Voltages : Normal, Wih Ccvt, With SA2 & Ccvt

800000

600000
Voltage (V)

400000

200000

-200000
33 35 37 39 41
Time (us)

Vb: normal Vb: With Ccvt Vb: With SA2 & Ccvt
Electrotek Concepts TOP, The Output Processor

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Transformer Voltages: Normal, With Ccvt, With SA2 & CCVT


1000000

800000

600000
Voltage (V)

400000

200000

-200000
33 35 37 39 41
Time (us)

Vtxc: normal Vtx: With Ccvt Vtx: With SA2 & Ccvt
Electrotek Concepts TOP, The Output Processor

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Insulation Coordination Course

600000
Vsa : Normal, With Ccvt, With SA2 & Ccvt

400000
Voltage (V)

200000

0
33 35 37 39 41
Time (us)

Vsa: normal Vsa: With Ccvt Vsa: With SA2 & Ccvt
Electrotek Concepts TOP, The Output Processor

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10000
SA Currents: Normal, With Ccvt, With SA2 & Ccvt

8000

6000
Current (A)

4000

2000

0
33 35 37 39 41
Time (us)

Isa: normal Isa: Ccvt Isa: SA2 & Ccvt


Electrotek Concepts TOP, The Output Processor

135

Insulation Coordination Course

Surge arrester application:


Arrester selection recap
Arrester location relative to protected equipment
Clearances associated with arresters

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Arrester selection based on:


system voltage and grounding
temporary overvoltages
desired safety factor relative to the equipment
withstand voltage
but its physical location relative to the protected
equipment is also a consideration (why?)

137

Insulation Coordination Course

Simple estimation of protective distance:

SL
Urp = Upl + 2
c
where
Upl = lightning impulse protective level of the
arrester (kV)
S = steepness of incoming surge (kV/s)
L = d1 + dA + d2 + d (m)
c = velocity of light (300 m/s)

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Example: 245 kV transformer, LIWL 850 kV


192 kV rated surge arrester, Upl 440 kV,
1000 kV/s
L = d1 + dA + d2 + d
= 2 + 2.5 + 2.6 + d
= 7.1 + d
Urp = 2 1000
440 + (7.1 + d)
300
= 440 + 6.67 (7.1 + d)

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Insulation Coordination Course

900
800
700
600
U rp (kV)

500
400
Voltage at
300 transformer
850*0.85
200
850*0.6375
100
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Distance d (m)

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Lets take a look at what is really happening when a surge


approaches a transformer protected at a certain distance by an
arrester:
Incoming surge steepness 1000 kV/s
Arrester with protective level of 800 kV installed at distance of
75 m from the transformer
Remember the questions: how does traveling wave deal with
arresters and their voltage limiting effect and how does the
transformer know there is an arrester ahead of it?

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Insulation Coordination Course

Arrester at distance 75 m and surge 1000 kV/s

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EMTP study result same case

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Insulation Coordination Course

What conclusions can we draw?

Urp = Upl + 2ST for Upl > or = 2ST


Urp = 2Upl for Upl < 2ST
where T is the travel time of the lightning surge L/c.
Actual voltage at the transformer oscillates due the arrival
and departure of the traveling waves but the maximum value
is Urp.

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Disadvantages of simplified method:


1. Does not take the capacitance of transformers or
reactors into account
2. Real VI characteristic of the arrester is not used
3. Does not take the effect of the power frequency voltage
into account

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Insulation Coordination Course

Switching surges within stations:


Are man-made events and generally more an issue for lines than for
stations; however, station equipment and clearances must be
capable of withstanding the applicable rated switching surge
withstand voltages and surge arresters must provide the
corresponding overvoltage protection. Equipment standards fix a
certain ratio between rated lightning and switching impulse voltages
as we have seen earlier.
Surge arresters are applied to limit switching overvoltages within
stations for the switching of shunt capacitor banks. This is a special
case usually requiring a computer study to determine energy
requirements in particular but some generalization is possible. Key
parameters are discussed in the following.

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Clearances: two types of clearances to consider


Station air clearances
Surge arrester clearances
to ground
to energized equipment on same phase

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Statistical nature of electrical breakdown

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Statistical nature of electrical breakdown (cont/d)

Applied voltage must exceed critical value (field strength)


where cumulative ionization is possible
Statistical time lag ts from application of voltage to the time of
creation of the first free electron time lag decreases with
increasing voltage
Once electron found must further generate a streamer, then
streamer converts to a spark formative time lag tf

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Insulation Coordination Course

Statistical nature of electrical breakdown (cont/d)

Vs must be high enough for ionization to occur and sustained for duration
longer than the total time lag
Total time lag ts+tf not the same for each voltage application same
voltage waveform may or may not cause breakdown and therefore it is a
probabilistic event
Question: what does this mean for lightning impulses and switching
surges?

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Influencing factors on breakdown:

Waveshape: breakdown voltage dependent on impulse


voltage and its profile over time
Gap configuration: more of an influence on switching
impulses than lightning impulses
Polarity: breakdown voltage lowest for positive impulses

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Insulation Coordination Course

Influence of waveshape: lightning impulses:


Lightning impulses represented by a standard
1.2/50 s waveshape
Duration of voltage around the peak does not give enough
time for leaders to develop and breakdown is dependent
on streamers only
Breakdown (aka sparkover) voltage Vs given by:
Vs = Esd
where Es is the electric field gradient and d is the gap
length

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Rod-plane gaps have the lowest breakdown voltages for


all gap configurations; for positive standard lightning
impulses for such gaps 1 to
10 m (IEC 60071-2):
U50RP = 530d
U50RP is the 50% probability of flashover voltage in kV
crest
d is the gap spacing in m

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Insulation Coordination Course

For other gap configurations such as rod-rod, U50 can be


as high as 700d (rod-plane and rod-rod gaps tend to
represent two extremes)
For rod-plane gaps up to 6 m and negative standard
lightning impulses:
U50RP = 950d0.8
and can be as low as 700d0.8 for other gaps

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U 50 flashover value (kV crest) 8000


Rod-plane positive
7000
Rod-rod positive
6000 Rod-plane negative

5000

4000

3000

2000
1000

0
0 2 4 6 8 10

Gap length (m)

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Insulation Coordination Course

Important notes for lightning impulses:


1. Gap factors (to be discussed for switching impulses) are
generally not directly applicable
2. Because positive impulses give the lowest breakdown
values does not mean that negative impulses can be
ignored; most lightning surges have negative polarity
and internal insulation (e.g. in a transformer) has lower
withstand for negative impulses
3. Above-noted equations apply at sea level

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Influence of waveshape: switching impulses


Switching impulses represented by a standard rise time of
250 s and a time to half-value of 2500 s
Breakdown is dependent on gap configuration and hence
the use of gap factor
Breakdown also dependent on voltage rise time giving so-
called U-curves

157

Insulation Coordination Course

Rod-plane gaps: K = 1

4000
U50 flashover value (kV crest)

3500
3000
2500
2000
E dF
1500
H a rbe c - M e ne m e niis
1000 IE C 6 0 0 7 1

500 M e e k - C ra ggs

0
0 5 10 15 20 25

Gap length (m)

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So what is the gap factor? The gap factor represents


the influence of the electrode configuration

Configuration Gap factor


Rod-plane 1
Conductor-plane 1.15
Vertical rod-rod 1.4*

* dependent on length of grounded rod (5 m in this


case)
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Insulation Coordination Course

Gap factors for phase-to-phase configurations*:

Configuration = 0.5 = 0.33


Ring-ring 1.8 1.7
Crossed conductors 1.65 1.53
Conductor-conductor 1.62 1.52
Supported busbars
1.5 1.4
(including fittings)

* IEC 60071-2
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Lightning versus switching impulse: rod-plane and rod-


rod gaps:
2500
U50 flashover values (kV crest)

IEC 60071
Meek-Craggs
2000
IEC*1.4
Meek-Craggs*1.4
1500
Lightning

1000

500

0
0 1 2 3 4 5

Gap length (m)

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Insulation Coordination Course

2500
U 5 0 fla s h o v e r v a lu e s ( k V c r e s t )

IEC 60071

2000 Meek-Craggs
IEC*1.4

1500 Meek-Craggs*1.4
Lightning

1000

500

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Gap length (m)


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Arrester minimum clearances phase to ground:


Because arresters are self-protecting lower minimum
clearances than station minimum clearances can be used
Consult the appropriate manufacturer catalog or
instruction manual for their recommended minimum
clearances

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Insulation Coordination Course

Surge Arrester Manufacturer


Recommended Minimum Clearances Phase-to-Ground

Arrester rated Minimum clearance phase-to-ground (mm)


voltage for
(kV rms) Mfr 1 Mfr 2 Mfr 3 Mfr 4 Mfr 5
12 92 115 216 127 92
15 118 115 216 147 122
21 168 165 229 190 154
24 168 165 279 216 182
60 448 505 483 407 416
66 499 505 - 457 458
72 549 505 508 508 500
120 829 870 914 813 832
132 905 1140 965 889 916
144 981 1140 1168 991 998
192 1270 1345 1448 1334 1198
216 1473 1465 1854 1611 1292
258 1599 1925 2337 1842 1612
396 - 2270 3530 2921 2475
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Surge arrester clearances to energized equipment on the same


phase:
Energized equipment on the same phase includes
transformer bushings (arrester on an outrigger), CVTs or
PTs, post insulators and so on
Arrester voltage distribution determined by grading rings
and proximity to other equipment on same phase really
only an issue where pollution is a consideration; however
what about tight fit scenarios?

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Insulation Coordination Course

Distribution system arrester practices:

On overhead systems arresters applied at the cable riser


pole from substation and possibly on pole-top
transformers in very lightning prone areas

On underground systems, arresters applied at the cable


riser pole and at open points in the underground circuit;
other measures may include paralleling arresters at the
riser pole or applying a surge arrester at next pole with or
without a groundwire

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TWENTY-ONE QUESTIONS

1. What are the voltages considered in insulation


coordination?

2. Which overvoltage determines the rated voltage of the


surge arrester to be used?

3. Metal oxide material consists of zinc oxide plus various


additives: which additive gives the non-linear VI
characteristic?

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Insulation Coordination Course

4. Which four points are used to define the VI


characteristic of the required surge arrester?

5. Which quantities define arrester energy handling


capability?

6. Which test defines the relationship between arrester


rated voltage and rated thermal energy?

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7. What determines the withstand capability of the


arrester housing?

8. How is the required creepage distance for the arrester


housing selected?

9. How should the required pressure relief capability for


the arrester be selected?

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Insulation Coordination Course

10. With respect to lightning, what representative


quantity is used for station insulation coordination?

11. If the required protective levels are not met, what


additional measures can be applied to resolve it?

12. Why is there no distance effect for switching surges?

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13. What determines the required clearances for surge


arrester installation?

14. Why is the separation distance arrester to transformer


so important?

15. What is the effect on added capacitance on incoming


surges?

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Insulation Coordination Course

16. What are the characteristic waveshapes for lightning


and switching surges?

17. What is a gap factor?

18. Which electrode configuration has the lowest


switching surge withstand capability?

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19. Rated lightning withstand capability for a transformer


is deterministic: what is the expected probability of
withstand?

20. Rated lightning withstand capability for a circuit


breaker is probabilistic: what is the expected
probability of failure?

21. More questions?

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Thanks for listening!

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