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Availability Workbench Functional Summary Page 1 of 6

Availability Workbench Functional Summary


Welcome to the Availability Workbench (AWB) simulation program for Microsoft Windows. Availability Workbench provides
a fully integrated environment for:

Developing and maintaining a Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) program


Performing full system availability predictions taking into account complex dependencies on spares and other
resources
Performing a Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Process Reliability Analysis

AWB interfaces seamlessly with external databases and applications through its sophisticated import/export facility and
dynamic link library. AWB integrates the functionality of Isographs RCMCost and AvSim products that have been serving
the Reliability and Maintenance Community since 1988.

AWB contains six fully integrated modules:

RCMCost Module (Reliability-Centered Maintenance)


AvSim Module (System Availability Simulation)
Life Cycle Cost Module (LCC Module)
Weibull Module
Process Reliability Module
SAP Portal Module

Each module may be licensed separately depending on the user's needs. For example, the RCMCost and Weibull
modules provide the data management, reporting and analytical facilities for developing and maintaining a RCM
programme. The Avsim module will enable you to analyze the availability and reliability of both complex and simple
systems and optimize spares holdings, design configurations, opportunistic maintenance policies and much more. The
LCC module will allow you to create a cost node structure and integrate predicted maintenance and operational costs with
other user-defined cost equations. The Weibull module analyzes incoming historical data to provide the prediction
distributions required by the RCMCost and AvSim modules.

Through its sophisticated simulation and modelling capabilities Availability Workbench can answer questions such as:

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Is planned maintenance cost effective, and if so, how often should it be performed?
What design improvements (adding redundancy or upgrading equipment) are cost and safety effective?
What is the likely spares usage profile?
What is the optimum level of spares to be held on site and at a depot?
How can labor and equipment usage be improved?
How can buffers best be employed to maintain capacity?
How can risk be reduced?
What are the likely life cycle costs?
What is the best frequency for performing major overhauls?
Is predictive maintenance worth doing?
Would combinations of predictive methods be effective?
Is inspection for hidden failures cost effective?
What is the effect on availability of rotating equipment?
How do ageing assets affect life cycle costs?
How do operational phases affect system availability?
Is opportunistic maintenance worthwhile?

Introduction to the RCMCost Module


What is Reliability-Centered Maintenance ?
Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a procedure for determining maintenance strategies based on reliability
techniques and encompasses well-known analysis methods such as Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis
(FMECA). RCM procedures take into account the prime objectives of a maintenance programme, which are to:

Minimize Costs
Meet Safety and Environmental Goals
Meet Operational Goals

The RCM process begins with a failure mode and effects analysis that identifies the critical plant failure modes in a
systematic and structured manner. The process then requires the examination of each critical failure mode or cause to
determine the optimum maintenance policy to reduce the severity of each failure. The chosen maintenance strategy must
take into account cost, safety, environmental and operational consequences. The effects of redundancy, spares costs,
maintenance labor costs, equipment ageing and repair times must also be taken into account along with many other
parameters.

Once optimal maintenance policies have been recorded the RCM process provides system performance predictions and
costs, expected spares requirements and labor manning levels. The RCM process may be used to develop a living
strategy with the plant model being updated when new data is available or design changes take place.

How does the RCMCost Module of Availability Workbench Help?


The RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the full framework for building the RCM model to
represent your system. It provides facilities for storing RCM data and analyzing maintenance alternatives. It provides
simulation algorithms to predict lifetime maintenance costs, spares costs and usage, maintenance labor manning
requirements, safety and environmental risks and operational performance. In addition the RCMCost Module identifies
critical failure modes (causes) and compares the cost, safety and operational benefits of different maintenance intervals.
AWB is designed to combine well-established reliability prediction techniques with engineering experience. The program
does not decide on which maintenance policy or combination of policies to adopt. Instead it advises the individual user or
workgroup based on the operational data provided. The program may be used to filter the most critical item (component)
failures before detailed maintenance decisions are made.

The RCMCost Module provides interactive graphical facilities for constructing a location hierarchy diagram representing
the logical connection between the sub-systems and equipments constituting the overall plant or system. This diagram
may be extended to represent critical functions, their functional failures and their causes (engineering failure modes).
System effects are identified which contribute to outage and operational costs as well as safety and environmental risks.
The relative severity of different effects is specified by the user. This structured method for identifying failure modes and
linking them with their effects on the system is known as Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and is a
powerful analysis process in its own right. RCMCost allows flexible user-defined reports to be produced highlighting the
most important contributors to operational costs and safety and environmental risks.

Failure data, maintenance parameters, spares information and maintenance labor details are all stored in an AWB project.
This data is used to provide advisory information based on simulation models incorporated in the program. For example,
different maintenance intervals may be compared for their effect on maintenance and operational costs. The user may
then record the decision on which maintenance policy (if any) to adopt. This decision may include combinations of:

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Scheduled Planned Maintenance Tasks


Condition Monitoring Alarms
On-Condition Inspections (predictive maintenance)
Inspections for Hidden Failures
Commissioning Periods
Re-Design

The RCMCost module will automatically advise the user on the overall cost, safety and environmental benefits of adopting
a particular maintenance policy based on the data provided by the user. The programs flexible report facility allows RCM
worksheets to be produced identifying the users decisions.

Once the maintenance policy has been decided for all the critical system components the RCMCost module will provide
predicted spares requirements, maintenance labor manning levels, system costs and operational performance data.

As new data is gathered during the plant lifetime, or system design changes are made, RCM related data may be easily
modified and maintenance procedures may be adjusted to reflect the living status of the plant.

Standards Support and Decision Diagrams


AWB supports RCM standards such as SAE JA1011, MSG-3 and MIL-STD-2173(AS) by providing a structured method for
entering FMECA data and simulating the effects of different maintenance strategies on cost, safety, the environment and
operational issues. The RCM decision making process is therefore substantially enhanced by the ability to quickly
simulate the effects of preventive tasks, inspection tasks and condition monitoring taking into account ageing, hidden
failures, maintenance labor costs, spares costs and availability. RCM decision diagrams are utilized in MSG-3 and MIL-
STD-2173(AS) to provide a logical process for workgroups to determine what type of maintenance strategy to adopt for a
given failure cause. The diagrams ask questions that often require analysis before a conclusion may be reached. In
addition these diagrams follow a sequential process that may not be appropriate in identifying the optimal task or
combinations of tasks for a given failure cause. However, AWB provides the full flexibility required to allow users to quickly
compare the effects of different practical maintenance strategies and condition monitoring using well-known scientific
methods.

AWB may be used to produce reports complying to the SAE JA1011, MSG-3 and MIL-STD-2173(AS) standards. Reports
may contain FMECA data, maintainability data and RCM decision data.

Introduction to the AvSim Module


The AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) enables users to simulate the performance of their systems as a
whole taking into account dependencies between the individual components. By simulating how a system will perform,
users can determine the effects of design and operational changes, and hence optimize system performance. Whereas
the RCMCost module may be used to optimize scheduled maintenance policy and intervals, the AvSim module may be
used to predict overall system performance, optimize spare holdings, investigate the effects of design changes and
operational configurations.

In order to simulate the availability performance of a system the program needs to know how individual equipment failures
combine with other failures to reduce throughput, create hazards and affect system operational capabilities. This is done
by constructing a RBD or fault tree diagram that represents how combinations of events (usually failures) interact to affect
the system. The AvSim module of AWB allows you to quickly construct these diagrams through any number of indenture
levels. These diagrams can represent standby and voting arrangements, phase-dependent configuration changes,
switching logic and buffer facilities.

Failure and maintenance models may then be defined and attached to historical data using Weibull sets. Also,
consequences may be defined indicating the financial, safety, environmental and operational effects of loss of availability
or throughput.

Once this has been done, AWB can produce a full system availability simulation building a picture of how the system will
perform though its lifetime. Special optimization facilities are provided for optimizing spare holdings and users can try out
different design and operational models to reduce life cycle costs.

Some of the capabilities of the AvSim module are summarized below:

Interactive construction of RBD or fault tree diagrams


Sub-system blocks, allowing automatic RBD pagination
Pagination facilities for large fault trees
Append projects created by different users using libraries
Hyperlinks to external application in RBD and fault tree diagrams
Data verification and model checks

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Simulation Watch facility for checking your system and spares echelon models
Multiple-system spares tracking for fleet modelling
Simulation of production capacity levels with target cost penalties
Standby sub-systems modelled
Modelling of spares dependencies and stock levels
Models recycling of spares via a repair shop
Spares optimization facilities provided
Batch ordering of spares with discounting
Modelling of maintenance queuing
Switching delays modelled
Buffers modelled with depletion rates dependent on capacity requirement
Opportunistic maintenance and 'hold for repair' modelling
Models ageing and effectiveness of planned maintenance
Extended outage penalty costs modelled
Models financial, safety, operational and environmental consequences
Models changing RBD and fault tree configurations during different phases
Allows the modelling of different phase groups
Phased time profiles
NOT logic capability
Importance rankings for spares
Spare volume and weight calculations
Statistical error indicators
Record simulation details to file for external data processing

Introduction to the Life Cycle Cost Module


The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) module of Availability Workbench allows users to build a hierarchical cost breakdown structure
(CBS) through an unlimited number of indenture levels. The CBS may be directly linked to cost predictions produced by
the RCMCost or AvSim modules. Other costs may be defined as time-dependent cost equations or simple numerical
values. Global variables may be defined and utilized in the cost equations.

High level costs are determined either by summating the cost values for child nodes in the CBS or by applying a user-
defined cost equation. The syntax of cost equations is easy to understand and the construction of cost equations is
assisted by an intelligent code-recognition utility that automatically reveals global variable lists as the user types in an
equation.

Phase-dependent cost equations may also be defined. Phases are shared between the LCC and AvSim modules.

In summary the LCC module allows users to define life cycle costs other than those predicted by the RCMCost and AvSim
modules. These costs may be integrated with predicted costs in the LCC cost breakdown structure to provide a time-
dependent analysis of a systems whole life cycle cost process.

Introduction to the Weibull Module


The Weibull module of Availability Workbench (AWB) analyzes historical failure data by assigning probability distributions
that represent the failure characteristics of a given failure mode. The failure distribution assigned to a given set of times to
failure (known as a Weibull set) may then be assigned to causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy diagram or failure
models in the AvSim module. Assigning failure distributions to historical data in this way enables the AWB simulation
engine to emulate the effects of failures on systems. Historical data is usually extracted from the Computerized
Maintenance Management System (CMMS) or Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) database using
the AWB import or Dynamic Link Library (DLL) facilities. The failure distribution assigned to a given set of times to failure
(known as a Weibull set) may be assigned to failure models that are attached to causes in a RCM location hierarchy,
blocks in a reliability block diagram or events in a fault tree diagram.

Weibull sets may also represent collections of actual historical repair times for a given task. The Weibull module can
assign distributions that represent possible fluctuations in repair times. Repair Weibull sets can be assigned to tasks
associated with causes in the RCMCost module or failure models in the AvSim module.

The historical times in a failure Weibull set will represent the age of an equipment at the point of its first failure. Times in a
repair Weibull set represent the time it takes to repair an equipment.

In summary, the Weibull module of AWB analyzes sets of historical data and assigns appropriate distributions for use in
simulations by the RCMCost and AvSim modules.

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The Weibull Analysis Module analyzes historical data using the following distributions:

Exponential Distribution
1-Parameter Weibull Distribution
2-Parameter Weibull Distribution
3-Parameter Weibull Distribution
Bi-Weibull
Tri-Weibull
Lognormal Distribution
Normal Distribution
Weibayes
Phased Bi-Weibull
Phased Tri-Weibull

AWB automatically fits the selected distribution to the data provided and displays the results graphically in the form of
cumulative probability plots, failure rate plots and probability density function plots.

Data may be entered manually by the user or imported from other packages or transferred via the Windows clipboard.

New data can be analyzed and assigned in 3 simple steps:

Enter or import the data


Select a distribution type
Assign the Weibull Set to the appropriate causes in the RCMCost module or the failure models in the AvSim
module

Introduction to the Process Reliability Module


The Process Reliability module allows users to analyze daily production data using Weibull analysis plots. These plots
identify systematic and reliability losses by recognizing trends in the production data. Nameplate production ratings may
be specified (similar to concepts originating from six-sigma methodology) and compared with demonstrated production
data. Losses can therefore be identified for corrective action.

The Process Reliability module allows production data to be compared from different plants or different time periods.
Production data may also be transferred from simulated production profiles created from within the AvSim module. This
allows production data from potential plant improvements to be compared with existing production data.

Introduction to the SAP Portal Module


The SAP Portal allows users to connect directly to their SAP system from within Availability Workbench (AWB). Historical
maintenance data may be downloaded from SAP into AWB, analyzed, and then uploaded back into SAP in the form of
maintenance plans. If SAP has not yet been configured for plant maintenance, the portal may also be used to upload a
functional location hierarchy with installed equipments, criticality rankings, effects and catalog profiles from the RCMCost
module of AWB. Alternatively, an existing SAP functional location and equipment hierarchy may be downloaded to
populate a new AWB project together with criticality rankings, labor resources, BOMs, effects and maintenance plans.

The Sap Portal functions may be summarized as:

Downloading master data from SAP


Downloading existing maintenance plans and task lists from SAP
Analyzing maintenance data downloaded from SAP
Building RCM data in the RCMCost module
Building new maintenance plans from the optimized RCM model
Uploading new maintenance plans to SAP

The Availability Workbench Simulation Engine


The Availability Workbench (AWB) simulation engine employs Monte Carlo simulation methods to estimate system and
sub-system parameters such as unavailability, number of expected failures, production capacity and costs. The process
involves synthesizing system performance over a given number of simulation runs. Each simulation run in effect emulates
how the system might perform in real life, based on the input data provided by the user. The input data can be divided
into two categories - a failure logic diagram and quantitative failure and maintenance parameters. The logic diagram
(either a fault tree or a reliability block diagram in the case of the AvSim module or a location hierarchy in the case of the
RCMCost module) informs the computer program how component failures interact to cause system failures. The failure
and maintenance parameters inform the program how often components are likely to fail and how quickly they will be

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restored to service. By performing many simulation runs, the computer program can build up a statistical picture of the
system performance by recording the results of each run.

Monte Carlo Simulation must emulate the chance variations that will affect system performance in real life. To do this, the
computer program must generate random numbers, which form a uniform distribution. AWB uses the Microsoft run-time
library to generate pseudo random numbers.

As an example of how simulation works, consider the following example. Suppose we wish to determine the unreliability
of a complex system over a period of 1 year. A simulation model of the system could be developed which emulates the
random failures and repair times of the components in the system. The model might be run over the system lifetime of 1
year 1000 times and each time a component fails the model determines whether the system has failed. If the system
does not survive on 65 of the lifetime simulations then the system unreliability, F(1) , could be estimated as

Simulation methods are generally employed in reliability studies when deterministic methods are not capable of modelling
strong dependencies between failures. In addition, simulation can readily handle the reliability behavior of repairable
components with non-constant failure or repair rates.

For example, the simple expression

may be used to determine the unavailability, Q, of a single component at time t where

l = constant failure rate


m = constant repair rate

This expression assumes that the failure and repair of the component is independent of the state of any other component
in the system. This may not be the case if the component is in standby to another component (where the standby failure
rate is less than the operating failure rate). In addition, the component may be influenced by other external factors such
as the availability of spares and labor to perform scheduled and corrective maintenance. The components reliability
behavior may also change during different operational phases. In addition, if it is a mechanical component, its failure rate
may increase with time (ageing) and therefore the simple expression above inaccurately represents the behavior of the
component.

By using simulation methods, AWB is not restricted to handling only independent component failures and repairs and can
easily model dependencies on spares, labor and operational phases. In addition, the Weibull failure distribution may be
used to handle ageing components.

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New Features for Version 3.0 Overview


New 64-bit version available.
Users may now install a 64-bit version of Reliability Workbench. 64-bit applications are not restricted to accessing only
2GB memory of RAM.

SAP Portal
The SAP Portal is now fully integrated into AWB as a module. This allows greater flexibility in analyzing SAP data using
the project tree control, grid control, plots and reports. SAP data is now stored as part of a project. The standard library
facility allows maintenance data from an existing SAP system to be compared with proposed optimizations before upload
to SAP.

The SAP Portal facility now contains many additional tables originating from SAP such as technical object types, classes,
units etc.

Spares Optimization
RCMCost spares optimization calculations have been improved to include predictive maintenance modelling. RCMCost
spares optimizations may now be performed for multiple identical sites.

Export to Excel
Users may now export to Excel (no match mode) in xlsx format. Excel Export now formats newly created number cells so
that they contain a number style

Import from Excel


Import from Excel has been speeded up significantly

Comparison Plots
RCMCost and AvSim Project Comparison Cost plots may now be used to show cumulative cost profiles

Plugins
Plugins may now use indices for foreign keys when writing data to a dataset

Exception Messages
Exception dialog messages now include a stack trace

AvSim Multiple Phase Groups


AvSim phase rotation rules now operate for multiple phase groups

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Overview of Licensing
If you have purchased a copy of Availability Workbench (or are evaluating Availability Workbench) you will receive an
Entitlement Certificate by email containing your Activation ID. Depending on the license type you have requested, this
Activation ID will either activate a standalone Availability Workbench license or activate a 'floating' license on a license
server. The 'floating' license option allows one or more users (depending on how many copies you have purchased) on
one or more client machines to obtain an Availability Workbench license from the license server.

The Activation ID is entered in either the Availability Workbench program itself (for a standalone license) or in the
License Server Activation program (for a license server license). The license is activated by connecting via the Internet
to the Isograph License Activation Service. If an Internet connection is not available the license is activated by sending
a request file to Isograph by email and then processing a response file received by a return email.

Note that activation over the Internet requires port 80 to be open in your firewall.

The license information is held on the local file system of the standalone or license server machine. The location where
this is held is called Trusted Storage. This term is not normally of interest to the user, but you may see it displayed in
status information.

Availability Workbench may also be licensed using a hardware key. Hardware keys can only license the program in
standalone mode. If you have purchased a hardware key then you simply need to plug the key into a USB port on your
computer and set the license type to Hardware key in the License Configuration dialog within the Availability
Workbench program.

Demonstration Mode
Availability Workbench will run in demonstration mode unless you are licensed to run an unrestricted version of the
software.

When running in demonstration mode the user is strictly limited in the number of objects that may be analyzed in a project
(limits are displayed in the About Availability Workbench dialog). Each session is limited to 4 hours and users are
prevented from saving or exporting data.

However, if you have purchased an Availability Workbench license you should proceed to the License Configuration
dialog by selecting the Tools, License Configuration pull-down menu option. If the Demonstration dialog is currently
displayed you may proceed directly to this dialog by selecting the License button. Once you are licensed for a particular
module, the restrictions for that module will be removed.

If the demonstration mode is too restrictive for you to evaluate the software sufficiently, you may apply for a time-limited
evaluation license by contacting Isograph at license@isograph.com (USA) or licence@isograph.com (Rest of the world).

License Configuration
You may set your license configuration using the License Configuration dialog. This dialog is accessed by selecting the
Tools, License Configuration pull-down menu option or by selecting the License button in the Demonstration dialog.

License Type
There are three license types available. These types are:

Standalone
Server
Hardware key
Server (No trusted storage service)

The Standalone and Server license types use software protection methods to restrict the number of users of any
Availability Workbench (AWB) module according to the license you have purchased. The Hardware key type uses a USB
hardware device (commonly known as a dongle) to provide protection. Select the license type you have purchased. Then
follow the instructions below according to your license type.

Select the Server (No trusted storage service) option if you have installed the Availability Workbench client using the no
trusted storage service installation. This installation does not install the service that supports standalone licenses stored
in local trusted storage. Selecting this mode prevents the checks for Availability Workbench standalone licenses from
running. Note also that when operating in this mode the borrowing functionality is disabled.

Activating a Standalone License


Before activating a standalone license you will need your Activation ID. This identifier is sent to you (normally by email)
after you have purchased a license. You can then activate the standalone license from within the AWB program by
selecting the Standalone license type and then selecting the Activate button in the License Configuration dialog. The
Application License Activation dialog will then appear.

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Activating using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can simply copy your Activation ID to the appropriate field and select the
Activate button. AWB will then automatically update your license. You can then exit the license dialogs. You will need to
exit and re-start AWB for the existing restrictions to be removed.

Note that activation over the Internet requires port 80 to be open in your firewall.

Activating using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can obtain the license using files. To do this select the File sub-tab
underneath the Activate License tab of the Application License Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph
a request file. To do this use the Browse button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name
for the file to be created. Then select the Generate button. AWB will then create the file in the location you specified. Send
this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a response file. Copy this file to your computer
and then use the Browse button opposite the Response file field to specify the file's name and location. Then select the
Process button. AWB will then update your license. You can then exit the license dialogs. You will need to exit and re-
start AWB for the existing restrictions to be removed.

Activating using Short Codes


If your computer is not connected to the Web and you are not allowed to remove files from your system then you can
obtain the license using the short code method. To do this select the Short Code sub-tab underneath the Activate
License tab of the Application License Activation dialog. If you have requested activation by short code from Isograph
you will have received an ASR file in addition to your Activation ID. First copy this file to your system and then select the
ASR file Browse button to select this file. Next select the Generate button to generate the Short Code. Send this Short
Code by e-mail to Isograph. You will receive a Response Code by return e-mail. Copy this code to the Response code
text box. Select the Process button to activate the license. The status of the activation process will be displayed in the
lower status area. You can then exit the license dialogs. You will need to exit and re-start AWB for the existing restrictions
to be removed.

Connecting to an Existing License Server


If you already have a license server installed on the network then you can connect to the server by providing the host
name or IP address of the server.

To connect to a license server first select the Server license type. Then type in the host name or IP address of the server
into the appropriate field in the License Configuration dialog. If the default port is not being used for the connection un-
check the Use default port check box and specify the port number in the appropriate field.

Then select OK to exit the license dialog. You will need to exit and re-start AWB for the existing restrictions to be
removed.

Returning a Standalone License


You may return a standalone license and reactivate the license (using the same Activation ID) on a different machine so
long as your license agreement permits you to do this.

Note: Your license agreement restricts the number of times you can return a license in a year.

Returning a Standalone License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can return a license by selecting the Return button in the License
Configuration dialog. The Application License Activation dialog will then appear. Simply select the license to be
returned and then select the Return button. Availability Workbench will automatically shut-down 30 minutes after returning
a license so you should first save your project data.

Returning a Standalone License using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can return a license using files. To do this select the File sub-tab
underneath the Return License tab of the Application License Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a
request file. To do this use the Browse button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name
for the file to be created. Then select the Generate button. AWB will then create the file in the location you specified. Send
this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a response file. Copy this file to your computer
and then use the Browse button opposite the Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the
Process button. AWB will then return your license. Availability Workbench will automatically shut-down 30 minutes after
returning a license so you should save your project data before returning a license.

Returning a Standalone License using Short Codes


If you have activated a license using the short code method then it must be returned using the short code return method.
To do this select the Short Code sub-tab underneath the Return License tab of the Application License Activation
dialog. Select a single license to return from the list view. Next select the Browse button select the ASR file received

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when you activated the license. Select the Generate button to generate the Short Code in the Short code text box. Send
this Short Code by e-mail to license@isograph.com. You will receive a Response Code by return e-mail. Copy this code to
the Response code text box. Select the Process button to de-activate the license. The status of the de-activation
process will be displayed in the lower status area.

Repairing a Standalone License


It is unlikely that you should ever need to repair a license. However, in rare circumstances this may be necessary.

Repairing a Standalone License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can repair a license by selecting the Repair button in the License
Configuration dialog. The Application License Activation dialog will then appear. Simply select the license to be
repaired and then select the Repair button.

Repairing a Standalone License using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can repair a license using files. To do this select the File sub-tab
underneath the Repair License tab of the Application License Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a
request file. To do this use the Browse button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name
for the file to be created. Then select the Generate button. AWB will then create the file in the location you specified. Send
this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a response file. Copy this file to your computer
and then use the Browse button opposite the Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the
Process button. AWB will then repair your license.

Repairing a Standalone License using Short Codes


If you have activated a license using the short code method then it must be repaired using the short code repair method.
To do this select the Short Code sub-tab underneath the Repair License tab of the Application License Activation
dialog. Select the license to repair from the list view. Next select the Browse button select the ASR file received when you
activated the license. Select the Generate button to generate the Short Code in the Short code text box. Send this Short
Code by e-mail to license@isograph.com. You will receive a Response Code by return e-mail. Copy this code to the
Response code text box. Select the Process button to repair the license. The status of the repair process will be displayed
in the lower status area.

Borrowing a Server License


Note: Your license agreement may restrict your borrowing capabilities.

You may borrow licenses if you have a server license and your license agreement permits borrowing. A borrowed license
acts like a standalone license and allows users to run Availability Workbench whilst disconnected from the network.
Licenses are borrowed for a period of time. Once the borrowing period expires the borrowed license will be automatically
returned to the license server. Borrowed licenses may be returned to the license server before the automatic expiration
date if required.

To borrow a license you must first ensure that you are connected to an existing license server. Instructions on how to do
this are given above. Then select the Borrow button in the License Configuration dialog. The License Borrowing
dialog will then appear. To borrow a license enter your server license Activation ID in the appropriate field, specify the
borrowing expiration date and then select the Borrow button. If you wish to return a borrowed license before the
expiration date select the Return button in the Server license location area of the License Configuration dialog. Then
select the license you wish to return from the list followed by selection of the Return button.

After borrowing a license you will need to exit and restart the program for the license to become effective.

When using borrowed licenses you should not change the license type or the license server settings. Availability
Workbench will automatically recognize the borrowed license even if your computer is not connected to the license server.

Using the Application Configuration File to Specify the License Configuration


The LicenseDisableUserSettings value must be set to True in the Availability Workbench configuration file
AvailabilityWorkbench.exe.config as an application setting if you wish to prevent a user from specifying the license type
and connection strings from within the License Configuration Dialog:

<applicationSettings>
<AvailabilityWorkbench.Properties.Settings>
<setting name="LicenseDisableUserSettings" serializeAs="String">
<value>True</value>
</setting>
<setting name="LicenseServerHostNameOrIPAddress" serializeAs="String">
<value />
</setting>
<setting name="LicenseServerPortNumber" serializeAs="String">
<value />
</setting>

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<setting name="LicenseUseDefaultPortNumber" serializeAs="String">


<value>True</value>
</setting>
<setting name="LicenseType" serializeAs="String">
<value>Server</value>
</setting>
</AvailabilityWorkbench.Properties.Settings>
</applicationSettings>

Checking Out Server Licenses


If your license configuration indicates a Server license type then Availability Workbench (AWB) will display the License
Check-Out dialog on program start-up. This dialog displays the licenses available for your use during a program session.

Licenses
You can check-out the licenses you wish to use by selecting the appropriate licenses in the Licenses list. Once you have
checked-out a license it will not be available for use by another user. Licenses will be automatically returned to the license
server on program termination.

Licenses may be selected on a module basis. For example, let us suppose you have purchased 5 RCMCost module
licenses, 3 AvSim module licenses and 3 Life Cycle Cost module licenses. If you check-out 1 RCMCost license and 1
AvSim license then 4 RCMCost, 2 AvSim and 3 Life Cycle Cost licenses will remain available to other users.

Users
Selection of the Users button in the License Check-Out dialog will reveal the User Information dialog. This dialog
displays information on which users have checked-out licenses from the license server.

License Information
Selection of the License Info button in the License Check-Out dialog will reveal the License Information dialog. This
dialog displays information about the available licenses on the license server.

License Server Activation


You may activate and return server licenses by selecting Availability Workbench, License Server Activation from the
Windows Start menu. The License Server Activation dialog will then appear.

Activating a Server License


Before activating a server license you will need your Activation ID. This identifier is sent to you (normally by email) after
you have purchased a license. You can then activate the server license by selecting the Activate License tab in the
License Server Activation dialog.

Activating using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can simply copy your Activation ID to the appropriate field and select the
Activate button. Your license will then be automatically updated. You can then exit the License Server Activation dialog.

Note that activation over the Internet requires port 80 to be open in your firewall.

Activating using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can obtain the license using files. To do this select the File sub-tab
underneath the Activate License tab of the License Server Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a
request file. To do this use the Browse button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name
for the file to be created. Then select the Generate button. The file will then be created in the location you specified. Send
this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a response file. Copy this file to your computer
and then use the Browse button opposite the Response file field to specify the file's name and location. Then select the
Process button. The server license will then be updated. You can then exit the License Server Activation dialog.

Starting the License Server


After activating your server license you must start up the Availability Workbench license server. Availability Workbench
users will not be able to access activated server licenses until the license server has been started. To start-up the license
server select Availability Workbench, License Manager from the Windows Start menu. The LMTOOLS dialog will
appear. Navigate to the Start/Stop/Reread tab and select the Start Server button.

Returning a Server License

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You may return a server license and reactivate the license (using the same Activation ID) on a different machine so long
as your license agreement permits you to do this.

Note: Your license agreement restricts the number of times you can return a license in a year.

Before returning a license you must first stop the license server if it is running. To stop the license server select
Availability Workbench, License Manager from the Windows Start menu. The LMTOOLS dialog will appear. Navigate
to the Start/Stop/Reread tab and select the Stop Server button. You will then need to access the License Server
Activation dialog by selecting Availability Workbench, License Server Activation from the Windows Start menu.

Returning a Server License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can return a license by navigating to the Return License tab in the License
Server Activation dialog. Then select the license to be returned in the list before selecting the Return button.

Returning a Server License using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can return a license using files. To do this select the File sub-tab
underneath the Return License tab of the License Server Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a
request file. To do this use the Browse button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name
for the file to be created. Then select the Generate button. The file will then be created in the location you specified. Send
this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a response file. Copy this file to your computer
and then use the Browse button opposite the Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the
Process button. The license will then be returned.

Repairing a Server License


It is unlikely that you should ever need to repair a license. However, in rare circumstances this may be necessary.

Repairing a Server License using the Web (Recommended)


If your computer is connected to the Web you can return a license by navigating to the Repair License tab in the License
Server Activation dialog. Then select the license to be repaired in the list before selecting the Repair button.

Repairing a Server License using Files


If your computer is not connected to the Web you can repair a license using files. To do this select the File sub-tab
underneath the Repair License tab of the License Server Activation dialog. First you will need to send Isograph a
request file. To do this use the Browse button opposite the Request file field to specify a suitable file location and name
for the file to be created. Then select the Generate button. The file will then be created in the location you specified. Send
this file to Isograph. Once this file is received by Isograph we will return a response file. Copy this file to your computer
and then use the Browse button opposite the Response file field to specify the file name and location. Then select the
Process button. The license will then be repaired.

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Getting Started - The User Interface


The interface to Availability Workbench (AWB) has been designed to provide a wide range of features and options in a form that is easy to understand and that will be familiar to users of
Microsoft Windows products. This ensures that new AWB users may rapidly familiarize themselves with program operation with minimal reference to the user manual. A context sensitive on-
line help facility is also provided. This topic is intended to introduce the user to the basic features in the AWB user interface.

Availability Workbench Main Window


The AWB main window is displayed after program start-up. This window may be resized or iconified at any time by selecting window reconfiguration options from the top right corner of the
window border.

The principal pull-down menu options are positioned along the top of the main window in the menu bar strip. Pull-down menus and their options may be selected using the left mouse button.
Alternatively, menu options may be selected using the keyboard. This is achieved by pressing the Alt key and then pressing the underlined character in the required visible menu option.
Accelerator keys are also provided for selected menu options. For example, tapping the Delete key will delete selected objects in the tree control or a diagram.

Immediately below these menu options, reside a group of controls that form a toolbar allowing the user to access directly some of the more frequently used menu options.

A pull-down menu directly above the project tree allows the user to switch between modules. Another pull-down menu directly above the window to the right of the tree control allows the user
to switch between the different display modes.

The contents of the menus on the menu bar, the toolbar and the right window toolbar change according to the current module (AvSim, RCMCost, Life Cycle Cost or Weibull). The purpose of
each button in the toolbar can be displayed in the form of a tool tip that appears when the cursor is placed over the button.

To the right of the toolbar in the AvSim module is a combo-box that allows the user to select the diagram page to be displayed from the current project when in the RBD or Fault Tree display
modes.

Below the toolbar is a split screen arrangement. The division between the left and right windows can be moved by placing the cursor over the divider, at which point the cursor will change
form, and holding the left button down whilst dragging the cursor to the desired position.

The left window contains the project tree control. The tree concept will be familiar to users of Microsoft Windows Explorer. The contents of the project tree change according to the current
module. The right window contains the current page of the RBD or fault tree diagram when using the AvSim module with the diagram display mode selected. Grid, library, plot and report
display modes are available for each of the AWB modules.

A message strip at the bottom of the AWB window displays the status of the program. During a simulation the message strip displays the progress in terms of the number of simulations
performed.

The current project file name is displayed at the top of the AWB window.

Selection of many of the menu options will result in standard Windows dialog boxes being displayed (such as those for file or font selection). These dialog boxes contain Windows controls.
Controls include buttons, combo-boxes (allowing the user to choose one option from a selection in a pull-down list), check-boxes (allowing the user to set a facility on or off) and edit controls
(allowing the user to enter text). The AWB controls behave in a similar manner to controls in other Windows applications.
Getting Started - Building a Project
An Availability Workbench (AWB) project contains the data necessary to simulate the real-life performance characteristics of your system. Whether you intend to perform a Reliability-
Centered Maintenance study using the RCMCost module, a full system availability simulation using the AvSim module, an extended life cycle cost analysis using the LCC module or a
combination of all of these methods, you will need to define or import the appropriate data into an AWB project.

The following topics provide an overview of how to build the various elements of an AWB project. Some data elements apply to a single module (for example consequences apply to the AvSim
module only) whereas other data elements are shared between modules (for example labor resources are shared between the RCMCost and AvSim modules).

To start a new project simply select the File, New Project pull-down menu option.

Getting Started - Defining Resources


The Add Resource pull-down menu
Resources, such as equipment and labor may be added to a project by clicking on the Add pull-down menu in the menu bar and selecting the Resource sub-menu. Now the user may select
the type of resource to add. The resources available differ between Availability Workbench modules, and in the case of the RCMCost module will vary depending on the part of the project tree
that is currently selected.

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Alternatively, right click on the required resource in the project tree and select Add Resource from the pop-up menu.

The Resource Properties window


The resource properties window contains standard Windows controls such as text fields, drop-down menus and check boxes. The user may enter the appropriate data for the resource being
added and click OK to confirm. The new resource will be listed beneath the appropriate resource heading in the project tree.

The Add Resource Type pull-down menu


Resource Types are added by clicking on the Add pull-down menu in the menu bar and selecting the Resource Type sub-menu. Now the user may select the variety of resource type to add.
The resource types available differ between Availability Workbench modules.

Alternatively, right click on the required resource type in the project tree and select Add Resource Type from the pop-up menu.

Resources may be added beneath a resource type in the project tree by highlighting the resource type in the tree and using the methods of adding resources described above.

The Resource Type Properties window


The resource type properties dialogs contain standard Windows controls such as text fields, drop-down menus and check boxes. The user may enter the appropriate data for the resource type
being added and click OK to confirm. The new resource type will be listed beneath the appropriate resource heading in the project tree.

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Getting Started - Importing Historical Data


Historical failure data may be imported to Availability Workbench (AWB) in the form of times to failure. This data is plotted in the Weibull module of AWB and may be fitted to one of a number
of distributions. The resulting distributions and their associated parameters may be used as failure model data in the RCMCost and AvSim modules.

The Import Feature


Data imported to the Weibull module of AWB is displayed in the grid beneath the plot area when the Plot & Grid display mode is selected for the right-hand window. In order to import
historical failure data the user must first add a Weibull set as described in Defining Resources. Once a data set is defined, select the File, Import pull-down menu option.

The Import Dialog


The import dialog will appear. In the Database tab select the type of database or file that contains the historical data. Then change the other settings in the Database tab according to the
Type selected. In the Table Matches tab match the table containing the historical failure data from the External Table list with the table WeibullSetItems from the Application Table list by
left clicking on one and then the other. In the Column Matches tab match the column containing the historical failure data from the External Column list with the column TimeValue from the
Application Column list in the same way. Select Import to copy the data to the Weibull set and Quit to exit the Import dialog. For more detailed information on importing data refer to the
section on Importing and Exporting Data.

The Weibull Module display

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The data will now be displayed in the grid pane and the corresponding data points in the plot above. To fit the distribution parameters click on the red eta symbol in the toolbar. To set the
parameters manually click on the green eta symbol. The type distribution used may be selected from the drop down menu labeled f().

Getting Started - Building The Location Hierarchy


The location hierarchy represents the logical hierarchy of sub-systems and equipments within a system. The location hierarchy is displayed in the RCMCost module project tree in the left-hand
window. The location hierarchy is also used to identify equipment functions, functional failure modes and causes. Causes are alternatively referred to as failure modes.

In the context of the RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) the term location is used to represent both the location of sub-systems and equipments. Intermediate locations in the
location hierarchy (those which have other locations underneath them) represent sub-systems, whereas locations that form the roots of the hierarchy diagram represent a distinct item of
equipment such as a pump or a valve, which are the smallest items of equipment considered from an operational point of view. These equipment locations will have one or more functions,
functional failures and causes. Each cause will be associated with a maintenance policy.

Each distinct equipment location will have one or more functions. Usually an equipment will have a primary function (such as stopping flow in the case of a valve) and one or more secondary
functions (such as containment) that may be safety related.

Each equipment function will have one or more functional failure. A functional failure may be defined as the inability of the equipment to perform a function to the required standard. More than
one functional failure mode may be associated with the same function. For example total loss of function and partial loss of function may be considered as 2 distinct functional failures.

Each functional failure may have one or more root cause. These causes are referred to as engineering failure modes in some standards and constitute the actual physical causes of failure.
Some examples of causes (engineering failure modes) are:

seal leakage
piping cracked
motor burnt out
insulation breakdown
corrosion

The system locations, equipment locations, functions, functional failures and causes are all defined and connected in the location hierarchy which is displayed in the project tree when the
RCMCost module is selected. We will now examine a location hierarchy that has been constructed as part of the Example1 project that is provided with the installation.

Start up AWB by selecting Availability Workbench from the Windows Start menu. The AWB Main Window should now appear occupying the whole screen.

A drop down menu is located directly above the project tree in the left-hand window. Click on it and select RCMCost.

Select the File, Open Project pull-down menu option. A standard Open File dialog will appear allowing you to select AWB project files. Select the Example1 project from the default project
directory. On selecting this file the project tree will display the location hierarchy corresponding to the selected project.

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The Location Hierarchy

The right-hand window may be used to display data in a grid control. Select the Grid option in the Right Window Mode menu just above the right window if the grid is not already displayed.
Then select the Causes option in the Current Grid Table menu. The grid control should contain causes associated with the current selection in the project tree control (some default grid
layouts show data in the grid control relating to the current tree control selection). The location hierarchy consists of locations, functions, functional failures and causes connected in a
hierarchical manner. Locations are displayed by default in blue, functions in turquoise, functional failures in brown and causes in red. You will see that some locations represent sub-systems
(the ones with other locations underneath them) whereas others represent distinct equipments (the ones with functions defined beneath them). Remember the root locations are associated
with causes for which distinct maintenance actions may be defined.

Now try clicking the left mouse button with the cursor positioned over the '+' or '-' boxes appearing alongside the diagram symbols. This action has the effect of opening and closing diagram
symbols. This effectively displays or hides symbols connected below the selected symbol.

Now try a single left button click over any of the symbols. You will see that the selected block or component becomes highlighted. In certain cases the associated data will be displayed in the
grid control. Many menu options are performed on selected symbols.

New objects may be defined in the hierarchy diagram by selecting the parent object and then selecting the appropriate option from the Add pull-down menu or equivalent toolbar button. Note
that locations may only be created below the project symbol or other locations. Functions may only be created below locations. Functional failures may only be created underneath functions
and causes may only be created below functional failures. You may not mix functions and locations underneath the same parent location. For the moment we will not create any new data.

The Location Properties dialog


You may view the data associated with any of the objects in the location hierarchy by double-clicking the mouse with the cursor over the appropriate symbol in the project tree. Alternatively
you may right-click with the cursor over the appropriate symbol and select Edit Properties from the pop-up menu. Try right-clicking the mouse over a location symbol and selecting Edit
Properties. A dialog will be revealed showing the current data associated with the location.

The Cause Properties dialog


Select the Cancel button to remove the dialog and then view the data associated with a function and a functional failure mode. Now view the data associated with a cause by double-clicking
the mouse over one of the red cause symbols. A dialog will be revealed showing various descriptive data fields and other parameters associated with the cause. Selection of the Strategy tab
at the top of the dialog will reveal the maintenance strategy and design decisions based on analysis of the appropriate data. The assigning of effects and maintenance strategies will be
discussed later.

Remove the cause dialog by selecting the Cancel button.

Getting Started - Assigning Effects To Causes


The next step of the RCM process is to specify what happens when a failure occurs (failure effect). Effects may be associated with lost production costs, operational, safety and environmental
consequences. Different failure modes may have the same effect on a system. Using the RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) the possible effects of failure are defined in the
effects table and then associated with the individual causes.

The Effects Properties Dialog


Select the Add, Resource, Effect pull-down menu option. A dialog will appear showing the attributes that may be associated with an effect. Each effect may have the following numerical data
associated with it:

Cost per occurrence


Cost rate
Safety severity per occurrence
Safety severity rate
Operational severity per occurrence

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Operational severity rate


Environmental severity per occurrence
Environmental severity rate

These quantities indicate how important the effect is in terms of cost, safety, operational and environmental considerations. The severity values are arbitrary positive numbers that indicate the
relative severity of different effects. Now remove the dialog by pressing the Cancel button.

The Effects tab of the Cause Properties dialog


Now double-click the left mouse button with the cursor positioned over one of the red cause symbols in the project tree. A dialog will appear containing the data associated with the selected
cause. Now select the Effects tab. This tab contains a list of effects that have been assigned to the cause. Effects are assigned to the cause by selecting the Add button followed by selection
of the appropriate effect from the dialog that will appear.

One of the restrictions of using standard FMECA techniques to predict the frequency and duration of system effects is the difficulty in modelling the effects of redundancy. Other techniques,
such as RBD and fault tree analysis, are more adapted to analyzing redundancy and the associated complications such as common cause failures. However, the RCMCost module has a
powerful feature that allows the effects of redundancy to be modelled via the use of redundancy factors. The ability of a RCM program to model redundancy satisfactorily is essential as
maintenance and monitoring decisions may be strongly influenced by the level of standby equipment and parallel systems.

When assigning effects to a cause AWB allows the user to specify a redundancy factor for each effect. The redundancy factor indicates whether a cause will produce the assigned effect on its
own or whether other concurrent failures will need to occur for the effect to take place. A redundancy factor often needs to be determined if the effect is a hazardous effect as there will almost
certainly be protective systems in place to mitigate against failures that would lead to a hazard.

The Assigned Effect Properties dialog


Select one of the assigned effects from the list in the Effects tab of the Cause Properties dialog and click the Edit button. The Assigned Effect Properties dialog will appear. The Effect
drop-down menu shows the ID of the selected effect. Selecting a new effect from the menu and clicking OK will result in the new effect being added to the list of assigned effects. The user
may specify whether the effect applies to failures, planned maintenance and/or inspections and manually set a redundancy factor. Alternatively, the program can calculate a redundancy factor
from the number of equipments operating in parallel, the number required to be operating and the fractional downtime of each equipment as entered by the user.

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If the cause will produce the assigned effect without other concurrent failures taking place then the default value of 1 should be assigned to the redundancy factor. If the cause will only
produce the assigned effect when other concurrent failures occur (e.g. protective equipment is unavailable) then a factor of between 0 and 1 should be applied.

A redundancy factor represents the probability that the failure cause will produce the assigned effect. For example, suppose we were analyzing the failure cause valve stuck closed in a
chemical production system. This failure might lead to a hazardous event unless the system was shut down until the repair could be effected. The protection system provided to protect against
the hazardous event might consist of sensors and alarms and require the intervention of automatic shutdown systems and operator actions. If the protection system were to fail then the
hazardous effect would occur. In such a case the unavailability redundancy factor should be set to the estimated probability that the protection system would not work on demand.

So, if the probability of failure of the protection system was estimated at 0.0001, the redundancy factor should be set to 0.0001.

Getting Started - Recording Decisions And Obtaining Advice


One of the powerful features of the RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) is its ability to provide advisory information based on the simulation of the effects of different
maintenance and design strategies. The RCMCost simulator can consider combinations of different maintenance tasks and can take into account the effects of logistic delays associated with
labor, equipment or spare parts.

The Cause Properties Strategy tab


Display the DIE Annulus Blockage cause dialog in the Example1 project by double-clicking the left mouse button over the appropriate symbol in the block diagram. Select the Strategy tab
when the dialog appears.

This dialog is used to record maintenance strategies and design decisions. Before these decisions are made you may obtain advisory information by selecting the Evaluate button.

The evaluate button:

On selecting this button AWB will perform a lifetime simulation to determine the cost, safety, operational and environmental consequences directly associated with the cause. These costs and
consequences take into account the current strategy specified by the enabled check boxes and failure and maintenance parameters associated with the cause. You may therefore experiment
with various options to determine the associated costs and consequences.

The results of a simulation are displayed as

Cost
Cost Benefit Ratio (CBR)
Safety Criticality
Safety Benefit Ratio (SBR)
Operational Criticality
Operational Benefit Ratio (OBR)

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Environmental Criticality
Environmental Benefit Ratio (EBR)
Corrective hours
No. Lifetime Failures
Planned hours
No. Lifetime PMs
Inspection hours
No. Lifetime Inspections
Statistical Error in TDT
Statistical Error in Cost
Unavailability
Failure Frequency

Criticality values represent the severity of the effects associated with the cause combined with its frequency of occurrence. The cost, safety, environmental and operational benefit ratios are
defined as follows:

A cost benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a cost point of view.

A safety benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a safety point of view.

An operational benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an operational point of view.

An environmental benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an environmental point of view.

See Also
Optimizing Maintenance Intervals

Getting Started - Optimizing Maintenance Intervals


The RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) can also help in determining the optimum planned maintenance or inspection interval to choose. Select the planned maintenance task
in the Cause Properties dialog (under the Strategy tab) for 'Electrical heater controller failure' and then select the Interval Optimization button. On selection of this button AWB will display
the PM Optimization dialog. Select the Start Optimization Simulation button in the toolbar above the plot area. AWB will perform a number of lifetime simulations for a range of planned
maintenance interval values. The program will then display the results in the plot showing the variation of cost or unavailability and criticality values against interval length.

Safety, environmental and operational criticality targets will also be displayed on the plot. By examining the plot it may be determined whether planned maintenance is worthwhile at all, and if
so, the optimum interval to adopt to minimize cost and meet safety, environmental and operational targets. The accuracy of the simulation results may be increased by increasing the number
of simulations performed. This may be done via the Simulation tab which is accessed via the Tools, Options, Project pull-down menu option. The user may modify the trial intervals used
during the optimization process by selecting the Interval Range toolbar button.

A similar review procedure is available for inspection tasks. Now quit the Cause Properties dialog.

Getting Started - Performing a System Simulation


Once the maintenance strategy has been decided for each cause the RCMCost module may be used to automatically generate some useful parameters for effects, labor, equipment and
spares.

Select the Simulation, Start pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option. AWB will now calculate system-related profiles that may be displayed in plots and reports in the right-hand
window.

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Getting Started - Building a Reliability Block Diagram


The Availability Workbench (AWB) AvSim module recognizes the system failure logic from the Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) entered by the user. The diagram represents how different
components within the system interact to produce system failures.

RBDs consist of blocks and nodes connected together in parallel and series arrangements. The blocks in a RBD usually represent component or sub-system failures, although they may also
be used to represent other events, such as operator actions, which may affect the reliability of the system under study. The nodes in a RBD are used to position connecting lines (either
horizontal/vertical or diagonal), indicate voting arrangements, set operational capacity targets and apply NOT logic where appropriate. A complete system RBD will consist of either a single
node or block on the left-hand side of the diagram (input node or block) connected via intermediate nodes and blocks to a single node or block on the right-hand side of the diagram (output
node or block). Note that a complete system RBD can only have one input node or block and one output node or block. In addition, all the intermediate nodes and blocks must be connected.
The entire system RBD represents the ways in which component and sub-system failures will interact to cause the system to fail. AWB allows more than one system RBD to be defined in the
same project.

The facilities to add elements to a RBD are accessed either through Add, To Diagram pull-down menu options or the equivalent buttons on the toolbar.

Each AWB project can contain one or more systems. The Add, New System pull-down menu option can be used to create new systems when Diagram and RBD are selected from the pull-
down menus above the right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system, consequences may be assigned to blocks in the diagram. Consequences are usually assigned to system level blocks and represent
the effects of failure (financial, safety, operational and environmental) on the system.

See Also
Adding Blocks
Adding Connections
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks
Using Pages
Assigning Consequences

Getting Started - Building a Fault Tree Diagram


A fault tree diagram consists of gates and basic events. Availability Workbench (AWB) also allows the user to add labels to the diagram for purely illustrative purposes. More than one fault
tree can be constructed in a single AWB project. The facilities for adding fault tree elements to an AWB project are on the Add pull-down menu or the equivalent buttons on the toolbar.

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A new fault tree can be constructed during an AWB session by selecting the Add, New Top Gate pull-down menu option when Diagram and Fault Tree are selected from the pull-down
menus above the right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system consequences may be assigned to gates in the diagram. Consequences are usually assigned to system level gates (Top gates) and
represent the effects of failure (financial, safety, operational and environmental) on the system.

See Also
Adding Gates
Adding Events
Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks
Using Pages
Assigning Consequences

Getting Started - Performing A System Availability Simulation


The user has control over the simulation process through a set of options and parameters that are accessed through the Simulation pull-down menu. Alternatively, the equivalent toolbar
buttons can be used.

The Simulation pull-down menu also contains options for performing importance and optimization analyses.

To perform a full simulation run in the AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Simulation, Start pull-down menu option or the equivalent toolbar button. If you have made
any fatal errors when constructing the project (for example, not connecting blocks in a page), AWB will display the error messages and halt the simulation. Otherwise, the simulation will
proceed. A message will also be displayed at the bottom of the AWB window, indicating the progress (i.e. how many lifetime simulations have been completed).

If you wish to halt the simulation run before the program has reached the number of simulations requested then select the Simulation, Stop pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. A dialog will appear asking if you wish to complete the current simulation in order to retain results. The user may select Yes to finish the current simulation and obtain a set of results
for the partially completed run, No to terminate the simulation run without retaining any results, or Cancel to resume the simulation run and continue until it is complete.

Getting Started - Examining Results


Availability Workbench (AWB) computes a wide range of useful parameters during the simulation process. Most of these parameters can be reviewed, once a simulation is completed, by
selecting the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option. Selection of this menu option will result in the Simulation Results dialog being displayed.

The summary information is split into 8 categories:

Life Costs
Systems
Components
Consequences
Phases
Spares
Labor
Equipment

Summary information for each of these categories may be obtained by selecting the appropriate tab in the dialog. Results may also be displayed in the form of plots and reports in the right
window.

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Getting Started - Building a Life Cycle Cost Model


The Life Cycle Cost Module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the framework and functionality to perform a full system life cycle cost analysis using a hierarchical cost breakdown
structure.

Users may construct a hierarchical cost breakdown structure and assign cost equations to nodes in that structure. Parent nodes in the structure may simply summate the costs of child nodes
or apply a user-defined equation. Nodes with no children of their own may be assigned a simple numerical cost or a time-dependent cost equation. Equations associated with cost nodes may
be linked to predicted cost data originating from simulations performed in the RCMCost or AvSim modules.

Life cycle cost calculations are based on the time profile defined in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. The time profile (the time span to be analyzed and interval length) is
common to all modules in AWB.

To access the LCC Module in AWB select the Life Cycle Cost pull-down option at the top of the left-hand window.

The tree control in the left-hand window will display the data categories relevant to this module. These categories are Cost Nodes (these define the cost breakdown structure), Global
Variables (these define variables to be used in more than one cost node) and Phases (phases may be used to refine cost equations).

The right-hand window will display a grid control, plot, library structure or report depending on the mode of display chosen by the user (by selecting the Current right window mode option
above the window).

New cost nodes, global variables and phases may be added to the current project by selecting the appropriate node in the project tree control and selecting one of the Add options from the
right button pop-up menu.

Once data has been added to a project a calculation may be performed by selecting the Analysis, Perform pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. Results may then be viewed in
the Cost Profile plot in the right-hand window.

To build a cost breakdown structure you need to add cost nodes to the tree control in the left-hand window. To add a new cost node select an existing node or the top node (labelled Cost
Nodes) and click the right mouse button. From the pop-up menu that appears select the Add Cost Node option. The Cost Node Properties dialog will appear allowing you define the cost
equation for that node and specify a description and add notes. Select the OK button to add the node and continue this process to build the structure.

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Overview of Projects and Libraries


Project and library files hold all the data associated with an Availability Workbench (AWB) project or library. There is no
difference in the data structure held in a project or library. Both projects and libraries can contain resource data, RBD and
fault tree data and life cycle cost data.

AWB restricts the user to opening a single project at a time. However, there is no restriction on the number of libraries that
may be attached during an AWB session. In fact, project and library files are effectively interchangeable so you can attach
a project as a library and open a library as a project.

Project data is displayed in the project tree in the left-hand window. If you attach one or more libraries during an AWB
session then the library data will appear in the right-hand window when the Current right window mode is set to Library.
The majority of the editing functions available in the AWB menus will apply to project data. However, you may drag and
drop and copy and paste data between projects and libraries. The primary function of libraries is to allow users to copy
single items of data or whole structures (for example a location hierarchy or RBD structure) from a library to a project.
When transferring RBD or fault tree structures from a library to a project AWB will respond to renaming conventions
specified by the user in the Project Options dialog.

You can create, open and save project and libraries using the options on the File pull-down menu. Project and library data
is saved to file in compressed or XML format. You can set your format preference in the Files tab of the Application
Options dialog. Compressed files are created with the extension '.awb' whereas XML files are created with the extension
'.awbx'.

File Extension
Both project and library files are given the default extension '.awb' for compressed file formats or '.awbx' for XML file
formats..

Default Folder Location


The default folder location for project and library files may be specified in the Application Options dialog.

Backup Projects
AWB provides an automatic project backup system. This system regularly saves your current project data to a backup file.
The frequency of project backups may be set in the Application Options dialog.

Enterprise Projects and Libraries


If you are licensed to use the Enterprise version of AWB you will be able to maintain projects and libraries within the
Isograph Enterprise System. These projects and libraries contain the same data structures as file-based projects and
libraries but are controlled by the Enterprise System. Enterprise project and library functions are accessed via the
Enterprise sub-menu on the Files pull-down menu. These functions are covered in the section entitled Enterprise Project
and Library Management.
Project and Library Validation
Validation is performed whenever a project or library is opened. The validation process checks for inconsistencies in the
data structure of a project. It also checks for 'out-of-range' variable values. The validation process will 'repair' invalid
values whenever possible.

Validation is also performed during the import of external data using the AWB Import facility.

Enterprise Project and Library Management


The Isograph Enterprise System provides the framework for controlling multi-user project and library access through a
central database system. Access rights to projects, libraries and administrative functions are controlled through user
permissions. This allows an organization to:

Assign administrators to organize access rights to groups of users


Build a centralized hierarchy to organize projects and libraries
Restrict access to projects and libraries where necessary
Control the check-in and check-out of projects for modification
Track the current projects that are checked-out to users
Provide version control of projects and libraries
Run differencing reports for different versions of the same project

If you are licensed to use the Enterprise System the Files pull-down menu will contain an Enterprise sub-menu allowing
you to access the following functions.

Administration

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The Administration option allows an administrator to

Add folders to the Enterprise System


Create a new enterprise project or library
Upload an existing non-enterprise project or library into the Enterprise System
Delete enterprise projects, libraries and folders
Assign permissions to folders and individual projects or libraries
Create users and their associated permissions
View the check-out status of enterprise projects
Modify the check-out status of enterprise projects
Restore backup projects

Check Out and Check-In Project


The Check Out Project option allows a user to check out an enterprise project. Only projects with modify permission for
the user may be checked out. The project data will appear in Availability Workbench just as for a non-enterprise project
opened from file. The user may edit the project and then check it back into the Enterprise System using the Check-In
Project option. Other users will not be able to check out the same project until it has been checked-in to the Enterprise
System.

Cancel Project Check Out


The Cancel Project Check Out is normally used when the user has not made any changes to a checked out enterprise
project and wishes to cancel the check out. This also prevents the automatic version facility from creating a new version
when no changes have been made.

View Project
The View Project option allows users to open enterprise projects but it does not allow the modified project to be checked-
in to the Enterprise System. This option can be used to simply view data or to save the data as a non-enterprise project
file.

Attach Library
The Attach Library option allows users to attach libraries for transferring data into the current AWB project. Enterprise
libraries behave just like non-enterprise libraries once they are attached but cannot be modified and checked-back into the
Enterprise System. An enterprise library may be modified by opening it as a project using the Check-Out Project option.

Open and Save Local Projects


In some circumstances it may be necessary to temporarily store a checked-out enterprise project as a local file. Typically
this might occur if the client computer is disconnected from the network for a period of time and the user wishes to
continue editing the project. The local file may later be opened and checked-in to the Enterprise System when the network
connection is re-established. To save a checked-out project as a local file select the Save Local Project option. To re-
open the file select the Open Local Project option. Local enterprise projects are saved to a location that is specified in
the Enterprise tab of the Application Options dialog. If you use the Save Local Project option then the enterprise file
will be stored in a sub-folder named Drafts.

Project Backups
If you select the Enable project backup flag in the Backup tab of the Application Options dialog then Availability
Workbench will automatically create a local backup of your current project at the specified interval. If you are working on a
checked-out enterprise project then a local backup will be saved in a sub-folder named Backups alongside the Drafts
folder used to save local projects. These sub-folders appear below the higher-level folder specified for local projects in the
Enterprise tab of the Application Options dialog. You may use the enterprise Administrator facility to restore
enterprise backup projects. Restoring the enterprise project effectively copies the backup project into the Drafts folder so
that you may open it using the Open Local Project option. The project may then be checked-in to the enterprise system
in the normal way.

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Task Library
The task library facility allows users to build libraries of common tasks and search, filter and copy these tasks into
RCMCost causes and AvSim failure models. Library tasks may be filtered using the RCMCost location and AvSim failure
model hierarchy structures. Alternatively they may be filtered using the task group and task group type hierarchical
structure.

A task library is similar in concept to any other Availability Workbench library. You may build a task library simply by
adding tasks to RCMCost causes or AvSim failure models in the normal way (by adding tasks using the Maintenance tab
of the Cause Properties or Failure Model Properties dialogs). Existing projects may also be attached as libraries and all
the defined tasks will be available to copy into the current project.

Library tasks may be copied to an existing project by selecting the Copy Tasks From Library button in the Maintenance
tab of the Cause Properties or Failure Model Properties dialogs. You may also copy tasks from within the current
project rather than from an attached library. When tasks are copied from an attached library the associated resources
(labor, equipment and spares) are also copied across if they do not already exist in the project.

The task library facility may therefore be used to provide generic task definitions (including the required resources and
other properties such as the task duration) that may be copied into a working project. It may also be used to quickly locate
and copy a task from within the same or different project. When building generic task libraries first create a new project
and then use the location hierarchical structure (RCMCost) or failure model hierarchical structure (AvSim) to organize the
generic tasks. Then add the tasks to the appropriate cause in the location structure (RCMCost) or failure model (AvSim).
For generic task libraries it doesn't matter whether you use the location structure or failure model structure as all tasks will
be available when using the task library facility. You may also use the task group hierarchy structure as an alternative
scheme to organize tasks. Tasks in a generic task library may be assigned to a task group. Task groups may be
organized at a higher level into task group types. As an example you might use the RCMCost location structure to
organize tasks by equipment class such as 'Motor' or 'Valve' tasks. The task group structure might be used to organize
tasks by operation such as 'Lubrication' tasks or 'Replacement' tasks.

Selecting a Task from the Task Library


Tasks are selected and copied to the current project using the Task Library dialog. This dialog is displayed when the
Copy Tasks From Library button is selected in the Maintenance tab of the Cause Properties or Failure Model
Properties dialogs. The top part of the Task Library dialog displays the location (RCMCost) or failure model (AvSim)
structure used to organize tasks. If the Use task group hierarchy option was selected in the Cause Properties or
Failure Model Properties dialog then the task group hierarchy will be displayed. Selection of nodes in the hierarchy will
filter the displayed tasks in the lower part of the Task Library dialog if the Toggle Task Filter by Tree Control Selection
button is selected. Otherwise tasks may be filtered by typing search text in the first row of the tasks grid and then selecting
the Filter Tasks Using Text in First Row button. Tasks may also be filtered using the Task type selector.

Once the appropriate task has been located and selected in the grid control, the task may be copied into the project by
selecting the OK button.
Opening Reliability Workbench Projects
Reliability Workbench (RWB) is a sister application to Availability Workbench that provides FMECA, RBD and Fault Tree
analysis functionality for safety and reliability studies. Analysis functions are based on analytical models rather than
simulation, however there are many common elements between the two applications. Organizations that employ both
applications may wish to effectively convert the data from a RWB project into AWB format.

Conversion may result in the loss of model properties that are not compatible between the two applications. For example,
some fault tree gate types that are used in analytical models are not used in AWB fault tree models. Some failure models
may not have a direct equivalent. The conversion algorithms will find the closest match when making a conversion if no
direct match exists.

Select the Read RWB V11 Project File option on the File pull-down menu to select the file you wish to convert. The
specified RWB file will be converted and converted data displayed as the current AWB project.

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Overview of Project Options


Project options affect the way data is calculated and displayed within the current project. When project data is saved, the project
options are recorded along with other project data.

Some project options are specific to a single Availability Workbench module. The Project Options dialog only displays data
relevant to the current module. To access the Project Options dialog select the Tools, Options, Project pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button.
Project General Options - All Modules
These options are accessed from the General tab of the Project Options dialog.

ID
An identifier for the project of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the project of no more than 255 characters.

Compiled by
The details of the engineers who constructed the project. A maximum of 255 characters is permitted.

Approved by
The details of the approval authority. A maximum of 255 characters is permitted.

Notes
Project notes of up to 2000 characters.

Set IDs to upper case


If this option is set IDs will be forced to upper case when entered by the user in Properties dialogs.
Project Lifetime Options RCMCost, AvSim, LCC Modules
Lifetime options are accessed from the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. Lifetime values and time profiles are used by
the RCMCost, AvSim and Life Cycle Cost modules.

Lifetime
The lifetime value indicates the period of time over which simulations will be performed. The lifetime should be expressed in units
consistent with all other project data. For example, if time to failure and repair times have been recorded in hours then the lifetime
must also be recorded in hours.

Time profiles
Time profiles specify how time-dependent data is to be recorded during a simulation or life cycle cost analysis. All profile data
viewed after a simulation or life cycle cost analysis will be displayed according to the time profile specified by the user. If the Map to
lifetime option is selected then the user need only specify the number of intervals over the system lifetime. AWB will split the
lifetime into equal intervals over the lifetime specified.

If the Map to lifetime option is not selected then the user must also specify the start time and interval length.

Interval optimization
The interval optimization mode determines the criteria for optimizing scheduled maintenance interval (planned maintenance and
inspections) in the RCMCost and AvSim modules. Intervals may be optimized by cost or by availability. If the cost option is chosen
then maintenance recommendations will be based on minimum cost. If the availability option is chosen then optimizations will be
based on maximum availability.

Apply inspection predictive data at time zero


If this flag is unchecked AWB will apply the first inspection at a time corresponding to the inspection interval added to the inspection
offset value. If this flag is checked, AWB will apply the predictive data at time zero without consuming additional labor or equipment
resources. This allows users to model situations where installations at time zeroin the plant's lifetime will recognize imminent
failures of an equipment.
Project Simulation Options RCMCost Module
Simulation options are accessed from the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Number of simulations [1-1000000]


The number of simulations to be performed for each cause in the RCMCost module.

The Monte Carlo simulation process must be repeated a sufficient number of times to produce accurate statistical results. The user
should set the number of simulations such that a significant number of system failures are generated. This may involve a certain
amount of trial and error for a new project. One way to estimate how many simulations are required is to repeat the simulation run

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with different values for the number of simulations. As more simulations are performed, the system unavailability and other
parameters should begin to converge. When they have converged sufficiently, use this value for future runs.

Random number seed


Modifying the random number seed changes the series of random numbers generated for a simulation or optimization run.

Safety criticality target


Safety targets are displayed on optimization plots and refer to user-defined targets per individual cause. Safety criticality values
combine the frequency of effects that have a safety implication with the severity of the effect.

Operational criticality target


Operational targets are displayed on optimization plots and refer to user-defined targets per individual cause. Operational criticality
values combine the frequency of effects that have an operational implication with the severity of the effect.

Environmental criticality target


Environmental targets are displayed on optimization plots and refer to user-defined targets per individual cause. Environmental
criticality values combine the frequency of effects that have an environmental implication with the severity of the effect.

Automatically assign criticality rankings


If this option is selected then the RCMCost module will automatically assign criticality rankings to all locations in the project
immediately after a full system simulation has been performed. Rankings will be assigned according to the AWB assignment criteria
specified in the Criticality Rankings dialog.

Spare optimization unavailability target


The target unavailability when optimizing spares by cost. If this value is set to a non-zero value the recommended optimum spare
holding represents the minimum cost that meets the unavailability target.

No. of sites served by level 2 spares


If this value is set greater than one spares optimizations will model the consumption of level 2 spares due to other site demands.
The other sites are assumed to have the same frequency of spare demand as the project site.
Project Simulation Options AvSim Module
Simulation options are accessed from the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Number of simulations [1-1000000]


The Monte Carlo simulation process must be repeated a sufficient number of times to produce accurate statistical results. The user
should set the number of simulations such that a significant number of system failures are generated. This may involve a certain
amount of trial and error for a new project. One way to estimate how many simulations are required is to repeat the simulation run
with different values for the number of simulations. As more simulations are performed, the system unavailability and other
parameters should begin to converge. When they have converged sufficiently, use this value for future runs. Note that you can
stop a simulation run before the requested number of simulations has been reached. Results will be presented in terms of the
number of simulations completed.

Random number seed


Modifying the random number seed changes the series of random numbers generated for a simulation or optimization run. The
random number seed must be between 1 and 10000.

Base buffer depletion rate on capacity requirement


The buffer depletion rate may be based on the current capacity requirement at a given time in the simulation. By setting the Base
buffer depletion rate on capacity requirement check-box on, the program will determine the required capacity from the buffer
based on the node or gate operational capacity target. The required capacity will be taken as a proportion of the buffers maximum
capacity to determine how quickly the buffer should empty. The Time to empty buffer entered by the user therefore refers to the
time to empty the buffer when the maximum capacity is required.

Equate capacity in results & diagrams


This facility allows users to equate 100% capacity with a quantity and unit, such as 80 bpm. Dialogs and results will then reflect this
new unit. For example, the user could enter a maximum capacity for a block of 40 bpm rather than 50% capacity. When entering a
unit, such as bpm, ensure that you leave a space between the number and unit.

Rules
Project rules allow the user to change the failure and maintenance characteristics of a system during different phases. These rules
apply to all equipments defined in the project RBD or fault tree structure. Project rules allow the user to change the load on all
equipments (effectively increasing their failure rate) and set all equipments to non-operational or non-maintainable during certain
phases.

The Rules list shows the currently defined rules that govern the project. Items can be added to the list by choosing the Add button
beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties Dialog. Rules are then created by selecting the rule type and phase. If
the Set load by phase rule type is selected then the load factor to be applied must be entered. In each case, a description of the

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rule is generated automatically from the data input by the user. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place the
information in the Rules List. There is no limit to the number of rules that may be applied to a project.

Existing rules may be modified by selecting the rule in the list and then selecting the Edit button. Existing rules may be removed by
selecting the rule in the list and then selecting the Remove button.
Project Net Present Value Options RCMCost, AvSim Modules
The NPV tab of the Project Options dialog allows the user to specify parameters for Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. NPV
and escalation costs are calculated per time profile interval. Time profile intervals are set in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options
dialog. AWB will only perform NPV calculations if the Map to lifetime option is selected for time profiles in the Lifetime tab of the
Project Options dialog.

Where escalation costs are zero the net cost of each time interval is discounted to produce a present value. The Net Present Value
cost is the sum of each intervals present value over the whole lifetime of the project.

where
the number of time intervals
NPV Yield % per time interval

the relevant cost in this time interval

For example, the NPV lifetime cost when two intervals are specified would be calculated as

where NPV Yield % per Time Interval

So if the NPV Yield was 10% and the Total Lifetime cost was 6050 evenly spread over the 2 intervals, the present value for interval
1 would be 2750 and the present value for interval 2 would be 2500, giving a NPV Total Lifetime cost of 5250.

Escalation costs increase the cost of the item per time interval, so the NPV for non-zero escalation costs is calculated as

where
the number of time intervals
NPV Yield % per time interval
Escalation cost %

the relevant cost in this time interval

For example over one time interval, if the miscellaneous costs were 1000, the NPV Yield % was zero but the Miscellaneous
escalation cost was 5%, the NPV miscellaneous cost would be 1050. Whereas, if both NPV and Escalation costs were 5%, they
would cancel out and the NPV Miscellaneous cost would be 1000.

Apply NPV and escalation calculations to simulated life costs


Select this check-box to use the NPV and escalation values set in this dialog to provide lifetime NPV costs.

NPV Yield % per interval


NPV percentage to be used per profile time interval.

Labor escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all labor costs (per profile time interval)

Equipment escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all equipment costs (per profile time interval)

Spare purchase & repair escalation %


Escalation percentage to be used for all spares purchase and repair costs (per profile time interval)

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Spare storage escalation %


Escalation percentage to be used for all spares storage costs (per profile time interval)

Operational escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all operational costs (per profile time interval)

Outage escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all outage costs (per profile time interval)

Alarm escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all alarm costs (per profile time interval)

Commissioning escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all commissioning costs (per profile time interval)

Redesign escalation %
Escalation percentage to be used for all redesign costs (per profile time interval)
Project Spares Options RCMCost, AvSim Modules
The Spares tab of the Project Options Dialog enables the user to set various options that affect the way spares are modelled
during the simulation process in the RCMCost and AvSim modules. Note that some options are only applicable to simulations in the
AvSim module.

Multiple sites (AvSim module)


Selection of the Multiple sites option indicates that each system defined in the AvSim module is associated with a different spare
storage site. This will affect the availability of spares obtained from site (echelon level 1) during the simulation process. AWB will
assume that each system block in the RBD is associated with a different site spare storage facility if the Multiple sites check-box
is selected. Similarly, each TOP gate in a fault tree diagram will be considered to be a separate system, associated with a different
site, if the Multiple sites check-box is selected.

AWB will split spares at echelon level 1 into 3 sites for the 3 systems above if the Multiple sites check-box is selected.

Distribution of spare parts with the multiple sites option selected.

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Distribution of spare parts without the multiple sites option selected.

Include initial spare purchase costs


Setting this check-box includes the cost of the initial procurement of stored spares (at echelon levels 1 and 2) in the calculations.
The default setting is on.

Replenish level 1 spares stocks at fixed intervals (AvSim module)


The level 1 spares will be replenished at regular intervals during a simulation if the Replenish level 1 spares stocks at fixed
intervals check-box is set.

Spares replenishment interval (AvSim module)


The Spares replenishment interval must be set if the Replenish level 1 spares stocks at fixed intervals check-box is set.

Storage costs
Spare storage costs may be assigned by weight or volume. Select whether storage costs should be set individually (as per details
in the individual Spare Properties dialog), by weight or by volume. If weight is chosen, enter the Level 1 storage cost per unit
weight and the Level 2 storage cost per unit weight. If volume is chosen, enter the Level 1 storage cost per unit volume and the
Level 2 storage cost per unit volume.

Logistic Delays
Spare logistic delays may be assigned to all spares globally for echelon levels 1, 2 and 3. Tick one or more check-boxes as
appropriate to your system and specify the logistic delay time for the appropriate levels.
Project Importance Options AvSim Module
The Importance tab of the Project Options Dialog enables the user to set various options that affect the importance calculations
results produced by the AvSim module.

Consequence
The consequence that will be used when calculating importance rankings.

Spare importance cut-off


The Spare Importance cut-off value is used when a spare importance ranking run is performed. RBD blocks and fault tree events
with importance values less than the cut-off will not be shown in the ranking list.

Base capacity importance on initial capacity


If this option is set capacity importance values (the contribution to capacity loss) are based on reduced capacity compared to the
initial capacity at time zero in the simulation process.
Project Capacity Availability Options AvSim Module
Capacity availability is the probability that a capacity value will be met or exceeded for a given time interval. Results are shown in
the form of a Capacity Availability Profile for each interval.

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For example, if the capacity exceeds 40% throughout the duration of the time interval, but only exceeds 70% capacity for a quarter
of the duration of the time interval, the capacity availability graph will show 1 for 40%, and 0.25 for 70%.

The Capacity Availability tab of the Project Options Dialog enables the user to set various options that affect the capacity
availability results produced by the AvSim module.

System
The system used to determine the probability that a capacity value will be met or exceeded for a given time interval.

Number of intervals
The number of intervals to be used in the capacity availability calculation.

Map to lifetime
If the Map to lifetime option is checked the program will automatically set the start time to zero and the interval length will be set to
the project lifetime divided by the specified number of intervals.

Start time
The start of the period to be used in the capacity availability calculation.

Interval length
The interval length to be used in the capacity availability calculation.

Project View Options


View options determine the data that is to be displayed in diagrams and the project tree control.

View options are specified in the View tab of the Project Options dialog.
Project Precision Options
Precision options are specified in the Precision tab of the Project Options dialog.

The user may specify a floating point precision value of 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9 and a floating point format type of automatic or exponent.
The precision value determines the number of significant figures displayed in calculated floating point values. Selection of the
automatic format will result in floating point numbers being displayed either in standard numerical format or as a number followed
by an exponent. The format chosen by the program will depend on the absolute value of the individual floating point number. If the
exponent option is chosen then floating point numbers will be followed by an exponent, unless the exponent value is zero.
Consider the floating-point number

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0.123456789

The table below illustrates how the number will be displayed for a variety of format and precision combinations.

Format Precision Displayed Number


Automatic 6 0.123456
Automatic 3 0.123
Exponent 6 1.23456E-1
Exponent 3 1.23E-1

Project Notes Options


Notes options are specified in the Notes tab of the Project Options dialog.

Many of the tables in an AWB project have Notes columns associated with them. For example four different notes may be applied
to each labor category defined, each spare and each RBD block. Note headers are used to label note fields in dialogs and note
columns in the grid control.

AWB allows users to customize the headers applied to these note columns. Note header customization is performed in the Notes
tab of the Project Options dialog.

To modify a note header click on the current header text in the tree control. The text should become highlighted. Click again over
the highlighted text. You should now be able to edit the text to specify the header you require.
Project Fonts Options AvSim Module
Fonts options are specified in the Fonts tab of the Project Options dialog.

The fonts associated with RBD and fault tree diagrams may be modified by selecting the current font setting in the tree control and
then selecting the Change selected font button. A Font dialog will appear allowing you to set the new font name, style, size and
color.

Fonts may be reset to their default values using the Reset selection to default or Reset all to default buttons.
Project Colors Options RCMCost, AvSim Modules
Color options are specified in the Colors tab of the Project Options dialog.

The colors associated with strategy labels, RBD and fault tree diagrams may be modified by selecting the current color label in the
tree control and then selecting the Change selected color button. A Color dialog will appear allowing you to set the new color.

Colors may be reset to their default values using the Reset selection to default or Reset all to default buttons.
Project RBD/FT Drag Options AvSim Module
AvSim RBD and fault tree drag and drop options may be set in the RBD/FT Drag tab of the Project Options dialog.

The options selected in this tab will affect how dependent objects are transferred between a library and a project when copying a
RBD or fault tree structure.

A group of check boxes enable the user to specify which dependent objects are to be renamed when a transfer takes place
between a project and a library. Renaming will only take place if a transferred object has a matching ID to an existing object in the
target project or library.

For example, if Rename failure models with matching IDs is checked Availability Workbench will rename all dependent failure
models transferred with the RBD or fault tree structure that encounter a matching failure model in the target project or library.

Note that RBD blocks, nodes and labels are always renamed when they encounter a matching object in the target project or library.
Similarly matching fault tree gates and primary events are also renamed.

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Labor - Overview
Labor categories are a shared resource between the RCMCost and AvSim modules and are used to determine the
contribution of labor to life cycle costs. Labor categories are assigned to both corrective and scheduled tasks and may
cause logistic delays in performing corrective actions.

An Availability Workbench project may be populated with labor data by:

Adding a labor category to the tree control


Extracting a labor category from a library
Using the Import facility

See Also
General Properties
Notes

Labor - General Properties


Labor general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Labor Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the labor category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the labor category. Labor types are used to organize labor categories into groups. If a project
contains many labor categories then this will greatly assist in locating a labor category in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the labor category of no more than 255 characters.

Number available (AvSim Module)


The number of this labor category available at any time to perform maintenance operations. This value will affect the
likelihood of a delay in repairing a component due to other tasks being undertaken at the same time on other components.
This value only affects the results of an Avsim simulation. RCM module results are not affected.

Corrective logistic delay


The expected delay between the failure occurring and the start of corrective maintenance due to the labor category.

Corrective call-out cost


The cost incurred each time one member of the labor category is called to perform a corrective maintenance task.

Scheduled call-out cost


The cost incurred each time one member of the labor category is called to perform a scheduled maintenance task.

Cost rate
The cost per unit time incurred when employing one member of the labor category to perform a maintenance task.

See Also
Overview
Notes

Labor - Notes
Labor notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Labor Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each labor category. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to
identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

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Overview
General Properties

Equipment - Overview
Equipment categories are a shared resource between the RCMCost and AvSim modules and are used to determine the
contribution of equipment to life cycle costs. Equipment categories are assigned to both corrective and scheduled tasks
and may cause logistic delays in performing corrective actions.

An Availability Workbench project may be populated with equipment data by:

Adding an equipment to the tree control


Extracting a equipment from a library
Using the Import facility

See Also
General Properties
Notes

Equipment - General Properties


Equipment general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Equipment Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the equipment of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the equipment. Equipment types are used to organize equipments into groups. If a project contains
many equipments then this will greatly assist in locating an equipment in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the equipment of no more than 255 characters.

Number available
The number of this equipment available at any time to perform maintenance operations. This value will affect the
likelihood of a delay in repairing a component due to other tasks being undertaken at the same time on other components.
This value only affects the results of an AvSim simulation. RCM module results are not affected.

Corrective logistic delay


The expected delay between the failure occurring and the start of corrective maintenance due to the equipment.

Corrective call-out cost


The cost incurred each time the equipment is used to perform a corrective maintenance task.

Scheduled call-out cost


The cost incurred each time the equipment is used to perform a scheduled maintenance task.

Cost rate
The cost per unit time incurred when using the equipment to perform a maintenance task.

See Also
Overview
Notes

Equipment - Notes
Equipment note properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Equipment Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each equipment category. Users may customize note headers (the labels
used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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See Also
Overview
General Properties

Tasks - Overview
Maintenance tasks are a shared resource used by both the RCMCost and AvSim modules. Tasks defined in Availability
Workbench are categorized into one of three possible types corrective tasks, planned maintenance tasks and inspection
tasks.

Corrective tasks are performed when a random failure takes place or when an inspection reveals a hidden failure.

Planned maintenance tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches a given value or
when an opportunity arises. Planned maintenance may involve the replacement of ageing equipment or minor tasks such
as lubrication. Planned maintenance may also be performed when an inspection predicts that a failure is about to occur
(predictive maintenance).

Inspection tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches a given value or when an
opportunity arises. Inspection tasks are performed to detect an imminent failure (and hence allow a planned maintenance
task to be scheduled to prevent the failure) or to detect a dormant (hidden) failure. Hidden failures are normally associated
with standby equipment.

See Also
Corrective Maintenance Tasks - General Properties
Corrective Maintenance Tasks - Advanced Properties
Corrective Maintenance Tasks - Rules
Planned Maintenance Tasks - General Properties
Planned Maintenance Tasks - Advanced Properties
Planned Maintenance Tasks - Rules
Planned Maintenance Tasks - Optimization
Inspection Tasks - General Properties
Inspection Tasks - Advanced Properties
Inspection Tasks - Predictive Data
Inspection Tasks - Rules
Inspection Tasks - Optimization

Corrective Tasks - General Properties


Task general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Description
A description for the corrective maintenance task of no more than 255 characters.

Task ID
An identifier for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Task duration
The task duration is the time taken to repair a component. It does not include any logistic delays in procuring spares, labor
and equipment or any equipment start-up delays in bringing the equipment back on-line. If individual labor and equipment
resources are required for shorter or longer periods than the task duration then the Active time field may be specified
when assigning the resource.

Operational cost
The operational cost field provides a method of specifying any costs incurred in the repair other than the labor, equipment
and spare costs assigned to the task.

Ramp time
The ramp time is the time required to bring the equipment back 'on-line' over and above the specified task duration.

Resources
The Resources list shows the labor categories, equipment and spares required to perform the corrective maintenance
task. The quantity of each resource is also displayed in the list. The user can add items to the list by choosing the
appropriate Add button beneath the list. The user may modify existing resource assignments in the list by selecting the
Edit button. These actions will reveal the Assigned Resource Properties dialog. For example, a resource may be

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selected from the list extracted from the labor, equipment or spares table and the number of the resource can be entered
into the Quantity text box. In addition, an active time may be entered for labor and equipment resources. The Active
time field indicates the time period for which the resource is required. If the Set to task duration option is not checked,
the active time will be displayed in brackets to the right of the resource if it differs from the task duration. If the resource is
not already defined in the project then the New button may be used to create a new labor category, equipment or spare.
Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place the information in the Resources list.

Note that when adding or editing a spare resource, if a BOM is attached to a parent cause (RCMCost module) or a parent
block or gate (AvSim module), then the spares list displayed in the Assigned Resource Properties dialog will only
contain spares assigned to the appropriate BOM. If the spare is not already defined in the project then the New button
may be used to create a new spare. The New button will only be enabled if Disable Bom filter is checked or there is no
BOM associated with the task.

See Also
Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes

Corrective Tasks - Advanced Properties


Additional task parameters may be accessed from the Advanced tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Condition after repair


The condition after repair may be specified As good as new, Intermediate or As good as old. If Intermediate is
chosen, the user must specify the associated age reduction factor. Choose As good as new if the equipment will be
replaced by new equipment on failure. Choose As good as old if a minimal repair is to be carried out to restore the
equipment to service.

Age reduction factor


The Age reduction factor, , determines the effective age of a component after maintenance is completed. A factor of 1
c
indicates the component is as good as new (age = 0) after repair, whereas a factor of 0 indicates the component is as
good as old (age not changed) after repair. Intermediate values are used as an approximate means of representing
partial rejuvenation of a component. AWB uses the following expression to determine a component's age after
maintenance:

Age after repair = Age before repair. ( 1 - )


c

Weibull set
The task duration can be obtained directly from historical data analyzed in a Weibull set. A maintenance task that is linked
to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the Weibull set. As historical data is updated,
Availability Workbench (AWB) will automatically update the distribution parameters for associated maintenance tasks.

Distribution
AWB samples the task duration from the distribution chosen in the Distribution pull-down menu. The four options are
exponential, lognormal, normal and Weibull.

Standard deviation (Normal and Lognormal Distributions)


The Standard deviation of the mean task duration for normal and lognormal distributions.

Beta (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration beta parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Gamma (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration gamma parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Operation No
An operation number for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

See Also
General Properties
Rules

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Notes

Corrective Tasks - Rules


Task rules may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Rules (AvSim module only)


If no rules are applied to a corrective task then the task will be performed as soon as a failure occurs and all resources
required to perform the task have been procured. In certain circumstances you may wish to delay the task until a specified
event occurs or until entering or exiting a particular operational phase. In such cases you can assign rules to a task to
indicate when corrective maintenance may be performed.

The Rules list shows the rules that govern the corrective maintenance task. Items can be added to the list by choosing
the Add button beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties dialog. A rule can be selected from the list of
four possible types - Trigger task by phase, Trigger task by state, Inhibit task by phase and Inhibit task by state. For
example, if Trigger task by phase is selected a phase can be chosen from the Phase list to act as a trigger for the
corrective maintenance task. If Trigger task by state is selected, a state dependency type may be chosen of RBD block
or Fault tree gate and the identity of the block or gate selected. The state of the block or gate required to trigger the task
must also be selected. In each case a description of the rule is generated automatically from the data input by the user.
For rules that inhibit a task by phase or state the input data is the same. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog
and place the information in the Rules list. There is no limit to the number of rules that may be applied to a task.

Trigger task rules will have no effect if the component is non-maintainable during the phase of operation during which the
trigger event takes place. Also, for corrective tasks, trigger rules will not affect a dormant failure. Trigger tasks are used
with corrective tasks to override an inhibit rule associated with the same task.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Notes

Corrective Tasks - Notes


Corrective task notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Up to 24 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to identify a
note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules

Planned Tasks - General Properties


Task general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Properties dialog. Note that users may
initially populate many of the task properties by selecting the Copy Corrective Properties button. Corrective properties will
be taken from the corrective task associated with the same cause, block or event.

Task enabled
If checked the planned maintenance task is enabled. Enabling a task indicates that the task will be performed as part of a
routine maintenance schedule at regular intervals. Disabled tasks will only be performed as a secondary action task or as
a result of a trigger rule initiating the task.

Interval
The time interval between each planned maintenance task. If a fixed maintenance interval has been specified the planned
maintenance task will be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of the equipment. Otherwise maintenance
will be performed when the age of the equipment matches the interval value.

Offset
The time offset for the first application of the task during a simulation run. The first task will be performed at T + To where
T is the task interval and To is the interval offset.

Fixed interval

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If checked the planned maintenance task will be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of the equipment. If
not checked then maintenance will be performed when the age of the equipment matches the interval value.

Description
A description for the planned maintenance task of no more than 255 characters.

Task ID
An identifier for the planned maintenance task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Task duration
The task duration is the time taken to repair a component. It does not include any logistic delays in procuring spares, labor
and equipment or any equipment start-up delays in bringing the equipment back on-line. If individual labor and equipment
resources are required for shorter or longer periods than the task duration then the Active time field may be specified
when assigning the resource.

Operational cost
The operational cost field provides a method of specifying any costs incurred in the repair other than the labor, equipment
and spare costs assigned to the task.

Ramp time
The ramp time is the time required to bring the equipment back 'on-line' over and above the specified task duration.

Minimum age
The minimum age at which the task will be performed for fixed interval tasks. For example, specifying an interval of 2000
hours for a task with minimum age of 8000 hours will indicate the task is not to be performed until the associated
component has aged to 8000 hours. If the task does not result in a reduction in the age of the associated component then
subsequent tasks will be performed at the specified interval of 2000 hours.

Task group
The task group to which the planned maintenance task is assigned. If a task group is assigned to the task some data
fields may be populated from the properties of the task group.

Resources
The Resources list shows the labor categories, equipment and spares required to perform the planned maintenance task.
The quantity of each resource is also displayed in the list. The user can add items to the list by choosing the appropriate
Add button beneath the list. The user may modify existing resource assignments in the list by selecting the Edit button.
These actions will reveal the Assigned Resource Properties dialog. For example, a resource may be selected from the
list extracted from the labor, equipment or spares table and the number of the resource can be entered into the Quantity
text box. In addition, an active time may be entered for labor and equipment resources. The Active time field indicates
the time period for which the resource is required. If the Set to task duration option is not checked, the active time will be
displayed in brackets to the right of the resource if it differs from the task duration. If the resource is not already defined in
the project then the New button may be used to create a new labor category, equipment or spare. Clicking on the OK
button will dismiss the dialog and place the information in the Resources list.

Note that when adding or editing a spare resource, if a BOM is attached to a parent cause (RCMCost module) or a parent
block or gate (AvSim module), then the spares list displayed in the Assigned Resource Properties dialog will only
contain spares assigned to the appropriate BOM. If the spare is not already defined in the project then the New button
may be used to create a new spare. The New button will only be enabled if Disable Bom filter is checked or there is no
BOM associated with the task.

See Also
Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes
Optimization

Planned Tasks - Advanced Properties


Task parameters may be accessed from the Advanced tab of the Task Properties dialog. Note that users may initially
populate many of the task properties by selecting the Copy Corrective Properties button. Corrective properties will be
taken from the corrective task associated with the same cause, block or event.

Condition after maintenance

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The condition after maintenance may be specified As good as new, Intermediate or As good as old. If Intermediate is
chosen, the user must specify the associated age reduction factor. Choose As good as new if the equipment will be
replaced by new equipment. Choose As good as old if, for example, a lubrication task is to be performed that has no
effect on the equipment age.

Age reduction factor


The Age reduction factor, , determines the effective age of a component after the maintenance task is completed. A
c
factor of 1 indicates the component is as good as new (age = 0) after maintenance, whereas a factor of 0 indicates the
component is as good as old (age not changed) after maintenance. Intermediate values are used as an approximate
means of representing partial rejuvenation of a component. AWB uses the following expression to determine a
component's age after maintenance:

Age after repair = Age before repair. ( 1 - )


c

Weibull set
The task duration can be obtained directly from historical data analyzed in a Weibull set. A maintenance task that is linked
to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the Weibull set. As historical data is updated,
Availability Workbench (AWB) will automatically update the distribution parameters for associated maintenance tasks.

Distribution
AWB samples the task duration from the distribution chosen in the Distribution pull-down menu. The four options are
exponential, lognormal, normal and Weibull.

Standard deviation (Normal and Lognormal Distributions)


The Standard deviation of the mean task duration for normal and lognormal distributions.

Beta (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration beta parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Gamma (Weibull Distribution)


The task duration gamma parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Operation No
An operation number for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Non-operational during maintenance


If checked indicates that the equipment will be out of service for the duration of the task.

Mandatory task
If checked indicates that the task is mandatory. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is provided for
identification purposes only.

Secondary action task


If checked indicates that the task will be performed as a result of a predictive inspection task revealing a potential failure.
When assigning predictive inspection tasks users must indicate the planned maintenance task that will be performed to
prevent the potential failure by assigning this flag.

See Also
General Properties
Rules
Notes
Optimization

Planned Tasks - Rules


Task rules may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Rules (AvSim module only)


In some circumstances you may wish to inhibit or trigger a task according to the state of the system or the current
operational phase. For example, planned maintenance may not be possible during certain operational phases.

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Alternatively you may wish to perform opportunistic maintenance when a particular system fails.

The Rules list shows the rules that govern the planned maintenance task. Items can be added to the list by choosing the
Add button beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties dialog. A rule can be selected from the list of four
possible types - Trigger task by phase, Trigger task by state, Inhibit task by phase and Inhibit task by state. For
example, if Trigger task by phase is selected a phase can be chosen from the Phase list to act as a trigger for the
planned maintenance task and a value can be entered for the minimum elapsed time since the task was last performed
(or minimum age of the component if it is not a fixed interval task). If Trigger task by state is selected, a state
dependency type may be chosen of RBD block or Fault tree gate and the identity of the block or gate selected. The
state of the block or gate required to trigger the task must also be selected. In each case a description of the rule is
generated automatically from the data input by the user. For rules that inhibit a task by phase or state the input data is the
same except that no minimum elapsed time need be specified. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place
the information in the Rules list. There is no limit to the number of rules that may be applied to a task.

Trigger task rules will have no effect if the component is non-maintainable during the phase of operation during which the
trigger event takes place.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Notes
Optimization

Planned Tasks - Notes


Planned maintenance task notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Up to 24 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to identify a
note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules
Optimization

Planned Tasks - Optimization


Task optimization properties may be accessed from the Optimization tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Number of intervals
The total number of trial intervals during an optimization run.

First interval
The minimum interval to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

Interval increment
The interval increment to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes

Inspection Tasks - General Properties


Task general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Task enabled
If checked the inspection task is enabled. Enabling a task indicates that the task will be performed as part of a routine
maintenance schedule at regular intervals. Disabled inspection tasks will only be performed if a trigger rule initiates the
task.

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Interval
The time interval between each inspection task. If a fixed maintenance interval has been specified the inspection task will
be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of the equipment. Otherwise maintenance will be performed when
the age of the equipment matches the interval value.

Offset
The time offset for the first application of the task during a simulation run. The first inspection will be performed at T + To
where T is the inspection interval and To is the interval offset.

Fixed interval
If checked the inspection task will be performed at regular intervals irrespective of the age of the equipment. If not
checked then maintenance will be performed when the age of the equipment matches the interval value.

Description
A description for the inspection task of no more than 255 characters.

Task ID
An identifier for the inspection task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Task duration
The task duration is the time taken to perform the inspection task. It does not include any equipment start-up delays in
bringing the equipment back on-line. If individual labor and equipment resources are required for shorter or longer
periods than the task duration then the Active time field may be specified when assigning the resource.

Operational cost
The operational cost field provides a method of specifying any costs incurred other than the labor and equipment costs
assigned to the task.

Ramp time
The ramp time is the time required to bring the equipment back 'on-line' over and above the specified task duration.

Minimum age
The minimum age at which the task will be performed for fixed interval tasks. For example, specifying an interval of 2000
hours for a task with minimum age of 8000 hours will indicate the task is not to be performed until the associated
component has aged to 8000 hours. If the task does not result in a reduction in the age of the associated component then
subsequent tasks will be performed at the specified interval of 2000 hours.

Task group
The task group to which the inspection task is assigned. If a task group is assigned to the task some data fields may be
populated from the properties of the task group.

Resources
The Resources list shows the labor categories and equipment required to perform the inspection task. The quantity of
each resource is also displayed in the list. The user can add items to the list by choosing the appropriate Add button
beneath the list. The user may modify existing resource assignments in the list by selecting the Edit button. These
actions will reveal the Assigned Resource Properties dialog. For example, a resource may be selected from the list
extracted from the labor or equipment table and the number of the resource can be entered into the Quantity text box.
In addition, an active time may be entered for both labor and equipment resources. The Active time field indicates the
time period for which the resource is required. If the Set to task duration option is not checked, the active time will be
displayed in brackets to the right of the resource if it differs from the task duration. If the resource is not already defined in
the project then the New button may be used to create a new labor category or equipment. Clicking on the OK button will
dismiss the dialog and place the information in the Resources list.

See Also
Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Notes
Optimization

Inspection Tasks - Advanced Properties

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Task parameters may be accessed from the Advanced tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Condition after maintenance


The condition after maintenance may be specified As good as new, Intermediate or As good as old. If Intermediate is
chosen, the user must specify the associated age reduction factor. Choose As good as new if the equipment will be
replaced by new equipment. Choose As good as old if, for example, a lubrication task is to be performed that has no
effect on the equipment age.

Age reduction factor


The Age reduction factor, , determines the effective age of a component after the maintenance task is completed. A
c
factor of 1 indicates the component is as good as new (age = 0) after maintenance, whereas a factor of 0 indicates the
component is as good as old (age not changed) after maintenance. Intermediate values are used as an approximate
means of representing partial rejuvenation of a component. AWB uses the following expression to determine a
component's age after maintenance:

Age after repair = Age before repair. ( 1 - )


c

Weibull set
The task duration can be obtained directly from historical data analyzed in a Weibull Set. A maintenance task that is linked
to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the Weibull set. As historical data is updated,
Availability Workbench (AWB) will automatically update the distribution parameters for associated maintenance tasks.

Distribution
AWB samples the task duration from the distribution chosen in the Distribution pull-down menu. The four options are
exponential, lognormal, normal and Weibull.

Standard deviation (Normal and Lognormal Distributions)


The standard deviation of the mean task duration for normal and lognormal distributions.

Beta (Weibull Distribution)


The beta parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Gamma (Weibull Distribution)


The gamma parameter for the Weibull distribution.

Operation No
An operation number for the task of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Non-operational during maintenance


If checked indicates that the equipment will be out of service for the duration of the task.

Mandatory task
If checked indicates that the task is mandatory. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is provided for
identification purposes only.

See Also
General Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Notes
Optimization

Inspection Tasks - Predictive Data


Task predictive data properties may be accessed from the Predictive Data tab of the Task Properties dialog.

P-F curve
The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the inspection task will
predict a future failure. Specifying the time difference between the potential failure and inspection point as t and the P-F
interval as tPF , the probability of detecting the potential failure, P, is given by:

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Step Distribution:

where = detection probability

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

for
for

Normal Distribution:

for

for and

Otherwise

= P-F standard deviation.

P-F interval
If a non-zero P-F interval is specified then potential failures may be identified before they actually occur. If a failure is
recognized as about to occur during the simulation process then the program will assume that a planned maintenance
task is to be employed rather than corrective maintenance. If the time difference between the potential failure point and
inspection point is greater than the P-F interval then potential failure will not be recognized. If the time difference is less
than the P-F interval, the failure may be recognized, depending on the P-F detection probability and P-F curve selection
specified by the user.

Detection probability
The probability that the failure will be detected.

P-F std
The standard deviation for a normal distribution P-F curve.

Baseline
The physical baseline value for a test. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is provided for identification
purposes only.

Trigger
The physical value that will trigger a planned maintenance action. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is
provided for identification purposes only.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Rules
Notes
Optimization

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Inspection Tasks - Rules


Task rules may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Rules (AvSim Module Only)


In some circumstances you may wish to inhibit or trigger a task according to the state of the system or the current
operational phase. For example, inspections may not be possible during certain operational phases. Alternatively you may
wish to perform an inspection when a particular system fails.

The Rules list shows the rules that govern the inspection task. Items can be added to the list by choosing the Add button
beneath the list. This action will reveal the Rule Properties dialog. A rule can be selected from the list of four possible
types - Trigger task by phase, Trigger task by state, Inhibit task by phase and Inhibit task by state. For example, if
Trigger task by phase is selected a phase can be chosen from the Phase list to act as a trigger for the inspection task
and a value can be entered for the minimum elapsed time since the task was last performed (or minimum age of the
component if it is not a fixed interval task). If Trigger task by state is selected, a state dependency type may be chosen of
RBD block or Fault tree gate and the identity of the block or gate selected. The state of the block or gate required to
trigger the task must also be selected. In each case a description of the rule is generated automatically from the data input
by the user. For rules that inhibit a task by phase or state the input data is the same except that no minimum elapsed time
need be specified. Clicking on the OK button will dismiss the dialog and place the information in the Rules List. There is
no limit to the number of rules that may be applied to a task.

Trigger task rules will have no effect if the component is non-maintainable during the phase of operation during which the
trigger event takes place.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Notes
Optimization

Inspection Tasks - Notes


Inspection task notes properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Up to 24 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to identify a
note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Optimization

Inspection Tasks - Optimization


Task optimization properties may be accessed from the Optimization tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Number of intervals
The total number of trial intervals during an optimization run.

First Interval
The minimum interval to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

Interval Increment
The interval increment to be used in the interval optimization calculation.

See Also
General Properties
Advanced Properties
Predictive Data
Rules
Notes

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Task Groups - Overview


Task groups are a shared resource between the RCMCost and Avsim modules. They are used to assign a common
scheduled maintenance interval to a group of tasks. They may also be used to assign a common predictive maintenance
strategy to a group of tasks.

Task group intervals may be optimized by selecting the Apply & optimize interval button. The Optimization Plot dialog
will be revealed allowing the user to perform an interval optimization run.

Task groups contain a sub-set of the properties associated with individual tasks. The user may select whether to assign
interval data, predictive data and rules (Avsim module only) to the associated tasks. For example, a predictive task might
involve the inspection of all pumps of a specific kind for excessive vibration using specialized monitoring equipment. The
predictive task parameters could be entered just once as a task group and then the task group could be assigned to the
individual pumps. Any change in the task group parameters would then be reflected in the individual tasks for each pump.

See Also
General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Notes
Tasks
Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals (RCMCost Module)
Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals (AvSim Module)

Task Groups - General Properties


Task group general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Task Group Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the task group category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the task group category. Task Group types are used to organize task groups into groups. If a project
contains many task groups then this will greatly assist in locating a task group in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the task group category of no more than 255 characters.

Assign description
If checked the program will transfer the task group description to each individual task associated with the task group.

Enable associated tasks


If checked the program will enable all tasks associated with the task group. If not checked the program will disable all
tasks associated with the task group.

Assign interval to associated tasks


If checked the program will assign the specified interval to all tasks associated with the task group. It will also assign the
Fixed interval and Interval offset parameters when checked.

Interval
The task group interval.

Fixed interval
When checked indicates that tasks associated with the task group will be performed at a fixed time interval after the
previous application of the scheduled task. If not checked indicates that the interval is age-related, i.e. the task will be
performed when the age of the equipment reaches the value specified as the interval.

Interval offset
The interval offset specifies the time of the first task during a simulation. The first task will be performed at T + To where
T is the task interval and To is the task offset.

Efficiency factor

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The efficiency factor indicates the reduction in individual task durations achieved by performing associated tasks as part of
a task group. During a simulation, associated task durations will be modified by multiplying the specified individual task
duration by the task group efficiency factor. Efficiency factors may be determined using the Task Group Efficiency dialog.

Operational cost
The operational cost associated with the task group. This group cost is apportioned amongst all the associated tasks. The
apportioned value is added to operational costs specified to any individual tasks.

See Also
Overview
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Notes
Tasks

Task Groups - Predictive Data Properties


Task group predictive data may be accessed from the Predictive Data tab of the Task Group Properties dialog.

Assign predictive data to associated tasks


If checked indicates that all the predictive data properties are to be assigned to the associated tasks. Predictive data will
only be effective if the individual tasks assigned to the task group are inspection tasks.

P-F curve
The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the inspection task will
predict a future failure. If we specify the time difference between the potential failure and inspection point as t and the
P-F interval as t then the probability of detecting the potential failure, P , is given by:
PF

Step Distribution:

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

Normal Distribution:

P-F interval
If a non-zero P-F interval is specified then potential failures may be identified before they actually occur. If a failure is
recognized as about to occur during the simulation process then the program will assume that a planned maintenance is
to be employed rather than corrective maintenance. If the time difference between the potential failure point and

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inspection point is greater than the P-F interval then potential failure will not be recognized. If the time difference is less
than the P-F interval, the failure may be recognized, depending on the P-F detection probability and P-F curve selection
specified by the user.

Detection probability
Indicates the probability that the failure will be detected.

P-F std
The standard deviation for the P-F Normal Distribution.

Baseline
The physical baseline value for a test. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is provided for identification
purposes only.

Trigger
The physical value that will trigger a planned maintenance action. This setting will not affect the results of a simulation. It is
provided for identification purposes only.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Rules
Notes
Tasks

Task Groups - Rules


Task group rule properties may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Task Group Properties dialog.

Rules are only applied in the AvSim module. Task group rules are identical to the rule types permitted for planned
maintenance and inspection tasks in the AvSim module. These rules are described in the topics

Planned Maintenance Tasks - Rules


Inspection Tasks - Rules

Assign rules to associated tasks


If checked indicates that the specified rules are to be copied to each associated task. Any existing rules associated with
individual tasks will be overwritten.

Add
Used to add a rule.

Edit
Used to edit a rule.

Remove
Used to remove a rule.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Notes
Tasks

Task Groups - Notes


Task group note properties may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Task Group Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each task group category. Users may customize note headers (the labels
used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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See Also
Overview
General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Tasks

Task Groups - Tasks


The tasks associated with the task group are displayed in the Tasks tab of the Task Group Properties dialog.

Each associated task is displayed along with the location (RCMCost module) or failure model (AvSim module) ID.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Predictive Data Properties
Rules
Notes

Spares - Overview
Spare parts are a shared resource between the RCMCost and AvSim modules and are used to determine the contribution
of spares to life cycle costs. Spares may be assigned to both corrective and planned maintenance tasks and may cause
logistic delays in performing corrective actions.

The AvSim module contains a powerful spare part tracking algorithm that allows spare parts to be traced through three
echelon levels. Echelon level 1 is nearest to the system and may represent spares stored on site for a process plant, or
on board for a ship etc. Level 2 is the next available level and may represent spares stored at a depot, for example.
Level 3 is used to represent the source of the spare (e.g. factory) from which the other echelon levels and system are re-
supplied. The repair shop may be used to re-cycle spares into the echelon hierarchy.

The RCMCost module uses a simpler spare algorithm that assumes that spare allocation delays due to close successive
failures of similar equipments are negligible.

See Also
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop Properties
Notes
Optimization

Spares - General Properties


Spare general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

ID

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A unique identifier for the spares category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the spare. Spare types are used to organize spares into groups. If a project contains many spares
then this will greatly assist in locating a spare in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the spare of no more than 255 characters.

Unit cost
The unit cost represents the capital cost of a spare part. Each time a new spare is used as part of a corrective or planned
maintenance action, the program will add the capital cost of the part to the lifetime purchase cost for spares.

If the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab) then the
initial purchase cost of spare parts held at levels 1 and 2 will be included in the lifetime costs calculated by the program.

Unit volume
The volume taken up by the spare. The volumes associated with spares are summated for the first two echelon levels
during a simulation run.

Unit weight
The weight of the spare. The weights associated with spares are summated for the first two echelon levels during a
simulation run.

See Also
Overview
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

Spares - Level 1 Properties


Spare level 1 properties may be accessed from the Level 1 tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Capacity
The Capacity field indicates the number of the current spare parts that are held at level 1.

Storage cost rate per unit


The Storage cost rate per unit is the cost of storing the spare part per unit per unit time. Alternatively, the storage cost
may be assigned by weight or volume. This facility is accessed via the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Logistic delay time


The Logistic delay time is the time delay in moving the spare part from level 1 storage to the location of the repair or
maintenance task. Alternatively, the Logistic delay time may be assigned to all spares globally. This facility is accessed
via the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

Spares - Level 2 Properties


Spare level 2 properties may be accessed from the Level 2 tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

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Capacity
The Capacity field indicates the number of the current spare parts that are held at level 2.

Storage cost rate per unit


The Storage cost rate per unit is the cost of storing the spare part per unit per unit time. Alternatively, the storage cost
may be assigned by weight or volume. This facility is access via the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Logistic delay time


The Logistic delay time is the time delay in moving the spare part from level 2 storage to the level 1 storage.
Alternatively, the Logistic delay time may be assigned to all spares globally. This facility is accessed via the Project
Options dialog (Spares tab).

Transportation cost
The spare transport cost for unscheduled demands on level 2 spares.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

Spares - Level 3 Properties


Spare level 3 properties may be accessed from the Level 3 tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Limited manufacturing capacity (AvSim module)


If checked indicates that there is a limit to the number of spares that may be manufactured at the same time.

Manufacturing capacity (AvSim module)


The Manufacturing capacity indicates how many spares may be manufactured at the same time.

Logistic delay time


This value indicates how long it takes to transfer a spare from level 3 to level 2. If spares are not available at level 1 or at
level 2 during a simulation then they will be obtained from level 3.

Logistic delay distribution (AvSim module)


If the default Fixed distribution is selected, logistic delays from the manufacturing source will be set at the fixed logistic
delay time. If any of the other distributions (normal, log-normal or exponential) are selected then the logistic delay time will
be randomly sampled from the appropriate distribution. If the normal or lognormal distribution is chosen then the standard
deviation must be entered.

Standard deviation
The standard deviation for normal and lognormal logistic delay distributions.

Minimum reorder quantity (AvSim module)


During a simulation, Availability Workbench will only begin the transfer of a spare part type from level 3 to level 2 if the
minimum reorder quantity condition is met, or if system parts need to be replaced due to failure and existing level 1 and
level 2 stocks cannot satisfy this requirement.

Batch reorder % discount (AvSim module)


This value indicates the percentage discount obtained due to specifying a minimum reorder quantity greater than 1.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties

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Repair Shop
Notes
Optimization

Spares - Repair Shop - AvSim Module


Spare repair shop properties may be accessed from the Repair Shop tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Repair level
Specifies the level at which repaired parts will be returned to the echelon hierarchy. If a level is selected then, during
simulations, Availability Workbench will return spare parts that have been replaced to the repair shop. Repaired parts will
then either be discarded (if they are beyond repair) or returned to the specified echelon level after a repair has been
completed. They are assumed to be as good as new once repaired. Specifying repair shop repairs allows the spares
usage costs for new parts to be reduced during the lifetime of the system.

Cost of repair
The Cost of repair is the cost of repairing a single part.

Mean time to repair


The Mean time to repair is the time taken to remove the part from the operating system, repair the item and then return it
to site or the depot.

Discard %
The Discard % is the percentage of parts that are non-repairable and are therefore discarded.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Notes
Optimization

Spares - Notes
Spare notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each spare. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to identify
a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Optimization

Spares - Optimization - AvSim Module


Spare optimization properties may be accessed from the Optimization tab of the Spare Properties dialog.

Level 1 Capacity Range for Optimization Runs


This range stipulates the minimum and maximum capacity values to try during spares holding optimization runs for level1.

Level 2 Capacity Range for Optimization Runs


This range stipulates the minimum and maximum capacity values to try during spares holding optimization runs for level 2.

Availability Workbench (AWB) will only compare capacity levels within the specified limits during optimization.

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See Also
Overview
General Properties
Level 1 Properties
Level 2 Properties
Level 3 Properties
Repair Shop
Notes

BOMs - Overview

A Bill of Materials (BOM) is simply a list of parts. The parts assigned to a BOM must first be defined in the project Spares
table. BOMs may be assigned to locations in the RCM module and blocks or gates in the AvSim module. Their
functionality is to assist users in selecting the required spares for a corrective or planned maintenance task in the
Resources tab of the Task dialog. For example, if a BOM is assigned to a location in the RCM module, then tasks
attached to causes appearing below the location in the hierarchy will show spares associated with the BOM. If no BOM is
associated with any of the locations above a cause in the location hierarchy, then the program will show all spares
currently defined in the project when selecting resources for maintenance.

See Also
General Properties
Spares
Notes

BOMs - General Properties


BOM general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Bom Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the BOM category of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the BOM category. BOM types are used to organize BOMs into groups. If a project contains many
BOM categories then this will greatly assist in locating a BOM category in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the BOM category of no more than 255 characters.

See Also
Overview
Spares
Notes

BOMs - Spares
BOM spares may be accessed from the Spares tab of the Bom Properties dialog.

Add
The user may associate spares with a BOM by selecting the Add button in the Spares Properties tab of the Bom
Properties dialog. On selecting the Add button the Assigned Resource Properties dialog will appear allowing the user
to specify the spare and quantity to be added to the list. The quantity property determines the number of spares to be
assigned to a maintenance task when selecting from lists in the Resources tab of the Task Properties dialog.

Edit
Used to modify the assigned spare.

Delete
Used to delete the assigned spare.

See Also

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Overview
General Properties
Notes

BOMs - Notes
BOM notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Bom Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each BOM category. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to
identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Spares

Using Types
Many of the objects that constitute an Availability Workbench project may be organized into types. Object types are
provided to allow the user to build an object hierarchy based on type IDs. There is no limit to the number of levels in the
type hierarchy. Organizing objects into types allows the user to easily navigate to an individual object in the project tree
control. AWB provides facilities for creating the following object types:

Effect Type
Spare Type
Labor Type
Equipment Type
Task Group Type
Bom Type
Weibull Set Type
Failure Model Type
Consequence Type
Bitmap Type
Global Variable Type

The example tree structure below shows two spare types ('Mechanical' and 'Assemblies') defined below the Spares node
in the tree control. Two spares are then defined below the 'Assemblies' type.

Each object type has the following properties.

ID
A unique identifier for the object type of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Parent
The parent assigned to the type. The parent is also a type.

Description
A description for the type of no more than 255 characters.

The Failure Distribution Wizard


The Failure Distribution Wizard allows users to define the appropriate distributions representing equipment failures by
answering a few simple questions relating to the failure characteristics of the equipment. The Failure Distribution Wizard
should generally be used when there is insufficient historical data available and engineering experience needs to be
employed. The Failure Distribution Wizard may be accessed by selecting the Wizard button in the Failure tab of the
Cause Properties (RCMCost module) or Failure Model Properties (AvSim Module) dialogs.

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The Failure Distribution Wizard allows the user to specify a series of parameters relating to the infant mortality (wear-
in), random failure (mid-life) and wear-out (ageing) phases for a failure. These three phases define the well-known failure
rate bath tub curve.

The first tab of the Failure Distribution Wizard dialog requests the user to specify whether the failure exhibits random
failure, wear-out and infant mortality characteristics. One or more of these categories may be selected. Depending on the
selections made new tabs will appear in the dialog. The new tabs will relate to random failures, wear-out or infant mortality
depending on which of these phases were selected in the first tab. Each tab is described in turn below.

Random Failures
The user is requested to enter the failure rate for random failures.

Random failures exhibit constant failure rate characteristics. That is a random failure is just as likely to occur in the first
year of operation as it is in the second or third years of operation. Random failures exhibit no infant mortality or wear-out
characteristics. The failure rate value is simply the inverse of the mean time to failure:

If the user has specified that there are no wear-out or infant mortality characteristics then the program uses the
exponential distribution and sets the failure rate to the rate specified by the user. Otherwise the Failure Distribution
Wizard sets the Weibull distribution parameters according to the following expression:

where are the Weibull eta, beta and gamma parameters respectively.

Wear-out
The user is requested to enter the operating age at which wear-out begins and how long after wear-out begins that the
majority of components of this type will have failed. The Failure Distribution Wizard assumes the rate at which the failure
rate increases is linear. The Failure Distribution Wizard sets the Weibull distribution parameters according to the
following expressions.

= time after wear-out begins that the majority of components of this type are expected to have failed due to wear-out

= operating age at which wear-out begins

Infant Mortality
The user is requested to enter the infant mortality period and the mean failure rate during that period. The mean failure
rate must be greater than the random failure rate if one was specified. The Failure Distribution Wizard sets the Weibull
distribution parameters according to the following expressions.

where = difference between the infant mortality rate and random failure rate
= infant mortality period

Example
Consider the following example. Suppose that you consider that there is a 10% probability that a random (non-age-
related) failure of the component will occur during each year of operation. After two years of operation, however, the
component begins to age and from your previous experience most components of this type will fail by the end of the third
year of operation due to ageing. Using the Wizard you should select the Random failure and Wear-out phases in the
Characteristics tab. For the random failure phase you would specify a failure rate of 0.1 failures per year in the Random
Failures tab. For the wear-out phase you would set At what operating age does wear-out begin to 2 years and How
long after the start of wear-out will the majority of components of this type have failed to 1 year in the Wear-out
tab.

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Converting Location, RBD And Fault Tree Structures


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for automatically converting a RCMCost location hierarchy structure to an
AvSim RBD or fault tree structure and vice versa. In addition, users may also convert an AvSim RBD structure to an
AvSim fault tree structure.

Conversion facilities are accessed via the Tools, Convert pull-down menu.

During a conversion between the RCMCost and AvSim modules the program will automatically link cause data to failure
models. For example, after converting the RCMCost location hierarchy to RBD format, the newly created block failure
models will be linked to the associated cause in the location hierarchy.

Links may be accessed via the Edit, Data Links pull-down menu option.

See Also
Linking Causes to Failure Models
Linking Causes To Failure Models
Data links provide a method to link certain parameters in a RCMCost location hierarchy to the equivalent parameters in an
AvSim RBD or fault tree model. More specifically, data links connect data between RCMCost causes and AvSim failure
models.

Once a data link is created between a failure model and a cause any changes in matching parameters (parameters that
exist for the failure model and the cause) can be automatically updated via the link. For example, if a new planned
maintenance task is added to a failure model, this new task will also be added to the linked cause when the data links are
next updated.

Data links may be created and updated by selecting the Edit, Data Links pull-down menu option. Note that when you
convert between a RCMCost hierarchy and a RBD or fault tree structure using the AWB conversion facilities, data links
will automatically be created.

Data Links Dialog

Break selected link(s)


When selected the link or links highlighted in the table view will be broken.

Break all links


When selected all the links defined in the project will be broken.

Update data left to right


When selected the data for each RCM cause (right-hand side of the table view) will be updated with the data from the
linked AvSim failure model (left-hand side of table view).

Update data right to left


When clicked the data for each AvSim failure model (left-hand side of the table view) will be updated with the data from
the linked RCMCost cause (right-hand side of table view).

Failure model
In this drop-down menu the AvSim failure model to be linked is selected.

Cause
In this drop-down menu the RCMCost cause to be linked is selected.

Create link
When selected a link is created between the failure model and cause specified in the adjacent drop-down menus.

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Building The Location Hierarchy


The location hierarchy represents the logical hierarchy of sub-systems and equipments within a system. The location
hierarchy is displayed in the RCMCost project tree in the left-hand window. The location hierarchy is also used to identify
equipment functions, functional failure modes and causes. Causes are alternatively referred to as failure modes.

In the context of the RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) the term location is used to represent both the
location of sub-systems and equipments. Intermediate locations in the location hierarchy (those which have other
locations underneath them) represent sub-systems, whereas locations that form the roots of the hierarchy diagram
represent a distinct item of equipment such as a pump or a valve, which are the smallest items of equipment considered
from an operational point of view. These equipment locations will have one or more functions, functional failures and
causes. Each cause will be associated with a maintenance policy.

Each distinct equipment location will have one or more functions. Usually an equipment will have a primary function (such
as stopping flow in the case of a valve) and one or more secondary functions (such as containment) that may be safety
related.

Each equipment function will have one or more functional failure. A functional failure may be defined as the inability of the
equipment to perform a function to the required standard. More than one functional failure mode may be associated with
the same function. For example total loss of function and partial loss of function may be considered as 2 distinct functional
failures.

Each functional failure may have one or more root cause. These causes are referred to as engineering failure modes in
some standards and constitute the actual physical causes of failure. Some examples of causes (engineering failure
modes) are:

seal leakage
piping cracked
motor burnt out
insulation breakdown
corrosion

The system locations, equipment locations, functions, functional failures and causes are all defined and connected in the
location hierarchy which is displayed in the project tree when the RCMCost module is selected.

Adding Locations
A location may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Location pull-down menu option or by using
the equivalent toolbar button. A location may also be added by copying and pasting or dragging and dropping a location
from elsewhere in the hierarchy or from a library.

The Location Properties dialog will be displayed allowing the following properties to be modified.

ID
A unique identifier for the location of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the location of no more than 255 characters.

Quantity
The quantity of the equipment associated with the location. Quantity values will affect simulated project costs and
availability values.

Bom
The Bom with which the location is associated.

Location type
Users may specify a location type for the location. Location types can be assigned different symbols so the different
location types may be easily identified in the location hierarchy.

Equipment type
The type or class of equipment associated with the location. Equipment types will normally only be assigned at the lowest
level in the location hierarchy. In RCMCost equipment types are used to identify a class of equipment tool used for repair
(e.g. cranes) or a class of operating or standby equipment contained within the location hierarchy (e.g. centrifugal pumps).
Identifying equipment types in the location hierarchy is often useful when uploading data to ERP systems using one of the
ERP portals.

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Criticality ranking
The criticality ranking assigned to the location.

Notes Fields
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by the user in the
Project Options dialog.

Adding Functions
A function may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Function pull-down menu option or by using
the equivalent toolbar button. A function may also be added by copying and pasting or dragging and dropping a function
from elsewhere in the hierarchy or from a library.

The Function Properties dialog will be displayed allowing the following properties to be modified.

ID
A unique identifier for the function of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the function of no more than 255 characters.

Adding Functional Failures


A functional failure may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Functional Failure pull-down menu
option or by using the equivalent toolbar button. A functional failure may also be added by copying and pasting or
dragging and dropping a functional failure from elsewhere in the hierarchy or from a library.

The Functional Failure Properties dialog will be displayed allowing the following properties to be modified.

ID
A unique identifier for the functional failure of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the functional failure of no more than 255 characters.

Adding Causes
A cause may be added to the hierarchy by selecting the Add, Resource, Cause pull-down menu option or by using the
equivalent toolbar button. A cause may also be added by copying and pasting or dragging and dropping a cause from
elsewhere in the hierarchy or from a library.

For further information regarding causes see the section entitled Assigning Causes.
Location Types
Location types are used to identify different types of location in the location hierarchy diagram. The location hierarchy
diagram is part of the tree control displayed in the left-hand window. Location types may be assigned to a location in the
Location Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the location type of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the location type of no more than 255 characters.

Image
The image to display in the tree control for locations associated with the location type.

Criticality Rankings - Overview


Criticality rankings are used to grade locations and equipments according to their associated costs and safety, operational
and environmental impact. Ranking locations and equipments in this way allows users to prioritize the RCM process.

Criticality rankings may be assigned manually to locations and equipments or they may be assigned automatically based
on the results of a system simulation. They may also be downloaded from the user's ERP system using one of the ERP

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Portals (using direct criticality assignments in the ERP system or by analyzing maintenance notifications in the ERP
system). Ideally the RCM process will include the following steps:

Download location, equipment and resource data from the ERP system
Analyze maintenance work order data in the ERP system to identify critical equipments
Refine the RCMCost system model and perform optimization studies on critical equipments
Upload new maintenance plans
Re-assign criticality rankings based on RCMCost simulations where appropriate

Criticality rankings must be created in a project before assigning them to locations. You can create them manually or
assign default rankings from the Criticality Rankings dialog. This dialog is revealed when the Edit, Criticality Rankings
pull-down menu option is selected in the RCMCost module. Alternatively, you can download existing criticality rankings
from your ERP system using one of the ERP portals.

Criticality rankings may then be assigned to locations at any level from within the Location Properties dialog. They may
also be assigned automatically from within one of the ERP portals or after a full system simulation has been performed (if
the Automatically assign criticality rankings option is set on in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog).

See Also
Properties

Criticality Rankings - Properties


Criticality rankings may be created from the Criticality Rankings dialog. Their properties may also be changed from
within this dialog. The Criticality Rankings dialog is revealed when the Edit, Criticality Rankings pull-down menu option
is selected in the RCMCost module. The Criticality Rankings dialog is described below.

New criticality rankings may be added to a project by selecting the Add New Ranking button. The Add Defaults button
will automatically create a default set of rankings. Rankings are removed from a project by selecting the Delete Selected
Ranking(s) button. Rankings should be ordered with the most severe ranking in the first row of the grid and the least
severe ranking on the last row of the grid. The order of criticality rankings may be changed by selecting a single ranking
and then selecting the Move Up or Move Down buttons.

The properties of existing criticality rankings may be changed by selecting the appropriate grid cell and typing the new
property value. A highlight font may be assigned to each ranking. The highlight font will be used to identify the criticality of
locations in the project tree control. To modify a highlight font select the appropriate criticality ranking in the grid and then
select the Change Highlight Font button. To revert to the default font select the Set Font to Default button.

ID and Description Properties


Criticality rankings are uniquely identified by their ID. A description should also be specified for each ranking.

AWB Assignment Criteria


The AWB assignment criteria properties are used to determine which criticality ranking to automatically assign to a
location after a system simulation has been performed. Criticality rankings will only be automatically assigned in this way if
the Automatically assign criticality rankings option is set on in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog. The
cost and criticality values entered in the grid control are lower-bound values that determine the ranking for an individual
equipment. If any of these values are met or exceeded by an equipment then it will be assigned that ranking. The values
are checked starting with the first row of the grid. The first row of the grid should therefore represent the most severe
criticality ranking and subsequent rows should have cost and severity values that decrease from one row to the next.

ERP Assignment Criteria


The AWB assignment criteria properties are used to determine which criticality ranking to automatically assign to a
location when analyzing maintenance work order data from within an ERP portal. A ranking will be assigned to an
equipment if the effect specified matches the ID of an effect attached to an equipment in the ERP system. The other
values entered in the grid control are lower-bound values that determine the ranking for an individual equipment. If any of
these values are met or exceeded by an equipment in the ERP system then it will be assigned that ranking int the AWB
project. The values are checked starting with the first row of the grid. The first row of the grid should therefore represent
the most severe criticality ranking and subsequent rows should have values that decrease from one row to the next.

See Also
Overview

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Causes - Overview
The properties of each cause (a cause is often referred to as the failure mode of an equipment) define the likelihood that
the cause will occur and the resources and costs associated with maintaining the equipment in relation to the cause.
Cause properties also indicate the effects associated with a functional failure when initiated by the specified cause.

Typical examples of causes of an equipment failure might be seal leakage, worn brushes, and valve stuck open.

Causes are attached to functional failures in the location hierarchy. To assign a cause select a functional failure symbol
from the tree control followed by selection of the Add, Resource, Cause pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
option. Alternatively, right click on a functional failure in the tree control and select Add Cause from the pop-up menu. A
dialog will appear allowing the user to edit the cause properties. Note that the program will only allow causes to be created
underneath functional failure symbols in the location hierarchy of the project tree control.

See Also
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

Causes - General Properties


Cause general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the cause of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Description
A description for the cause of no more than 255 characters.

Detection method
This field describes the method used to detect the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are allowed.

Compensating provisions
This field describes the compensating provisions for the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are allowed.

Remarks
This is a descriptive field of up to 2000 characters.

Highlight text
Setting the Highlight text check box will result in the highlight font being used for the text appearing alongside the cause
in the location hierarchy in the tree control. The highlight font may be set in the Fonts tab of the Application Options
dialog.

See Also
Overview
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

Causes - Failure
Cause failure properties may be accessed from the Failure tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Weibull set

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Users may link a failure model to a Weibull set created in the Weibull Analysis Module of Availability Workbench (AWB). A
cause that is linked to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the Weibull set. This
allows users to analyze historical failure data and directly connect this data to the cause failure model. As historical data is
updated, AWB will automatically update the distribution parameters for the associated causes.

Distribution
The Distribution combo-box specifies the failure distribution to be associated with the cause. Options are

Exponential
Weibull
Bi-Weibull
Tri-Weibull
Fixed
Lognormal
Normal
Buffer [should not be used in RCMCost module included for AvSim module compatibility only]
Phased Bi-Weibull
Phased Tri-Weibull

These distributions are used in the Monte Carlo simulation to sample times to failure of the component.

The exponential distribution represents the case where the failure rate is constant over time. The user inputs the inverse
of the failure rate in the Mean time to failure text box. The cumulative failure distribution at time t is given by

where l = constant failure rate

The Weibull options relate to the number of three-parameter Weibull distributions to be used to sample the time to failure
of the component. The user can choose to have one, two or three distributions that are then combined to represent the
three failure modes in the well-known bathtub curve for the failure rate of a component. The first mode represents early
failures during the 'burn-in' period, the second mode is the 'useful-life' period when the failures are random and the final
mode is the 'wear-out' mode for which the failure rate rises. In the RCMCost module the user has the option of choosing to
model one, two or three of the bathtub periods. The user can input the values for the three-parameter Weibull distribution
for the chosen modes. The cumulative failure distribution at time t for the three-parameter Weibull distribution is given by

where h = characteristic life parameter (Eta in the dialog)


b = shape parameter (Beta in the dialog)
g = location parameter (Gamma in the dialog)

The fixed distribution is intended for use when the time to failure is definitely known. The user is required to enter a fixed
time to failure if this distribution is selected.

If the user chooses the lognormal or normal distributions then the user will be expected to enter a mean time to failure and
standard deviation.

The buffer distribution model is included for data transfer compatibility with the AvSim module. It should not be used in the
RCMCost module.

For the exponential, lognormal and normal distributions the user must supply the value of the mean time to failure.

Distribution Wizard Button


Selection of the Distribution Wizard Button will reveal the Failure Distribution Wizard dialog.

Distribution Wizard Button :

Standard deviation
If either a lognormal or normal distribution is selected then the standard deviation must be entered.

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Eta, Beta and Gamma


The characteristic lifetime (eta), shape (beta) and the time shift (gamma) parameters need to be entered if a Weibull
distribution has been chosen for the task.

Non-operating failure apportionment (%)


The non-operating failure apportionment indicates how the failure rates of components associated with the failure model
will be adjusted when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50% indicates that the failure rate should be
halved or mean time to failure doubled when it is non-operational. The Operating time factor parameter indicates the
fraction of the system lifetime during which the component is operational.

Non-operating ageing apportionment (%)


The non-operating ageing apportionment indicates how the age of components associated with the failure model will be
adjusted when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50% indicates that the component ages at only half the
normal rate when it is non-operational. The Operating time factor parameter indicates the fraction of the system lifetime
during which the component is operational.

Initial age
The initial age indicates the age of the equipment at the beginning of the simulation life cycle. If the RCMCost project
represents a system that is currently in operation, then items which show ageing characteristics should have their initial
age (at the beginning of the simulation life cycle) specified.

Operating time factor


The operating time factor indicates the fraction of the system lifetime during which the component is operational. Specified
failure effects will only be applicable when the component is operational. If the failure mode will always result in the
specified effects then this factor should be set to 1. If the system operates in different phases, and the effects of failure are
only applicable during certain phases then this value should indicate the ratio of applicable phase time lengths to the total
lifetime:

where p0 = operating time factor


tA = sum of applicable phase time lengths
tL = system lifetime

Dormant failure
If the Dormant failure check box is selected, failed equipments will not be repaired until after an inspection or planned
maintenance task takes place. This flag should be set for standby components that are only required to operate on
demand and whose failures remain hidden until an inspection takes place.

Demand frequency
This parameter is only used if the Dormant failure check box is selected. Hidden failures will only produce the specified
effects when a demand is placed upon the associated component. In order to determine the frequency of these effects the
program needs to know the demand frequency.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

Causes - Maintenance
Cause maintenance properties may be accessed from the Maintenance tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

The maintenance tasks assigned to a cause are categorized into one of three possible types corrective tasks, planned
maintenance tasks and inspection tasks.

Corrective tasks are performed when a random failure takes place or when an inspection reveals a hidden failure.

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Planned maintenance tasks may be performed at fixed intervals or when the age of an equipment reaches a given value.
Planned maintenance may involve the replacement of ageing equipment or minor tasks such as lubrication. Planned
maintenance may also be performed when an inspection predicts that a failure is about to occur (predictive maintenance).

Inspection tasks may be performed at fixed intervals or when the age of an equipment reaches a given value. Inspection
tasks are performed to detect an imminent failure (and hence allow a planned maintenance task to be scheduled to
prevent the failure) or to detect a dormant (hidden) failure. Hidden failures are normally associated with standby
equipment.

Copying Tasks from a Task Library


You may copy tasks from an attached library by selecting the Copy Task From Library button. If you wish to copy a task
from elsewhere in the current project select the Use current project option and then select the Copy Task From Project
button. If you prefer to filter tasks using the task group hierarchy then first select the Use task group hierarchy button. If
you have multiple libraries attached you will also need to select the appropriate library from the Task library combo-box.

For more information on how to create task libraries see the Task Library section.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Failure
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

Causes - Alarm
Cause alarm properties may be accessed from the Alarm tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Monitoring equipment may be installed to automatically indicate a failure is about to occur without relying on an inspection
by a maintenance crew.

Install condition alarm


Indicates that a condition alarm has been installed

P-F curve
The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the condition alarm will
predict a future failure, and if so, when. The P-F curve determines the warning time provided by the alarm before the
actual failure. The probability density function for the detection warning time is given by:

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

for

for

Step Distribution:

for

for

P-F interval

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The P-F interval for the alarm. The P-F interval provides a measure of the warning time given by the alarm for a future
random failure of the component.

Detection probability
Indicates the probability that the alarm will detect the failure.

Capital cost
The capital cost of the alarm for the system lifetime.

Cost rate
The cost rate associated with the alarm over the system lifetime.

Description
A description of the alarm of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

SCADA tag ID
A SCADA tag identifier of up to 40 alpha-numeric characters.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Commission
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

Causes - Commission
Cause commission properties may be accessed from the Commission tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Commissioning a component eliminates wear-in failures and is appropriate where the Weibull distribution indicates high
failure rates during the early life of a component. Commissioning effectively sets the age of the component to the
commissioning interval when it is installed in the system.

Commission
Indicates that commissioning will be performed.

Period
Indicates the length of the commissioning interval.

Cost per commission


The cost every time a component is commissioned.

Cost rate
The cost rate associated with the commissioning interval.

Description
A description of the commissioning details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Redesign
Notes
Strategy

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Causes - Redesign
Cause redesign properties may be accessed from the Redesign tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Redesign
Indicates that redesign is required.

Redesign Capital Cost


The capital cost of redesign.

Cost Rate
The cost rate associated with redesign over the system lifetime.

Description
A description of the redesign details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Notes
Strategy

Causes - Notes
Cause notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note headers (the labels
used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Strategy

Causes - Strategy
Cause strategy properties may be accessed from the Strategy tab of the Cause Properties dialog.

The Strategy tab is used to record maintenance strategies and design decisions. Before these decisions are made you
may obtain advisory information by selecting the Evaluate button.

The evaluate button:

On selecting this button Availability Workbench will perform a lifetime simulation to determine the cost, safety, operational
and environmental consequences directly associated with the cause. These costs and consequences take into account
the current strategy specified by the Enabled check boxes and failure and maintenance parameters associated with the
cause. You may therefore experiment with various options to determine the associated costs and consequences.

The results of a simulation are displayed as

Cost
Cost Benefit Ratio (CBR)
Safety Criticality

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Safety Benefit Ratio (SBR)


Operational Criticality
Operational Benefit Ratio (OBR)
Environmental Criticality
Environmental Benefit Ratio (EBR)
Failure down time
Number Lifetime Failures
PM down time
Number Lifetime PMs
Inspection down time
Number Lifetime Inspections
Statistical Error in TDT
Statistical Error in Cost
Mean Unavailability
Outage Frequency

Criticality values represent the severity of the effects associated with the cause combined with its frequency of occurrence.
The cost, safety, environmental and operational benefit ratios are defined as follows:

A cost benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a cost point of view.

A safety benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a safety point of view.

An operational benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an operational point
of view.

An environmental benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an environmental
point of view.

You may abort a simulation at any time by selecting the Stop button.

The Stop button:

See Also
Overview
General Properties
Failure
Maintenance
Alarm
Commission
Redesign
Notes

Effects - Overview
In RCM terminology an effect specifies the consequences of a failure. Typical examples of effects might be

50% loss of production

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Hazardous material released into the atmosphere


Loss of mission
Fire starts

Effects are assigned to the causes (failure modes) defined in an RCMCost project. Some effects (usually hazardous
effects) will require more than one failure to occur before the effect will take place as protective systems will usually be
provided in the system design. Where this is the case redundancy factors may be associated with the effect when
assigning the effect to a cause.

One of the powerful features of the RCMCost module is its ability to evaluate the collective effects of a cause when
providing advisory information to the user. These effects may have cost, safety, environmental or operational
consequences and the same effect may be repeated for many of the different causes defined in the location hierarchy
diagram.

Effects may be assigned within the Cause Properties dialog (Effects tab). The Cause Properties dialog is revealed
when adding a new cause to the location hierarchy or by selecting the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option for an
existing cause. This dialog contains a list of effects already assigned to the cause. Effects may be assigned by selecting
the Add button. A list of available effects will be revealed in a second dialog. These effects may be selected and
assigned to the cause.

See Also
Effects Properties
Assigning Effects to Causes

Effects Properties
Effect properties may be accessed from the Effect Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the effect of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the effect. Effect types are used to organize effects into groups. If a project contains many effects
then this will greatly assist in locating an effect in the tree control structure.

Description
A text description of up to 255 characters

Cost per occurrence


The cost per occurrence indicates the fixed cost incurred every time the effect takes place.

Safety severity per occurrence


The safety severity per occurrence is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity weighting of
different effects. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no safety consequences.

Operational severity per occurrence


The operational severity per occurrence is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity weighting
of different effects. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no operational consequences.

Operational consequences do not include direct cost consequences which are covered by the cost rate and cost per
occurrence parameters but may be used to represent product quality consequences in a manufacturing plant or loss of a
weapons system on a military aircraft or passenger discomfort due to the unavailability of an air-conditioning system etc.

Environmental severity per occurrence


The environmental severity per occurrence is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity
weighting of different effects. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no environmental
consequences.

Cost rate
The cost rate indicates the estimated cost per unit time due to the occurrence of the effect.

Safety severity rate

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The safety severity rate is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity weighting of different
effects per unit time. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no safety consequences.

Operational severity rate


The operational severity rate is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity weighting of different
effects per unit time. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no operational consequences.

Operational consequences do not include direct cost consequences which are covered by the cost rate and cost per
occurrence parameters but may be used to represent product quality consequences in a manufacturing plant or loss of a
weapons system on a military aircraft or passenger discomfort due to the unavailability of an air-conditioning system etc.

Environmental severity rate


The environmental severity rate is represented by a positive number that indicates the relative severity weighting of
different effects per unit time. A value of zero may be entered to indicate that the effect has no environmental
consequences.

Notes Fields
Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by the user in the
Project Options dialog.

See Also
Overview
Assigning Effects to Causes

Assigning Effects To Causes


Effects are assigned to causes by selecting the Add button in the Effects tab of the Cause Properties dialog. The
Assigned Effect Properties dialog will be revealed allowing an existing effect to be chosen. Alternatively, a new effect
can be created using the New button. The dialog also allows the user to specify redundancy factors if the effect only
takes place if other events occur (e.g. protective system failures). Redundancy factors are usually required when defining
safety-related or environmental effects. Users may also specify whether an effect applies to failures, planned maintenance
and inspections.

Applies to failures
Select this check-box if the effect will apply when a failure takes place.

Applies to planned maintenance


Select this check-box if the effect will apply when a planned maintenance task takes place.

Applies to inspections
Select this check-box if the effect will apply when an inspection task takes place.

Redundancy factor
One of the restrictions of using standard FMECA techniques to predict the frequency and duration of system effects is the
difficulty in modelling the effects of redundancy. Other techniques, such as RBD and fault tree analysis, are more adapted
to analyzing redundancy and the associated complications such as common cause failures. However, the RCMCost
module has a powerful feature that allows the effects of redundancy to be modelled via the use of redundancy factors.

When assigning effects to a cause the RCMCost module allows the user to specify a redundancy factor for each effect.
The redundancy factor indicates whether a cause will produce the assigned effect on its own or whether other concurrent
failures will need to occur for the effect to take place. A redundancy factor often needs to be determined if the effect is a
hazardous effect as there will almost certainly be protective systems in place to mitigate against failures which would lead
to a hazard.

If the cause will produce the assigned effect without other concurrent failures taking place then the default value of 1
should be assigned to the redundancy factor. If the cause will only produce the assigned effect when other concurrent
failures occur (e.g. a protective component is unavailable) then a factor of between 0 and 1 should be applied.

A redundancy factor represents the probability that the cause will produce the assigned effect. For example, suppose we
were analyzing the failure cause pump failure in a production system. This failure might lead to a system outage. There
may be standby pumps available to perform the same function as the failed pump. Only if the standby pumps were to fail
would there be a system outage. In such a case the unavailability redundancy factor should be set to the estimated
probability that the standby pumps would not work on demand. So, if the probability of failure of the standby pumps was
estimated to be 0.0001, the redundancy factor should be set to 0.0001.

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Redundancy factor wizard


If there is more than one standby component in place, then the redundancy factor must represent the probability that all
the standby components fail to mitigate against the failure. The RCMCost module provides a Redundancy Factor Wizard
for automatically determining the redundancy factors to be assigned to an effect in such circumstances. The Redundancy
Factor Wizard requires the user to enter the following parameters:

Number of additional components in parallel


Number required to be operating
Fractional down-time of each additional component

Not that the Redundancy Factor Wizard only provides the redundancy factor for components with the same failure
probability.

To illustrate the use of the Redundancy Factor Wizard consider the example sub-system illustrated by the block diagram
above. The sub-system consists of three identical pumps. For the sub-system to be available two out of the three pumps
must be working. Each pump fails on average every 10000 hours and remains out of service for 10 hours. The fractional
down-time for each pump is therefore 10/10000 = 0.001. Therefore the Number of additional components in parallel
value should be set to 2, the Number required to be operating should be set to 1 (only one of the additional pumps
needs to be working) and the Fractional down-time of each additional component should be set to 0.001.

See Also
Overview
Effects Properties

Performing a Simulation - Overview


To obtain system profiles relating to all the causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy you will first need to perform a
system simulation run. To start a system simulation run select the Simulation, Start pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button. As the simulation run progresses Availability Workbench will display a progress bar at the bottom of the
main window. You may terminate a simulation run prematurely by selecting the Simulation, Stop pull-down menu option
or equivalent toolbar button. In order to view the system results, however, you must complete all the simulations for all
the causes in the location hierarchy.

Once a system simulation is completed you may view cost, labor, equipment, spare and effect profiles by selecting the
Plot option in the Right window mode selector list above the right-hand window

A summary of life cycle costs and other parameters may be viewed by selecting the Simulation, Results Summary pull-
down menu option.

Model Integrity Validation


Before performing a system simulation run in the RCMCost module, Availability Workbench (AWB) will validate data to
ensure that the model data specified by the user is valid.

If any fatal errors are encountered then AWB will display the Model Integrity Verification dialog which lists the errors.
Objects directly associated with an error may be edited by selecting the error message in the list and then selecting the
Edit button.

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Simulation Results - Life Costs


Life costs are available for the RCMCost module once a system simulation has been completed. Life costs are determined
from all the causes in the location hierarchy.

To view a summary of life costs select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Life Costs tab from within this dialog.

If net present value (NPV) cost calculations have been applied during the simulation (users may request a NPV
calculation in the NPV tab of the Project Options dialog) then NPV life cost values will be displayed.

By default life cost totals are displayed in the Results Summary dialog. To obtain more detailed cost information select
the Detailed life costs check-box.

Detailed life costs also include calculated criticality values summated over all causes. Criticality values represent the
severity of the effects associated with the cause combined with its frequency of occurrence.

Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the following summary lifetime cost parameters:

Total labor costs


Total corrective labor costs
Total planned labor costs
Total inspection labor costs
Total equipment costs
Total corrective equipment costs
Total planned equipment costs
Total inspection equipment costs
Total spare purchase costs
Corrective spare purchase costs
Planned spare purchase costs
Spare storage costs
Total effect costs
Corrective effect costs
Planned effect costs
Inspection effect costs
Alarm costs
Total operational costs
Corrective operational costs
Planned operational costs
Inspection operational costs
Commission costs
Redesign costs
Total costs
Safety criticality
Operational criticality
Environmental criticality
Spares volume level 1
Spares volume level 2
Spares weight level 1
Spares weight level 2

Parameters at the first level above appear in the life costs summary regardless of whether the Detailed life costs box is
checked. Those listed at the second level only appear when the box is checked.

Each of the above parameters are mean values calculated from repeated lifetime simulations.

Labor and equipment costs are determined from the call-out cost and cost rate parameters specified by the user for each
labor category and equipment type.

Spares purchase costs are determined by applying the capital cost of each spare type to the number of spares required
during corrective and planned maintenance tasks. In addition, this will include the initial purchase cost of the spares held
in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

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Spares storage costs are determined by applying the storage costs of spares to the storage capacity values entered by
the user at site and at depot.

Operational costs are determined by applying the operational costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks to the
number of tasks performed during the simulation.

Effect costs are computed by summating the costs originating from all effects. Effects costs are determined from the
following expressions:

where C = effect cost over lifetime


CR = effect cost rate
C0 = effect cost per occurrence
T = total effect duration over lifetime
N = expected number of occurrences for effect over the lifetime

Total costs are a simple summation of all the costs described above.

Spares volumes and weights represent the total volume and weight of all spares stored at the appropriate echelon level.

See Also
Performing a Simulation - Overview

Simulation Results - Causes


Individual cause prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data includes the down
time due to corrective and scheduled maintenance as well as cost contributions due to the use of labor, equipment and
spares. Benefit ratios are also displayed indicating the effectiveness of the assigned maintenance strategy.

To view a summary of predicted cause data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Causes tab from within this dialog.
Then select one of the causes in the top list to view results for that cause.

Definitions for each of the parameters are given below.

Mean unavailability
The mean unavailability is defined as the expected fractional time the component will be out-of-service over its lifetime
(the total time it is out-of-service divided by the total system lifetime).

Number of failures
This is the total number of failures of the component over the system lifetime.

Number of PMs
This is the total number of planned maintenance tasks performed on the component over the system lifetime.

Number of inspections
This is the total number of inspection tasks performed on the component over the system lifetime.

Total failure down time


This is the total down time of the component due to failures.

Total PM down time


The total PM down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that component caused by
planned maintenance actions.

Total inspection down time


The total inspection down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that component caused
by inspection tasks.

Cost benefit ratio


The cost benefit ratio is defined as

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A cost benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified for the cause are worthwhile from a cost point of
view.

Safety criticality
Safety and other criticality values are determined from the frequency and duration of the effects of the cause. They are
calculated from the expression below.

where
= criticality
=severity rate
= severity per occurrence
= mean duration of effect over lifetime
= number of effect occurrences over lifetime

Safety benefit ratio


The safety benefit ratio is defined as

A safety benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from a safety point of view.

Operational criticality
Operational and other criticality values are determined from the frequency and duration of the effects of the cause. See
the expression described above for Safety criticality.

Operational benefit ratio


The operational benefit ratio is defined as

An operational benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an operational point
of view.

Environmental criticality
Environmental and other criticality values are determined from the frequency and duration of the effects of the cause. See
the expression described above for Safety criticality.

Environmental benefit ratio


The environmental benefit ratio is defined as

An environmental benefit ratio less than 1 indicates that the tasks/alarms specified are worthwhile from an environmental
point of view.

Spare cost contribution


The contribution to spare costs from corrective and scheduled maintenance associated with the cause.

Labor cost contribution


The contribution to labor costs due to corrective and scheduled maintenance tasks associated with the cause.

Equipment cost contribution


The contribution to equipment costs due to corrective and scheduled maintenance tasks associated with the cause.

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Operational cost contribution


The contribution to operational costs due to corrective and scheduled maintenance tasks associated with the cause.

Alarm cost contribution


The contribution to alarm costs due to the alarm assigned to the cause.

Commission cost contribution


The contribution to commissioning costs due to commissioning activities associated with the cause.

Redesign cost contribution


The contribution to redesign costs due to redesign activities associated with the cause.

Effect cost contribution


The contribution to costs due to the effects associated with the cause.

Total cost contribution


The total contribution to costs due to the cause.

See Also
Performing a Simulation - Overview

Simulation Results - Effects


Individual effect prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data includes the duration
of the effect due to corrective and scheduled maintenance associated with all the causes as well as cost data. Criticality
values are also displayed. Criticality values represent the severity of the effect combined with its frequency of occurrence.

To view a summary of predicted effect data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Effects tab from within this dialog.
Then select one of the effects in the list to view results for that effect.

Definitions for each of the effect parameters are given below.

Duration due to corrective tasks


This is the effect duration over the lifetime due to corrective task outages.

Duration due to planned tasks


This is the effect duration over the lifetime due to planned task outages.

Duration due to inspection tasks


This is the effect duration over the lifetime due to inspection task outages.

Occurrences due to corrective tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to corrective task outages.

Occurrences due to planned tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to planned task outages.

Occurrences due to inspection tasks


This is the number of occurrences due to inspection task outages.

Total cost
The total cost over the lifetime for effects is given by:

where C = effect cost over the lifetime


CR = effect cost rate
C0 = effect cost per occurrence

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= effect duration over the lifetime


= number of occurrences of the effect over the lifetime

Criticality

where X = effect criticality over the lifetime


SR = effect severity rate
S0 = effect severity per occurrence
= effect duration over the lifetime
= number of occurrences of the effect over the lifetime

The above expression applies to safety, operational and environmental criticality values.

See Also
Performing a Simulation - Overview

Simulation Results - Spares


Individual spare prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data includes usage
numbers due to corrective and planned maintenance as well as cost data.

To view a summary of predicted spare data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Spares tab from within this dialog.
Selection of a spare part in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the spare parameters are given below.

Total number used


The mean number of the spare used during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for corrective tasks


The mean number of the spare used for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for planned tasks


The mean number of the spare used for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Total cost
This is the total cost incurred by the system due to spare usage and storage.

Total purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare during the lifetime of the system. This value is obtained by multiplying the
mean number used by the capital cost of the spare part. In addition, this will include the initial purchase cost of the
spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog
(Spares tab).

Corrective purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system. This
value is obtained by multiplying the mean number used for corrective tasks by the capital cost of the spare part. In
addition, this will include the initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs
check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Planned purchase cost


The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system. This value
is obtained by multiplying the mean number used for planned tasks by the capital cost of the spare part.

Storage cost
The cost of storing the spare at echelon levels 1 and 2 during the lifetime of the system.

See Also

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Performing a Simulation - Overview

Simulation Results - Labor


Individual labor category prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data includes the
active time due to corrective and scheduled maintenance as well as labor costs. The number of tasks performed using
the labor category over the system lifetime is also predicted.

To view a summary of predicted labor data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Labor tab from within this dialog.
Selection of a labor category in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the labor parameters are given below.

Total active time


The estimated total time the labor category will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Planned active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Inspection active time


The estimated time the labor category will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Total no of tasks
The estimated number of tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks
The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of planned tasks
The estimated number of planned tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of inspection tasks
The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

Total cost
The total cost associated with calling out the selected labor category over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for corrective tasks over the system lifetime.

Planned cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for planned tasks over the system lifetime.

Inspection cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for inspection tasks over the system lifetime.

See Also
Performing a Simulation - Overview

Simulation Results - Equipment


Individual equipment prediction data is available once a system simulation has been completed. This data includes the
active time due to corrective and scheduled maintenance as well as equipment usage costs. The number of tasks
associated with the equipment over the system lifetime is also predicted.

To view a summary of predicted equipment data select the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Results Summary dialog will be displayed. Select the Equipment tab from within this

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dialog. Selection of an equipment in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the equipment parameters are given below.

Total active time


The estimated total time the equipment will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Planned active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Inspection active time


The estimated time the equipment will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Total no of tasks
The estimated number of tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks
The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of planned tasks
The estimated number of planned tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of inspection tasks
The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

Total cost
The total cost associated with calling out the selected equipment over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for corrective tasks over the system lifetime.

Planned cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for planned tasks over the system lifetime.

Inspection cost
The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for inspection tasks over the system lifetime.

See Also
Performing a Simulation - Overview

Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for optimizing planned maintenance and inspection intervals either for
individual tasks or for groups of tasks identified by a task group. To access these facilities click the Interval Optimization
button in the Cause Properties dialog, Strategy tab (for individual tasks) or click the Apply & optimize interval button in
the Task Group Properties dialog (for groups of tasks identified by the same task group). On selecting either of these
options AWB will open the PM Optimization Plot dialog. On selecting the yellow traffic light toolbar button in the dialog
AWB will simulate the behavior of the task or task group and predict unavailability values, costs and criticality values
associated with the task or task group for a variety of different planned maintenance or inspection intervals. If these
options are being selected from the Cause Properties dialog then intervals will be varied for a single task only. If these
options are being selected from the Task Group dialog then intervals will be varied for all the tasks associated with the
task group. A plot will be displayed showing the simulation results.

Comparison plots will reveal whether planned and inspection tasks are worthwhile. In addition the plots allow the user to
compare costs and criticality values at the same time. The decision on which interval to employ can therefore be based on
minimum cost whilst also meeting safety or operational requirements.

The accuracy of the simulation results may be increased by increasing the number of simulations performed. This may be

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done via the Project Options dialog (Simulation tab).

Note that the optimization curves for planned maintenance tasks take into consideration any additional strategies currently
specified in the Strategy tab of the Cause Properties dialog. For example, if an inspection task is defined and enabled in
the Maintenance and design strategy list it will be assumed that the inspection task will be performed in addition to the
planned task. Similarly, optimization curves for inspection tasks will also take into account the current strategy settings for
other scheduled tasks.

Interval Range Specification


The scale of the optimization plot x-axis may be modified by the user by selecting the Interval Range Specification
button in the Optimization Plot dialog. A dialog will be revealed allowing the user to specify

Number of intervals (2 to 50)


Initial interval
Interval Increment

The initial interval will determine the first task interval that the program will trial. The interval increment determines
subsequent trial task intervals. For example suppose an initial interval of 8000 is specified with an increment of 1000 and
the number of intervals equal to 5. AWB will then trial the following task intervals:

Trial Task Interval Used in Trial


1 8000
2 9000
3 10000
4 11000
5 12000

Viewing Strategy Results in the Right-Hand Window


The optimization plot for a selected cause or task group may be viewed in the right-hand window. First select the cause or
task group in the tree control. Next select Plot from Right Window Mode Selector pull-down menu and then select
Maintenance Optimization from the Plot Type Selector pull-down menu. Plots for each of the tasks associated with a
cause may be viewed by selecting the task of interest from the Task selector drop-down menu.

The chosen maintenance strategy for the selected cause or task group may be viewed in the grid control by selecting Grid
from the Right window mode selector pull-down menu and then selecting Tasks, Scheduled Tasks from the Current
grid table pull-down menu.

The corresponding plot and grid displays may be viewed simultaneously by selecting Plot & Grid from the Right window
mode selector pull-down menu.

See Also
Interval Optimization Plots
Optimizing Spares Holdings in the RCMCost Module
The RCMCost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) may be used to simulate the effects of different spares holding
levels on lifetime costs and therefore optimize the spare holding policy.

During a spare optimization run, AWB will use the simulated demand frequency on different spares to emulate the flow of
spares between stocking locations at level 1 and level 2. When a demand on a spare is made, and the spare is
unavailable, the mean effect of any delay will be determined from the cost rates of effects assigned to the appropriate
causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy. Optimization is achieved by considering the cost of spare logistical delays and
the cost of storing spares at level 1 and level 2. If the Include initial spare purchase costs flag is set on in the Project
Options dialog (Spares tab) then the initial spare purchases will be included in the storage costs.

RCMCost allows spares optimization to take account of demands on level 2 spares from external systems similar to the
system modeled in the current project. Set the No. of sites served by level 2 spares option in the Project Options
dialog (Spares tab) to indicate how many sites are to be considered.

This facility may be accessed via the Simulation, Optimize Spares pull-down menu option. This option will only be
enabled if the system simulation results are up to date (select the Simulation, Start pull-down menu option if your system
results are not up to date). After selecting this option, the Spare Optimization dialog will appear. The functionality of the
dialog is described below.

The top left area of the dialog displays the spare types defined in the project. If there are no spare types defined you will
just see the Spares node. Selecting a spare type will just show the spares belonging to that spare type at the bottom of
the dialog if the Toggle Spare Filter by Tree Control button is selected (below the spare type tree). Selecting the Spares
node will display all the spares in the project.

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A further filter facility is available so that you can identify the spares you wish to optimize. The first row of the grid that
displays the spares at the bottom of the dialog is reserved for entering filter text. You may filter on spare ID or Description
by entering text in the appropriate grid cell and then selecting the Filter Spares Using Text button above the grid.

You may select the spares you wish to optimize individually in the grid control or you can select them all using the Select
all button.

Optimization is performed for an individual spare by determining the summated cost of storage and demand unavailability
for every combination of spares holdings within a specified range. You may set the range of holdings by selecting the Set
range for selected spare(s) button. A dialog will be displayed allowing you to set the range for all the currently selected
spares.

When spare optimization is performed, AWB will simulate the cost associated with each combination of levels within the
range. For example, if a range of 0 to 2 is specified for level 1, and 1 to 2 for level 2, then the following combinations will
be simulated:

Level 1 Holding Level 2 Holding


0 1
0 2
1 1
1 2
2 1
2 2

Select the Optimize Selected Spares button to start the optimization process. Once optimization is complete the
recommended optimum levels will be displayed in the grid. You may view a plot of the simulated costs for an individual
spare in the top right area of the dialog by selecting an individual spare. The Plot Options button may be selected to
change the appearance of the plot.

The recommended optimum spares holding will be the combination of level 1 and 2 capacity levels that produces the
lowest simulated cost unless the user specifies an unavailability target which is not met by that combination. The
calculated unavailability represents the mean fractional downtime due to spare logistic delays. The unavailability target is
set at the project level in the Project Options dialog, Simulation tab.

Once an optimization run has been completed you may opt to accept the recommended spares holdings by selecting the
Accept recommendations for selected spare(s) button. The recommended levels will then be transferred to the level 1
and level 2 capacity fields for the spare(s).

Note that if the demand frequency on the spare changes significantly after accepting the recommendation it may be
necessary to perform the optimization run again based on the new demand frequency. This is most likely to occur if the
original capacity at level 1 is set to zero and there is a significant delay in acquiring spares from level 2.
Cost Profile Plots
Cost profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-
hand window. Then select the Cost Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Cost profiles display the costs incurred over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog.
Users may select different cost categories to display in the plot by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu
option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different cost options to be selected
as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Cost tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Cost types
The various cost types that are to be displayed in the plot.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic cost axis scaling


If checked the cost axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Cost min

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If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the cost axis.

Cost max
If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the cost axis.

Labor Profile Plots


Labor profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the
right-hand window. Then select the Labor Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Labor profiles display the active time spent over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options
dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the
user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Labor tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Labor
The labor category to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all labor
categories.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic active time axis scaling


If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the active time
axis.

Active time max


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the active time
axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Equipment Profile Plots


Equipment profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above
the right-hand window. Then select the Equipment Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand
window.

Equipment profiles display the active equipment usage over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as
allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Equipment tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Equipment
The equipment to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all equipments.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic active time axis scaling


If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the active time
axis.

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Active time max


If the Automatic active time axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the active time
axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Spares Profile Plots


Spares profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the
right-hand window. Then select the Spares Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Spares profiles display the number of spares used over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as
allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Spares tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Spare
The spare to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all spares.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic number used axis scaling


If checked the 'number used' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Number used min


If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the 'number
used' axis.

Number used max


If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the 'number
used' axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Effect Profile Plots


Effect profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the
right-hand window. Then select the Effect Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Effects profiles display the number of effect occurrences over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project
Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as
allowing the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Effect tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Effect
The effect to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all effects.

Plot style
The style of plot.

Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling


If checked the 'number of occurrences' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Number of occurrences min

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If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for
the 'number of occurrences' axis.

Number of occurrences max


If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for
the 'number of occurrences' axis.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Interval Optimization Plots


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for optimizing preventive maintenance and inspection intervals either for
individual tasks or for groups of tasks identified by a task group. Interval optimization plots may be accessed by selecting
the Interval Optimization button in the Cause dialog, Strategy Tab (for individual causes) or selecting the Apply &
Optimize button in the Task Group Properties dialog (for groups of tasks identified by the same task group). Alternatively,
interval optimization plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above
the right-hand window. Then select the Maintenance Optimization option on the Plot type selector menu above the
right-hand window.

Interval optimization plots display cost or availability values for different task or task group intervals. In addition they
display a recommendation for a suitable interval to employ based on these interval values. These plots also display
criticality values for these same intervals.

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to
modify the plot type and appearance.

The Maintenance tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Individual task
Selection of this radio button indicates that the plot will display optimization data for an individual task.

Task group
Selection of this radio button indicates that the plot will display optimization data for a task group.

Set cause or task group by tree selection


If checked the plot will reflect the task or task group associated with the currently selected object in the project tree in the
left-hand window.

Individual task specification


If Individual task optimization is selected then users may select the individual task by specifying the cause and task ID.

Task group specification


If Task group optimization is selected then users may select the task group.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Show error bars


If checked the plot will display error bars for each interval value. Error bars help the user determine whether variations in
cost or availability are due to statistical errors ('noise') due to the limited number of simulations performed.

Show safety target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the safety target value. The safety target value is set in
the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Show operational target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the operational target value. The operational target
value is set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Show environmental target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the environmental target value. The environmental

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target value is set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Automatic
If checked the program will set the associated axis scale automatically.

Cost and criticality min/max values


If the associated Automatic check-box is not checked then minimum and maximum axis values must be set by the user.

See Also
Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals

Contribution Plots
Contribution plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the
right-hand window. Then select the Contributions option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Contribution plots display the contribution made by individual causes to system cost, failure and criticality parameters.
Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Contributions tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Contribution Type Buttons


These radio buttons allow the user to select the type of contribution to be displayed.

Automatic
If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the contribution axis.

Minimum/Maximum
If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum contribution axis values.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Maximum no. of causes


The maximum number of causes to display in the plot. Causes will be ordered to show those with the highest
contributions.

Only display causes under tree selection


If checked the program will only display causes that are connected to the current selection in the project tree location
hierarchy.

Spares Optimization Plots


Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for optimizing spares holding levels. Spare optimization plots may be
accessed by selecting the Optimize Spares option on the Simulation pull-down menu. Alternatively, spare optimization
plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the Spares Optimization option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Spares optimization plots display the cost and unavailability values for different spare holdings at level 1 and level 2. In
addition they display a recommendation for a suitable optimum holding policy based on minimum cost (that optionally
meets an unavailability target).

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to
modify the plot appearance.

The Spares Optimization tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Set spare by tree selection


Selection of this option will cause the program to display the optimization results for a spare when it is selected in the
project tree control.

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Spare
The spare for which optimization results are to be displayed

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Show error bars


If checked the plot will display error bars for each unavailability value. Error bars help the user determine whether
variations in unavailability are due to statistical errors ('noise') due to the limited number of simulations performed.

Show unavailability target


If checked the plot will display a single horizontal line representing the unavailability target value. The unavailability value
is set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Automatic
If checked the program will set the associated axis scale automatically.

Cost and unavailability min/max values


If the associated Automatic check-box is not checked then minimum and maximum axis values must be set by the user.

Show legend
If checked a legend will be shown to the right of the plot identifying the cost bars and unavailability line plots.
Project Comparison
Project comparison plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above
the right-hand window. Then select the Project Comparison option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand
window.

Project comparison plots display the simulated lifetime costs or task data from two or more projects. The results for all the
projects must be up-to-date for plots based on simulated results. Users must attach the projects to be compared with the
current project as libraries. The data compared in each plot is the system cost or task data for the current project and all
attached libraries.

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Project Comparison tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Plot Type
The plot type to be displayed. Options are Cost, Tasks Assigned, Tasks Performed and Cumulative Cost Profile.
Cost plots show simulated lifetime costs. Tasks Assigned plots show the number of tasks assigned to causes in the
project. Tasks Performed plots show the simulated number of tasks performed during the lifetime of the system.
Cumulative Cost Profile plots show the accumulation of costs over the lifetime of the system.

Stack plot
If checked the values for different cost or task categories will be stacked in the plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Modelling System Failures

Availability Workbench (AWB) recognizes the system failure logic from the reliability block diagram (RBD) or fault tree diagram
entered by the user. In either case, the diagram represents how different components within the system interact to produce system
failures. This topic examines the use of the RBD approach.

RBDs consist of blocks and nodes connected together in parallel and series arrangements. The blocks in a RBD usually represent
component or sub-system failures, although they may also be used to represent other events, such as operator actions, which may
affect the reliability of the system under study. The nodes in a RBD are used to position connecting lines (either horizontal/vertical
or diagonal), indicate voting arrangements, set operational capacity targets and apply NOT logic where appropriate. A complete
system RBD will consist of either a single node or block on the left-hand side of the diagram (input node or block) connected via
intermediate nodes and blocks to a single node or block on the right-hand side of the diagram (output node or block). Note that a
complete system RBD can only have one input node or block and one output node or block. In addition, all the intermediate nodes
and blocks must be connected. The entire system RBD represents the ways in which component and sub-system failures will
interact to cause the system to fail. AWB allows more than one system RBD to be defined in the same project.

During the simulation process, AWB will be able to determine whether the system is failed or not by examining the RBD entered
by the user. The program does this by determining whether there are any open paths from the input node or block to the output
node or block. An open path is a path that does not cross any failed component or sub-system blocks. This logic has to be
extended slightly for voting arrangements and NOT logic. Voting arrangements and the application of NOT logic are defined
within the Node Properties dialog and are described in more detail below.

Simple Series Arrangement

Let us first consider the simplest possible RBD - a single block connected between the input and output nodes. Clearly, in this
simple case, the system will fail if the single component represented by block A were to fail. If this block fails, there is no path
open between the input and output nodes.

Now let us extend our system RBD to contain three blocks in series. In this example diagram if any of the components represented
by blocks A, B or C were to fail, or if all components failed together, or if two out of three components failed, then the system
would fail as there would be no open path between the input and output nodes. A truth table can be constructed to illustrate the
different failure combinations that will cause the system to fail.

Component A Component B Component C System


Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed
Working Failed Working Failed
Working Working Failed Failed
Working Failed Failed Failed
Failed Working Failed Failed
Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed

Simple Parallel Arrangement

Now let us modify our system RBD to contain three blocks in parallel. Now if any of the components represented by blocks A, B
or C were to fail individually, the system would not fail, as a path would still be left open between the input and output nodes.

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Similarly, if only two of the three components were to fail, a path would still be left open. It would require all three components to
fail at the same time for the system to fail. This type of parallel arrangement of blocks represents redundancy in a system.

Component A Component B Component C System


Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Working
Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Working
Failed Failed Working Working
Failed Failed Failed Failed

Combined Series and Parallel Arrangements

Now let us look at a slightly more complicated example. In this system RBD, we have both parallel and series arrangements. The
truth table for the system indicates the ways in which the system can fail.

Component Component Component Component System


A B C D
Working Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Working Working
Working Failed Working Working Working
Working Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Working Failed Working
Working Working Failed Failed Working
Working Failed Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Working Working

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Failed Failed Working Working Failed


Working Failed Failed Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Failed Failed
Failed Failed Working Failed Failed
Failed Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed Failed

Simple 2-out-of-4 Vote Arrangement

RBDs may also be used to represent voting arrangements. Nodes to the right of a parallel arrangement may be given a vote
number to indicate how many success paths must be available through the parallel arrangement (if a vote number is not specified
only one path need be available). A simple parallel arrangement of 4 blocks A, B, C and D with a vote number (number of
available paths required for success) of 2 would result in the following truth table:

Component Component Component Component System


A B C D
Working Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Working Working
Working Failed Working Working Working
Working Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Working Failed Working
Working Working Failed Failed Working
Working Failed Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed Working
Failed Working Failed Working Working
Failed Failed Working Working Working
Working Failed Failed Failed Failed
Failed Working Failed Failed Failed
Failed Failed Working Failed Failed
Failed Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed Failed

Applying not logic

For some systems, it is necessary to apply NOT logic in part of the RBD. NOT logic is applied by placing a node in the diagram
and then setting the Apply not logic flag in the Node Properties dialog. NOT logic nodes will be drawn as a circle in the diagram.
A NOT logic node reverses the logic of the path passing through it. If a path is available through to the NOT node then the path
will be cut at the NOT node. If there is no path through to the NOT node then the path will be opened at the NOT node.

System Diagram, Sub-System Diagram and Truth Table

It would be possible to construct all system RBDs using blocks that only represent component failures. However, for large and
complex systems this may lead to RBDs which are difficult for the user to understand and which could not be easily printed on a

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single page of a report. For these reasons, AWB provides a powerful paging facility which allows the user to define blocks which
represent sub-systems. Each sub-system block may itself be defined in terms of a complete RBD which is drawn on a different
page. It is highly recommended that users decide on how to break up larger systems into sub-systems before constructing the
RBD. An example of a very simple system and sub-system RBD is given below, together with the truth table.

Component A Component B Component C System


Working Working Working Working
Failed Working Working Failed
Working Failed Working Working
Working Working Failed Working
Working Failed Failed Failed
Failed Working Failed Failed
Failed Failed Working Failed
Failed Failed Failed Failed

Modelling Loss Of Production

In addition to modelling the ways in which component failures may lead to system failures, a reliability block diagrams (RBD)
may also be used to model intermediate production levels. That is, rather than just model failure or success, we may use a RBD to
model 70% production, 50% production, 800 bpm etc. Modelling loss of production is particularly applicable to certain types of
systems (e.g. manufacturing, oil and gas production). Note that NOT nodes (nodes with the Apply not logic flag set on) have no
effect on capacity calculations.

Availability Workbench (AWB) allows loss of production to be modelled, as well as simply failure or success (i.e. whether the
system is available or not at any time). Production flow is modelled by specifying maximum capacity values for component blocks
in the RBD. To illustrate the simulation of production flow, we will consider the following series and parallel RBD arrangements.

Series Arrangements

For a series arrangement where all the constituent blocks are in service, the production flow is determined by comparing the
maximum capacity value of the constituent blocks with the input flow into the series arrangement. The smallest value is taken as
the production flow out of the series arrangement. If any of the constituent blocks are out-of-service then the production flow
through the series arrangement is zero.

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Parallel Arrangements

The production flow out of a parallel arrangement is determined by summating the production flow through each parallel line. If
this sum exceeds 100%, the flow is reduced to 100%. If this sum exceeds the input production flow to the parallel arrangement
then the output flow is set equal to the input flow.

Parallel Voting Arrangements

If you specify a vote arrangement at the output node of a parallel arrangement, AWB will apply a special logic when performing
production flow calculations. If the number of lines operating in the parallel arrangement equals or exceeds the vote number,
AWB will apply normal parallel logic when calculating the output flow from the parallel arrangement. If the number of lines
operating is less than the vote number then output flow will be set to zero. This allows users to model the effect of control system
failures, which are based on a logical voting arrangement.

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In addition, nodes have a property Operational capacity target. In conjunction with the vote number, this parameter determines
when standby equipment (buffers and cold or warm standby blocks) will be made operational. If the required capacity is not
achieved (due to direct or indirect failures etc.) then standby components will be switched on in top to bottom order.

Modelling System Failures

Availability Workbench (AWB) recognizes the system failure logic from the reliability block diagram (RBD) or fault tree diagram
entered by the user. In either case, the diagram represents how different components within the system interact to produce system
failures. This topic examines the use of the fault tree approach.

Fault trees graphically represent the interaction of failures and other events within a system. Basic events at the bottom of the fault
tree are linked via logic symbols (known as gates) to one or more TOP events. These TOP events represent identified hazards or
system failure modes for which predicted reliability or availability data is required. Typical TOP events might be:

Total loss of production

Safety system unavailable

Explosion

Loss of mission

Toxic emission

Basic events at the bottom of the fault tree generally represent component failures, although they may also represent other events
such as operator actions. Typical basic events are:

Pump failure

Temperature controller failure

Operator does not respond

Fault trees may be used to analyze large and complex systems. They are particularly adept at representing and analyzing
redundancy arrangements. In addition, common cause events are easily handled.

The small fault tree below illustrates how gate and event symbols are connected together to represent the logical interaction of
faults in a system. The TOP event of this arrangement represents the LOSS OF BOARD A SUPPLY. This event is broken down
into its causes via logic gate symbols. The immediate causes are NO SUPPLY FROM GRID and NO SUPPLY FROM

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DIESEL. These two causes must occur together for the TOP event to occur (as indicated by the AND gate symbol). These two
system events are broken down into their immediate causes. In this example, these causes are basic events (for which failure and
repair data is available), which are linked to the system events above with OR gate logic.

Fault tree gate types are listed below, together with their causal relations. Note that the NULL gate type is not included in this list.
NULL gates (which have a single input only) have no effect on the logic of the fault tree. They are used to allow additional
descriptions to be added within the fault tree structure.

Symbol Name Causal Relation Valid


No of
Inputs
OR Output event occurs if
any one of the input
events occurs
AND Output event occurs if all
input events occur

VOTE Output event occurs if m


of the input events occur

TRANSFER Indicates that this part of 0


the fault tree is
developed in a different
part of the diagram or on
a different page.
NOT Output event occurs if 1
the input event does not
occur.

Other standard symbols are used to represent events in the fault trees. These symbols are illustrated below, together with their
meanings.

Symbol Name Meaning


BASIC Basic event for which failure
and repair data is available.

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UNDEVELOPED Represents a system event,


which is yet to be developed.

CONDITIONAL Similar to basic event but


represents a conditional
probability.
HOUSE Represents definitely
operating or definitely not
operating events.
DORMANT Similar to basic event but
indicates that the event
represents a dormant failure.

AWB does not differentiate between basic, undeveloped, conditional and dormant events during a simulation. These different
symbols are used to provide visual impact in the fault tree diagram only. For example, a user may wish to use the dormant event
symbol to highlight that a particular failure remains hidden until an inspection takes place. AWB, however, treats house events
differently to the other events. The program will insist that all house events are set to a logic mode of 'False' or True. If you are
unsure which event symbol to use in your fault tree diagrams, simply select the standard Basic event symbol type which is the
most commonly used symbol for representing component failures.

The component and system events that constitute a fault tree are described in rectangular boxes above the gate and event symbols
which link the fault tree together. System (or state-of-system) events are events for which we cannot specify a particular
component which is the entire cause of the event. System events will generally represent system or sub-system failure modes.
Component (or state-of-component) events represent failures which are entirely caused by a given component and are represented
by a component OR gate as illustrated below.

Primary component failures represent failures under normal conditions of operation for which the component was designed to
operate.

Command faults are events which will cause the component to be unavailable due to incorrect command signals or the
unavailability of another component or sub-system. For example, the command fault LOSS OF ELECTRICAL POWER could
cause the failure of an electric pump.

Secondary component failures may also be represented as a separate event under the COMPONENT FAILURE OR gate.
Secondary component failures represent failures under conditions of operation for which the component was not designed. For
example, a component may be placed under an increased stress due to failures of other components in the system. Note that
secondary failures are often not explicitly included in fault trees, due to either the lack of data relating to this type of failure or their
negligible effect compared to primary component failures.

Construction Rules

The following rules provide a framework for constructing fault trees:

Define the bounds of the system to be analyzed and the level of complexity to which failures will be resolved.

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Identify the TOP event of the system to be analyzed. The TOP events of the system represent those events for which
reliability and availability predictions are required.

Using a top-down approach, identify all the immediate causes of the TOP events.

Now define the immediate causes of the new system events. It is important that intermediate system events are not missed
out when defining the immediate causes. In this way, the levels of the fault tree progress systematically from major system
events, through intermediate levels of complexity, to the basic events representing component failures at the roots of the fault
tree.

Continue this process of defining the immediate causes of system events until all the roots of the fault tree are terminated by
basic, conditional, undeveloped, dormant and transfer events. Remember the definitions of system and component events
when constructing the tree. Resolve system events into their immediate causes. Resolve component events into primary
component failures and command faults (and secondary failures if data is available).

Identify all the distinct causes for an event.

Resolve an event into more elementary events. For example, resolve TANK EXPLOSION' into EXPLOSION DUE TO
OVERHEATING OR EXPLOSION DUE TO OVER-PRESSURIZATION.

Always provide a complete description of the system or component event in the rectangular boxes above each fault tree
symbol.

Cooling System Fault Tree

To illustrate the fault tree construction process, consider the following example. The schematic diagram below illustrates a simple
cooling system consisting of pumps, valves, control and instrumentation equipment and a heat exchanger. The function of the
system is simply to provide continuous cooling to another system.

The cooling system operates in the following manner. Under normal conditions of operation, coolant will be provided via leg 1
(containing pump EP1). If this leg is unavailable for any reason, the flow sensor FS1 is designed to detect the decreased flow rate
and the controller will close valve EV1, open valve EV2, shut down pump EP1 and start pump EP2.

The pumps and valves EP1, EP2, EV1 and EV2 are all electrically operated and so we must also consider the electrical supply
system, which is illustrated below.

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These two schematic diagrams effectively define the bounds of the fault tree study. The overall TOP event for the fault tree is
TOTAL LOSS OF COOLING. For convenience, we will paginate the fault tree so that individual pages will have local TOP
events such as LOSS OF BOARD A SUPPLY. The fault tree below illustrates the overall system TOP event and its immediate
causes. The system events LOSS OF COOLING LEG 1 and LOSS OF COOLING LEG 2 are represented by transfer symbols
as they are developed on separate pages for convenience.

The two fault tree pages below develop the overall fault tree further. Note that the local TOP events for the two pages are given
the same identification code as the transfer symbols in the fault tree page above (SYS2 and SYS3). Basic events such as PUMP 1
PRIMARY FAILURE are now beginning to appear in the fault tree. The system event CONTROL SIGNAL FAULT' will cause
the electrical valves and electrical pumps to be unavailable. This common cause failure is a command fault for the pumps and
valves.

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We may now construct the fault trees representing failures in the electrical systems:

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Modelling Loss Of Production

In addition to modelling the ways in which component failures may lead to system failures, fault tree diagrams may also be used to
model intermediate production levels. That is, rather than just model failure or success, we may use fault tree diagrams to model
70% production, 50% production, 800 bpm etc. Modelling loss of production is particularly applicable to certain types of systems
(e.g. manufacturing, oil and gas production).

Availability Workbench (AWB) allows loss of production to be modelled, as well as simply failure or success (i.e. whether the
system is available or not at any time). Production flow is modelled by specifying maximum capacity values for basic events in the
fault tree diagram. To illustrate the simulation of production flow, we will consider the following OR gate and AND gate fault tree
arrangements.

For an OR gate where all the input basic events are in service, the production flow is determined by comparing the maximum
capacity value of the input basic events with the input flow for any gate inputs. The smallest value is taken as the production flow
out of the OR gate. If any of the constituent basic events are out-of-service then the production flow out of the OR gate is zero.

The production flow out of an AND gate arrangement is determined by summating the production flow values for each input basic
event and input gate respectively. If a basic event input is operational then the production flow associated with the basic event is
its maximum capacity. If it is out-of-service then the production flow value for the basic event is zero. If the sum of all inputs
exceeds 100%, the flow is reduced to 100%.

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If you include a VOTE gate within a fault tree diagram AWB will apply a special logic when performing production flow
calculations. If fewer than 'm' of the inputs to the VOTE gate are out-of-service, or have zero production flow, then AWB will
apply normal AND logic when calculating the output flow from the VOTE gate. If 'm' or more of the inputs are out-of-service or
have zero production flow, then the output flow from the VOTE gate will be set to zero. This allows users to model the effect of
control system failures, which are based on a logical voting arrangement.

In addition, gates have a property Operational capacity target. In conjunction with the vote number, this parameter determines
when standby equipment (buffers and cold or warm standby events) will be made operational. If the required capacity is not
achieved (due to direct or indirect failures etc.) then standby components will be switched on in left to right order.

Comparing RBDs and Fault Trees

Both RBD and fault tree diagrams are widely used to represent the interaction of failures within systems. For this reason, the
AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides both formats. Although AWB allows a user to create both RBD
systems and independent fault tree systems in the same project, it is recommended that users choose one or other of the two
formats.

If you are familiar with only one of the two formats then you may wish to choose that format for defining the failure logic. Both
formats may be used to create identical logical arrangements. That is, for every RBD there is a logically equivalent fault tree
diagram. RBDs often resemble the schematic diagrams that represent the system and that may be a good reason for choosing

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RBDs to represent the failure logic of smaller systems. However, if the system under study is large or complex, constructing the
RBD might become difficult. In comparison, constructing fault tree diagrams to represent the failures of complex systems
(particularly system failures which may be caused by combinations of mechanical, power supply and control system faults) is
relatively easy.

As an illustration of the logical equivalence of RBD and fault tree diagrams, consider the following pairs of equivalent diagrams.

Series RBD Equivalent to OR Fault Tree Gate

Parallel RBD Equivalent to Fault Tree AND Gate

Equivalent Parallel and Series Arrangements

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Building a RBD - Overview

Availability Workbench (AWB) recognizes the system failure logic from the Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) entered by the
user. The diagram represents how different components within the system interact to produce system failures.

RBDs consist of blocks and nodes connected together in parallel and series arrangements. The blocks in a RBD usually represent
component or sub-system failures, although they may also be used to represent other events, such as operator actions, which may
affect the reliability of the system under study. The nodes in a RBD are used to position connecting lines (either horizontal/vertical
or diagonal), indicate voting arrangements, set operational capacity targets and apply NOT logic where appropriate. A complete
system RBD will consist of either a single node or block on the left-hand side of the diagram (input node or block) connected via
intermediate nodes and blocks to a single node or block on the right-hand side of the diagram (output node or block). Note that a
complete system RBD can only have one input node or block and one output node or block. In addition, all the intermediate nodes
and blocks must be connected. The entire system RBD represents the ways in which component and sub-system failures will
interact to cause the system to fail. AWB allows more than one system RBD to be defined in the same project.

The facilities to add elements to a RBD are accessed either through Add, To Diagram pull-down menu options or the equivalent
buttons on the toolbar.

Each AWB project can contain one or more systems. The Add, New System pull-down menu option can be used to create new
systems when Diagram and RBD are selected from the pull-down menus above the right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system, consequences may be assigned to blocks in the diagram. Consequences are
usually assigned to system level blocks and represent the effects of failure (financial, safety, operational and environmental) on the
system.

See Also

Adding Blocks

Adding Connections

Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks

Using Pages

Assigning Consequences

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Adding Blocks

New blocks may be added in the diagram area by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Block pull-down menu option or the equivalent
toolbar button. The cursor will change to a block symbol and should be positioned where the top left corner of the new block is to
appear. When the left mouse button is clicked, the new block will be created. Each block will be named automatically by the
program. This name may be changed later by the user. The program default is to name the blocks 1.1, 1.2, etc. Block IDs may
be reset at any time by selecting the appropriate option on the Tools, Rename pull-down menu. All blocks will be placed at the
nearest grid position, even if the grid is not visible. Each block will initially be given some default attributes that can be edited at a
later stage. Whilst the program is in new block placement mode, further blocks can be added. This mode can be terminated by
selecting the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button or by selecting another
menu option.

Existing blocks may be repeated in the RBD by selecting the block to be repeated and then using the copy and paste facilities. The
selected block can be copied by choosing the Edit, Copy pull-down menu option. The repeated block is created by choosing the
Edit, Paste pull-down menu option. Repeat blocks represent repeat occurrences of the same component failure in the RBD logic
are given identical IDs to the original block.

The properties of existing blocks may be copied to create a new block by first selecting the block to be copied and then selecting
the Edit, Copy pull-down menu option. The copy can then be created by choosing the Edit, Paste Special pull-down menu option.
Copied blocks are given unique block names and therefore do not represent the same event as the original block but are given the
same properties.

Editing Block Properties

To edit the properties of a block either double-click on the block in the diagram, or select the block in the diagram and choose the
Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a block, the user will be presented with the Block Properties dialog, allowing block attributes to be modified.

General Tab

ID

The block ID is a unique name identifying the block. A block will usually represent a component or sub-system failure. The
block ID consists of up to 40 alphanumeric characters. Block IDs are automatically assigned when creating new blocks using a
hierarchical scheme. However, users may subsequently change the block ID. Block IDs may be reset at any time by selecting one
of the options under the Tools, Rename pull-down menu option.

Description

The block description appears within the block in the diagram if there is no bitmap associated with the block. If a bitmap is
associated with the block, the description appears below the block in the diagram if the Show RBD descriptions with bitmaps
option is selected in the View tab of the Project Options dialog. Up to 255 characters are permitted for the block description.

Failure Model

The failure model associated with the block provides all the quantitative failure and maintenance data for the block. Users may
create a new failure model or edit the currently assigned failure model by selecting the New and Edit buttons respectively.

Consequence

Users may select a single outage or capacity consequence to be associated with any system or sub-system block. During a
simulation, if the block is out-of-service (or running at reduced capacity) due to failure or scheduled maintenance, the consequence
will apply. Users may create a new consequence or edit the currently assigned consequence by selecting the New and Edit buttons
respectively.

Bom

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A Bom may optionally be assigned to a block. Assigned Boms will affect the choice of spares presented to the user when assigning
spare resources to tasks associated with the block.

Initial Age

The age of the component at the beginning of the simulation.

Switching Delay

If a non-zero switching delay time is specified then Availability Workbench (AWB) will simulate the specified delay whenever
the component is required to switch from a standby condition to an operating condition. In effect, the component will be
unavailable for the specified delay time.

Rules Tab

Logic mode

The Logic Mode combo-box indicates one of three modes for the block:

Probabilistic

False

True

If the logic mode is set to Probabilistic (the default), block failures will be randomly sampled using the specified failure model. If
the logic mode is set to False, the block will remain in service throughout the lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides the
logic mode during a given phase of operation. If the logic mode is set to True, the block will remain out-of-service throughout the
lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides the logic mode during a given phase of operation.

Standby mode

The Standby mode setting indicates whether the standby mode for the block is Hot, Cold or Warm Standby. This setting only
affects the reliability performance of the block if it is not required to be operating during a simulation.

If Hot standby is specified, the failure characteristics do not change when the block is non-operational. If Cold standby is specified
then the block cannot fail when it is non-operational and no ageing takes place. If Warm standby is specified then the failure rate
of the block is reduced by the Non-operating failure apportionment % for the failure model associated with the block whilst it is
non-operational. In addition, the rate of ageing is reduced according to the Non-operating ageing apportionment % associated with
the block whilst it is non-operational.

Maximum capacity

Maximum capacity values are only applicable if you are interested in production flow as well as standard unavailability
calculations. These values are used to determine the production flow through a system when 'loss of capacity' consequences have
been defined. The maximum capacity indicates the maximum production flow through the block and is usually defined as a
percentage. The user may equate 100% capacity with a quantity and unit, such as 80 bpm. This alternative capacity value can be
set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Load factor

Load factors may be assigned to individual blocks. The load factor allows users to model additional or reduced stress conditions
during different operational phases. For example, during launch a satellite might experience additional stresses due to high
vibration and high temperature, which might affect the components associated with the failure model during this period. A load
factor of 2 will increase the failure rate by 2 for the exponential distribution. This is equivalent to halving the MTTF. This is
described by the general expression

where = load factor

Inhibit all tasks (non-repairable and non-maintainable)

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If checked the default setting will be for all maintenance tasks associated with the component will be disabled unless a rule
overrides the inhibit condition.

Non-operational

If checked the component will be non-operational throughout the lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides this
condition.

Rules

AWB allows the user to define rules that can be used to set the logic, standby mode, maximum capacity, load factor, non-
maintainable and non-operational status of a component by phase. The load factor, non-maintainable and non-operational status
may also be set by the state of another block in the project. Clicking the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog. Here the
user may select the type of phase or state dependency required using the Type drop-down menu. If it is a phase-related rule then
the phase may be selected using the Phase drop-down menu. If phase dependency is selected for the logic, standby mode,
maximum capacity or load factor then a further field or drop-down menu will appear where the user may enter an appropriate
parameter. If it is a state-related rule then the user will be able to select the reference block and the required state of the reference
block.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and description that are automatically
generated by AWB. The properties of an existing rule may be edited by selecting the rule from the list and clicking the Edit button.
The Rule Properties dialog will appear allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

Appearance Tab

Background color

RBD blocks may be color coded. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can choose the new color for
the block. Select the Set to default button to return the block color to the default setting.

Bitmap

If a bitmap is associated with the block then the bitmap will be drawn inside the block rectangle in the RBD. Text, which would
normally appear within the block, will be drawn below the block.

Description font

To modify the font used for descriptive text select the Change font button to open the Font dialog. Select the Set to default button
to return the description font to the default setting.

Width

The width of the block in diagram coordinates. The default width is 100.

Height

The height of the block in diagram coordinates. The default height is 60.

Notes Tab

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by the user in the Project
Options dialog.

Adding Nodes

Nodes have four purposes. Firstly, they are used to position connection lines if the default connection line positions are not
acceptable to the user. Secondly, they are used to indicate vote logic at the output of a parallel block arrangement. Thirdly, they
are used to indicate a local standby flag, to control when a standby block is required to start-up to replace the functionality of a
failed block in the RBD. Finally, they are used to set an operational capacity target. In conjunction with the vote number, this
parameter determines when standby equipment (buffers etc.) will be made operational. If the required capacity is not achieved
(due to direct or indirect failures etc.) then standby components will be switched on in top to bottom order.

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New nodes may be added in the RBD drawing area by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Node pull-down menu option or the
equivalent toolbar button and then clicking the left mouse button at the top left of the required position of the node. All nodes will
be placed at the nearest grid position, even if the grid is not visible. Whilst the program is in new node placement mode, the mouse
cursor will appear with a node icon. This mode can be terminated by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down
menu option or the equivalent toolbar button, or by selecting another menu option.

Nodes may be color coded. To color code a node, modify the Background color in the Node Properties dialog.

Editing Node Properties

To edit the properties of a node either double-click on the node in the diagram, or select the node in the diagram and choose the
Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a node, the user will be presented with the Node Properties dialog, allowing node attributes to be modified.

ID

The node ID uniquely identifies a node in the RBD. It has a maximum of 40 alphanumeric characters.

Vote number

The node vote number indicates the number of connected inputs required to be available to ensure availability of the sub-system
defined to the left of the node in the RBD.

Operational capacity target

In conjunction with the vote number, this parameter determines when standby equipment (buffers and cold or warm standby
blocks) will be made operational. If the required capacity is not achieved (due to direct or indirect failures or scheduled
maintenance activities) then standby blocks will be switched on in top to bottom order.

Local standby

Local standby flags are used to control when a standby block is required to start-up to replace the functionality of a failed block
in the RBD. Local standby flags are normally only needed when modelling throughput capacity. Consider the small system
below. Unless the user sets a local standby flag, Availability Workbench (AWB) will assume that block C will be in standby when
Block A is working and block B is failed. This is because, from a traditional availability point of view, the system is UP with just
A working. However, if we were modelling throughput, this behavior would result in the system operating at 60% capacity only.
If we set the local standby flag on for node X, the program will treat the lower parallel arrangement (block B and block C) as if it
was independent from block A from the point of view of determining the standby status of C. Now when block B fails, block C
will start-up to replace the lost capacity.

Apply not logic

In RBDs NOT logic is assigned by selecting the Apply not logic check-box for a node. During a simulation, if no success path can
be found through to a given node, the equipment represented by the node is deemed to be unavailable. However, if NOT logic

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were applied at the node, the equipment would be deemed to be available.

Background color

Nodes may be color coded. Click the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can choose the new color for the
node. Click the Set to default button to return the node color to the default setting.

Rules

AWB allows the user to define rules which can be used to set the vote number and rotate the inputs to a node by phase or by the
trigger of an out-of-service event for one of the inputs to the node. Selecting the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog.
Here the user may select the type of dependency required using the Type drop-down menu and the phase (for a phase-dependent
rule) using the Phase drop-down menu. If phase dependency is selected for the vote number then a further field will appear where
the user may enter the vote number.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and description that are automatically
generated by AWB. The properties of an existing rule may be edited by selecting the rule from the list and clicking the Edit button.
The Rule Properties dialog will appear allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

Adding Connections

Selection of the Add, To Diagram, Horizontal/Vertical Connection or Add, To Diagram, Diagonal Connection pull-down menu
option allows the user to connect nodes and blocks in a RBD. The user will be asked to first select the input node or block,
followed by the output node or block, by clicking the left mouse button when the cursor is over the node or block.

RBDs must be constructed such that flow from input to output is maintained in a left to right direction.

Diagonal connections will be a single line between the right-hand side of the input node or block to the left-hand side of the output
node or block. The shape of horizontal/vertical connecting lines depends on the position of the input node or block relative to the
output node or block. Where connecting lines join two objects in a different horizontal plane with horizontal/vertical connections,
the first corner of the jagged connection line is positioned at the first grid line (or mid-way between the connected objects if they
are only one grid line apart).

Whilst the program is in connection placement mode, the mouse cursor will appear with a connection icon. The operation may be
aborted at any time by selecting the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button or by
selecting another menu option.

Editing Connection Properties

To edit the properties of a connection either double-click on the connection in the diagram, or select the connection in the diagram
and choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a connection, the user will be presented with the Connection Properties dialog, allowing connection attributes to be
modified.

Horizontal/vertical

When selected the connection lines between blocks and nodes will only follow horizontal and vertical trajectories.

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Diagonal

When selected the connection lines between blocks and nodes will follow the shortest possible trajectory between the source and
target.

Background color

Connections may be color coded. Click the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can choose the new color for
the connection. Click the Set to default button to return the connection color to the default setting.

Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks (RBDs)

New labels can be added to a RBD by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Label pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button.
The cursor will change to a label symbol and it should be positioned at the required point in the diagram before clicking on the left
mouse button to create the label. The user can continue to add labels whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode, select the Add,
To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another menu option.

New notes can be added to a RBD by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Note pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button.
The cursor will change to a note symbol and it should be positioned at the required point in the diagram before clicking on the left
mouse button to create the note. The user can continue to add notes whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode, select the Add, To
Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another menu option.

New hyperlinks can be added to a RBD by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Hyperlink pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. The cursor will change to a hyperlink symbol and it should be positioned at the required point in the diagram before
clicking on the left mouse button to create the hyperlink. The user can continue to add hyperlinks whilst in this mode. To terminate
this mode, select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another
menu option.

Editing Label Properties

To edit the properties of a label either double-click on the label in the diagram, or select the label in the diagram and choose the
Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a label, the user will be presented with the Label Properties dialog, allowing label attributes to be modified.

Type

Here the user may change a label to a note or hyperlink.

Horizontal alignment

The Horizontal alignment option allows the user to choose how text will be aligned within the label frame in the RBD. Options are
left, center and right alignment.

Border

The Border check-box determines whether the label has a border.

Width

The width of the label in diagram coordinates. The default width is 100.

Height

The height of the label in diagram coordinates. The default height is 60.

Bitmap label

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If the Bitmap label check-box is selected then the specified bitmap will be displayed within the label frame in the RBD.

Bitmap

The Bitmap combo-box will only be enabled if the Bitmap label option is checked. The combo-box allows the user to select the
bitmap to appear in the label.

Label text

Label text will appear inside the label frame in the RBD. If a bitmap label is specified then the text will be replaced by the bitmap.

Change font

Selection of the Change font button will prompt Availability Workbench (AWB) to display a standard Windows Font dialog,
allowing the user to choose the required font for the label. Select the Set font to default button to return the label font to the default
setting.

Background color

The background color of a label may be customized by a user. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you
can choose the new color for the label background. Select the Set to default button to return the label color to the default setting.

Editing Note Properties

To edit the properties of a note either double-click on the note in the diagram, or select the note in the diagram and choose the Edit,
Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a note, the user will be presented with the Note Properties dialog, allowing note attributes to be modified.

Type

Here the user may change a note to a label or hyperlink.

Note

Note text that will appear when you hover the mouse cursor over the note in the RBD.

Editing Hyperlink Properties

To edit the properties of a hyperlink either double-click on the hyperlink in the diagram, or select the hyperlink in the diagram and
choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a hyperlink, the user will be presented with the Hyperlink Properties dialog, allowing hyperlink attributes to be
modified.

Type

Here the user may change a hyperlink to a label or note.

Hyperlink

The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse

Click either the Browse file or Browse web page button to browse for the link you require.

Using Pages (RBD)

Availability Workbench (AWB) allows the user to divide a RBD into pages. This facility is particularly useful for large RBDs,
which may be split up into hierarchical levels.

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For very simple block diagrams, the user need not be concerned with paging but may construct the full RBD within the top-level
page.

The Page Down pull-down menu option and a sub system block

For larger RBDs, the user may wish to specify certain blocks as sub-system blocks. Sub-system blocks are simply blocks that are
represented by reliability block diagrams on different pages. A sub-system block may be created by selecting a block in the top
page and selecting the Diagram, Page Down pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. A new RBD may be
constructed in the new page. The user must ensure that each page of the RBD has only one input and one output. Selection of the
Diagram, Page Up pull-down menu option will return the user to the page at the next level up. The RBD page selector combo-box
above the right-hand diagram window allows users to navigate directly to a new page.

Moving Diagram Objects

The position of blocks, nodes and labels in a RBD can be modified after the initial positioning during their creation. Any
connections in the diagram will be modified to account for the changing position of end point blocks or nodes.

The first method of moving the objects is to select an object or group of objects and then use the mouse to drag the object to a new
position. When an object is selected it is highlighted in red and may be dragged around the diagram area. When the cursor is
moved over the 'drag' icon at the top left corner of the selected objects it changes to the familiar 'drag' cursor. If the left button is
kept pressed down, the objects will move around with the cursor. When the left button is released, the objects will remain in their
new position.

The second method of moving objects is to use the options on the Shift pull-down menu or their equivalent keyboard combinations.

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A selected group of blocks showing the drag icon at the top left of the selections

Diagram Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete

The cut and copy facilities transfer the selected objects to the clipboard. The cut facility also removes the selections from the
diagram.

There are two distinct paste facilities. The standard paste facility makes an exact copy of the clipboard contents, whilst 'paste
special' copies the structure below system blocks and creates unique names for the copied objects.

These features can be accessed from the Edit pull-down menu or the equivalent keyboard combinations.

Selected objects can be deleted by choosing the Edit, Delete pull-down menu option or its equivalent keystroke.

The undo facility allows the user to override the last edit action. The maximum number of undos that may be performed can be set
in the Undo tab of the Application Options dialog.

Finding Blocks and Nodes

You can locate a particular block or node in the RBD by selecting the appropriate option on the Find pull-down menu.

On selection of the Find option AWB will display the Find dialog. This dialog contains a list of the blocks or nodes in the current
project. Blocks may be filtered by their failure model associations by selecting a failure model from the list at the top of the dialog.

Select the block or node in the displayed list and then select one of the following options.

Show First

On selection of this option AWB will display the first occurrence of the selected block or node in the diagram. If necessary, AWB
will automatically change the displayed RBD page.

Show Next

On selection of this option AWB will display the next occurrence of the selected block in the diagram. If necessary, AWB will
automatically change the displayed RBD page.

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Building a Fault Tree Diagram - Overview

A fault tree diagram consists of gates and basic events. Availability Workbench (AWB) also allows the user to add labels, notes
and hyperlinks to the diagram for purely illustrative purposes. More than one fault tree can be constructed in a single AWB
project. The facilities for adding fault tree elements to an AWB project are on the Add pull-down menu or the equivalent buttons
on the toolbar.

A new fault tree can be constructed during an AWB session by selecting the Add, New Top Gate pull-down menu option when
Diagram and Fault Tree are selected from the pull-down menus above the right-hand window.

Once the system logic has been entered for the system consequences may be assigned to gates in the diagram. Consequences are
usually assigned to system level gates (Top gates) and represent the effects of failure (financial, safety, operational and
environmental) on the system.

See Also

Adding Gates

Adding Events

Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks

Using Pages

Assigning Consequences

Adding Gates

New gates can be added to a fault tree by choosing the Add, Gate pull-down menu option or the equivalent toolbar button when
Diagram and Fault Tree are selected from the pull-down menus above the diagram area. The cursor will change to a gate symbol
and it should be positioned over an existing gate before clicking on the left mouse button to create the gate at the next lower
position in the tree. The program will automatically name each gate. This name can be edited at a later stage. In a similar way,
each gate will be assigned some default attributes, which can be modified by the user, if required. The user can continue to add
gates whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or the
equivalent toolbar button.

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Existing gates can be repeated in a fault tree by first copying the gate to the clipboard and then pasting it to the required position in
the tree. The copy operation can be carried out by first selecting the gate and then using the Edit, Copy pull-down menu option, or
pressing Ctrl+C. The paste operation can be carried out by first selecting the gate below which the copied gate is to be inserted and
then choosing the Edit, Paste pull-down menu option or pressing Ctrl+V.

Existing gates can be copied without retaining the original gate name but retaining other properties. This is accomplished by using
the Edit, Paste Special pull-down menu option for the paste operation. The fault tree structure below the copied gate will be
retained, although any gates or basic events below the copied gate will be given unique names.

Editing Gate Properties

To edit the properties of a gate either double-click on the gate in the diagram, or select the gate in the diagram and choose the Edit,
Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a gate, the user will be presented with the Gate Properties dialog, allowing gate attributes to be modified.

General Tab

ID

The gate ID uniquely identifies a gate in the fault tree. If the same gate ID is repeated in the fault tree structure, this represents the
same gate in the fault tree logic. A maximum of 40 alphanumeric characters are permitted for the gate ID.

Description

The description appears in the rectangle above the gate in the fault tree diagram. Descriptions may be up to 255 characters in
length.

Type

Valid gate types are OR, AND, VOTE, TRANSFER, NULL and NOT. OR gates indicate that the gate event will occur if any of
the inputs occur. AND gates indicate that the gate event will occur if all the inputs occur together. VOTE gates indicate that the
gate event will occur if 'm' (vote number) out of the inputs occur. If a VOTE gate type is specified then the user will be required to
enter a vote number. TRANSFER gates are used to represent a gate that has not been defined in terms of its inputs. NULL gates
have a single input and do not affect the failure logic of the system in any way. NOT gates indicate that the gate event will occur if
the input event does not occur.

Tag

The user may set one of three tag options: Auto, On or Off. If the Auto option is selected, a transfer tag is drawn just below the
gate description rectangle if the gate is at the top of a page and feeds into another page in the project. Selecting On or Off will
override the automatic setting.

Consequence

Users may select a single outage or capacity consequence to be associated with any gate. During a simulation, if the gate is out-of-
service (or running at reduced capacity) due to failure or scheduled maintenance, the consequence will apply. Users may create a

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new consequence or edit the currently assigned consequence by selecting the New and Edit buttons respectively.

Bom

A Bom may optionally be assigned to a gate. Assigned Boms will affect the choice of spares presented to the user when assigning
spare resources to tasks associated with primary events below the gate.

Page

Setting the Page flag will result in the gate appearing at the top of a new page. A transfer symbol surrounded by a rectangle will be
drawn in the diagram where the gate feeds into other pages.

Operational capacity target

In conjunction with the vote number, this parameter determines when standby equipment (buffers and cold or warm standby
blocks) will be made operational. If the required capacity is not achieved (due to direct or indirect failures or scheduled
maintenance activities) then standby primary events below the gate will be switched on in left to right order.

Extend label

Setting the Extend label flag on will increase the width of the gate name label in the fault tree diagram. This feature is useful if you
are using long gate names (say more than 20 characters in length).

Rules Tab

Vote number

The vote number is only required for VOTE gates and specifies the number of input failures required for the VOTE gate event to
occur.

Rules

AWB allows the user to define rules that can be used to set the vote number and rotate the inputs to a gate by phase or by the
trigger of an out-of-service event for one of the inputs to the gate. Selecting the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog.
Here the user may select the type of phase dependency required using the Type drop-down menu and the phase using the Phase
drop-down menu. If phase dependency is selected for the vote number then a further field will appear where the user may enter the
vote number.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and description that are automatically
generated by Availability Workbench. The properties of an existing rule may be edited by selecting the rule from the list and
clicking the Edit button. The Rule Properties dialog will appear allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was
created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

Appearance Tab

Background color

Gates may be color coded. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can choose the new color for the
gate. Select the Set to default button to return the gate color to the default setting.

Description font

To modify the font used for descriptive text select the Change font button to open the Font dialog. Select the Set to default button
to return the description font to the default setting.

Notes Tab

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by the user in the Project
Options dialog.

Hyperlink Tab

The user may associate hyperlinks with gates in a fault tree.

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Hyperlink

The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse

Select either the Browse for file or Browse for web page button to browse for the link you require.

Adding Events

New primary events may be added to a fault tree by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Event pull-down menu option or the
equivalent toolbar button when Diagram and Fault Tree are selected in the pull-down menus above the diagram area. The cursor
will change to an event symbol and it should be positioned over a gate before clicking on the left mouse button to create the event
at the next lower position in the tree. Each event will be automatically named by the program. This name can be edited at a later
stage. In a similar way, each event will be assigned some default attributes, which can be modified by the user, if required. The
user can continue to add events whilst in this mode. To terminate this mode select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-
down menu option or the equivalent toolbar button.

Existing events can be repeated in a fault tree by first copying the event to the clipboard and then pasting it to the required position
in the tree. The copy operation can be carried out by first selecting the event and then using the Edit, Copy pull-down menu option,
or pressing Ctrl+C. The paste operation can be carried out by first selecting a gate below which the copied event is to be inserted
and then choosing the Edit, Paste pull-down menu option or pressing Ctrl+V. Note that events copied in this way will be given the
same event name and will be treated as common failures.

An existing event can be copied without retaining the original event name but retaining other properties. This is accomplished by
using the Edit, Paste Special pull-down menu option for the paste operation.

Editing Event Properties

To edit the properties of a primary event either double-click on the event in the diagram, or select the event in the diagram and
choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing an event, the user will be presented with the Primary Event Properties dialog, allowing event attributes to be
modified.

General Tab

ID

The event ID is a unique name identifying the event. An event will usually represent a component or sub-system failure. A given
event, with the same ID, may be repeated more than once within the fault tree diagram. The event ID consists of up to 40
alphanumeric characters. Event IDs are automatically assigned using a hierarchical scheme when they are first created. Event IDs
may be reset at any time in the Primary Event Properties dialog or by selecting one of the options under the Tools, Rename pull-
down menu option.

Description

The description appears in the rectangle above the event in the fault tree diagram. Descriptions may be up to 255 characters in
length.

Failure model

The failure model associated with the event provides all the quantitative failure and maintenance data for the event. Users may
create a new failure model or edit the currently assigned failure model by selecting the New and Edit buttons respectively.

Consequence

Users may select a single outage or capacity consequence to be associated with the event. During a simulation, if the component

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represented by the event is out-of-service (or running at reduced capacity) due to failure or scheduled maintenance, the
consequence will apply. Users may create a new consequence or edit the currently assigned consequence by selecting the New and
Edit buttons respectively.

Initial age

The age of the component associated with the event at the beginning of the simulation.

Switching delay

If a non-zero switching delay time is specified then Availability Workbench (AWB) will simulate the specified delay whenever
the component is required to switch from a standby condition to an operating condition. In effect, the component will be
unavailable for the specified delay time.

Type

The type of primary event symbol to display in the diagram. Valid types are Basic, Undeveloped, Conditional, House and
Dormant. These symbol types, except for the House type, only affect the appearance of the symbols in the fault tree diagram. The
House type requires that the user sets the Logic Mode to True or False in the Rules tab

Rules Tab

Logic mode

The Logic Mode combo-box indicates one of three modes for the event:

Probabilistic

False

True

If the logic mode is set to Probabilistic (the default), event failures will be randomly sampled using the specified failure model. If
the logic mode is set to False, the event will remain in service throughout the lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides the logic
mode during a given phase of operation. If the logic mode is set to True, the event will remain out-of-service throughout the
lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides the logic mode during a given phase of operation.

Standby mode

The Standby mode setting indicates whether the standby mode for the event is Hot, Cold or Warm Standby. This setting only
affects the reliability performance of the event if it is not required to be operating during a simulation.

If Hot standby is specified, the failure characteristics do not change when the event is non-operational. If Cold standby is specified
then the event cannot fail when it is non-operational and no ageing takes place. If Warm standby is specified then the failure rate
of the event is reduced by the Non-operating failure apportionment % for the failure model associated with the event whilst it is
non-operational. In addition, the rate of ageing is reduced according to the Non-operating ageing apportionment % associated with
the event whilst it is non-operational.

Maximum capacity

Maximum capacity values are only applicable if you are interested in production flow as well as standard unavailability
calculations. These values are used to determine the production flow through a system when 'loss of capacity' consequences have
been defined. The maximum capacity indicates the maximum production flow through the event and is usually defined as a
percentage. The user may equate 100% capacity with a quantity and unit, such as 80 bpm. This alternative capacity value can be
set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog.

Load factor

Load factors may be assigned to individual events. The load factor allows users to model additional or reduced stress conditions
during different operational phases. For example, during launch a satellite might experience additional stresses due to high
vibration and high temperature, which might affect the components associated with the failure model during this period. A load
factor of 2 will increase the failure rate by 2 for the exponential distribution. This is equivalent to halving the MTTF. This is
described by the general expression

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where = load factor

Inhibit All Tasks (non-repairable and non-maintainable)

If checked the default setting will be for all maintenance tasks associated with the component to be disabled.

Non-operational

If checked the component will be non-operational throughout the lifetime of the system unless a rule overrides this
condition.

Rules

AWB allows the user to define rules that can be used to set the logic, standby mode, maximum capacity, load factor, non-
maintainable and non-operational status of a component by phase. The load factor, non-maintainable and non-operational status
may also be set by the state of a gate in the project. Clicking the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog. Here the user
may select the type of phase or state dependency required using the Type drop-down menu. If it is a phase-related rule then the
phase may be selected using the Phase drop-down menu. If phase dependency is selected for the logic, standby mode, maximum
capacity or load factor then a further field or drop-down menu will appear where the user may enter an appropriate parameter. If it
is a state-related rule then the user will be able to select the reference gate and the required state of the reference gate.

Rules that have been defined will appear in the Rules list. Each rule is identified by an ID and description that are automatically
generated by AWB. The properties of an existing rule may be edited by selecting the rule from the list and clicking the Edit button.
The Rule Properties dialog will appear allowing the user to edit the data entered when the rule was created.

A rule may be deleted by selecting it from the list and clicking the Remove button.

Appearance Tab

Background color

Events may be color coded. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you can choose the new color for the
event. Select the Set to default button to return the event color to the default setting.

Description font

To modify the font used for descriptive text select the Change font button to open the Font dialog. Select the Set to default button
to return the description font to the default setting.

Notes Tab

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Note field headers are defined by the user in the Project
Options dialog.

Hyperlink Tab

The user may associate hyperlinks with events in a fault tree.

Hyperlink

The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse

Select either the Browse for file or Browse for web page button to browse for the link you require.

Adding Labels, Notes and Hyperlinks (Fault Trees)

New labels can be added to the fault tree diagram by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Label pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button. The cursor will change to a label symbol and it should be positioned at the required point in the diagram before
clicking on the left mouse button to create the label. The user can continue to add labels whilst in this mode. To terminate this
mode, select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another menu

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option.

New notes can be added to the fault tree diagram by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Note pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button. The cursor will change to a note symbol and it should be positioned at the required point in the diagram before
clicking on the left mouse button to create the note. The user can continue to add notes whilst in this mode. To terminate this
mode, select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option, or select another menu
option.

New hyperlinks can be added to the fault tree diagram by choosing the Add, To Diagram, Hyperlink pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The cursor will change to a hyperlink symbol and it should be positioned at the required point in the
diagram before clicking on the left mouse button to create the hyperlink. The user can continue to add hyperlinks whilst in this
mode. To terminate this mode, select the Add, To Diagram, Clear Add Mode pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar option,
or select another menu option.

Hyperlinks may also be directly assigned to gates and primary events in the diagram using the Gate Properties and Primary Event
Properties dialogs. To view directly assigned hyperlinks in the diagram users must set the FT Pop-up mode to Hyperlink in the
View tab of the Project Options dialog.

Editing Label Properties

To edit the properties of a label either double-click on the label in the diagram, or select the label in the diagram and choose the
Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a label, the user will be presented with the Label Properties dialog, allowing label attributes to be modified.

Type

Here the user may change a label to a note or hyperlink.

Horizontal alignment

The Horizontal alignment option allows the user to choose how text will be aligned within the label frame in the RBD. Options are
Left, Center and Right alignment.

Border

The Border check-box determines whether the label has a border.

Width

The width of the label in diagram coordinates. The default width is 100.

Height

The height of the label in diagram coordinates. The default height is 60.

Bitmap label

If the Bitmap label check-box is selected then the specified bitmap will be displayed within the label frame in the RBD.

Bitmap

The Bitmap combo-box will only be enabled if the Bitmap label option is checked. The combo-box allows the user to select the
bitmap to appear in the label.

Label text

Label text will appear inside the label frame in the RBD. If a bitmap label is specified then the text will be replaced by the bitmap.

Change font

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Selection of the Change font button will prompt Availability Workbench (AWB) to display a standard Windows Font dialog,
allowing the user to choose the required font for the label. Select the Set font to default button to return the label font to the default
setting.

Background color

The background color of a label may be customized by a user. Select the << button to open the Windows Color dialog where you
can choose the new color for the label background. Select the Set to default button to return the label color to the default setting.

Editing Note Properties

To edit the properties of a note either double-click on the note in the diagram, or select the note in the diagram and choose the Edit,
Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a note, the user will be presented with the Note Properties dialog, allowing note attributes to be modified.

Type

Here the user may change a note to a label or hyperlink.

Note

Note text that will appear when you hover the mouse cursor over the note in the RBD.

Editing Hyperlink Properties

To edit the properties of a hyperlink either double-click on the hyperlink in the diagram, or select the hyperlink in the diagram and
choose the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option.

When editing a hyperlink, the user will be presented with the Hyperlink Properties dialog, allowing hyperlink attributes to be
modified.

Type

Here the user may change a hyperlink to a label or note.

Hyperlink

The link to the chosen web page or file.

Browse

Click either the Browse file or Browse web page button to browse for the link you require.

Using Pages (Fault Tree)

Large fault trees can become difficult to view and understand and therefore a paging facility is available in the AvSim module of
Availability Workbench (AWB). This facility allows the user to split the tree into manageable parts and to place each part on a
separate page.

To create a new page, the user should select a gate in the diagram below which any lower parts of the diagram are required to
appear on a new page. Use the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option or double-click on the gate to access the Gate Properties
dialog.

The Page check-box should then be set on and, when the OK button is selected, the dialog will be dismissed and the new page will
be created. The name of the gate at the top of the new page will be added to the list in the Fault tree page selector above the right-
hand window. The new page will also be added below the Fault Tree Pages node in the project tree control.

Moving Diagram Objects

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The position of gates, events and labels in a fault tree diagram can be modified after the initial positioning during their creation.
Any connections in the diagram will be modified to account for the changing position of gates and events.

The first method of moving the objects is to select an object and then use the mouse to drag the object to a new position. When an
object is selected, a 'drag' cursor icon appears at the top left corner of the object. This icon may be used to drag the object around
the diagram. When the cursor is moved over the icon, it too changes to the familiar 'drag' cursor. If the left button is then pressed
down, the object will move around with the cursor. When the left button is released, the object will remain in its current position.

The second method of moving objects is to use the options on the Shift pull-down menu, or their equivalent keyboard
combinations.

These options move the selected object or group of objects by a fixed amount.

It is possible to restore any offsets that have been manually incorporated into the diagram by choosing either the Clear Visible
Offsets or Clear All Offsets options. The former will remove any offsets currently visible on the screen, whilst the latter removes
all offsets in the diagram. The Auto Compress with Offsets option will reduce the offsets to fit as much of the fault tree into the
visible diagram area as possible, without allowing objects to overlap.

A selected gate showing the drag icon at the top left of the selection

Diagram Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete

The cut and copy facilities transfer the selected objects to the clipboard. The cut facility also removes the selections from the
diagram.

There are two distinct paste facilities. The standard paste facility makes an exact copy of the clipboard contents, whilst 'paste
special' copies the structure below gates and creates unique names for the copied objects.

These features can be accessed from the Edit pull-down menu or the equivalent keyboard combinations.

Selected objects can be deleted by choosing the Edit, Delete pull-down menu option or its equivalent keystroke.

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The undo facility allows the user to override the last edit action. The maximum number of undos that may be performed can be set
in the Undo tab of the Application Options dialog.

Finding Gates and Events

You can locate a particular gate or event in the fault tree diagram by selecting the appropriate option on the Find pull-down menu.

On selection of the Find option Availability Workbench (AWB) will display the Find dialog. This dialog contains a list of the gates
or events in the current project. Events may be filtered by their failure model associations by selecting a failure model from the list
at the top of the dialog.

Select the gate or event in the displayed list and then select one of the following options.

Show First

On selection of this option AWB will display the first occurrence of the selected gate or event in the diagram. If necessary, AWB
will automatically change the displayed fault tree page.

Show Next

On selection of this option AWB will display the next occurrence of the selected gate or event in the diagram. If necessary, AWB
will automatically change the displayed fault tree page.

Common Cause Failures

A common cause failure is the failure of more than one component, sub-system or system due to the same common cause.
Availability Workbench (AWB) allows users to specify common cause failures in RBD and fault tree diagrams simply by copying
and pasting the appropriate RBD block or fault tree gate or event to the affected part of the diagram. RBD blocks and fault tree
gates and events with the same name will be treated as the same failure event during the simulation.

It is important to represent common cause failures correctly in the RBD or fault tree diagram as they often make a substantial
contribution to the unavailability of systems that contain redundancy. For example, suppose that a common electrical supply is
used to power 2 pumps in a standby arrangement. Failure of the common electrical supply would render both pumps unavailable at
the same time. If the reliability of the electrical supply were comparable to the reliability of each pump then the beneficial effects
of employing a redundant configuration would be almost completely negated.

To illustrate how AWB may be used to model common cause failures of this type, let us consider the 2-pump example described
above. In order to represent the correct logical behavior of the common cause failure, we could use the following RBD or fault tree
diagrams:

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In the diagrams above, the common cause failure is given the same block or event ID (use copy and paste to achieve this result).
AWB recognizes that the two blocks or events labelled POWER represent the same failure event, simply because they have the
same ID. Alternatively, we could model the same logical behavior in the following way.

There is no logical difference between the two sets of diagrams as they both indicate that failure of the power supply on its own
will render the two-pump sub-system unavailable. However, in more complicated examples, say where the power supply affects
many diverse systems, it is more convenient to repeat the common cause event.

Standby Arrangements

Parallel RBD arrangements or fault tree AND gates may be used to represent standby systems of components. Availability
Workbench (AWB) also allows the user to specify hot, cold or warm standby parameters that permit the modelling of increased
mean time to failures for components that are not operating at any given time.

For example, consider a 2-pump sub-system where the secondary pump remains in standby if the primary pump is operating. The
failure logic of this sub-system may be represented by a RBD or a fault tree diagram:

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Both the RBD and fault tree diagrams indicate that both pumps must fail for the sub-system to fail.

If the mean time to failure (MTTF) of the secondary pump (pump B) is increased when it is in standby to pump A then there is a
dependency between the failure characteristics of the two pumps which must be taken into account when calculating the
unavailability of the sub-system. The simulation process automatically takes this dependency into account by increasing the
MTTF (and hence reducing the failure rate) of the secondary pump when it is not required to operate.

In order for AWB to take account of cold (non-operating infinite MTTF which is equivalent to a failure rate of zero) and warm
(non-operating MTTF greater than operating MTTF) standby arrangements, the program must first know which of the two pumps
is the primary (normally operating) pump and which pump is the secondary (normally in standby) pump. This is done simply by
placing the primary pump above the secondary pump in a RBD. In a fault tree diagram, the event representing the primary pump
failure must appear to the left of the event representing the secondary pump failure.

AWB also needs to know whether a component will be in hot, cold or warm standby and the MTTF to apply in warm standby
situations. For RBDs, this may be done by first selecting the appropriate option from the Standby mode option list in the Rules tab
of the Block Properties dialog representing the secondary component. The Block Properties dialog is revealed by double-clicking
the left mouse button with the cursor over the block representing the secondary component failure. For fault trees, this may be
done by first selecting the appropriate option, from the Standby mode option list in the Rules tab of the Event Properties dialog,
representing the secondary component. The Primary Event Properties dialog is revealed by double-clicking the left mouse button
with the cursor over the event representing the secondary component failure. If the warm standby option is selected for a
secondary standby component, the standby MTTF must also be specified. This is done by modifying the Non-operating failure
apportionment property for the failure model associated with the secondary component. This parameter may be accessed in the
Failure Model Properties dialog (Failure tab). This parameter is expressed as a percentage value. For example, indicating a value
of 20% will result in AWB applying a failure rate that is 20% of the normal failure rate when the component is not operating. This
increases the mean time to failure by a factor of 5. This may be expressed as a general expression:

where = warm standby failure apportionment %

AWB models more complicated standby arrangements using the same methods. For example, the following 2 out of 3 voting
arrangement indicates that the lower line of blocks (C1 and C2) will be in standby if the components represented by the first two
lines of blocks (A1, A2, B1, B2) are all operating. If C1 and C2 have different MTTFs when they are not operating then the user
should modify their standby types and apply the appropriate warm standby failure apportionment to the failure models associated
with the two blocks.

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In addition to specifying a different mean time to failure for a component when it is in standby, it may also be appropriate to reduce
the speed at which it ages when it is in standby. This would only be appropriate if the component exhibits ageing characteristics,
i.e. the Weibull model has been chosen to represent its failure characteristics. AWB allows this to be done by allowing the user to
specify a Non-operating ageing apportionment value for a given failure model. This parameter may be accessed in the Failure
Model Properties dialog (Failure tab). This value is expressed as a percentage value and reduces the age of a component when it is
in standby. For example, if a value of 60% is specified, the age of the component will only be increased by 60% of the actual
elapsed time during a simulation when it is in standby.

Local Standby

Local standby flags are used to control when a standby block is required to start-up to replace the functionality of a failed block
in the RBD. Local standby flags are normally only needed when modelling throughput capacity. Consider the small system
below. Unless the user sets a local standby flag, AWB will assume that block C will be in standby when Block A is working and
block B is failed. This is because, from a traditional availability point of view, the system is in service with just A working.
However, if we were modelling throughput, this behavior would result in the system operating at 60% capacity only. If we set the
local standby flag on for node X, the program will treat the lower parallel arrangement (block B and block C) as if it was
independent from block A from the point of view of determining the standby status of C. Now when block B fails, block C will
start-up to replace the lost capacity.

Operational Capacity Target

Alternatively, if a specific operational capacity has been set for a node or gate, the standby blocks or events will be switched on in
order to reach the specified capacity level. The standby components will be switched on in top to bottom order for RBD blocks
and left to right order for fault tree gates.

Failure Models - Overview

Failure models describe the basic failure and maintenance characteristics of components. They are assigned to individual
component blocks in a RBD or primary events in a fault tree diagram.

Failure models may be added to a project using the Add, Resources, Failure Model pull-down menu option. Alternatively they
may be created in the Block Properties dialog (for RBDs) or the Primary Event Properties dialog (for fault trees).

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Selected failure models in the project tree may be modified via the Edit, Properties pull-down menu or in the Block Properties
dialog or the Primary Event Properties dialog.

See Also

General Properties

Failure

Maintenance

Alarm

Commission

Redesign

Notes

Strategy

Failure Models - General Properties

Failure model general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

ID

A unique identifier for the failure model of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type

The type assigned to the failure model. Failure model types are used to organize failure models into groups. If a project contains
many failure models then this will greatly assist in locating a failure model in the project tree.

Description

A description for the failure model of no more than 255 characters.

Detection method

This field describes the method used to detect the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are allowed.

Compensating provisions

This field describes the compensating provisions for the failure. Up to 2000 characters of text are allowed.

Remarks

This is a descriptive field of up to 2000 characters.

See Also

Overview

Failure

Maintenance

Alarm

Commission

Redesign

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Notes

Strategy

Failure Models - Failure

Failure model failure properties may be accessed from the Failure tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Weibull set

Users may link a failure model to a Weibull set created in the Weibull module of Availability Workbench (AWB). A failure model
that is linked to a Weibull set will obtain the distribution type and parameters directly from the Weibull set. This allows users to
analyze historical failure data and directly connect this data to the failure model. As historical data is updated, AWB will
automatically update the distribution parameters for the associated failure models.

Distribution

The Distribution combo-box specifies the failure distribution to be associated with the failure model. Options are

Exponential

Weibull

Bi-Weibull

Tri-Weibull

Fixed

Lognormal

Normal

Buffer

Phased Bi-Weibull

Phased Tri-Weibull

These distributions are used in the Monte Carlo simulation to sample times to failure of the component.

The exponential distribution represents the case where the failure rate is constant over time. The user inputs the inverse of the
failure rate in the Mean time to failure field. The cumulative failure distribution at time t is given by

where l = constant failure rate

The Weibull options relate to the number of three-parameter Weibull distributions to be used to sample the time to failure of the
component. The user can choose to have one, two or three distributions that are then combined to represent the three failure modes
in the well-known bathtub curve for the failure rate of a component. The first mode represents early failures during the 'burn-in'
period, the second mode is the 'useful-life' period when the failures are random and the final mode is the 'wear-out' mode for which
the failure rate rises. In the AvSim module the user has the option of choosing to model one, two or three of the bathtub periods.
The user can input the values for the three-parameter Weibull distribution for the chosen modes. The cumulative failure
distribution at time t for the three-parameter Weibull distribution is given by

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where h = characteristic life parameter (Eta in the dialog)

b = shape parameter (Beta in the dialog)

g = location parameter (Gamma in the dialog)

The fixed distribution is intended for use when the time to failure is definitely known. The user is required to enter a fixed time to
failure if this distribution is selected.

If the user chooses the lognormal or normal distributions then the user will be expected to enter a mean time to failure and standard
deviation.

The buffer distribution model has been added to allow users to model stored capacity during a simulation. For example, a tank
may hold enough liquid to supply flow in a process plant when the normal pumped supply is unavailable due to a fault in the
system. The tank can only supply liquid for a limited period of time. In the AvSim module, you may add a block in parallel to the
normal supply route to represent the tank in the RBD. The new block would be associated with the buffer failure distribution.
When the buffer option is selected, two fields will appear. One will allow the user to enter the Time to empty buffer. Another will
allow the user to specify the Time to fill buffer. By setting the Base buffer depletion rate on capacity requirement check-box on in
the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog, the program will determine the required capacity from the buffer, based on the
node or gate operational capacity target. The required capacity will be taken as a proportion of the buffers maximum capacity to
determine how quickly the buffer should empty. The Time to empty buffer entered by the user for a buffer therefore refers to the
time to empty the buffer when the maximum buffer capacity is required.

For the exponential, lognormal and normal distributions the user must supply the value of the mean time to failure.

Buffer fill mode

This combo-box will be displayed if the buffer distribution is selected. If the Buffer fill rate independent of system state option is
selected the buffer fill rate will not be affected by the system state. If the Buffer fill prohibited if system out-of-service option is
selected the buffer will not fill when the immediate system that contains the block or event is out-of-service. If the Buffer fill rate
dependent on system capacity option is selected the buffer will fill at a reduced rate proportional to the capacity of the immediate
system that contains the block or event. If the Buffer fill rate dependent on reverse system capacity option is selected the buffer
will fill at a reduced rate inversely proportional to the capacity of the immediate system that contains the block or event.

Standard deviation

If either a lognormal or normal distribution is selected then the standard deviation must be entered.

Eta, Beta and Gamma

The characteristic lifetime (eta), shape (beta) and the time shift (gamma) parameters need to be entered if a Weibull distribution has
been chosen for the task.

Non-operating failure apportionment %

The non-operating failure apportionment indicates how the failure rates of components associated with the failure model will be
adjusted when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50% indicates that the failure rate should be halved or mean
time to failure doubled when it is non-operational.

Non-operating ageing apportionment %

The non-operating ageing apportionment indicates how the age of components associated with the failure model will be adjusted
when they are not operational. An apportionment value of 50% indicates that the component ages at only half the normal rate when
it is non-operational.

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Dormant failure

If the dormant failure check box is selected, failed equipments will not be repaired until after an inspection or planned maintenance
task takes place. This flag should be set for standby components that are only required to operate on demand and whose failures
remain hidden until an inspection takes place.

Start-up failure probability

The probability that a failure will occur when the component is switching from a non-operational to an operational state.

See Also

Overview

General Properties

Maintenance

Alarm

Commission

Redesign

Notes

Strategy

Failure Models - Maintenance

Failure model maintenance properties may be accessed from the Maintenance tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

The maintenance tasks assigned to a failure model are categorized into one of three possible types corrective tasks, planned
maintenance tasks and inspection tasks.

Corrective tasks are performed when a random failure takes place or when an inspection reveals a hidden failure.

Planned maintenance tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches a given value or when an
opportunity arises. Planned maintenance may involve the replacement of ageing equipment or minor tasks such as lubrication.
Planned maintenance may also be performed when an inspection predicts that a failure is about to occur (predictive maintenance).

Inspection tasks may be performed at fixed intervals, when the age of an equipment reaches a given value or when an opportunity
arises. Inspection tasks are performed to detect an imminent failure (and hence allow a planned maintenance task to be scheduled
to prevent the failure) or to detect a dormant (hidden) failure. Hidden failures are normally associated with standby equipment.

Copying Tasks from a Task Library

You may copy tasks from an attached library by selecting the Copy Task From Library button. If you wish to copy a task from
elsewhere in the current project select the Use current project option and then select the Copy Task From Project button. If you
prefer to filter tasks using the task group hierarchy then first select the Use task group hierarchy button. If you have multiple
libraries attached you will also need to select the appropriate library from the Task library combo-box.

For more information on how to create task libraries see the Task Library section.

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See Also

Overview

General Properties

Failure

Alarm

Commission

Redesign

Notes

Strategy

Failure Models - Alarm

Failure model alarm properties may be accessed from the Alarm tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Monitoring equipment may be installed to automatically indicate a failure is about to occur without an inspection by a maintenance
crew.

The following parameters constitute the data for condition monitoring equipment.

Install condition alarm

Indicates that a condition alarm has been installed

P-F curve

The P-F curve, in combination with the P-F interval and detection probability, determines whether the condition alarm will predict
a future failure, and if so, when. The P-F curve determines the warning time provided by the alarm before the actual failure. The
probability density function for the detection warning time is given by:

Exponential Distribution:

Linear Distribution:

for

for

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Step Distribution:

for

for

P-F interval

The P-F interval for the alarm. The P-F interval provides a measure of the warning time given by the alarm for a future random
failure of the component.

Detection probability

Indicates the probability that the alarm will detect the failure.

Capital cost

The capital cost of the alarm for the system lifetime.

Cost rate

The cost rate associated with the alarm over the system lifetime.

Description

A description of the alarm of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

SCADA tag ID

A SCADA tag identifier of up to 40 alpha-numeric characters.

See Also

Overview

General Properties

Failure

Maintenance

Commission

Redesign

Notes

Strategy

Failure Models - Commission

Failure model commission properties may be accessed from the Commission tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Commissioning a component eliminates wear-in failures and is appropriate where the Weibull distribution indicates high failure
rates during the early life of a component. Commissioning effectively sets the age of the component to the commissioning interval
when it is installed in the system.

Commission

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Indicates that commissioning will be performed.

Period

Indicates the length of the commissioning interval.

Cost per commission

The cost every time a component is commissioned.

Cost rate

The cost rate associated with the commissioning interval.

Description

A description of the commissioning details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also

Overview

General Properties

Failure

Maintenance

Alarm

Redesign

Notes

Strategy

Failure Models - Redesign

Failure model redesign properties may be accessed from the Redesign tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Redesign

Indicates that redesign is required.

Redesign capital cost

The capital cost of redesign.

Cost rate

The cost rate associated with redesign over the system lifetime.

Description

A description of the redesign details of up to 2000 characters may be entered.

See Also

Overview

General Properties

Failure

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Maintenance

Alarm

Commission

Notes

Strategy

Failure Models - Notes

Failure model notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to
identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

See Also

Overview

General Properties

Failure

Maintenance

Alarm

Commission

Redesign

Strategy

Failure Models - Strategy

Failure model strategy properties may be accessed from the Strategy tab of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Maintenance and design strategy

The Maintenance and design strategy list allows users to view and modify the current strategy associated with the failure model.
Scheduled maintenance tasks associated with the failure model are listed together with the status of the alarm, commission and
redesign strategies. The list allows users to quickly set the enabled status and specify intervals for tasks. More detailed information
must be specified in the appropriate tabs of the Failure Model Properties dialog.

Edit task

Users may quickly navigate to the Task Properties dialog for an existing task by selecting the task in the list and then selecting the
Edit task button.

See Also

Overview

General Properties

Failure

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Maintenance

Alarm

Commission

Redesign

Notes

Phases - Overview

Availability Workbench (AWB) does not require the user to define any phases unless special conditions need to be applied for
different time intervals during the simulation process. However, by defining phases the user may

Prohibit maintenance activities during certain periods

Specify components as being non-operational during certain time periods

Modify failure rates during certain time periods

Modify consequences during certain time periods

Change the RBD or fault tree diagram logic during certain time periods

Rotate equipment when crossing a phase boundary

For example, maintenance activities may need to be prohibited if the system becomes non-repairable and non-maintainable during
different phases of its lifetime. Take the case of aircraft systems, which will generally not be repairable during a flight. As a
further example, scheduled and unscheduled maintenance crews for a manufacturing plant safety system may only be available
during certain shifts.

Note that if a given phase is specified as being non-maintainable at project level (rules may be assigned under the Simulation tab of
the Project Options dialog), AWB will prohibit all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance activities during that phase (corrective
and planned maintenance and inspections) for every component in the project.

During certain phases of a systems lifetime, components or even an entire system might be considered to be non-operational. For
example, during winter months the air conditioning system in a car might not be required to operate. During such periods, the
components are effectively in standby. If the standby mean times to failure (MTTF) for the system components differ significantly
from the normal operational MTTFs, the overall reliability predictions for the air conditioning system would need to take these
phase differences into account. AWB allows the user to specify that either individual components or the entire system is
operational (the default) or non-operational during a given phase. If a component is specified to be non-operational during a given
phase then AWB takes note of the Standby type setting for the associated RBD block or fault tree event. If cold standby is
specified, the component will not fail during non-operational phases. If warm standby is specified, the MTTF for the component is
increased using the Non-operating failure apportionment property for the failure model associated with the component. This
property may be accessed in the Failure Model Properties dialog (Failure tab). This parameter is expressed as a percentage value.
Indicating a value of 20% will result in AWB applying a failure rate that is 20% of the normal failure rate when the component is
not operating. This increases the mean time to failure by a factor of 5. This may be expressed as a general expression:

where = warm standby failure apportionment %

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Project rules (set in the Simulation tab of the Project Options dialog) allow users to specify an overall load factor that will be
applied to all failure rates in the project during a specified phase. This factor is used to effectively reduce or extend the mean time
to failures (MTTFs) for all components in the project during that phase. This load factor allows users to model additional or
reduced stress conditions during different operational phases. For example, during launch, a satellite might experience additional
stresses, due to high vibration and high temperature, that might affect the MTTFs of certain components during this period. This
may be modelled by defining a phase representing the launch period and applying a load factor greater than 1 using the project
rules. An adjustment factor of 2 will increase the failure rate by 2 for the exponential distribution. This is equivalent to halving the
MTTF. This is described by the general expression:

where = load factor

Phases may be defined as belonging to different phase groups. Phase groups run concurrently. For example, let us assume we
define two phase groups, named A and B, and assign 3 phases to group A and 2 phases to Group B. The 3 phases in group A are
mutually exclusive of one another and will be traversed cyclically during the simulation. Group A phases will be totally
independent from the 2 group B phases that will also be traversed cyclically during the simulation.

Phase groups appear underneath the Phases node in the project tree. You may change the description of a phase group by double-
clicking the mouse over the phase group in the project tree, or highlighting the phase group and choosing Edit Properties from the
right click pop-up menu.

See Also

Phase Properties

Phase Groups

Phase Properties

Phase properties may be accessed from the Phase Properties dialog.

ID

The phase ID uniquely identifies the phase. Up to 40 alphanumeric characters are permitted.

Group

Phase group to which the phase belongs. Phase groups may run concurrently with one another.

Description

Descriptive text may be entered for the phase. Up to 255 characters are allowed.

Duration

The Duration is the time length of the phase. If the sum of the duration of all phases is less than the system lifetime then phases
will be repeated cyclically. Take as an example a project with two phases each with duration of 1000 time units and a system
lifetime of 5000 time units. The simulation would start in the first phase, switch to second phase after 1000 time units and then
switch back to the first phase after 1000 time units, after which the cycle would be repeated until the system lifetime was reached.

Notes

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to
identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

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See Also

Overview

Phase Groups

Phase Groups

Phase group properties may be accessed from the Phase Group Properties dialog.

Phase groups are used to group together mutually exclusive phases that run cyclically over the system lifetime. A phase that
belongs to a phase group may run concurrently with a phase from a different phase group.

ID

The phase group ID uniquely identifies the phase group. Up to 40 alphanumeric characters are permitted.

Description

Descriptive text may be entered for the phase group. Up to 255 characters are allowed.

See Also

Overview

Phase Properties

Consequences - Overview

In addition to predicting system failure parameters such as unavailability, unreliability, number of expected failures etc.,
Availability Workbench (AWB) also allows the user to define consequences that quantify the impact of system failures on safety,
costs, operations and the environment.

Consequences may be defined and assigned to system failures in a RBD or a fault tree. If you are using a RBD to represent the
failure logic of your system, you will be able to assign consequences to system and component failures by double-clicking on a
block in the RBD. This will reveal the Block Properties dialog that contains a Consequence selection list. If you are using a fault
tree diagram to represent the failure logic of your system, you can assign consequences to any of the gates or events in the fault tree
by selecting the appropriate consequence in the Gate Properties or Event Properties dialog.

There are two different types of consequences:

Total outage consequences

Loss of capacity consequences

Total outage consequences should be used when performing a traditional availability study using RBD or fault tree diagrams.
Events in the RBDs represent failure or success (out-of-service or in-service).

Loss of capacity consequences are appropriate where the RBD or fault tree diagram is being used to model production flow at
intermediate levels (e.g. 10%, 20%, 40%, 70% etc.). This is a special use of RBD and fault tree diagrams.

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Total Outage Consequences

When defining a total outage consequence, the user must specify the financial cost of the consequence, together with severity
values for safety, operational and environmental impact. Severity values are weighting values whose precise meaning will depend
on the type of system being analyzed. It is up to the user to decide what these weightings should actually represent. For example,
the safety weighting might represent probable number of deaths or probable number of injuries. The environmental weighting
might represent amount of toxic material released. The operational weighting might represent total loss of mission or partial
loss of mission. Many consequences will not have any safety, operational or environmental implications. Where this is the case,
the severity values should be given the default value of zero.

As the same total outage consequence may be assigned to more than one RBD system failure or more than one fault tree gate, the
results provided for each consequence after a simulation is performed represent the accumulation of the data for all failures
resulting in that consequence.

Relevant results for outage consequences are presented in the form of the following parameters:

Total duration over lifetime

Total number of occurrences over the lifetime

Cost over lifetime

Safety criticality over lifetime

Operational criticality over lifetime

Environmental criticality over lifetime

These parameters are determined from

where

= total consequence duration over lifetime

= total down time over lifetime of the ith system associated with the consequence

Note that the total duration may be greater than the system lifetime if a single consequence is assigned to more than one system
failure.

where

= expected number of occurrences for consequence over the lifetime

= expected number of occurrences over lifetime of the ith system associated with consequence

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where

= total outage consequence cost over lifetime

= total outage consequence cost rate

= total outage consequence cost per occurrence

where

= consequence criticality over lifetime

= consequence severity rate

= consequence severity per occurrence

The above expression applies to safety, operational and environmental criticality values.

Loss of Capacity Consequences

Loss of capacity consequences respond to the production flow through the RBD block or fault tree gate associated with the
consequence. If a consequence is assigned to a sub-system block then the mean capacity values calculated for the consequence
will represent the mean production capacity output from the sub-system block. The mean production capacity flow into the sub-
system block will therefore influence the flow out of the sub-system block.

The cost of lost production is determined from the following expressions:

if

if

Where

= Cost rate per % loss of capacity

= Current production level %

= time at production level

= Additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level

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= Target production level

Relevant results for capacity consequences are presented in the form of the following parameters:

Mean Capacity over lifetime

Capacity standard deviation over lifetime

Estimated mean capacity error

Extended Outage Cost Penalties

In certain practical situations, the cost penalty rate associated with a consequence may vary with the duration of an individual
outage. AWB allows you to specify up to 4 step rate changes for a consequence. For total outage consequences you may specify
the change in cost rate directly at different time points. For capacity consequences, the rate per % loss is specified at different time
points. Note that the time values specified relate to the duration of an individual outage or capacity loss occurrence during a
simulation.

Creating and Editing Consequences

Consequences can be added to a project by selecting the Add, Resource, Consequence pull-down menu option. Selected
consequences can be modified by highlighting them in the project tree and choosing the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option, or
removed by choosing the Edit, Delete pull-down menu option. The Add and Edit options result in the Consequence Properties
dialog being displayed. This dialog allows the user to specify the attributes associated with a consequence and specify rules to
modify these parameters during different phases.

Consequences - General Properties

Consequence general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Consequence Properties dialog.

ID

The ID uniquely defines the consequence. Up to 40 alphanumeric characters may be specified.

Type

The type assigned to the consequence. Consequence types are used to organize consequences into groups. If a project contains
many consequences then this will greatly assist in locating a consequence in the project tree.

Description

A text description of up to 255 characters may be associated with each consequence.

Total outage consequence

Total outage consequences should be used when performing a traditional availability study using RBD or fault tree diagrams.
Events in the RBD represent failure or success (out-of-service or in-service).

Loss of capacity consequence

Loss of capacity consequences are appropriate where the RBD or fault tree diagram is being used to model production flow at
intermediate levels (e.g. 10%, 20%, 40%, 70% etc.). This is a special use of RBD and fault tree diagrams.

Consequences - Cost

Consequence cost properties may be accessed from the Cost tab of the Consequence Properties dialog.

Cost rate (Total outage consequences)

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The cost per unit time incurred over the duration of the consequence

Cost per occurrence (Total outage consequences)

The cost incurred on each occurrence of an event that results in the consequence.

Cost rate per unit loss of capacity (Loss of capacity consequences)

The cost per unit time for each unit loss of capacity.

Additional cost rate per unit loss below target (Loss of capacity consequences)

The cost per unit time for each unit loss below the value specified in the Target production level field.

Target production level (Loss of capacity consequences)

The target production level below which the additional cost rate will be applied.

Extended outage cost penalties

In certain practical situations, the cost penalty associated with a consequence may vary with the duration of an individual outage.
Availability Workbench (AWB) allows you to specify up to 4 step rate changes for a consequence. For total outage consequences
you may specify the change in cost rate directly at different time points. For capacity consequences, the rate per % loss is specified
at different time points. Note that the time values specified relate to the duration of an individual outage or capacity loss
occurrence during a simulation.

Consequences - Severity

Consequence severity properties may be accessed from the Severity tab of the Consequence Properties dialog.

Severity values apply to total outage consequences only.

Safety severity

The safety severity rate and severity per occurrence for the consequence.

Operational severity

The operational severity rate and severity per occurrence for the consequence.

Environmental severity

The environmental severity rate and severity per occurrence for the consequence.

Consequences - Rules

Consequence rule properties may be accessed from the Rules tab of the Consequence Properties dialog.

Consequence rules are used to modify consequence parameters during different phases. Currently defined rules for the
consequence are displayed in the Rules list.

Add

Used to add a rule. Selecting the Add button will open the Rule Properties dialog.

Edit

Used to edit a rule. By selecting an existing rule in the list and clicking the Edit button users may open the Rule Properties dialog.

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Remove

Used to remove a selected rule.

Consequence Rules

Consequence rules may be defined in the Rule Properties dialog accessed by selecting the Add or Edit buttons in the Rules tab of
the Consequence Properties dialog. Consequence rules modify consequence properties during different phases. To define a new
rule in the Rule Properties dialog select the rule type, phase and modified property value followed by selection of the OK button.
The rule will then be displayed in the Rules list of the Consequence Properties dialog.

Consequences - Notes

Consequence notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Consequence Properties dialog.

Each notes field allows the user to enter up to 2000 characters of text. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to
identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

Bitmaps - Overview

Bitmaps are used to enhance the display in RBD and fault tree diagrams. They may be assigned to labels and then moved or
resized. They may also be assigned to individual blocks in a RBD.

The bitmap image must reside in a bitmap file. Availability Workbench does not store the actual bitmaps in a project. It stores a
reference to the bitmap file.

Bitmap Properties

Bitmap properties may be accessed from the Bitmap Properties dialog.

ID

Bitmaps are identified by a unique name consisting of up to 40 characters. New bitmaps are created with a default name that can
be changed by the user.

Type

The type assigned to the bitmap. Bitmap types are used to organize bitmaps into groups. If a project contains many bitmaps then
this will greatly assist in locating a bitmap in the project tree.

Description

Users may enter a description for the bitmap of up to 255 characters.

File

The full path of the bitmap file. The file name is specified by selecting the Browse button.

Resize Frame

When selected the block or label in which the bitmap is displayed will be automatically resized to accommodate the image.

Stretch to Frame

When selected the bitmap will be automatically resized to fit the label or block in which it is to be displayed.

Clip to Frame

When selected the bitmap will be automatically cropped to fit the label or block in which it is to be displayed.

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Model Integrity Validation

Before performing a system simulation run in the AvSim module, Availability Workbench (AWB) will validate data to ensure that
the model data specified by the user is valid.

If any fatal errors are encountered then AWB will display the Model Integrity Verification dialog which lists the errors. Users may
also request a validation by selecting the Simulation, Verify Model Integrity pull-down menu option. Objects directly associated
with an error may be edited by selecting the error message in the list and then selecting the Edit button.

The following integrity checks are made:

Check for circular logic

Circular logic errors are produced when the user constructs an invalid logical arrangement in the RBD or fault tree diagram under
construction.

For RBDs, circular logic errors will occur if a block is copied within itself. For example, if a block named XYZ is copied to the
clipboard and the Page Down facility is then selected to define the blocks that constitute the sub-system XYZ followed by selection
of the paste facility to draw block XYZ on its own sub-system page, the verification process would flag a circular logic error.

For fault tree diagrams, a circular logic error will occur if a gate is repeated in the tree structure so that it feeds into itself. For
example, if a gate G1 has 2 inputs G2 and G3, and in turn G2 has 2 inputs G1 and G4, G1 is effectively feeding into itself in the
diagram.

Check for multiple RBD inputs and outputs

Each page of the RBD must have a single input node or block and a single output node or block.

Check for component blocks and primary events with failure models not set

A warning message is produced if no failure model is associated with a component block or primary event.

Check for systems with no constituent blocks

A warning message is given if top-level systems exist in the RBD with no constituent blocks.

Check capacity values

Warnings are given if capacity values exceed 100% capacity.

Check for invalid vote numbers

Invalid vote numbers are not permitted. For example a node in the RBD might be assigned a vote number greater than the number
of input connections feeding into the node.

Check for transfer gates

A warning message is given if transfer gates are located in a fault tree with no logical inputs.

Check for gates having an invalid number of inputs

Gates with an invalid number of inputs for the gate type are not permitted

Check for capacity consequences not connected to a single object

Capacity consequences must be connected to a single block, gate or primary event.

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Full Simulation Run

To perform a full simulation run in the AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Simulation, Start pull-down
menu option or the equivalent toolbar button. If you have made any fatal errors when constructing the project (for example, not
connecting blocks in a page), AWB will display the error messages and halt the simulation. Otherwise, the simulation will
proceed. A message will also be displayed at the bottom of the AWB window, indicating the progress of the simulation run.

If you wish to halt the simulation run before the program has reached the number of simulations requested then select the
Simulation, Stop pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. A dialog will appear asking if you wish to complete the
current simulation in order to retain results. The user may select Yes to finish the current simulation and obtain a set of results for
the partially completed run, No to terminate the simulation run without retaining any results, or Cancel to resume the simulation
run and continue until it is complete.

See Also

Simulation Parameters

Simulation Watch

The simulation watch facility may be accessed by selecting the Simulation, Start & Watch pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button. A dialog will be displayed, allowing you to specify the type of simulation watch you wish to perform and various
other parameters.

The simulation watch facility is designed to allow you to check the logic of your system model. For example, you may have
included a parallel arrangement in your RBD diagram with warm standby components and switching delays. You may want to
check that the standby components begin to operate when you would expect them to and that the switching delays are implemented
at the correct time.

During a simulation watch, the program proceeds with the simulation on a step by step basis and lets you view the status of the
system at each step. The simulation process moves forward in time but halts when there is a change of event. Information
regarding the event change is displayed in the Simulation Watch dialog (Events tab). In addition, the RBD or fault tree diagram is
modified to reflect the change of component and system status. The Spares tab of the Simulation Watch dialog shows changes in
selected spare levels through the echelon hierarchy.

Once the simulation watch process has been initiated, you may step to the next event by selecting the Next button in the Simulation
Watch dialog.

Criteria

Selection of the Total Outage criterion will prompt the program to display availability information for the selected system.
Selection of the Capacity criterion will prompt the program to display throughput levels for the selected system.

Mode

Selection of the RBD mode will prompt the program to watch the status of the RBD system. Selection of the Fault Tree mode will
prompt the program to watch the status of the fault tree system.

System to watch

The system to be watched.

Spare to watch

The spare part to be watched.

Start time

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The simulation time to start the simulation watch.

Point of failure events only

You may request the watch profile to skip events other than failure events by selecting this check-box.

System related events only

You may request the watch profile to skip events other than those relating to the specified system by selecting this check-box.

Track RBD events in diagram

You may choose this option to track events by changing the visible diagram. In addition, the diagram will reflect the current
simulation phase.

Simulation Record

In some circumstances, you may wish to perform special calculations based on the simulated events produced by the AvSim
module of Availability Workbench (AWB). These special calculations could be performed by an external application such as
Microsoft Excel. AWB provides a special simulation recording facility to enable users to do this. By selecting the Start & Record
option from the Simulation pull-down menu, you can specify a file to receive event data as a simulation progresses. The ASCII
data file that is then produced by AWB may be analyzed by an external application.

File to receive data

Use the Browse button to select the directory and filename that you wish the information to be stored in.

Criteria

Selection of the Total Outage criterion will prompt the program to record availability information for the selected system. Selection
of the Capacity criterion will prompt the program to record throughput levels for the selected system.

Mode

Selection of the RBD mode will prompt the program to record the status of the RBD system. Selection of the Fault Tree mode will
prompt the program to record the status of the fault tree system.

System to record

The system for which data is to be recorded.

Start time

Define the start time of the interval you wish to record.

End time

Define the end time of the interval you wish to record.

Point of failure events only

You may request the record profile to skip events other than failure events by selecting this check-box.

System related events only

Select the System-related events only check-box to record only events affecting the chosen system.

System status change events only

Select the System status change events only check-box, to only record events affecting the status of the chosen system.

Performance Simulation

Availability Workbench (AWB) includes a performance facility that allows users to monitor which simulation functions are the
dominant contributors to the overall simulation time. This feature is accessed via the Simulation, Performance Run and
Simulation, Performance Summary pull-down menu options. Performance results will not be retained if the program is closed or a
new project is opened. A performance run will take longer than a normal simulation run.

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Batch Run

The AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) includes a batch run facility that allows users to define a group of project
files that will be opened and analyzed in succession. This feature is accessed via the Simulation, Batch Run menu option. On
selecting this option the Batch Analysis dialog will be displayed.

Users may add projects to the batch list by selecting the Add Project button. Once the projects to be analyzed have been defined
selection of the Start Simulations button will prompt the program to open each project in turn, perform a simulation and then save
the project together with the results of the simulation.

Simulation Results - Overview

Results Summary

Availability Workbench (AWB) computes a wide range of useful parameters during the simulation process. These parameters may
be reviewed, once a simulation is completed, by selecting the Simulation, Results Summary pull-down menu option. Selection of
this menu option will result in the Results Summary dialog being displayed.

The summary information is split into the following categories:

Life Costs

Systems

Components

Consequences

Phases

Spares

Labor

Equipment

Summary information for each of these categories may be obtained by selecting the appropriate tab in the Results Summary dialog.

Profiles

Results may also be viewed in the form of profiles by selecting the Plot option from the Current right window mode menu above
the right-hand window.

Viewing Results in Diagrams

You may choose to view calculated results for system blocks in a RBD diagram and gates in a fault tree diagram. Various view
options relating to calculated results may be accessed in the View tab of the Project Options dialog.

Simulation Results - Life Costs

Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the following summary lifetime cost parameters:

Total labor costs

Total corrective labor costs

Total planned labor costs

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Total inspection labor costs

Total equipment costs

Total corrective equipment costs

Total planned equipment costs

Total inspection equipment costs

Total spare purchase costs

Corrective spare purchase costs

Planned spare purchase costs

Spare storage costs

Spare repair costs

Total consequence costs

Corrective consequence costs

Planned consequence costs

Inspection consequence costs

Alarm costs

Total operational costs

Corrective operational costs

Planned operational costs

Inspection operational costs

Commission costs

Redesign costs

Total costs

Safety criticality

Operational criticality

Environmental criticality

Spares volume level 1

Spares volume level 2

Spares weight level 1

Spares weight level 2

Parameters at the first level above appear in the life costs summary regardless of whether the Detailed life costs box is checked.
Those listed at the second level only appear when the box is checked.

Each of the above parameters are mean values calculated from repeated lifetime simulations.

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Labor and equipment costs are determined from the call-out cost and cost rate parameters specified by the user for each labor
category and equipment type.

Spares purchase and repair costs are determined by applying the capital cost of each spare type to the number of spares required
during corrective and planned maintenance tasks. In addition, this will include the initial purchase cost of the spares held in
storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab). It also includes
the transportation cost.

Spares storage costs are determined by applying the storage costs of spares to the storage capacity values entered by the user at site
and at depot.

Miscellaneous costs are determined by applying the miscellaneous costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks to the number
of tasks performed during the simulation.

Consequence costs are only applicable where the user has associated consequences with system failures in the RBD or fault tree
model. Consequence costs are computed by summating the costs originating from all consequences. Consequence costs are
determined from the following expressions:

For total outage consequences:

where C = consequence cost over lifetime

CR = consequence cost rate

C0 = consequence cost per occurrence

T = total consequence duration over lifetime

N = expected number of occurrences for consequence over the lifetime

For loss of capacity consequences:

if

if

where CP = cost rate per % loss of capacity

PL = Current production level %

t = time at production level

CB = additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level

PT = target production level

Note that cost rates are adjusted if extended outage cost penalties have been specified.

Total costs are a simple summation of all the costs described above.

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NPV Costs

If net present value (NPV) cost calculations have been applied during the simulation (users may request a NPV calculation in the
NPV tab of the Project Options dialog) then NPV life cost values will be displayed.

Spares Volume and Weight Calculations

Spares volumes and weights represent the total volume and weight of all spares stored at the appropriate echelon level. If Multiple
sites has been checked in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab) then the volume and weight at echelon 1 will represent the total
volume and weight per site.

Simulation Results - Systems

Availability Workbench (AWB) provides system data for any of the systems or sub-systems defined in the current project. RBD
sub-systems are RBD pages that constitute a super-block at a higher level. Fault tree sub-systems are gates that appear at the top of
fault tree diagram pages. Selection of the Systems tab of the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all systems and sub-
systems. Selection of a system or sub-system in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

The Availability/reliability preference setting in the View tab of the Project Options dialog determines whether availability and
reliability values are displayed instead of unavailability and unreliability values.

Definitions for each of the system parameters are given below. Note that AWB uses the term 'outage' rather than failure in many
instances. This is due to the fact that the system may be out-of-service due to scheduled maintenance actions (if specified in the
input parameters for failure models by the user) as well as failures. If you specify that scheduled maintenance tasks do not cause
an outage then you can read 'failure' for 'outage'.

Total down time

The total down time is defined as the expected total time that the system will be out-of-service during its lifetime.

Std total down time

This is the standard deviation of total down time values computed for different simulations.

Error % total down time

This is the estimated error in the system total down time value due to statistical variance. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of the total down time

= number of simulations completed

= total down time

Mean capacity

The mean capacity is defined as the expected throughput that the system will be able to accommodate over its lifetime. This may
be presented as a percentage of the total input to the RBD system or in terms of a unit defined by the user in the 'Project Options'
dialog (Analysis tab).

Std mean capacity

This is the standard deviation of mean capacity values computed for different simulations.

Error % mean capacity

This is the estimated error in the mean capacity value due to statistical variance. It is calculated from the expression

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where = standard deviation of mean capacity

= number of simulations completed

= mean capacity

Mean unavailability

The mean unavailability is defined as the expected fractional time the system will be out-of-service over its lifetime (the total time
it is out-of-service divided by the total system lifetime).

Mean availability

The mean availability is defined as the expected fractional time the system will be in service during its lifetime (the total time it is
in service divided by the total system lifetime).

Unavailability at lifetime

The unavailability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the system will be out-of-service at the end of its lifetime.

Availability at lifetime

The availability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the system will be in service at the end of its lifetime.

No of outages

The number of outages is defined as the expected total number of system outages that will occur throughout the life of the system.

Std no of outages

This is the standard deviation of expected number of outages values computed for different simulations.

Error % no of outages

This is the estimated error in the number of outages value due to statistical variance. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of number of outages

= number of simulations completed

= number of outages

The probability of 1 or more outages over the lifetime (F) is defined as the probability that the system will have been out-of-service
at least once during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused by failure then this value represents the unreliability of the system.

The probability of zero outages over the lifetime (R) is defined as the probability that the system will not have been out-of-service
at anytime during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused by failure then this value represents the reliability of the system.

MTTO

This is the mean time between initial system start-up and the first system outage.

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MTBO

This is the mean time between consecutive system outages.

MTTR

This is the mean time it takes to restore the system to service after an outage has occurred.

Accuracy

The accuracy of simulation results is very much dependent on the number of simulations performed. As the number of simulations
is increased then the results converge in accuracy. Users may find that, for very reliable systems, the unavailability at lifetime
value may be inaccurate unless a very large number of simulations are performed. This is not a failing in the computer program,
merely a fact of life for calculations based on simulation methods. To illustrate the problem, consider that we are modelling a
system whose exact point unavailability at lifetime is 0.0001. Another way of expressing this is to say that at the end of the system
lifetime there is a one in ten thousand chance that the system is failed (not that it has failed before then but that it is actually failed
at that time this is the definition of point unavailability). We would need to perform many more than ten thousand simulations,
therefore, to get enough system lifetime failures to provide a good statistical estimate for this parameter. Fortunately, for most
analyses, the point unavailability at system lifetime is of far less interest to the end-user than the other system parameters, such as
the mean unavailability over the system lifetime. The mean unavailability represents the fractional down-time of the system over
its lifetime. During the lifetime simulation of a repairable system there may be many system failures, even if the mean
unavailability is as low as 0.0001. Hence the statistical accuracy of this parameter would be far greater than the accuracy of the
point unavailability.

To summarize, it is important to note that the statistical accuracy of the point unavailability value for reliable systems may be much
less than the accuracy for the other predicted system parameters, unless an extremely large number of simulations are performed.
However, this parameter is generally far less useful than the other parameters, including the mean unavailability over the system
lifetime.

Simulation Results - Components

Availability Workbench (AWB) provides component data for all the non-system blocks in a RBD or all the events in a fault tree.
Selection of the Components tab of the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the components in the current project.
Selection of a component in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the component parameters are given below.

Total down time

The total down time is defined as the expected total time that the component will be out-of-service during its lifetime.

Mean unavailability

The mean unavailability is defined as the expected fractional time the component will be out-of-service over its lifetime (the total
time it is out-of-service divided by the total system lifetime).

Mean availability

The mean availability is defined as the expected fractional time the component will be in service during its lifetime (the total time
it is in service divided by the total system lifetime).

Unavailability at lifetime

The unavailability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the component will be out-of-service at the end of its lifetime.

Availability at lifetime

The availability at lifetime is defined as the probability that the component will be in service at the end of its lifetime.

No of outages

The number of outages is defined as the expected total number of component outages that will occur throughout the life of the
system.

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The probability of 1 or more outages over the lifetime (F) is defined as the probability that the component will have been out-of-
service at least once during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused by failure then this value represents the unreliability of the
component.

The probability of zero outages over the lifetime (R) is defined as the probability that the component will not have been out-of-
service at anytime during its lifetime. If outages can only be caused by failure then this value represents the reliability of the
component.

MTTO

This is the mean time between initial component start-up and the first component outage.

MTBO

This is the mean time between consecutive component outages.

MTTR

This is the mean time it takes to restore the component to service after an outage has occurred.

Time queuing for spares

The total time queuing for spares is defined as the expected total time that the component will be unavailable purely due to the fact
it is waiting for one or more spares to be delivered. The total time queuing for spares will always be less than or equal to the total
down time for the component.

Time queuing for labor or equipment

The total time queuing for labor or equipment is defined as the expected total time that the component will be unavailable purely
due to the fact it is awaiting for labor or equipment to perform a corrective maintenance task. The total time queuing for labor or
equipment will always be less than or equal to the total down time for the component.

Total PM down time

The total PM down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that component caused by planned
maintenance actions.

Total inspection down time

The total inspection down time for a component is defined as the portion of the total down time for that component caused by
inspection tasks.

Total failure down time

This is the total down time of the component due to failures.

Number of PMs

This is the total number of planned maintenance tasks performed on the component over the system lifetime.

Number of inspections

This is the total number of inspection tasks performed on the component over the system lifetime.

No of failures

This is the total number of failures of the component over the system lifetime.

Spare purchase costs

The spare purchase costs for a component are defined as the total capital costs of spares used for both corrective and planned
maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Labor costs

The labor costs for a component are defined as the total call-out and man-time costs associated with performing corrective, planned

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and inspection maintenance tasks.

Equipment costs

The equipment costs for a component are defined as the total equipment costs associated with performing corrective, planned and
inspection maintenance tasks.

Operational costs

The operational costs for a component are defined as the total operational costs associated with performing corrective, planned and
inspection maintenance tasks.

Alarm costs

The alarm costs for a component are defined as the total costs associated with installing an alarm.

Commission costs

The commission costs for a component are defined as the total costs associated with commissioning.

Redesign costs

The redesign costs for a component are defined as the total costs associated with performing a redesign.

Accuracy

The accuracy of simulation results is very much dependent on the number of simulations performed. As the number of simulations
is increased then the results converge in accuracy. Users may find that, for very reliable components, the Point unavailability at
lifetime value may be inaccurate unless a very large number of simulations are performed. This is not a failing in the computer
program, merely a fact of life for calculations based on simulation methods. To illustrate the problem, consider that we are
modelling a component whose exact point unavailability at lifetime is 0.0001. Another way of expressing this is to say that at the
end of the system lifetime there is a one in ten thousand chance that the component is failed (not that it has failed before then but
that it is actually failed at that time this is the definition of point unavailability). We would need to perform many more than ten
thousand simulations, therefore, to get enough component lifetime failures to provide a good statistical estimate for this parameter.
Fortunately, for most analyses, the point unavailability at system lifetime is of far less interest to the end-user than the other
component parameters, such as the mean unavailability over the system lifetime. The mean unavailability represents the fractional
down-time of the component over the system lifetime. During the lifetime simulation of a repairable component there may be
many component failures, even if the mean unavailability is as low as 0.0001. Hence the statistical accuracy of this parameter
would be far greater than the accuracy of the point unavailability.

To summarize, it is important to note that the statistical accuracy of the point unavailability value for reliable components may be
much less than the accuracy for the other predicted component parameters, unless an extremely large number of simulations are
performed. However, this parameter is generally far less useful than the other parameters, including the mean unavailability over
the system lifetime.

Simulation Results - Consequences

Availability Workbench (AWB) provides data for the consequences defined in the current project. Selection of the Consequences
tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the currently defined project consequences. Selection of a consequence
in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the consequence parameters are given below.

Total duration

This parameter is determined from

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where T = total consequence duration over lifetime

TDTi = total down time over lifetime of the ith block associated with the consequence

Note that T may be greater than the system lifetime if more than a single consequence is assigned to more than one system failure.

Std total duration

This is the standard deviation of total consequence duration over lifetime.

Error % total duration

The estimated total duration error provides an indicator of the accuracy of total consequence duration due to the number of
simulations performed. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of total duration

= number of simulations completed

= total duration

Mean capacity

This parameter only applies to loss of capacity consequences. Loss of capacity consequences are attached to a system or sub-
system RBD block or fault tree gate. The mean capacity over lifetime represents the mean capacity for the associated system or
sub-system.

Std mean capacity

This parameter only applies to loss of capacity consequences. Loss of capacity consequences are attached to a system or sub-
system RBD block or fault tree gate. The capacity standard deviation over lifetime represents the likely variation of production
capacity over the system lifetime.

Error % mean capacity

This parameter only applies to loss of capacity consequences. Loss of capacity consequences are attached to a system or sub-
system RBD block or fault tree gate. The estimated mean capacity error provides an indicator of the accuracy of mean production
capacity due to the number of simulations performed. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of mean capacity

= number of simulations completed

= mean capacity

Duration due to corrective tasks

This is the consequence duration over the lifetime due to corrective task outages. Note that consequences attached to system blocks
and gates always record durations under the corrective category.

Duration due to planned tasks

This is the consequence duration over the lifetime due to planned task outages. Note that consequences attached to system blocks
and gates always record durations under the corrective category.

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Duration due to inspection tasks

This is the consequence duration over the lifetime due to inspection task outages. Note that consequences attached to system blocks
and gates always record durations under the corrective category.

Total no of occurrences

where N = Total number of occurrences for consequence over the lifetime

Wi = total number of occurrences over lifetime of the ith block associated with consequence

Std total no of occurrences

This is the standard deviation of the total number of occurrences over lifetime.

Error % total no of occurrences

The estimated total number of occurrences error provides an indicator of the accuracy of the total number of occurrences due to the
number of simulations performed. It is calculated from the expression

where = standard deviation of number of occurrences

= number of simulations completed

= number of occurrences

Occurrences due to corrective tasks

This is the number of occurrences due to corrective task outages. Note that consequences attached to system blocks and gates
always record occurrences under the corrective category.

Occurrences due to planned tasks

This is the number of occurrences due to planned task outages. Note that consequences attached to system blocks and gates always
record occurrences under the corrective category.

Occurrences due to inspection tasks

This is the number of occurrences due to inspection task outages. Note that consequences attached to system blocks and gates
always record occurrences under the corrective category.

Total cost

The total cost over lifetime for total outage consequences is given by:

where C = consequence cost over lifetime

CR = consequence cost rate

C0 = consequence cost per occurrence

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For loss of capacity consequences, a different calculation is performed. Loss of capacity consequences respond to the production
flow through the RBD block or fault tree gate associated with the consequence. The cost of lost production is determined from the
following expressions:

if

if

where CP = cost rate per % loss of capacity

PL = Current production level %

Dt = time at production level

CB = additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level

PT = target production level

Criticality

where X = consequence criticality over lifetime

SR = consequence severity rate

S0 = consequence severity per occurrence

The above expression applies to safety, operational and environmental criticalities.

Simulation Results - Phases

Availability Workbench (AWB) provides phase data for all the phases defined by the user. Selection of the Phases tab of the
Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the phases in the current project. Selection of a phase in the list will result in the
appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the phase parameters are given below.

Total cost

This is the total cost incurred by the system during the phase.

Labor cost

The labor cost for a phase is defined as the total call-out and man-time costs associated with performing corrective, planned and
inspection tasks during the phase.

Equipment cost

The equipment cost for a phase is defined as the total call-out and equipment costs associated with performing corrective, planned
and inspection tasks during the phase.

Spare purchase cost

The mean capital purchase and repair cost of all spare part types during the phase. In addition, for the first phase in each phase

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group, this will include the initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is
selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Spare storage cost

The total cost, for the chosen phase, to store all spares at echelon levels 1 and 2.

Operational cost

The total of the operational costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the specified phase.

Alarm cost

The total of the alarm costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the specified phase.

Commissioning cost

The total of the commissioning costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the specified phase.

Redesign cost

The total of the redesign costs specified by the user for maintenance tasks undertaken during the specified phase.

Consequence cost

Consequence costs are only applicable where the user has associated consequences with system failures in the RBD or fault tree
model. Consequence costs for the specified phase are calculated by summating all consequence costs for that phase.

For total outage consequences:

where

C = consequence cost over all repeats of the specified phase

CR = consequence cost rate

C0 = consequence cost per occurrence

T = total consequence duration over all repeats of the specified phase

N = expected number of occurrences for consequence during the phase

For loss of capacity consequences:

if

if

where

CP = cost rate per % loss of capacity

PL = Current production level %

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t = time at production level

CB = additional cost rate per % loss of capacity below target production level

PT = target production level

Note that cost rates are adjusted if extended outage cost penalties have been specified.

Total costs are a simple summation of all the costs described above.

Simulation Results - Spares

Selection of the Spares tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the spares in the current project. Selection of a
spare in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the spare parameters are given below.

Total number used

The mean number of the spare used during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for corrective tasks

The mean number of the spare used for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Number used for planned tasks

The mean number of the spare used for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system.

Total cost

This is the total cost incurred by the system due to spare usage and storage.

Total purchase cost

The mean capital purchase cost of the spare during the lifetime of the system. This value is obtained by multiplying the mean
number used by the capital cost of the spare. In addition, this will include the transportation cost and the initial purchase cost of
the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Corrective purchase cost

The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for corrective maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system. This value is
obtained by multiplying the mean number used for corrective tasks by the capital cost of the spare. In addition, this will include
the transportation cost and the initial purchase cost of the spares held in storage if the Include initial spare purchase costs check-
box is selected in the Project Options dialog (Spares tab).

Planned purchase cost

The mean capital purchase cost of the spare for planned maintenance tasks during the lifetime of the system. This value is obtained
by multiplying the mean number used for planned tasks by the capital cost of the spare.

Repair cost

The cost of repairing the specified proportion of failed units of the spare for return to storage at echelon levels 1 and 2. The
proportion of failed units that are discarded is set in the Spare Properties dialog (Repair Shop tab).

Storage cost

The cost of storing the spare at echelon levels 1 and 2 during the lifetime of the system.

Number recycled

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The mean number of the spare recycled through the repair shop facility during the system lifetime.

Level 1 demand unavailability

The probability that the required number of spares were unavailable at echelon level 1 when required for a corrective maintenance
task.

Simulation Results - Labor

Selection of the Labor tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the labor categories in the current project.
Selection of a labor category in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the labor parameters are given below.

Total active time

The estimated total time the labor category will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time

The estimated time the labor category will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Planned active time

The estimated time the labor category will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Inspection active time

The estimated time the labor category will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Total no of tasks

The estimated number of tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks

The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of planned tasks

The estimated number of planned tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

No of inspection tasks

The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the labor category is called out over the system lifetime.

Total cost

The total cost associated with calling out the selected labor category over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost

The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for corrective tasks over the system lifetime.

Planned cost

The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for planned tasks over the system lifetime.

Inspection cost

The cost associated with calling out the selected labor category for inspection tasks over the system lifetime.

Simulation Results - Equipment

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Selection of the Equipment tab in the Simulation Results dialog will reveal a list of all the equipments in the current project.
Selection of an equipment in the list will result in the appropriate summary information being displayed.

Definitions for each of the equipment parameters are given below.

Total active time

The estimated total time the equipment will be active during the system lifetime.

Corrective active time

The estimated time the equipment will be active for corrective maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Planned active time

The estimated time the equipment will be active for planned maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Inspection active time

The estimated time the equipment will be active for inspection maintenance tasks during the system lifetime.

Total no of tasks

The estimated number of tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of corrective tasks

The estimated number of corrective tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of planned tasks

The estimated number of planned tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

No of inspection tasks

The estimated number of inspection tasks for which the equipment is called out over the system lifetime.

Total cost

The total cost associated with calling out the selected equipment over the system lifetime.

Corrective cost

The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for corrective tasks over the system lifetime.

Planned cost

The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for planned tasks over the system lifetime.

Inspection cost

The cost associated with calling out the selected equipment for inspection tasks over the system lifetime.

Component Importance Rankings

Performing a component importance analysis enables us to identify the components in our system that are the main contributors to
the following parameters:

Cost

No of expected outages

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Safety severity

Operational severity

Environmental severity

Total down time

Inherent down time

PM down time

Inspection down time

Spare down time

Labor/equipment down time

Capacity

Inherent capacity

PM capacity

Inspection capacity

Spare capacity

Labor/equipment capacity

Importance rankings will indicate where we might make design changes or modify maintenance policies to reduce lifetime costs
and improve availability. Importance rankings are performed on a per consequence basis, chosen in the Project Options dialog
(Importance tab). For example, this means that the cost importance ranking will indicate the main contributors to a given
consequence cost. Component Importance rankings are calculated during the simulation process.

Component importance rankings are expressed as an absolute contribution to the appropriate parameter. For example, the capacity
importance value represents the contribution to loss of capacity from the component and the TDT importance is the contribution to
TDT from the component. Events that occur at exactly the same time for different components (e.g. outages due to regular
inspections) are randomly ordered to ensure importance values are shared between the components.

To access the component importance ranking facility, select the Simulation, Component Importance Ranking pull-down menu
option. This dialog displays the importance rankings in a list. You may determine the importance categories to be displayed in the
list by selecting the appropriate check boxes in the Importance categories area.

Spare Importance Rankings

Spare importance rankings provide an indication of how improving the availability of spares can affect the following system
parameters:

Cost

Number of expected outages

Safety criticality

Operational criticality

Environmental criticality

Total down time

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Capacity

Improving the availability of spares by storing more spares at the first echelon level may have a significant effect on system
availability and throughputs. Increasing the number of spares stored at echelon level 1 for those spares with high importance
rankings provides a method of optimizing the sparing strategy for the appropriate system parameter (cost, total down time, etc.).

Availability Workbench (AWB) determines spare importance rankings by evaluating the effect of increasing the number of spares
at echelon level 1. For example, if we obtain a TDT (total down time) importance ranking of 0.1 for spare Y, this indicates that a
reduction in system TDT (the system attached to the specified consequence) of 10% may be achieved by increasing the number of
spare Y stored at echelon level 1.

To access the spare importance ranking facility, select the Simulation, Spare Importance Ranking pull-down menu option.
Importance rankings are performed on a per consequence basis, chosen in the Project Options dialog (Importance tab). To run a
spare importance ranking, select the Rank button. AWB will now perform simulation runs for each spare (the progress is
indicated in the message area at the bottom of the AWB window). When the importance ranking is complete, the results will be
displayed in the dialog. If you wish to abort the simulation process then simply select the Abort button in the dialog.

Optimizing Spares Holdings in the AvSim Module

The AvSim module of Availability Workbench (AWB) may be used to simulate the effects of different spares holding levels on
lifetime costs. This facility may be accessed via the Simulation, Spare Cost Optimization pull-down menu option. After selecting
this option, the Spare Cost Optimization dialog will appear. The functionality of the dialog is described below.

Set range for selected spare(s)

You may set minimum and maximum range values for optimization runs by selecting the Set range for selected spare(s) button. A
dialog will appear, allowing you to set Level 1 and Level 2 minimum and maximum values for all selected spares in the list.
Minimum and maximum range values may also be set in the Spare Properties dialog. When performing a spares optimization run
AWB will try spares holding values within the specified range only.

Optimize selected spare(s)

When the Optimize selected spare(s) button is selected in the dialog, the program will perform simulation runs for each
combination of spare part holdings (between the range values) for each spare selected in the list. Progress will be indicated in the
message box at the bottom of the screen. Once all the simulation runs have been completed, AWB will display the optimum spare
holdings from a cost viewpoint at site and depot.

Sensitivity

After spares optimization has been performed, AWB will display sensitivity values alongside each spare. Sensitivity values are
calculated by applying the expression

where

= Minimum lifetime cost for all spare range combinations

= Maximum lifetime cost for all spare range combinations

The sensitivity value gives an indication of the sensitivity in lifetime costs by applying different spares holdings.

Accept recommendations for selected spare(s)

If you wish to assign the recommended spares holdings (Level 1 Opt and Level 2 Opt values in the dialog) then select the
appropriate spares in the list, followed by selection of the Accept recommendations for selected spare(s) button.

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Optimizing Scheduled Task Intervals

Availability Workbench (AWB) may be used to determine whether it is worthwhile performing planned maintenance or
inspections on components, and if so, what the optimum maintenance interval should be. If a component exhibits ageing
characteristics then planned maintenance may be effective in reducing the probability of a system outage and hence reduce outage
costs. However, the planned maintenance task may have labor, spares and other costs associated with it. Planned maintenance
costs must be balanced against reduced outage costs. Similarly, performing inspections for hidden or potential failures will often
reduce costs due to unscheduled outages. However, the benefits of reducing the costs of unscheduled maintenance need to be
weighed against the additional costs of performing more frequent inspections. AWB locates the optimum interval for planned
maintenance and inspection tasks by varying the maintenance interval and repeatedly simulating the lifetime costs.

Note that during the optimization process, AWB will temporarily enable a disabled task purely for the purpose of determining
whether the task might be of benefit. Users must ensure that maintenance data (such as the spare parts needed and miscellaneous
costs) are all defined for tasks that are to be optimized. The only parameter that need not be entered is the planned maintenance or
inspection interval (as this is being automatically varied by the program during optimization).

To access this facility, select the Simulation, Interval Optimization pull-down menu option. The Interval Optimization dialog will
appear. The functionality of this dialog is described below.

Optimization mode

The drop-down list at the top of the dialog allows the user to select the optimization mode. Three options are available. You may
optimize intervals for planned maintenance, inspections or task groups. If the Task groups option is selected then currently defined
task groups will be displayed in the list. Otherwise, a list of currently defined tasks will be displayed. If the Task groups option is
selected the program will vary the intervals of all tasks associated with a task group together.

ID

The ID of the failure model.

Task

The ID of the task associated with the failure model.

Task worthwhile

After an interval optimization run is completed, AWB will indicate in the dialog whether a maintenance task is worthwhile. A
worthwhile task is considered to be one where there will be a cost benefit in performing maintenance.

Interval

If the optimization run indicates that a task is worthwhile, AWB will display the optimum maintenance interval from a cost
viewpoint.

Cost benefit

The cost benefit value is the estimated reduction in lifetime costs by applying the maintenance task.

Cost benefit ratio

The cost benefit ratio (CBR) is given by:

A cost benefit ratio less than one indicates that the task is worthwhile.

Set interval range for selected object(s)

Selection of this option will result in the Interval Range Specification dialog being displayed. This dialog allows the user to specify
the number of intervals, minimum interval and interval increment to be used during the optimization process.

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Optimize selected object(s)

If the Planned maintenance or Inspections optimization mode is selected this option prompts the program to optimize the scheduled
maintenance policy for all selected tasks in the list. Tasks are optimized individually. Each task is taken in turn and the program
simulates lifetime costs for a variety of task intervals. If the failure model associated with an individual task is assigned to more
than one RBD block or fault tree event then this has the effect of changing the interval for a group of components.

If the Task groups optimization mode is selected this option prompts the program to optimize the scheduled maintenance policy for
all selected task groups in the list. Each task group will normally be assigned to more than one maintenance task. During
optimization therefore, varying the interval for a task group will vary the interval of all associated tasks.

Accept recommendations for selected object(s)

Once a simulation run has been performed, you may select tasks or task groups from the list and request AWB to assign the
recommended maintenance policy.

Select all

The Select all button in the dialog allows users to select all the tasks or task groups in the list.

Abort

Selection of the Abort button will terminate the optimization simulation that is currently running.

Cost Profile Plots

Cost profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the Cost Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Cost profiles display the costs incurred over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. Users
may select different cost categories to display in the plot by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different cost options to be selected as well as allowing the user
to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Cost tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Cost types

The various cost types that are to be displayed in the plot.

Plot style

The style of plot.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic cost scaling

If checked the cost axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Cost min

If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the cost axis.

Cost max

If the Automatic cost scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the cost axis.

Labor Profile Plots

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Labor profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the Labor Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Labor profiles display the active time spent over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. Users
may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot
Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type and
appearance.

The Labor tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Labor

The labor category to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all labor categories.

Plot style

The style of plot.

Automatic 'active time' axis scaling

If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min

If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the active time axis.

Active time max

If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the active time axis.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Equipment Profile Plots

Equipment profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-
hand window. Then select the Equipment Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Equipment profiles display the active equipment usage over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options
dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar
button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify
the plot type and appearance.

The Equipment tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Equipment

The equipment to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all equipments.

Plot style

The style of plot.

Automatic 'active time' axis scaling

If checked the active time axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Active time min

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If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the active time axis.

Active time max

If the Automatic 'active time' axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the active time axis.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Spares Profile Plots

Spare profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the Spares Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Spares profiles display the number of spares used over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog.
Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The
Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing the user to modify the plot type
and appearance.

The Spares tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Spare

The spare to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all spares.

Plot style

The style of plot.

Automatic number used axis scaling

If checked the 'number used' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Number used min

If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the 'number used' axis.

Number used max

If the Automatic number used axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the 'number used' axis.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Consequence Profile Plots

Consequence profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-
hand window. Then select the Consequence Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Consequences profiles display the number of consequence occurrences over the time intervals specified in the Lifetime tab of the
Project Options dialog. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected as well as allowing
the user to modify the plot type and appearance.

The Consequences tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

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Consequence

The consequence to which the plot data will apply. Users may select All to display summated data for all consequences.

Plot style

The style of plot.

Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling

If checked the 'number of occurrences' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Number of occurrences min

If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the 'number
of occurrences' axis.

Number of occurrences max

If the Automatic number of occurrences axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the 'number
of occurrences' axis.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Contributions Plots

Contributions plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the Contributions option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Contribution plots display the contribution made by individual components to system cost, failure and criticality parameters. Users
may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot
Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Contributions tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Contribution Type Buttons

These radio buttons allow the user to select the type of contribution to be displayed.

Automatic

If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the contribution axis.

Minimum/Maximum

If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum contribution axis values.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Maximum no. of components

The maximum number of components to display in the plot. Components will be ordered to show those with the highest
contributions.

Only display components under tree selection

If checked the program will only display components that are connected to the current selection in the project tree location
hierarchy.

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System Profile Plots

System profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the System Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

System profile plots display unavailability, outage frequency, unreliability or capacity values for systems over the time profile
specified by the user. Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Systems tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Inclusion lists

The inclusion lists allow you to specify which systems you wish to be included in the system profile plot. Move systems between
the Included and Not included lists by selecting the appropriate systems and clicking the arrow buttons in between the lists.

Variable

The variable list allows you to select the variable to be displayed in the system profile. Uses may choose between Mean
unavailability, Mean outage frequency, F (unreliability) and Mean capacity, Mean availability and R (reliability).

Plot style

The style of plot.

Bars

This drop-down list allows you to choose whether you wish to display error or standard deviation bars in the plot. If the Std option
is selected the profile will display vertical bars through every plot point representing the standard deviation of the variable value
for each profile interval. This standard deviation provides a measure of the likely variance of the actual variable compared to the
mean during the profile interval for a single system. If the Error % option is selected the profile will display vertical bars through
every plot point representing the potential error for the variable value for each profile interval. The error indicator value is
calculated from

It represents the likely error in the profile values due to the limited number of simulations performed.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic

If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the variable axis.

Minimum/Maximum

If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum variable axis values.

Capacity Availability Plots

Capacity availability plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-
hand window. Then select the Capacity Availability option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

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Capacity availability plots display the probability that a capacity value will be met or exceeded for a given time interval. Users may
set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot
Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Capacity Availability tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Interval index

The index of the interval to be displayed in the plot. Capacity availability intervals must be defined before performing a simulation
in the Capacity Availability tab of the Project Options dialog.

Plot style

The style of plot.

Show grid

If checked the plot will display a background grid.

Automatic

If checked the 'availability' axis minimum and maximum values will be automatically set by the program.

Availability min

If the Automatic availability axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the minimum value for the 'availability' axis.

Availability max

If the Automatic availability axis scaling box is un-checked the user must specify the maximum value for the 'availability' axis.

Project Comparison
Project comparison plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-
hand window. Then select the Project Comparison option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Project comparison plots display the simulated lifetime costs or task data from two or more projects. The results for all the projects
must be up-to-date for plots based on simulated results. Users must attach the projects to be compared with the current project as
libraries. The data compared in each plot is the system cost or task data for the current project and all attached libraries.

Users may set different plot options by selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The
Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Project Comparison tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Plot Type

The plot type to be displayed. Options are Cost, Tasks Assigned, Tasks Performed and Cumulative Cost Profile. Cost plots show
simulated lifetime costs. Tasks Assigned plots show the number of tasks assigned to causes in the project. Tasks Performed plots
show the simulated number of tasks performed during the lifetime of the system. Cumulative Cost Profile plots show the
accumulation of costs over the lifetime of the system.

Stack plot

If checked the values for different cost or task categories will be stacked in the plot.

Show grid

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If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Weibull Module - Overview


The Weibull module of Availability Workbench (AWB) analyzes historical failure data by assigning probability distributions that represent the failure characteristics of a given failure
mode. The failure distribution assigned to a given set of times to failure (known as a Weibull set) may then be assigned to causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy diagram or
failure models in the AvSim module. By assigning failure distributions to historical data in this way enables the AWB simulation engine to emulate the effects of failures on systems.
Historical data is usually extracted from the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) or Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) database
using the AWB import or Dynamic Link Library (DLL) facilities.

Weibull sets may also represent collections of actual historical repair times for a given task. The Weibull module can assign distributions that represent possible fluctuations in
repair times. Repair Weibull sets can be assigned to tasks associated with causes in the RCMCost module or failure models in the AvSim module.

The historical times in a failure Weibull set will represent the age of an equipment at the point of its first failure. Times in a repair Weibull set represent the time it takes to repair an
equipment.

In summary, the Weibull module of AWB analyzes sets of historical data and assigns appropriate distributions for use in simulations by the RCMCost and AvSim modules.

The Weibull module analyzes times-to-failure data using the following distributions:

Exponential Distribution
1-Parameter Weibull Distribution
2-Parameter Weibull Distribution
3-Parameter Weibull Distribution
Bi-Weibull
Tri-Weibull
Lognormal Distribution
Normal Distribution
Weibayes
Phased Bi-Weibull
Phased Tri-Weibull

AWB automatically fits the selected distribution to the data provided and displays the results graphically in the form of cumulative probability plots, failure rate plots and probability
density function plots.

Data may be entered manually by the user or imported from other packages or transferred via the Windows clipboard.

New data can be analyzed and assigned in 3 simple steps:

Enter or import the data


Select a distribution type or use the 'Select Distribution Automatically' method
Assign the Weibull Set to the appropriate causes in the RCMCost module or the failure models in the AvSim module
Weibull Module - User Interface
To access the Weibull module in Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Weibull pull-down option at the top of the left-hand window.

If you have already defined one or more Weibull sets in your project you can display the associated data (Weibull set items) by selecting the appropriate Weibull set node in the tree
control. Ensure that either the Plot, Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window. To add a new Weibull set select the Weibull Sets node in the tree control
and use the right-button pop-up menu to add a new set.

The grid in the right-hand window is used to display historical data. Data may be imported using the Windows clipboard (copy and paste) or may be typed into the grid by hand. The
grid representing Weibull set items has several columns. One column is used to specify the time value (the time to failure or time to suspension for a Weibull set representing
historical failure data or the repair time for a Weibull set representing a repair task). Other columns indicate whether the data is a failure or suspension (censored), whether the data
item is currently disabled and how many components were failed or suspended at this time. Two further columns are optional fields that may contain the installation and
failure/suspension dates of the component. If the date fields are populated, and the user selects the Life Calculation Method 2 option for the Weibull set (in the Weibull Set
Properties dialog), AWB will calculate the time value based on these dates. Another column optionally records a reference ID for the data (this will often be a work order number).

As data items are entered into the grid, points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph. These points represent the estimated cumulative probability values at each time
point for failed data.

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A typical Weibull module screen display. The left window displays Weibull sets in the project tree control. The top right window displays a Weibull plot with calculated Weibull
parameters. The bottom right window displays times to failure and other input parameters.

Weibull Sets - Overview


A Weibull set is a collection of times to failure or repair times that has been compiled from maintenance records. Weibull set information may be automatically analyzed using
Availability Workbench (AWB) to produce an appropriate distribution that is later used by the program during the simulation process.
Defining or Importing Weibull Set Items
Users may assign Weibull set items to a Weibull set by typing in the data to a grid control or importing the data from an external source.

Manual Data Definition


If you have already defined one or more Weibull sets in your project you can display the associated data (Weibull set items) by selecting the appropriate Weibull set node in the
project tree control. Ensure that either the Plot, Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window.

To modify existing data simply type the new data into the grid control or select the appropriate check boxes. If you wish to enter installation and failure or suspension dates, rather
than directly enter times to first failure, then you will need to first set the Life Calculation Method 2 property for the Weibull set (in the Weibull Set Properties dialog). Availability
Workbench will then calculate the time value based on these dates.

To add a new item you will need to access the Items tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog. One way of accessing this tab is to click the right mouse button over the grid area to
reveal the grid pop-up menu. Then select the Add Record option. Alternatively, press the Ins key when the grid is displaying Weibull set items. The Items tab of the Weibull Set
Properties dialog displays a grid control and a Delete button. To delete existing items select them in the grid control and then select the Delete button. To add new items type in
the new data into the empty last row of the grid control. After selecting the OK button of the Weibull Set Properties dialog new points will be plotted in the cumulative probability
graph. These points represent the estimated cumulative probability values at each time specified by a Weibull set item.

Importing Data
Weibull set data may be imported directly from external databases or the Windows clipboard. To import data you will need to use the AWB import facility. The import facility may be
accessed from the File, Import pull-down menu option. If you are importing data from the Windows clipboard you can quickly access the import facility by selecting the Paste from
Clipboard option from the grid control right-button pop-up menu. The import facility will then enable you to match data on the clipboard to the appropriate columns in the Weibull
set items table.

See Also
Import
Weibull Sets - General Properties
Weibull set general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the Weibull set of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the Weibull set. Weibull set types are used to organize Weibull sets into groups. If a project contains many Weibull sets then this will greatly assist in locating

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a Weibull set in the tree control structure.

Description
A description for the Weibull set of no more than 255 characters.

No. of regions in rate plot


The estimated mean failure rate is displayed on rate graphs as a guide for users manually fitting distributions to historical data. The mean failure rate is displayed on a region-by-
region basis. This parameter specifies how many regions are required.

Include multiple Weibulls in automatic distribution selection


Check this option if you wish multiple Weibulls to be included when automatically selecting the best-fit distribution
Weibull Sets - Analysis Options
Weibull set analysis options may be accessed from the Analysis Options tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog.

B Life
When a Weibull Analysis is performed Availability Workbench (AWB) calculates the time for the specified 'B' life. If a B life of 10 is specified by the user (the default) then the
program calculates the time by which 10% of component failures would have occurred. Another way of expressing this is that the program will calculate the time at which the
unreliability of the component is 0.1. A B life of 30% would prompt the program to determine the time by which 30% of component failures are likely to have occurred or the time at
which the unreliability is 0.3. Times calculated for B values are shown to the right of the cumulative probability graph. Note that this parameter does not affect RBD or fault tree
simulations in any way. It is merely provided as information for the Weibull set. AWB allows the user to specify 3 different B life values.

P parameter
The P parameter indicates the time at which the unreliability is to be calculated during a Weibull analysis. For example, if a value of 8760 hours is specified then the program will
calculate the unreliability at 8760 hours. The calculated value is shown to the right of the cumulative probability graph. Note that this parameter does not affect RBD or fault tree
simulations in any way. It is merely provided as information for the data set.

Reliability estimation
Users may choose the Median rank, 90% rank, 95% rank or Nelson methods for estimating reliability values from times to failure.

Median Rank Method


Median ranks may be used to obtain estimates of unreliability at the time point represented by each failure.

This method first calculates rank numbers for each failure based on the following expression:

Median ranks may then be obtained by applying

where j = rank number, N = population

The table below illustrates how unreliability is estimated by the median rank number.

Time Status Rank No. Median Rank,

5000 Failure 1 0.13


9600 Suspended 4 -
15042 Failure 2.25 0.36
22500 Suspended 2 -
40030 Failure 4.125 0.71

90% and 95% Rank Methods


The 90% and 95% rank methods are alternative ways of estimating the component unreliability. They provide a more conservative estimate (higher unreliability) than the median
rank method to 90% and 95% confidence levels respectively.

Nelsons Method

At any time at which a failure occurs a hazard rate function, , is calculated by dividing the number of failures occurring at that time by the number of survivors immediately
before that time:

where = number of failures


= number of survivors

The cumulative sum of these values gives a sample estimate of the cumulative hazard function, .

An estimate of the unreliability, , is then given by

The table below illustrates how the hazard rate function and cumulative hazard function are calculated with some example data.

Time x S

5000 1 5 0.2 0.2


9600 Suspended 4 -
15042 1 3 0.3333 0.5333
22500 Suspended 2 - -
40030 1 1 1.0 1.5333

Life Calculation Method


There are two methods by which life times (times to failure or suspension) are determined by the program:

Method 1 User Specified Life


Method 2 F/S Date (n) Install Date (n)

If the user chooses Method 1 (default) the program simply uses the life values provided by the user to estimate reliability values.

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If the user chooses Method 2 the program calculates the life values based on the dates and times entered for F/S (failure or suspension) date and the installation date.

Parameter precision
The user may specify a parameter precision value of 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9. The precision value determines the number of significant figures calculated when determining the parameters
of the Weibull and other distributions. This facility is required to prevent unnecessarily high precision values being transferred to causes and failure models that are associated with
a Weibull set. Consider a beta parameter that has been generated with the value

0.923456789

The table below illustrates how the beta parameter will be rounded for a variety of precision values.

Precision Rounded Number


6 0.923456
3 0.923

Weibull Sets - Notes


Weibull set notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each Weibull set. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project
Options dialog.
Weibull Sets - Fitting a Distribution
Availability Workbench (AWB) allows the user to choose from a number of different calculation methods for fitting an appropriate distribution to the historical time to failure or time to
repair data associated with a Weibull set. To select a different method simply choose the appropriate option from the Distribution drop-down list in the main toolbar. Alternatively
use the Select Distribution Automatically option on the Analysis pull-down menu to prompt the program to automatically select the 'best-fit' distribution. AWB determines 'best-fit'
by taking the smallest goodness of fit indicator for all the available 'single' distributions (unless the Include multiple Weibulls in automatic distribution selection option is
checked in the General tab of the Weibull Set Properties dialog in which case multiple distributions are included). The goodness of fit is determined from the following expression:

where and are the fitted unreliability values and estimated unreliability point values respectively. N is the total number of points plotted.

AWB allows the user to fit a distribution to a Weibull set manually as well as using automatic data fitting algorithms. To access this facility select the Analysis, Set Distribution
Parameters Manually pull-down menu option in the Weibull module. A Distribution Parameters dialog will be revealed allowing the appropriate parameters to be modified by the
user. As the parameters are modified, the graph will change to reflect the changing shape of the distribution.

When fitting data manually, users may find it useful to first display the failure rate graph. It is often easier to fit data manually to the estimated regionalized rate in this graph.

Exponential Distribution
The exponential distribution may be associated with component failures or maintenance tasks (for sampling times to failure and time to repair respectively). This distribution should
be used to model the failure characteristics of components that do not exhibit any ageing. The distribution represents a constant failure rate (or repair rate). The expressions below
represent the use of the distribution for failures. For repairs the failure rate should be replaced by the repair rate and the mean time to failure by the mean time to repair.

Probability Density Function,

Unreliability,

Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

1-Parameter Weibull
The Weibull distribution is used to model the failure characteristics of components with time-dependent failure rates. A common use is to model the ageing characteristics of
mechanical components. The 1-Parameter Weibull calculation method requires the user to specify the shape parameter of the distribution. When fitting the Weibull distribution to
historical data AWB varies the characteristic life parameter to obtain the best fit.

Probability Density Function for 1-Parameter Weibull,

where

= characteristic life parameter


= shape parameter

Unreliability,

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Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

where

= gamma function

2-Parameter Weibull
Expressions for the 2-Parameter Weibull are identical to the expression given above for the 1-Parameter Weibull method. The only difference is that the user does not specify the
value of the shape parameter. The program will assign the shape parameter as well as the characteristic life when fitting the distribution to data.

3-Parameter Weibull

Probability Density Function for 3-Parameter Weibull,

where

= characteristic life parameters


= shape parameter
= location parameter

Unreliability,

Failure Rate,

Mean Time to Failure, MTTF

where

= gamma function

Bi-Weibull
If the time to failure data originates from two independent failure modes, AWB may be requested to fit two Weibull distributions to the data. The total failure rate for the two failure
modes is given by:

Tri-Weibull
If the time to failure data originates from three independent failure modes, AWB may be requested to fit three Weibull distributions to the data. The total failure rate for the three
failure modes is given by:

Lognormal
The lognormal distribution may be associated with scheduled and unscheduled maintenance tasks.

Probability Density Function,

Mean Time to Repair, MTTR

Standard deviation of time to repair, Std

Median (peak of distribution)

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Mode (most probable value)

Normal
The normal distribution may be associated with scheduled and unscheduled maintenance tasks.

Probability Density Function,

where

= mean time to repair


= standard deviation of mean time to repair

Weibayes
If the Weibayes calculation method is selected then the following expression is applied to estimate the characteristic life of the Weibull distribution. Note that the shape parameter is
specified by the user.

where

= 2-parameter Weibull characteristic life


= 2-parameter Weibull shape parameter
= number of failed units
= total number of failures and suspensions

If there are no failures then an assumption is made that a failure is imminent. Hence is set to 1.

Phased Bi-Weibull
The phased Bi-Weibull is, in effect, two Weibull distributions with different sets of Weibull parameters. The first Weibull is only valid up to the time specified by the gamma
parameter of the second Weibull. The second Weibull is only valid from the time specified by its gamma parameter. In effect the time axis is split into two distinct phases. Each
phase is associated with a different Weibull distribution. The failure rate in the first phase is given by

for and

The failure rate in the second phase is given by

for

Phased Tri-Weibull
The phased Tri-Weibull is, in effect, three Weibull distributions with different sets of Weibull parameters. The first Weibull is only valid up to the time specified by the gamma
parameter of the second Weibull. The second Weibull is only valid from the time specified by its gamma parameter and up to the gamma parameter of the third Weibull. In effect the
time axis is split into three distinct phases. Each phase is associated with a different Weibull distribution. The failure rate in the first phase is given by

for and

The failure rate in the second phase is given by

for and

The failure rate in the third phase is given by

for

Weibull Sets - Goodness of Fit and Correlation Coefficients


When assigning distribution parameters using the straight line fit method, Availability Workbench (AWB) calculates a correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient is a measure
on how well the linear model fits the data. The closer the absolute value is to 1, the better the fit.

The correlation coefficient is calculated from

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where and are the x and y values of points in the cumulative probability plot. N is the total number of points plotted.

Goodness of Fit Indicator


AWB calculates a goodness of fit indicator for the Bi-Weibull and Tri-Weibull (phased and non-phased) calculation methods. The expression below indicates how the goodness of fit
indicator is calculated.

where and are the fitted Weibull unreliability values and estimated unreliability point values respectively. N is the total number of points plotted.
Weibull Plots
Weibull plots will be displayed when you have the Plot or Plot & Grid option selected above the right-hand window. There are three different Weibull plot types. The Cumulative
Probability plot displays estimated unreliability values versus time. The Failure Rate plot displays estimated and distribution-derived failure rate values over time. The Probability
Density Function plot displays distribution-derived probability density function values.

Cumulative Probability Plot


The cumulative probability plot displays estimated unreliability values versus time. Estimated values are determined using the reliability estimation method specified by the user in
the Weibull Set Properties dialog and are displayed as red dots in the diagram. Each dot represents an enabled and non-suspended item in the Weibull set.

Availability Workbench (AWB) automatically fits the selected distribution to the estimated unreliability points and displays the distribution-derived unreliability as a continuous red
line. For the 3-parameter Weibull distribution a set of blue points and a continuous blue line are also displayed. These represent the time-normalized estimated unreliability values
and distribution respectively.

Unreliability is defined as the probability that a first failure has occurred before or at the specified point in time. Time corresponds to the age of an equipment relative to its
installation into the system in an as good as new condition.

Failure Rate Plot


The failure rate plot displays estimated and distribution-derived failure rate values over time. The continuous red line represents the distribution-related failure rate value. The blue
line represents mean estimated failure rate values over different time regions. These failure rate values are estimated directly from the Weibull set item time values.

The failure rate is defined as the probability of first failure per unit time conditional on the equipment being operational at a given time. Time corresponds to the age of an equipment
relative to its installation into the system in an as good as new condition.

Probability Density Function


The probability density function plot displays distribution-derived probability density function values.

The probability density is defined as the probability of first failure per unit time. Time corresponds to the age of an equipment relative to its installation into the system in an as good
as new condition.
Assigning Weibull Sets
Weibull sets may be assigned to causes in the RCMCost module (Cause Properties dialog) and failure models in the AvSim module (Failure Model Properties dialog). These
dialogs are revealed when adding a new cause or failure model to a project or when selecting the Edit, Properties pull-down menu option for an existing cause or failure model.

Weibull sets may be assigned to represent the failure characteristics of a component from within the Failure tab of the Cause Properties and Failure Model Properties dialogs.
Weibull sets may be assigned to represent the repair characteristics of a component from within the Parameters tab of the Task Properties dialog.

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Process Reliability Module - Overview Page 1 of 3

Process Reliability Module - Overview


The Process Reliability module allows users to analyze daily production data using Weibull analysis plots. These plots identify systematic and reliability losses by recognizing trends in the production data.
Nameplate production ratings may be specified (similar to concepts originating from six-sigma methodology) and compared with demonstrated production data. Losses can therefore be identified for
corrective action.

The Process Reliability module allows production data to be compared from different plants or different time periods. Production data may also be transferred from simulated production profiles created
from within the AvSim module. This allows production data from potential plant improvements to be compared with existing production data.

The Process Reliability module of Availability Workbench analyzes daily plant production data to distinguish between systematic production losses and reliability losses. The method allows users to
quickly analyze whether a production process is efficient and distinguish reliability losses from production losses.

Daily production data is analyzed using Weibull and other types of plots. The Cumulative Probability plot is used to identify trends in the data. Cusps in the plot are marked to identify regions (of daily
product capacity ranges). The right-most cusp on the Cumulative Probability plot identifies the point at which reliability problems begin to occur (lower daily capacity values to the left of this cusp will be
influenced more strongly by reliability problems rather than controlled process losses). The points to the right of the cusp will normally form a reasonably straight line and are fitted (automatically by the
program once the cusp has been defined by the user) to a Weibull distribution. These points represent production losses for a controlled process. A steep line is preferred as it indicates a very tight
process with little variation in production from day to day.

Users may define a theoretical Nameplate Weibull distribution which is also displayed on the Cumulative Probability plot. The nameplate represents the desired or maximum achievable production
capacity from a controlled process with no reliability losses. It is not based on the actual plant data but is defined by the user.

In some cases defining a single cusp to mark the onset of reliability losses is sufficient. All data values to the left of the cusp (lower daily production capacities) are assumed to have a reliability loss
element. However, in many cases, the reliability loss region may display one or more additional cusps in the Cumulative Probability plot indicating that there are distinct reliability problems in the process.
Users may mark such cusps resulting in the program splitting the reliability loss region into two or more regions.

When cusps are defined on the Cumulative Probability plot, Availability Workbench calculates various parameters associated with the entire Process Set (all the daily capacity losses recorded in the set).
Principal parameters are Actual Losses, Production Losses and Reliability Losses (all expressed as an average loss per day). Production Losses are determined from the Weibull distribution fitted to
the data points to the right of the right-most cusp. Reliability Losses are determined by subtracting Production Losses from Actual Losses. Production Losses are extrapolated into the reliability loss
regions to the left of the right-most cusp on the basis that there will be some contribution to actual losses from a controlled production process even though the reliability losses become more dominant
when daily losses are more severe. Actual Losses, Production Losses and Reliability Losses are also calculated for each reliability loss region defined to the left of the right-most cusp. Reliability
Losses are determined by subtracting Production Losses from Actual Losses in each region.

Process Reliability Module - User Interface


To access the Process Reliability module in Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Process Reliability pull-down option at the top of the left-hand window.

If you have already defined one or more Process sets in your project you can display the associated data (Process set items) by selecting the appropriate Process set node in the tree control. Alternatively
select the required Process set from the combo-box above the plot window. Ensure that either the Plot, Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window. To add a new Process set
select the Process Sets node in the tree control and use the right-button pop-up menu to add a new set.

The grid in the right-hand window is used to display production data. The data will normally be daily production values but AWB does not restrict you to a particular time interval. Data may be imported
using the Windows clipboard (copy and paste) or may be typed into the grid by hand. The grid representing Process set items has several columns. One column is used to specify the capacity value (the
average production capacity for the day). Other columns indicate whether the data item is currently disabled, how many days were associated with the capacity level suspended at this time and the record
date.

As data items are entered into the grid, points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph. These points represent the estimated cumulative probability values for each recorded capacity value.

Cusps (identifying reliability loss regions) may be defined by hovering the mouse cursor over the item point in the plot and then pressing the select mouse button. A cusp may be removed by hovering the
cursor over the inverted triangle that marks the cusp dividing line in the plot and pressing the mouse select button.

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A typical Process Reliability module screen display. The left window displays Process sets in the project tree control. The top right window displays a Process Reliability plot with calculated Process
Reliability parameters. The bottom right window displays daily production capacity values and other input parameters.

Process Sets - Overview


A Process set is a collection of actual or simulated daily production values. Process set information is analyzed using Availability Workbench (AWB) to produce estimates of systematic and reliability
losses. Data from different process sets may be compared using comparison plots.

Defining or Importing Process Set Items


Users may assign Process set items to a Process set by typing in the data to a grid control or importing the data from an external source.

Manual Data Definition


If you have already defined one or more Process sets in your project you can display the associated data (Process set items) by selecting the appropriate Process set node in the project tree control.
Alternatively select the Process set from the combo-box above the plot area. Ensure that either the Plot, Grid or Plot & Grid option is selected above the right-hand window.

To modify existing data simply type the new data into the grid control or select the appropriate check boxes.

To add a new item you will need to access the Items tab of the Process Set Properties dialog. One way of accessing this tab is to click the right mouse button over the grid area to reveal the grid pop-up
menu. Then select the Add Record option. Alternatively, press the Ins key when the grid is displaying Process set items. The Items tab of the Process Set Properties dialog displays a grid control and a
Delete button. To delete existing items select them in the grid control and then select the Delete button. To add new items type in the new data into the empty last row of the grid control. After selecting
the OK button of the Process Set Properties dialog new points will be plotted in the cumulative probability graph. These points represent the estimated cumulative probability values at each capacity
specified by a Process set item.

Importing Data
Process set data may be imported directly from external databases or the Windows clipboard. To import data you will need to use the AWB import facility. The import facility may be accessed from the
File, Import pull-down menu option. If you are importing data from the Windows clipboard you can quickly access the import facility by selecting the Paste from Clipboard option from the grid control
right-button pop-up menu. The import facility will then enable you to match data on the clipboard to the appropriate columns in the Process set items table.

Defining Cusps
Cusps are process set items that identify the start of a reliability loss region. The cusp flag may be set for an item in the cumulative probability plot. Cusps may be defined by hovering the mouse cursor
over the item point in the plot and then pressing the select mouse button. A cusp may be removed by hovering the cursor over the inverted triangle that marks the cusp dividing line in the plot and pressing
the mouse select button. Alternatively you may set the cusp flag for an item on or off using the grid control in the lower right window or Process Set Properties dialog. The region to the right of the highest
capacity cusp item represents production (systematic) losses. The regions to the left of this cusp item represent reliability losses.

See Also
Import

Process Sets - General Properties

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Process set general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Process Set Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the Process set of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the Process set. Process set types are used to organize Process sets into groups. If a project contains many Process sets then this will greatly assist in locating a Process set in the
tree control structure.

Description
A description for the Process set of no more than 255 characters.

Process Sets - Analysis Options


Process set analysis options may be accessed from the Analysis Options tab of the Process Set Properties dialog.

Nameplate Parameters
The Characteristic capacity (Eta) and Shape parameter (beta) define the Weibull distribution that represents the nameplate capacity distribution. This distribution acts as a benchmark or target with
which to compare actual production losses.

Production Parameters
The Characteristic capacity (Eta) and Shape parameter (beta) define the Weibull distribution that represents the demonstrated production capacity distribution. These parameters are normally obtained
by automatically fitting the Weibull distribution to data points at the high-capacity end of the cumulative probability distribution. The automatic fit is determined for points to the right of the right-most cusp
identified by the user. An automatic fit will be performed if the Auto fit option is checked.

Maximum capacity
The maximum achievable capacity from the plant. If the Auto set option is checked this value will be set to the highest capacity value for all items associated with the Process set.

Reliability estimation
Users may choose the Median rank, 90% rank, 95% rank or Nelson methods for estimating reliability values from item capacity values. For a more detailed explanation of these methods see the section
on Weibull Set Analysis Options.

Parameter precision
The user may specify a parameter precision value of 2, 3, 4, 6 or 9. The precision value determines the number of significant figures calculated when determining the parameters of the Weibull
distribution. This facility is required to prevent unnecessarily high precision values being generated Consider a beta parameter that has been generated with the value

0.923456789

The table below illustrates how the beta parameter will be rounded for a variety of precision values.

Precision Rounded Number


6 0.923456
3 0.923

Process Sets - Notes


Process set notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Process Set Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each Process set. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options dialog.

Process Plots
Process plots will be displayed when you have the Plot or Plot & Grid option selected above the right-hand window. There are three different Process plot types. The Cumulative Probability plot displays
estimated reliability values versus capacity. The Probability Density Function plot displays probability density function values. The Comparison plot displays estimated reliability values versus capacity
for different process sets.

Cumulative Probability Plot


The cumulative probability plot displays estimated reliability values versus capacity. Estimated values are determined using the reliability estimation method specified by the user in the Process Set
Properties dialog and are displayed as red dots in the diagram. Each dot represents an enabled item in the Process set.

The nameplate and production Weibull distributions are displayed as color-coded triangular areas. Reliability loss regions (defined by cusps selected by the user) are also indicated as color-coded regions.

Reliability is defined as the probability that daily capacity will be above a specified capacity value.

Defining Cusps
Cusps are process set items that identify the start of a reliability loss region in the cumulative probability plot. Cusps may be defined by hovering the mouse cursor over the item point in the plot and then
pressing the select mouse button. A cusp may be removed by hovering the cursor over the inverted triangle that marks the cusp dividing line in the plot and pressing the mouse select button.

Probability Density Function


The probability density is defined as the probability of a given daily capacity per unit capacity.

Comparison Plots
Comparison plots display estimated reliability values for a number of different process sets. Each process set is color-coded.

Transferring AvSim Profiles to Process Sets


You may transfer existing AvSim capacity profiles into a Process set by selecting the Analysis, Transfer Capacity Profile from AvSim Module pull-down menu option. The Transfer Profile dialog will be
revealed allowing you to select the RBD block or fault tree gate for which you require data to be transferred. Data will only be transferred if the block or gate has an up-to-date simulated capacity profile
assigned.

Sorting Process Set Items


You may permanently sort the items in a process set by selecting the Analysis, Sort Items by Capacity pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button.

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Life Cycle Cost Module - Overview Page 1 of 4

Life Cycle Cost Module - Overview


The Life Cycle Cost module of Availability Workbench (AWB) provides the framework and functionality to perform a full system life cycle cost analysis using a hierarchical cost breakdown
structure.

Users may construct a hierarchical cost breakdown structure and assign cost equations to nodes in that structure. Parent nodes in the structure may simply summate the costs of child
nodes or apply a user-defined equation. Nodes with no children of their own may be assigned a simple numerical cost or a time-dependent cost equation. Equations associated with cost
nodes may be linked to predicted cost data originating from simulations performed in the RCMCost or AvSim modules.

Life cycle cost calculations are based on the time profile defined in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. The time profile (the time span to be analyzed and interval length) is
common to all modules in AWB.
Life Cycle Cost Module - User Interface
To access the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) module in Availability Workbench (AWB) select the Life cycle cost pull-down option at the top of the left-hand window.

The project tree control in the left-hand window will display the data categories relevant to this module. These categories are Cost Nodes (these define the cost breakdown structure),
Global Variables (these define variables to be used in more than one cost node) and Phases (phases may be used to refine cost equations).

The right-hand window will display a grid control, plot, library structure or report depending on the mode of display chosen by the user (by selecting the Current right window mode option
above the window).

New cost nodes, global variables and phases may be added to the current project by selecting the appropriate node in the tree control and selecting one of the Add options from the right
button pop-up menu.

Once data has been added to a project a calculation may be performed by selecting the Analysis, Perform pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. Results may then be
viewed in the Cost Profile plot in the right-hand window.

A typical layout in the life cycle cost module. The left window displays the project tree with cost nodes, global variables and phases. The right window display the calculated cost profile.
Building a Life Cycle Cost Structure
To build a cost breakdown structure you need to add cost nodes to the project tree control in the left-hand window. To add a new cost node select an existing node or the top node (labelled
Cost Nodes) and click the right mouse button. From the pop-up menu that appears select the Add Cost Node option. The Cost Node Properties dialog will appear allowing you define the
cost equation for that node and specify a description and add notes. Select the OK button to add the node and continue this process to build the structure.
Cost Nodes - General Properties
Cost node general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Cost Node Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the cost node of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Interval cost
The cost to be assigned to each interval of the project time profile. The time profile is defined in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog. The interval cost may be specified in a
number of different formats. In effect it can be a simple number or a cost equation.

If you enter a simple number, Availability Workbench (AWB) will interpret that number to be the cost to be assigned to each project time profile interval. For example, suppose we have
defined a project time profile of 10000 hours broken down into 10 intervals of 100 hours each. Entering a value of 500 would indicate to AWB that the cost associated with the node was
500 currency units for each interval. So the total cost for the entire time profile would be 5000 currency units evenly distributed over the lifetime.

Alternatively, you may wish to specify the cost as a capital sum to be incurred at a specific point in time. This may be done by adding a square bracket containing the time value to the end
of the cost value. For example, specifying

600[0] + 800[7000]

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would indicate that a cost of 600 currency units is to be incurred at the beginning of the project time profile and a cost of 800 currency units is to be incurred at a time of 7000 hours. If you
have defined any phases in the project you can also specify a phase ID within the square brackets. AWB will then apply the cost to all time profile intervals associated with the phase. If a
specified phase ends part way through an interval then only the relevant proportion of the cost will be applied. So the expression

600[Phase1] + 800[Phase3]

would indicate a cost of 600 currency units for each full interval associated with phase Phase1 and 800 currency units for each full phase associated with phase Phase3.

Global and reserved variables may be included in an expression for the interval cost. Global variables are defined by the user and reserved variables are fixed variables that you cannot
modify in the life cycle cost module. Many of the reserved variables link data from the RCMCost or AvSim module predictions. Global variables are preceded by the identifier G., RCMCost
variables are preceded by the identifier R. and AvSim variables are preceded by A. See the topic Reserved Variables for a full list of these variables. The reserved variables preceded by
the R or A identifier allow users to link to the most commonly used high-level variables in the RCMCost and AvSim modules. However, you may also link to a wide range of other project
variables at object level using the identifier P. An individual object variable is identified by the project table name, followed by the column name and then the object ID. For example,
P.Spares.UnitCost.ABC identifies the unit cost of a spare with an ID of 'ABC'. You will need to surround the ID with single quotes if the object ID contains blanks or a character normally
used as an operator (e.g. *). There are three other reserved variables. These are T, dT and SumOfChildCosts. T represents 'time', dT represents time interval and SumOfChildCosts
represents the sum of the costs of all child nodes.

Variables may be used in expressions together with the standard operators +, -, *, /, ^ representing addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and power respectively. Numbers may be
integer or exponential format. An example of exponential format is

1.74E-2

representing

-2
1.74x10

The power operator raises the number to the left of the operator to the power specified to the right of the operator. For example, the expression

2^3

would evaluate to 8 (2 raised to the power 3).

Examples of the use of variables and operators in an expression for the interval cost are given below.

SumOfChildCosts + 1000 + 2.5 * dT

(R.TotalLaborCosts + R.TotalEquipmentCosts) * (1 + 0.01 * T)

23000 * G.CostPerUnitFloorSpace

Note that spaces must be used as delimiters between numbers and operators.

Description
A description for the cost node of no more than 255 characters

Cost Nodes - Notes


Cost node notes may be accessed from the Notes tab of the Cost Node Properties dialog.

Up to 4 descriptive notes may be assigned to each cost node. Users may customize note headers (the labels used to identify a note category) using the Notes tab in the Project Options
dialog.
Global Variables - General Properties
Global variable general properties may be accessed from the General tab of the Global Variable Properties dialog.

ID
A unique identifier for the global variable of no more than 40 alpha-numeric characters.

Type
The type assigned to the global variable. Global variable types are used to organize global variables into groups. If a project contains many global variables then this will greatly assist in
locating a global variable in the project tree control.

Value
The value of the global variable.

Global variable values may be defined by entering a single number or an expression into the Value field. Global variable expressions may not contain reserved variables or other global
variables.

If you enter a simple number, Availability Workbench (AWB) will interpret that number to be the cost assigned to each project time profile interval. For example, suppose we have defined a
project time profile of 10000 hours broken down into 10 intervals of 100 hours each. Entering a value of 500 would indicate to AWB that the global variable cost value was 500 currency
units for each interval.

Alternatively, you may wish to specify the cost as a capital sum to be incurred at a specific point in time. This may be done by adding a square bracket containing the time value to the end
of the cost value. For example, specifying

600[0] + 800[7000]

would indicate that a cost of 600 currency units is to be incurred at the beginning of the project time profile and a cost of 800 currency units is to be incurred at a time of 7000 hours. If you
have defined any phases in the project you can also specify a phase ID within the square brackets. AWB will then apply the cost to all time profile intervals associated with the phase. If a
specified phase ends part way through an interval then only the relevant proportion of the cost will be applied. So the expression

600[Phase1] + 800[Phase3]

would indicate a cost of 600 currency units for each full interval associated with phase Phase1 and 800 currency units for each full phase associated with phase Phase3.

Global variable expressions may contain the standard operators +, -, *, /, ^ representing addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and power respectively. Numbers may be integer or
exponential format. An example of exponential format is

1.74E-2

representing

-2
1.74x10

The power operator raises the number to the left of the operator to the power specified to the right of the operator. For example, the expression

2^3

would evaluate to 8 (2 raised to the power 3).

Note that spaces must be used as delimiters between numbers and operators.

Description
A description for the Global variable of no more than 255 characters.

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Life Cycle Cost Module - Overview Page 3 of 4

Reserved Variables

Reserved variables may be used within the cost node expressions used to define interval costs. They may not be used to define a global variable value.

Reserved variables identifiers are listed below together with a description. Global variable identifiers are not case-sensitive.

Reserved Variable Identifier Description


T The time value at the mid-point of each interval. Time intervals
are defined in the Lifetime tab of the Project Options dialog
and apply to the RCMCost, AvSim and Life Cycle Cost
modules.
dT The interval length.
SumOfChildCosts The sum of all child node costs
SumOfChildCumulativeCosts The cumulative sum of all child node costs.

R.AlarmCosts RCMCost alarm costs


R.CorrectiveEffectCosts RCMCost corrective effect costs
R.CorrectiveEquipmentCosts RCMCost corrective equipment costs
R.CorrectiveLaborCosts RCMCost corrective labor costs
R.CommissioningCosts RCMCost commissioning costs
R.CorrectiveOperationalCosts RCMCost corrective operational costs
R.CorrectiveSparePurchaseCosts RCMCost corrective spare purchase costs
R.InspectionEffectCosts RCMCost inspection effect costs
R.InspectionEquipmentCosts RCMCost inspection equipment costs
R.InspectionLaborCosts RCMCost inspection labor costs
R.InspectionOperationalCosts RCMCost inspection operational costs
R.PMEffectCosts RCMCost planned maintenance effect costs
R.PMEquipmentCosts RCMCost planned maintenance equipment costs
R.PMLaborCosts RCMCost planned maintenance labor costs
R.PMOperationalCosts RCMCost planned maintenance operational costs
R.PMSparePurchaseCosts RCMCost planned maintenance spare purchase costs
R.RedesignCosts RCMCost redesign costs
R.SpareRepairCosts RCMCost spare repair costs
R.SpareStorageCosts RCMCost spare storage costs
R.TotalEffectCosts RCMCost total effect costs
R.TotalCosts RCMCost total costs
R.TotalEquipmentCosts RCMCost total equipment costs
R.TotalLaborCosts RCMCost total labor costs
R.TotalOperationalCosts RCMCost total operational costs
R.TotalSpareCosts RCMCost total spare costs
R.TotalSparePurchaseCosts RCMCost total spare purchase costs

A.AlarmCosts AvSim alarm costs


A.CorrectiveConsequenceCosts AvSim corrective consequence costs
A.CorrectiveEquipmentCosts AvSim corrective equipment costs
A.CorrectiveLaborCosts AvSim corrective labor costs
A.CommissioningCosts AvSim commissioning costs
A.CorrectiveOperationalCosts AvSim corrective operational costs
A.CorrectiveSparePurchaseCosts AvSim corrective spare purchase costs
A.InspectionConsequenceCosts AvSim inspection consequence costs
A.InspectionEquipmentCosts AvSim inspection equipment costs
A.InspectionLaborCosts AvSim inspection labor costs
A.InspectionOperationalCosts AvSim inspection operational costs
A.PMConsequenceCosts AvSim planned maintenance Consequence costs
A.PMEquipmentCosts AvSim planned maintenance equipment costs
A.PMLaborCosts AvSim planned maintenance labor costs
A.PMOperationalCosts AvSim planned maintenance operational costs
A.PMSparePurchaseCosts AvSim planned maintenance spare purchase costs
A.RedesignCosts AvSim redesign costs
A.SpareRepairCosts AvSim spare repair costs
A.SpareStorageCosts AvSim spare storage costs
A.TotalConsequenceCosts AvSim total consequence costs
A.TotalCosts AvSim total costs
A.TotalEquipmentCosts AvSim total equipment costs
A.TotalLaborCosts AvSim total labor costs
A.TotalOperationalCosts AvSim total operational costs
A.TotalSpareCosts AvSim total spare costs
A.TotalSparePurchaseCosts AvSim total spare purchase costs

Performing an Analysis and Examining Results


To perform a life cycle cost analysis select the Analysis, Perform pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. Availability Workbench will automatically calculate life cycle costs
through the cost node structure.

Life cycle costs may be displayed in the Cost Profile plot in the right-hand window. By selecting the Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option you can reveal the Plot Options dialog to
display data for specific cost nodes in the project.
Cost Profile Plots
Cost profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand window. Then select the Cost Profile option on the Plot
type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Cost profile plots display interval or cumulative costs for the project and individual cost nodes over the time profile specified by the user. Users may set different plot options by selecting the
Tools, Options, Plot pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. The Plot Options dialog will be displayed allowing different options to be selected.

The Costs tab of the Plot Options dialog displays the following option settings.

Inclusion lists
The inclusion lists allow you to specify which cost nodes you wish to be included in the cost profile plot. Move cost nodes between the Included and Not included lists by selecting the
appropriate cost nodes and clicking the arrow buttons in between the lists.

Variable
The variable list allows you to select the variable to be displayed in the system profile. Users may choose between Interval cost or Cumulative cost

Plot style
The style of plot.

Show grid
If checked the plot will display a background grid.

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Include project costs


If checked project costs will be included in the plot. Project costs are a summation of the costs from all the top level nodes.

Automatic
If checked the program will automatically set the minimum and maximum values of the variable axis.

Minimum/Maximum
If Automatic is not checked then the user must enter the minimum and maximum variable axis values.

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Reports - Overview Page 1 of 1

Reports - Overview
Availability Workbench (AWB) provides a sophisticated reporting facility called the Report Designer that allows users to
view and print standard reports provided with the installation and design custom text, graph and diagram reports.

The Report Designer may be accessed by selecting Report from the Right window mode selector pull-down menu
(situated above the right-hand window).

The Report Designer enables the user to view and design text column, text row, graph and diagram reports. Using the
Report Designer users may modify existing reports, create their own reports based on copies of the pre-defined reports, or
create entirely new reports.

Report definitions are stored in XML files that are given the default extension awb-repx. Each report is stored in a single
file. Existing reports may be opened by selecting the Report Designer File, Open Report pull-down menu option within
the right-hand window. Once a report has been opened you may print or preview the report by selecting the appropriate
option from the Report Designer File pull-down menu.

The reports obtain their source data from a SQL compatible database which is intelligently updated with the application
data when a report is opened. SQL queries ranging from simple single table queries to complex union and multi-join
queries can be used to interrogate the database. In addition to displaying the actual report data, the user may display
information ranging from the date, time and page numbers to complex SQL queries using report macros.

The Report Designer print preview, print and export operations are multi-threaded. This means, for example, that a user
may continue with other tasks in the application whilst a report is re-paginating.

The Report Designer comprises an outline view, one or more document area tabs (corresponding to the number of open
reports), and its own menu bar and toolbars.

The facilities provided by the Report Designer are described in full in the Report Designer User Guide.

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Diagram Report Settings - Overview Page 1 of 2

Diagram Report Settings - Overview


Diagram report settings affect all diagram reports produced by the Report Designer. Diagram report settings are
associated with the current user and are stored in each users Local Settings\Application Data folder.

Start page number


The first page number to be used when assigning page references to RBD and fault tree diagrams in reports. You may
wish to set a page number other than 1 if your report is to be exported to an external document (e.g. a Word document)
where the diagram is preceded by pages of text. This will allow the page referencing generated by Availability Workbench
(AWB) to correspond to the page numbering in the external document.

Maximum RBD symbol size


The maximum size to display RBD block symbols in reports. AWB will scale individual RBD pages to ensure the diagram
fits within the report page. If the page contains only a few symbols AWB will magnify the page until the maximum symbol
size is reached. The maximum symbol size represents the maximum block width in inches.

Maximum fault tree symbol size


The maximum size to display fault tree symbols in reports. AWB will scale individual fault tree pages to ensure the
diagram fits within the report page. If the page contains only a few symbols AWB will magnify the page until the maximum
symbol size is reached. The maximum symbol size represents the maximum gate width in inches.

Line width
The line width in units of 1/72 of an inch.

Metafile page width (inches)


The width in inches of metafile pages created when copying diagrams directly to the clipboard.

Metafile page height (inches)


The height in inches of metafile pages created when copying diagrams directly to the clipboard.

Show note symbols


If checked note symbols will be included in reports.

Show hyperlink symbols


If checked hyperlink symbols will be included in reports.

Show page numbers


If checked page numbers will be shown in reports.

Color diagrams
If checked the diagram will be displayed as a color diagram in reports.

Dont repeat fault tree structures


If checked AWB will not repeat fault tree structures that have already been displayed on a previous page. Repeated
structures can occur if gates have been repeated on different pages of a fault tree structure. This will typically occur where
a fault tree gate represents a common cause failure that can affect more than one part of the system.

Page Filter
Determines whether to print all pages of the RBD and fault tree diagrams in the project or whether to print a sub-set of
pages. If All pages is selected then all diagram pages will be printed. If Visible and below is selected the currently
displayed RBD or fault tree page is printed together with all pages logically connected below the displayed page. If Visible
only is selected only the currently displayed RBD or fault tree page is printed.

Report Rotation
Affects the orientation of the diagrams in reports. If No rotation is selected the report will remain in its default orientation.
If Rotate 90 degrees or Rotate 270 degrees is selected then the report will be rotated through the appropriate angle.

See Also
RBD Page Order
Fault Tree Page Order

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Diagram Report Settings - RBD Page Order


Order by hierarchy
When checked the RBD pages are ordered by their position in the RBD hierarchy..

Order by ID
When checked the RBD pages are ordered alphabetically by their block ID.

User-defined order
When checked the user may edit the order of the RBD pages.

Move selections up
Selection of this button moves the selected RBD page up one position in the list order.

Move selections down


Selection of this button moves the selected RBD page down one position in the list order.

Select all pages connected below


Clicking selects all RBD pages connected below the selected RBD page.

See Also
Overview
Fault Tree Page Order

Diagram Report Settings - Fault Tree Page Order


Order by hierarchy
When checked the fault tree pages are ordered by their position in the fault tree hierarchy..

Order by ID
When checked the fault tree pages are ordered alphabetically by their gate ID.

User-defined order
When checked the user may edit the order of the fault tree pages.

Move selections up
Clicking moves the selected fault tree page up one position in the list order.

Move selections down


Clicking moves the selected fault tree page down one position in the list order.

Select all pages connected below


Clicking selects all fault tree pages connected below the selected fault tree page.

See Also
Overview
RBD Page Order

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Application Settings - Overview


Application settings are global options that may be modified by the user. Application settings are associated with the
current user and are stored in each users Local Settings\Application Data folder.

Application settings determine the default location of project, library and other files. They may also be used to specify
various user preferences for plot colors, number of undos allowed etc.

See Also
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

Application Settings - Files


XML file format for projects and libraries
By default AWB saves projects and libraries as compressed files with the extension 'awb'. However, users may choose to
save projects and libraries in XML file format with the extension 'awbx'. XML projects and libraries may be significantly
larger then the equivalent compressed file format. This option does not affect the format of projects stored in the
Enterprise System.

Default folder for projects


The default folder to be displayed when opening a project for the first time during a session. If a user subsequently opens
projects in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the duration of the session only.

Default folder for libraries


The default folder to be displayed when opening a library for the first time during a session. If a user subsequently opens
libraries in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the duration of the session only.

Default folder for bitmaps


The default folder to be displayed when opening a bitmap for the first time during a session. If a user subsequently opens
bitmaps in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the duration of the session only.

Default folder for reports


The default folder to be displayed when opening a report for the first time during a session. If a user subsequently opens
reports in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the duration of the session only.

Default folder for import/export templates


The default folder to be displayed when opening an import/export template for the first time during a session. If a user
subsequently opens import/export templates in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the
duration of the session only.

Default folder for import/export files


The default folder to be displayed when opening an import/export file for the first time during a session. If a user
subsequently opens import/export files in a different folder then this folder will become the default folder for the duration of
the session only.

See Also
Overview
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

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Application Settings - Backup


Enable project backup
If checked Availability Workbench will automatically write the current project data to a backup project file at the specified
interval. Users are strongly advised to enable this option to avoid losing data during network crashes. Backup project files
are given the extension .awb-bakx.

Project backup interval


The time interval in minutes between writing the project to a backup file.

Default folder for non-enterprise project backups


The default folder to which non-enterprise backup files are saved. An existing folder may be selected using the Browse
button. Alternatively, the user may create a new folder by entering the file path manually in the text field. Users should not
choose a folder that may contain project files that have not been created using the backup system.

See Also
Overview
Files
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

Application Settings - Fonts


Tree control
Lists the fonts applied to text in the tree control.

Plots
Lists of the fonts applied to text in the screen plots.

Grid
Lists the fonts applied to text in the grid display.

Pop-up text
Lists the fonts applied to text used in pop-ups.

Change selected font


Selecting the Change selected font button will open the Font dialog and allow the user to modify the font properties.
Double-clicking the left mouse button with the cursor over the text type in the tree control will also reveal the Font dialog.

Reset selection to default


Selecting the Reset selection to default button will reset the selected text type its default font.

Reset all to default


Selecting the Reset all to default button will reset all text types to their default fonts.

See Also
Overview
Files
Backup
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

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Application Settings - Colors


Tree control
The tree control displays the current color settings for plot backgrounds and plot lines, symbols and bars.

Change selected color


Selecting the Change selected color button will open the Color dialog for the selected item in the tree control.
Alternatively the Color dialog can be opened by double clicking on a tree control item.

Reset selection to default


Selecting the Reset selection to default button will reset the selected tree control item its default color.

Reset all to default


Selecting the Reset all to default button will reset items in the tree control to their default colors.

See Also
Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

Application Settings - Plots


Minimum width (pixels)
The minimum width to be used for screen plots. If the plot will not fit into the available space in the right-hand window
Availability Workbench (AWB) will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Minimum height (pixels)


The minimum height to be used for screen plots. If the plot will not fit into the available space in the right-hand window
AWB will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Enable pop-up text


If checked screen plots will display plot data values as the user moves the cursor over data points in the plot.

Use gradient fill


Apply a gradient color scheme to filled plots such as bar charts.

Use hatch styles


Applies hatch styles to distinguish between variables in filled plots such as bar charts.

Enable profile time axis auto-scaling


If checked AWB will automatically set the profile plot time axis minimum and maximum values using an automatic
algorithm. If not checked time axis values will be determined from the analysis profile interval set in the Project Options
dialog.

See Also
Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Undo
Import
Naming
Threads

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Application Settings - Undo


Maximum number of undos
The maximum number of undo operations to be allowed. Setting this value to zero will disable the undo facility. Undo
operations may take up a significant amount of memory for larger projects. Users are advised to keep this number to a
minimum value particularly for large projects.

See Also
Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Import
Naming
Threads

Application Settings - Import


Remove disable tasks when opening RCMCost V4 or AvSim V10 project files
If checked Availability Workbench (AWB) will remove scheduled tasks originating from older version projects if the task is
disabled in these projects unless the task is a dependent planned maintenance task. A planned maintenance task is
dependent if an inspection task is also defined for the cause or failure model.

Non-standard character encoding for RCMCost V4 or AvSim V10 project files


This flag, when checked, indicates that RCMCost V4 and AvSim V10 project files are assumed to have been created with
non-standard character encoding. This would apply, for example, to projects created using Chinese characters.

Code page
The code page number identifies the character set to be translated when reading RCMCost V4 and AvSim V10 project
files. Examples are 936 for simplified Chinese, 932 for Japanese and 949 for Korean.

Apply hold-for-repair rules to failure models when opening AvSim V10 project files
if this option is set then AWB will convert AvSim V10 hold-for-repair setting to inhibit task rules for the appropriate failure
models. If this option is not set then rules will be applied to blocks or primary events rather than failure model tasks. This
option should not be set if the AvSim V10 project uses common failure models for different blocks or primary events that
have a hold-for-repair setting.

See Also
Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Naming
Threads

Application Settings - Naming


Use CopyOf renaming scheme for RCMCost locations on paste
If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming locations during a paste operation. If
not checked, AWB will rename locations using the name of the target location followed by an automatically generated
extension. If the target for the paste operation is the top level Locations node then AWB will revert to the 'CopyOf' naming
scheme.

Use CopyOf renaming scheme for AvSim RBD structure on paste special
If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming RBD blocks during a paste special
operation. If not checked, AWB will rename blocks using the name of the target RBD page followed by an automatically

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generated extension.

Use CopyOf renaming scheme AvSim fault tree structure on paste special
If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming fault tree gates and events during a
paste special operation. If not checked, AWB will rename gates and events using the name of the parent gate followed by
an automatically generated extension.

Use CopyOf renaming scheme for LCC cost structure on paste


If checked, Availability Workbench (AWB) will use the 'CopyOf' prefix when renaming cost nodes during a paste operation.
If not checked, AWB will rename locations using the name of the target cost node followed by an automatically generated
extension. If the target for the paste operation is the top level cost node then AWB will revert to the 'CopyOf' naming
scheme.

See Also
Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Threads

Application Settings - Threads


Availability Workbench (AWB) can take advantage of parallel processing methods when performing simulations in the
RCMCost and AvSim modules. Using parallel processing can significantly reduce the computing time for a simulation run.
In order for AWB to take advantage of these methods the host computer must be a multiple-processor machine. You will
not necessarily achieve 100% efficiency in reducing computing time with multiple-processor machines. Efficiency will
depend on the number of total simulations being performed and overheads associated with the operating system. For
example, if your host machine has 8 processors, the actual time taken to complete a simulation run might be reduced by a
factor of 6 rather than 8 due to the machine's multi-processor ability. AWB takes advantage of multiple-processor
machines by dividing the total number of simulations performed into separate threads. Each thread runs its simulations
independently from the other threads. Normally you would use the same number of threads as processors so that the
operating system will be able to allocate each thread to a different processor to achieve maximum efficiency.

Number of processors detected


AWB will automatically indicate the number of processors on the host machine.

Automatically set threads by number of processors


If checked, the number of threads will be set to the number of processors detected. This will normally achieve maximum
efficiency during simulation calculations.

Number of simulation threads


If the Automatically set threads by number of processors option is not checked the user may set the number of
threads to be used during simulation runs.

See Also
Overview
Files
Backup
Fonts
Colors
Plots
Undo
Import
Naming

Application Settings - General

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Display Portal Windows as Dialogs


If this option is selected the SAP, Maximo and Ellipse Portal windows will be displayed as dialogs. Dialog windows must
be closed before returning to the main AWB application window.

Portal Windows on Top


If this option is selected the SAP, Maximo and Ellipse Portal windows will always be displayed above the main AWB
application window.
Enterprise Application Settings
These options only apply to users accessing the Isograph Enterprise System.

Folder for local enterprise projects


The high level folder in which local enterprise projects will be saved. This folder is also used to store enterprise backup
projects.

Server and Differencing


The server settings provide connection details for the Enterprise System web service (containing Enterprise projects and
libraries). The differencing settings provide connection details for the Enterprise Differencing web service. These settings
will normally be specified in the application configuration file and disabled in the Application Settings dialog

Binding configuration
The endpoint binding name. Typical binding names are netTcpBinding, basicHttpBinding and wsHttpBinding

Scheme
The scheme name (set to blank for default)

Host
The host name

Port
The port number

User principal name


The user principal name
Plugins Application Settings
The plugins options are only available to users with a valid plugins license.

The plugins list identifies all plugins currently associated with the application.

Add
Select the Add button to create a new plugin.

Edit
Select the Edit button to edit the plugin selected in the plugin list

Copy
Select the Copy button to copy the plugin selected in the plugin list

Export
Select the Export button to export the plugin selected in the plugin list. Exported plugins are saved to a file in XML format
with the extension awb-plgx.

Import
Select the Import button to import a plugin from file.

Remove
Select the Remove button to permanently remove the plugin selected in the plugin list

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Importing and Exporting Data - Overview


Availability Workbench (AWB) enables users to export and import data to and from a variety of different external
databases and file formats. In addition users may export and import data to and from the Windows clipboard.

The import and export facilities connect to the following external formats:

Access databases
SQL Server databases
Oracle databases
Excel files
XML files
Text files
Windows clipboard

In order to import or export data you must select and match the data to be transferred. AWB provides facilities to quickly
match the required data in the Import and Export dialogs. These dialogs are accessed by selecting the File, Import or
File, Export pull-down menus respectively.

Once you have selected and matched your data you can save this information in an import or export template. This means
that next time you wish to import or export the same type of data to the same external source or target you can just
retrieve the template and perform the import or export of data without re-selecting and re-matching your data. AWB
remembers your last import or export template so that the next time you enter the import or export facilities your previous
selections and matches will already be set.

AWB automatically validates data as it is being imported into a project. Many import errors can be automatically corrected
on import. For example, an invalid negative number will be re-assigned the minimum allowed numerical value for the data
value being imported. Validation errors are displayed to the user during the import process.
Importing Data - Connecting to the External Data Source
The Availability Workbench (AWB) import function requires that the user defines the external data source. On entering the
import facility (by selecting the File, Import pull-down menu option) AWB will display the Database tab of the Import
dialog. The Database tab is used to define the connection to the external source whether it is a database, file or the
Windows clipboard.

Type
The database or file type.

Server
The server to connect to. This field need only be selected when connecting to a SQL Server database. AWB will
automatically populate the list of available servers when the database Type has been set to SQL Server.

Service
The service to connect to. This field need only be completed when connecting to an Oracle database.

Login
The login fields only apply to SQL Server and Oracle databases. Select Use Windows authentication or enter a user
name and password. Then select the Connect button to connect to the database.

Database
The database file name for Access and SQL Server databases. The list of available database names will be automatically
populated once the server has been chosen for a SQL Server database.

File
The file name for XML, Excel and text file connections.

Browse
The Browse button enables users to browse the Windows directory structure for file names or Access database files.

Mode
The use may choose between one of the following import modes

Replace matching and append non-matching records

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Replace matching records only


Append non-matching records only

An imported data record matches an existing project record if the object ID is identical. The object ID is effectively the
primary key. For example, if you are importing labor categories from an external database you may be importing a row
that contains ELECTRICIAN as the ID (primary key). If the AWB project already contains a labor category with ID
ELECTRICIAN then a match is found.

Column names in first row


If you are importing data from Excel, a text file or the clipboard you need to specify whether the first row of the file or
clipboard contains the column names.

Delimiter
The delimiter that is to be used to separate columns for a Text File User Delimiter data source.
Importing Data - Matching Tables
When importing data from an external data source you need to indicate the match between external table or worksheet
names and the Availability Workbench (AWB) application database tables. AWB will only permit import to application
tables that are import-enabled.

Table matches are defined by accessing the Table Matches tab of the Import dialog.

If you are connected to the Windows clipboard or a text file then you can only match to a single table.

Matching Tables Individually


To match an external table to an application table (AWB table) first select a table in the external table list. Then select the
table to be matched in the application table list. The external table list will indicate current matches by placing a tick to the
left of the external table. The application table name will be displayed in this list after an arrow symbol. For example, the
application table list entry

WORKCREWS->Labor

Indicates that the external table WORKCREWS is matched to the application table Labor.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application tables that have the
same name. Although Excel worksheet names are preceded by a $ symbol AWB will recognize matching names if this is
the only differentiating character.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external table list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all table matches.
Importing Data - Matching Columns
After defining matches between external and application tables you then need to define column matches. Column
matches are defined by accessing the Column Matches tab of the Import dialog.

Availability Workbench (AWB) will only permit import to columns that are import-enabled. If the external data source is a
text file, an Excel file or the Windows clipboard then column names will be extracted from the first row of the file if the
Column names in first row option was selected in the Database tab. If this option was not selected then AWB will assign
the names F1, F2, F3 etc. to the external columns list.

Table Match
The currently selected table match defines which columns are to be displayed in the external and application column lists.
You will be able to select any previously defined table match.

Matching Columns Individually


To match an external column to an application column (AWB column) first select a column in the external column list.
Then select the column to be matched in the application column list. The external column list will indicate current matches
by placing a tick to the left of the external column. The application column name will be displayed in this list after an arrow
symbol. For example, the application column list entry

NUMBER->Quantity

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indicates that the external column NUMBER is matched to the application column Quantity.

Small icons are displayed to the left of column names in the lists to help identify the type of data associated with the
column.

The primary key column uniquely identifies an object. In AWB it is the ID column for that object. Secondary keys provide a
link to the primary key in other AWB tables. The Boolean data type is associated with values of true and false.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application columns that have the
same name.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external column list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all column matches.
Exporting Data - Connecting to the External Database
The Availability Workbench (AWB) export function requires that the user defines the external data source. On entering the
export facility (by selecting the File, Export pull-down menu option) AWB will display the Database tab of the Export
dialog. The Database tab is used to define the connection to the external source whether it is a database, file or the
Windows clipboard.

Type
The database or file type.

Server
The server to connect to. This field need only be selected when connecting to a SQL Server database. AWB will
automatically populate the list of available servers when the database Type has been set to SQL Server.

Service
The service to connect to. This field need only be completed when connecting to an Oracle database.

Login
The login fields only apply to SQL Server and Oracle databases. Select Use Windows authentication or enter a user
name and password. Then select the Connect button to connect to the database.

Database
The database file name for Access databases. The database name for SQL Server databases. The list of available
database names will be automatically populated once the server has been chosen for a SQL Server database. This field
need only be completed for Access and SQL Server databases.

File
The file name for XML, Excel and text file connections.

Browse
The Browse button enables users to browse the Windows directory structure for file names or Access database files.

Column names in first row


If you are exporting data from Excel, a text file or the clipboard you need to specify whether the first row of the file or

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clipboard contains the column names.

Delimiter
The delimiter that is to be used to separate columns for a Text File User Delimiter data source.

Export no match
If you wish to export AWB data to tables and columns with the same name as the AWB application tables and columns
then select this option. This option may also be selected for creating a new database or file using AWB data. This option
cannot be used, however, for exporting to SQL Server or Oracle databases.

Note that if the Export no match option is selected the contents of existing tables that have the same name as exported
AWB tables will be deleted before the export of data takes place.
Exporting Data - Matching Tables
Tables may be matched for Access, SQL Server and Oracle databases. Tables and worksheets may also be matched for
Excel files. However, tables may not be matched for export to text files and the Windows clipboard.

Table matches are defined by accessing the Table Matches tab of the Export dialog.

You will only need to match external tables to Availability Workbench (AWB) tables if the Export no match option is
switched off.

When exporting data to an external data source you need to indicate the match between external table or worksheet
names and the AWB application database tables.

If you are connected to the Windows clipboard or a text file then you can only match to a single table.

Matching Tables Individually


To match an external table to an application table (AWB table) first select a table in the external table list. Then select the
table to be matched in the application table list. The external table list will indicate current matches by placing a tick to the
left of the external table. The application table name will be displayed in this list after an arrow symbol. For example, the
application table list entry

WORKCREWS<-Labor

indicates that the external table WORKCREWS is matched to the application table Labor.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application tables that have the
same name. Although Excel worksheet names are preceded by a $ symbol AWB will recognize matching names if this is
the only differentiating character.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external table list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all table matches.
Exporting Data - Matching Columns
You will only need to match external columns to Availability Workbench (AWB) columns if the Export no match option is
switched off. Column matches are defined by accessing the Column Matches tab of the Export dialog.

After defining matches between external and application tables you then need to define column matches. If the external
data source is a text file, an Excel file or the Windows clipboard then column names will be extracted from the first row of
the file if the Column names in first row option was selected in the Database tab. If this option was not selected then
AWB will assign the names F1, F2, F3 etc. to the external columns list.

Table Match
The currently selected table match defines which columns are to be displayed in the external and application column lists.
You will be able to select any previously defined table match.

Matching Columns Individually


To match an external column to an application column (AWB column) first select a column in the external column list.
Then select the column to be matched in the application column list. The external column list will indicate current matches
by placing a tick to the left of the external column. The application column name will be displayed in this list after an arrow

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symbol. For example, the application column list entry

NUMBER<-Quantity

indicates that the external column NUMBER is matched to the application column Quantity. Small icons are displayed to
the left of column names in the lists to help identify the type of data associated with the column.

The primary key column uniquely identifies an object. In AWB it is the ID column for that object. Secondary keys provide a
link to the primary key in other AWB tables. The Boolean data type is associated with values of true and false.

Auto match
Selection of the Auto match button prompts AWB to automatically match external and application columns that have the
same name.

Clear match
Selection of the Clear match button will clear the match selected in the external column list.

Clear all matches


Selection of this button will clear all column matches.
Export No Match - Specifying Tables for Export
If the Export no match option is selected under the Database tab of the Export dialog you will have access to the Tables
tab that allows you to define which tables are to be exported.

You may transfer tables to and from the Exported application table list by selecting the appropriate table followed by
selection of the appropriate arrow button. The buttons that contain three arrows will transfer all tables from one list to
another.

If you select more than one table and the target for export is a text file, Availability Workbench will create multiple text files,
one for each table. The files will be given the base file name specified in the Database tab of the Export dialog with an
extended name identifying the table. For example, a base text file name of demo.txt would result in files demo_Labor.txt
and demo_Spares.txt being created if the tables Labor and Spares were exported together.
Export No Match - Specifying Columns for Export
If the Export no match option is selected under the Database tab of the Export dialog you will have access to the
Columns tab that allows you to define which columns are to be exported.

You may transfer columns to and from the Exported application column list by selecting the appropriate column
followed by selection of the appropriate arrow button. The buttons that contain three arrows will transfer all columns from
one list to another.
Importing and Exporting Data - Schema
The Schema tabs of the Import and Export dialogs display the table and column structure of the connected database, file
or Windows clipboard. In the case of text files, Excel files and the clipboard, the displayed schema will simply be the first
row of data.

Small icons are displayed to the left of column names in the schema tree to help identify the type of data associated with
the column.

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The primary key column uniquely identifies an object. The Boolean data type is associated with values of true and
false.
Importing and Exporting Data - Filtering Data
You may set filtering parameters from within the Filters tab of the Import or Export dialog.

The filter function allows users to restrict the data that is imported from or exported to an external database. The filter
function is not available when importing data from the clipboard, text files or XML files.

Table
You may set filter parameters for each matched table pair. The table list allows you to select the matched table pair for
which you wish to view or modify filter parameters.

Column
You may set filter parameters for each column in a matched table pair. The column list allows you to select the column for
which you wish to view or modify filter parameters.

Filter operation
The filter operation you wish to perform on incoming or outgoing data. Valid filter operations are

Equals
Does not equal
Is greater than
Is greater than or equal to
Is less than
Is less than or equal to
Contains

Filter value
The filter value associated with the filter operation

Current filters
A list of the filters currently assigned for the import or export process.

Clear
Selecting the Clear button will remove the current filters.

Clear button icon:

Importing and Exporting Data - Specifying Text File Column Positions


If you have specified the Text File - Fixed Column Width database type the Column Positions tab will be displayed in
the Import or Export dialog. This tab allows you to specify the starting position of columns in the text file.

Number of columns
This field indicates the number of columns in each row of the file

Column
This field indicates the column number for which the position is being specified

Position
The position of the column indicated in the Column field

Auto set
Selecting the Auto set button prompts the program to automatically assign column positions. Users may later adjust
automatically assigned positions.

Preview

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The Preview list shows the current column positions by inserting column dividers (the symbol ^ is used) between text in
the file.

Importing and Exporting Data - Database Login


On entering the import or export facilities AWB will automatically open the last import or export template. If the template
defines a connection to a SQL Server or Oracle database then AWB will display the Database Login dialog.

In this form the user may choose whether to use 'Windows authentication' to login or alternatively enter a username and
password.

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Renaming RCMCost Locations Page 1 of 2

Renaming RCMCost Locations


RCMCost locations, functions, functional failures and causes may be renamed by selecting the appropriate Rename
option on the Tools pull-down menu. Objects will be renamed based on the name of their parent and a numerical
extension.

Objects will only be renamed under the current tree control selection.
Renaming AvSim Blocks and Nodes
AvSim blocks and nodes may be renamed by selecting the appropriate Rename option on the Tools pull-down menu.
Blocks and nodes may be renamed selectively by selecting a block and then selecting the appropriate Rename under
selection pull-down menu option.
Sorting Data
Objects may be sorted in the Availability Workbench (AWB) project tables by selecting the Tools, Sort pull-down menu
option. A Sort dialog will appear allowing the user to specify the sort requirements. The Sort dialog functionality is
described below.

Table
Specifies the AWB project table to sort.

Sort by
Specifies the column to sort by.

Ascending/Descending
Specifies whether to sort the data by ascending value or descending value.

Then by
The Then by selections allow the user to define a second or third sort criteria.

Creating a Clipboard Image


Users may create a clipboard image of the current tree control, plot or diagram. To create an image select one of the
Tools, Create Clipboard Image pull-down menu options.
Setting Task Group Efficiency Values
Task group efficiency values indicate the fractional reduction in task times due to organizing scheduled maintenance into
a task group. To aid the assignment of task group efficiency factors Availability Workbench (AWB) provides a Task Group
Efficiency dialog that may be accessed by selecting the Tools, Task Group Efficiency pull-down menu option.

The dialog lists the task groups currently defined in the project together with the sum of their associated individual task
durations. Users may then enter the group task duration and AWB will automatically calculate the efficiency factor for the
task group. Selection of the OK button will remove the dialog and apply the calculated efficiency factors to all task groups.
Selection of the Cancel button will remove the dialog without applying the factors.
Converting Data
Availability Workbench (AWB) provides facilities for converting RCMCost location hierarchy diagrams and AvSim RBD and
fault tree diagrams into different formats. The following automatic conversion methods are available.

Convert Locations to RBD


Convert Locations to Fault Tree
Convert RBD to Locations
Convert Fault Tree to Locations
Convert RBD to Fault Tree

The appropriate conversion option may be selected from the Tools, Convert pull-down menu.

Convert Locations to RBD


This conversion option produces a paginated RBD in the AvSim module based on the RCMCost location hierarchy
structure. Locations and causes are converted to RBD blocks. Functions and functional failures are not converted. AWB
automatically creates and assigns failure models to component blocks in the RBD structure. These failure models contain
failure and maintenance data corresponding to the causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy. Failure models are
automatically linked to their equivalent causes using the AWB data links facility.

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Note that the newly created RBD structure will not contain any parallel configurations as the location hierarchy does not
model redundancy arrangements between different location equipments. Location quantities will not be transferred to the
RBD structure.

Convert Locations to Fault Tree


This conversion option produces a fault tree diagram in the AvSim module based on the RCMCost location hierarchy
structure. Locations and causes are converted to fault tree gates and primary events. Functions and functional failures are
not converted. AWB automatically creates and assigns failure models to primary events in the fault tree structure. These
failure models contain failure and maintenance data corresponding to the causes in the RCMCost location hierarchy.
Failure models are automatically linked to their equivalent causes using the AWB data links facility.

Note that the newly created fault tree structure will not contain any parallel configurations as the location hierarchy does
not model redundancy arrangements between different location equipments. Location quantities will not be transferred to
the fault tree structure.

Convert RBD to Locations


This conversion option produces a location hierarchy in the RCMCost module based on the RBD structure in the AvSim
module. RBD blocks are converted to locations. Functions, functional failures and causes are automatically assigned by
the program. The causes in the location diagram will contain data that corresponds to the appropriate failure models in the
AvSim module. Causes are automatically linked to their equivalent failure models using the AWB data links facility.

Note that standby arrangement data and other dependency modelling cannot be transferred to the RCMCost location
hierarchy.

Convert Fault Tree to Locations


This conversion option produces a location hierarchy in the RCMCost module based on the fault tree structure in the
AvSim module. Fault tree gates and primary events are converted to locations. Functions, functional failures and causes
are automatically assigned by the program. The causes in the location diagram will contain data that corresponds to the
appropriate failure models in the AvSim module. Causes are automatically linked to their equivalent failure models using
the AWB data links facility.

Note that standby arrangement data and other dependency modelling cannot be transferred to the RCMCost location
hierarchy.

Convert RBD to Fault Tree


This conversion option produces a fault tree structure that is equivalent to the current RBD structure. Failure models
assigned to RBD component blocks will now be automatically assigned to fault tree primary events. If you are using the
RBD to model capacity arrangements you will need to check that the automatically generated fault tree structure correctly
mirrors the required capacity logic. Maintaining this logic cannot be guaranteed during the conversion process.
Updating Special Reports
Special reports contain interval optimization plots for tasks and task groups in the current project. They need to be created
using the special report facility as they contain multiple plots that vary according to the number of tasks and task groups
that are currently defined in the project. Once a special report has been generated it may be opened like any other report
in the Availability Workbench Report window.

To generate special reports select one of the Tools, Update Special Reports pull-down menu options.

The special reports facility utilizes a template report file that should not be modified directly by the user. This template file
is provided in the default reports directory Auto-Generated Plots\Templates. Interval optimization plots are generated
from this file and are stored in the directory above the directory containing the template.
Project Statistics
The Project Statistic dialog provides a summary of how many rows are defined in the tables of the current project. In
addition it provides a summary of the memory being accessed by Availability Workbench. To access the Project Statistic
dialog select the Tools, Project Statistics pull-down menu option.

Project Declassification
The project declassification facility removes descriptions and notes from the current project. This is useful if you wish to
send a project file to another Availability Workbench user but you do not wish them to understand the logical meaning of
objects in your system model. To declassify the current project select the Tools, Declassify Project pull-down menu
option.

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The Grid Control - Overview


The grid control provides a method for viewing, filtering and editing data in a tabular format. To view the grid control select
the Grid or Diagram & Grid or Plot & Grid options from the Right window mode selector pull-down menu. Once the
grid control is displayed you can select the project table to be displayed from the Grid table selector pull-down menu and
the layout option from the Grid layout selector pull-down menu. Both these menus are positioned above the right-hand
window.

You can modify data in the grid control by clicking on a 'write enabled' text field or selecting a pull-down menu option or
selecting a check-box in the grid area. Data will only be modified once the focus has left the grid field being edited. If you
try to enter invalid data a message will be displayed and you will have to re-enter some valid data or press the Escape
key to abort the edit operation.

Many of the grid tables will allow you to edit data by double-clicking the mouse button with the cursor positioned in the
grey area to the left of each row in the grid. A dialog will displayed revealing the properties of the object associated with
the row in the grid.

Availability Workbench provides a number of custom grid layouts. These may be customized by the user and new layouts
may be created. Grid layouts created by the user are known as 'user layouts'.

The grid control may be used to filter and sort data and there is also a 'find and replace' function.

See Also
General Layout Options
Filter Layout Options
Sort Layout Options
Find and Replace
Statistics

The Grid Control - General Layout Options


The General tab of the Grid Layout Options dialog allows users to customize a grid layout. The Grid Layout Options
dialog is revealed when the Grid, Layout Options or the Grid, New Layout pull-down menu options are selected.

ID
An identifier for the grid layout. This ID will be displayed in the Grid layout selector pull-down menu above the right-hand
window.

Formatting [all layouts]


If the Wrap text check-box is selected then descriptive text will be line-wrapped. If the Auto-size rows check-box is
selected then the grid control will automatically adjust individual row height to accommodate lengthy text descriptions.

Visible Columns
Shows the currently visible columns for the grid layout. The order of the list is the order the columns are displayed in the
grid. To change this order highlight the column using the left mouse button and click the Up or Down button to shift the
highlighted item one place. To transfer columns to the Hidden columns list, highlight the item using the left mouse button
and click on the right-hand arrow button.

Hidden Columns
Shows the currently hidden columns for the grid layout. To transfer fields to the Visible columns list, highlight the item
using the left mouse button and click on the left-hand arrow button.

Selected column width


The width of the column when displayed in the grid control.

Row Height
The default height of each row in the grid. If this value is set to 0 the height is set automatically. Note that this value is
ignored when the Auto-size rows check-box is selected.

Apply
Applies any changes to the grid layout but does not dismiss the dialog.

Export
Exports the grid layout to a XML file. The exported file is given the default extension awb-grdx. Exported grid layouts may

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be sent to other users who may import the layout using the grid layout import facilities.

Reset
To reset the grid layout to the default settings click the Reset button. This function is only available for the default grid
layouts.

The Grid Control - Filter Layout Options


The Filter tab of the Grid Layout Options dialog allows users to filter the data displayed in a grid layout. The Grid
Layout Options dialog is revealed when the Grid, Filter pull-down menu option is selected.

Filter by tree control selection


Selecting this option will result in filtering the data in the grid according to the current selection in the project tree control in
the left-hand window. Availability Workbench will apply an intelligent filtering algorithm that recognizes dependencies
between different object types. For example, selection of a location in the RCMCost project tree control will show
dependent tasks if one of the task grid layouts is displayed. Dependent tasks are those tasks that are assigned to causes
that are in turn connected below the selected location.

Filter by Column
Choose from the drop down list the column the filter is to be applied to. In the next drop down list choose the type of
comparison to be made, for example equals.

Filter by Value
The value or text that the comparison applies to. If a second comparison is required, choose either OR orAND from the
next drop-down list and fill out the second comparison type and value.

And by
Users may optionally enter a second set of filtering criteria.

Clear
Selection of the Clear button clears the current filter parameters in the dialog.

Apply
Applies any changes to the grid layout but does not dismiss the dialog.

Export
Exports the grid layout to a XML file. The exported file is given the default extension awb-grdx. Exported grid layouts may
be sent to other users who may import the layout using the grid layout import facilities.

Reset
To reset the grid layout to the default settings click the Reset button. This function is only available for the default grid
layouts.

The Grid Control - Sort Layout Options


The Sort tab of the Grid Layout Options dialog allows users to sort the data displayed in a grid layout. The Grid Layout
Options dialog is revealed when the Grid, Sort pull-down menu option is selected.

Sort by
The column and criteria on which to sort. Select the column ID from the list and then Ascending or Descending radio
button. If the Alphanumeric text sort flag is set text data will be sorted taking into account the numeric value at the end of
each character string. This will result in a different order being applied to objects that have identical character strings
followed by a number. Consider the ordering of a set of object IDs:

FM8, FM9, FM10, FM11, FM100

Standard text ordering (ascending) would result in:

FM10
FM100
FM11
FM8
FM9

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Alphanumeric text ordering (ascending) would result in:

FM8
FM9
FM10
FM11
FM100

Then by
Users may specify two additional sort criteria in the Then by areas of the dialog.

Apply
Applies any changes to the grid layout but does not dismiss the dialog.

Export
Exports the grid layout to a XML file. The exported file is given the default extension awb-grdx. Exported grid layouts may
be sent to other users who may import the layout using the grid layout import facilities.

Reset
To reset the grid layout to the default settings click the Reset button. This function is only available for the default grid
layouts.

The Grid Control - Find and Replace


The Find & Replace dialog is displayed when the Grid, Find & Replace pull-down menu option is selected with the grid
displayed in the right-hand window. This dialog enables users to find and replace data associated with the project table
displayed in the current grid.

Table
The project table associated with the current grid. This field is read-only.

Column
The column which is to be searched. The user may choose All columns to search all the columns in the grid layout.

Find what
The text string, number or boolean variable (true/false) to locate.

Replace with
The new text string, number or boolean variable (true/false).

Match case
Indicates that the text string upper or lower case values specified in the Find what field must match those in the grid
control

Match entire cell


If checked then only data matching the entire cell will be changed.

Object/Column/Data list
Lists object columns and the associated data located during a search.

Find next
Selection of the Find next button prompts the program to find the next occurrence of the data in the grid control.

Find first
Selection of the Find first button prompts the program to find the first occurrence of the data in the grid control.

Replace
Selection of the Replace button prompts the program to replace the matching data located in the grid control.

Replace all

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Selection of the Replace all button prompts the program to replace all occurrences of matching data located in the grid
control.

Show in tree control


Once data has been located in the grid control, selection of the Show in tree control button will prompt the program to
locate and display the object in the project tree control in the left-hand window.

The Grid Control - Statistics


The Grid Statistics dialog may be displayed by selecting the Grid, Statistics pull-down menu option. This dialog displays
the sum, average, minimum and maximum values of numerical columns displayed in the current grid. These functions are
only performed on the visible data. For example, if a filter operation has been applied on the grid, the list in the Grid
Statistics dialog will only display the sum, average, minimum and maximum values of the filtered data.

The Grid Control - Importing and Exporting Grid Layouts


Users may wish to customize existing grid layouts and create their own layouts. These layouts may be useful to other
users and therefore Availability Workbench provides a facility to transfer these user layouts between users. The transfer of
layouts is accomplished using the grid layout import and export facilities. Grid layouts are transferred in XML file format.
These files are given the default extension awb-grdx.

Grid layouts may be imported by selecting the Grid, Import Layouts pull-down menu option. A file Open dialog will be
revealed allowing the user to select one or more file to import. Once imported the grid layouts will be associated with the
current user stored in the users Local Settings\Application Data folder.

Individual grid layouts may be exported from within the Grid Layout Options dialog for the current grid. Users may also
export all the existing grid layouts together by selecting the Grid, Export All Layouts pull-down menu option. On
selection of this option the Browse for Folder dialog will be displayed allowing the user to select the folder that will
receive the exported XML files. Each grid layout will be defined in a separate file. Exported files are given the ID for the
grid layout as the base name for the file.

The Grid Control - Removing and Resetting Layouts


User layouts may be removed from the user's local settings by selecting the Remove Layout or Remove All User
Layouts pull-down menu options. The Remove Layout option will remove the current layout and can only be applied if
the current layout is a user layout. The Remove All User Layouts option will remove all user layouts currently associated
with the user's local settings.

Default layouts (layouts originally provided with the program) may be reset to their default settings. This option is provided
as users can modify the settings of a default layout even though they cannot delete it. Individual layouts may be reset from
within the Grid Layout Options dialog. Alternatively, users may reset all default layout settings by selecting the Grid, Reset
All Default Layouts pull-down menu option.

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The About Dialog


The About Availability Workbench dialog is displayed by selecting the Help, About Availability Workbench pull-down
menu option. This dialog displays version and copyright information and lists the current license status of the program.

The Prompt Dialog


The Availability Workbench Prompt dialog is displayed when the program requires the user to enter a text or numerical
value in response to a prompt. If a numerical value is required the Prompt dialog will also display the valid range for the
number to be entered.

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The SAP Portal - Overview


The SAP Portal allows users to connect directly to their SAP system from within Availability Workbench (AWB). Historical
maintenance data may be downloaded from SAP into AWB, analyzed, and then uploaded back into SAP in the form of
maintenance plans. If SAP has not yet been configured for plant maintenance, the portal may also be used to upload a
functional location hierarchy with installed equipments, criticality rankings, effects and catalog profiles from the RCMCost
module of AWB. Alternatively, an existing SAP functional location and equipment hierarchy may be downloaded to
populate a new AWB project together with criticality rankings, labor resources, BOMs, effects and maintenance plans.

The Sap Portal functions may be summarized as:

Downloading master data from SAP


Downloading existing maintenance plans and task lists from SAP
Analyzing maintenance data downloaded from SAP
Building RCM data in the RCMCost module
Building new maintenance plans from the optimized RCM model
Uploading new maintenance plans to SAP

Requirements
AWB can connect to SAP via the SAP connector for Microsoft .NET or using SAP NetWeaver Web Services.

If you are connecting via the SAP connector for Microsoft .NET you will need to install the SAP GUI (version 640 or later).
If you are connecting via Web Services then you will need to create two services in SAP to support the Portal.

On some SAP systems you may also need to install the ZISO_READ_TABLE function which is used as an alternative to
the standard RFC_READ_TABLE SAP function. This function only reads data from SAP and does not upload any data to
SAP. For more information on this function see the section Custom Read Table Function.

SAP Portal Data


The SAP Portal data structure is organised to represent those elements of SAP PM that are required to perform a RCM
analysis. The data displayed in the tree control and dialogs within the SAP Portal is similar to the data displayed by the
SAP GUI and represents a subset image of the data in your SAP system. Data downloaded from SAP (technical objects,
maintenance plans, work orders etc.) is stored in a standard AWB project. Once data is downloaded it may be analyzed,
trimmed and viewed in the tree control, grid control or plots. SAP portal data may be opened as a library for comparisons
or for extracting parts of a larger system for analysis in a 'sub-project'. Custom or standard reports may be created based
on any of the data elements of the SAP Portal.

SAP portal data elements may also represent data elements that do not currently exist in SAP but have been generated
from the RCMCost module. These data elements are typically new maintenance plans, items and task lists. The SAP
Portal may be used to upload this data into SAP.

SAP is a registered trademark of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries.

SAP Portal Options and Templates


SAP Portal options may be accessed by selecting the SAP Options, Modify pull-down menu option. The SAP Portal
Options dialog will then be displayed allowing you to modify global settings that will affect the way that data is transferred
to and from SAP.

Portal options are saved in template files. If you are accessing more than one SAP system then you can save separate
template files to represent logon details and other options associated with each system. SAP portal templates may be
created, saved and opened by selecting the New Template, Open Template, Save Template and Save Template As
options on the SAP Options pull-down menu.

SAP Portal General Options


Options displayed in the General tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Language
The SAP language identifier. The language identifier is used to ensure that descriptive text residing in SAP is displayed in
the correct language when downloaded from SAP to the SAP Portal.

AWB time unit


The time unit for data residing in the current AWB project. The SAP portal needs to know how to convert time related
parameters such as intervals when transferring these quantities to and from SAP.

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Plant
The SAP plant identifier. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Maintenance plant
The SAP maintenance plant identifier. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Maintenance planning plant


The SAP maintenance planning plant identifier. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Cause Catalog
The catalog to be used to represent causes when building master data. Typically users will choose '5' to map SAP cause
codes to RCMCost causes or 'B' to map object parts to RCMCost causes or 'C' to map damage codes to RCMCost
causes.

Use custom read function


Indicates that the custom function ZISO_READ_TABLE is to be used to read data from the SAP system. The
ZISO_READ_TABLE function is used as an alternative to the standard RFC_READ_TABLE SAP function. This function
only reads data from SAP and does not upload any data to SAP. For more information on this function see the section
Custom Read Table Function.

Convert floating point delimiters


If you are accessing a remote SAP system that uses a different format for floating point numbers to the format used on
your local machine you may need to request the Portal to convert the delimiters used when uploading data to SAP. If this
option is checked, the Portal will convert commas to dots and dots to commas. For example, if the SAP system requires a
floating point number in the format 543,7 but the number is represented as 543.7 on your local machine in your current
AWB project this option will need to be selected.

Maximum general batch count


The maximum number of rows to be included in each batch download of data from SAP. It is recommended this value is
set to the default of 10000. Data is downloaded in batches to avoid time-outs when downloading large volumes of data.

Maximum cost batch count


The maximum number of maintenance orders to be included in each batch download of cost data from SAP. It is
recommended this value is set to the default of 1000. Data is downloaded in batches to avoid time-outs when
downloading large volumes of data.

Upload pause (secs)


The pause time between separate upload operations to SAP. In some circumstances an individual upload operation will
cause an exception in a SAP function call if a previous function call has locked a record in SAP for modification. If this
problem occurs during upload increase the pause time.

SAP Portal Download Options


Options displayed in the Download Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Objects to download
The objects to download from the SAP system. SAP system data is downloaded into the SAP Portal by selecting the Sap
Download, Download SAP data pull-down menu option.

Use alternative view for location label download


Alternative views are available in most SAP systems to download location label information. These alternative views are
efficient in downloading large numbers of location labels. It is recommended that this setting is checked.

Use moving average price for materials


If this option is selected then the moving average price in the SAP system is used to determine material costs

Use activity types to identify labor


If this option is selected SAP Portal labor objects are created using activity types when downloading data from SAP. If this
option is not selected then SAP qualifications are used.

Include operational costs

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If this flag is checked operational costs (not calculated in older SAP systems) will be downloaded and added to other
maintenance order costs.

Include notifications not attached to maintenance orders


If this flag is checked notifications that are not attached to maintenance orders will be downloaded

Identify corrective notifications using breakdown flag


If this flag is checked the Portal will associate a notification and its associated maintenance order with a corrective action if
the notification breakdown flag is set.

Assign equipment to location only maintenance orders


If this option is selected maintenance orders associated with locations will be downloaded if they are associated with a
single equipment

SAP Portal Download Filters


Options displayed in the two Download Filters tabs of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Only download equipment maintenance orders and notifications


If this flag is checked the Portal will only download maintenance orders and notifications associated with equipments

Disable planning plant filter for general task lists


In some SAP systems the existing general task lists may not be associated with any given planning plant. These task lists
may, however be assigned to maintenance plan items associated with the plant you are analyzing. To download such
general task lists set this option on.

Controlling area
The controlling area to filter downloaded labor categories.

Material valuation area


The valuation area for filtering material costs

Material types
The SAP material type filters to be applied. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type. If all of the 8 material
type values are left blank the Portal will not filter by material type. Ensure that filter type 'IBAU' is set if you wish to
download PM assemblies.

Plan categories
The SAP maintenance plan categories that you wish to filter on when downloading data. Up to 8 category codes may be
specified. If all the plan category code fields are left blank the Portal will not filter on plan categories. Typical codes are PM
for 'Maintenance Order', PN for 'Maintenance Notification' and ME for 'Notification'.

Functional location categories


The SAP functional location categories to be considered when downloading data from SAP. A maximum of 1 character is
permitted for each category. If all of the 16 category values are left blank the Portal will not filter by category.

Equipment categories
The SAP equipment categories to be considered when downloading data from SAP. A maximum of 1 character is
permitted for each category. If all of the 16 category values are left blank the Portal will not filter by category.

Planner group
The SAP planner group to be used to filter notifications. If this value is left blank the Portal will not filter notifications
according to planner group.

Maintenance order categories


The maintenance order categories to be considered for download from SAP. If this value is left blank the Portal will not
filter maintenance orders according to maintenance order categories.

BOM usage
The BOM usage code to be used when identifying BOMs. A maximum of 1 character is permitted.

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Start date for maintenance orders


The earliest creation date of the maintenance orders to be considered when analyzing SAP data. This date is also used to
filter notifications by their 'notification date'.

End date for maintenance orders


The latest creation date of the maintenance orders to be considered when analyzing SAP data. his date is also used to
filter notifications by their 'notification date'.

Cost currency code


The SAP currency code used to filter maintenance order costs when downloading data from SAP. Typical SAP cost
currency codes are USD (US dollars), EUR (Euros), GBP (GB Pounds) and AUD (Australian dollars). If this field is left
blank no filter will be applied to currency codes.

Exclude deleted SAP locations and equipment


If this option is set the Portal will not display locations or equipments with the deletion flag set on. It is recommended that
this option is checked.

Exclude inactive SAP locations and equipment


If this option is set the Portal will not display locations or equipments with the inactive flag set on. It is recommended that
this option is checked.

Exclude deleted SAP plans


If this option is selected deleted plans will not be shown in the Download Master Data to AWB tab of the Portal.

Exclude inactive SAP plans


If this option is selected inactive plans will not be shown in the Download Master Data to AWB tab of the Portal.

SAP Advanced Filters


The Advanced Filters tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog allows users to set special filters when downloading data
from SAP. This will normally only be necessary if the standard filter options need to be extended to reduce the amount of
data being downloaded in a single download session. An example would be where hundreds of thousands of locations are
defined as belonging to the same maintenance plant and an additional filter is required on the location names.

Filter conditions are defined by explicitly identifying SAP table fields together with a filter operation and a filter value. Up to
8 such filter conditions may be specified. Multiple filter conditions are grouped together using AND logic. For example the
3 filter conditions

Field Operation Filter Value


TPLNR like K%
TPLNR is not like K1%
RBNR equals VALVE

result in the following SQL WHERE clause to be added when downloading data from the locations table:

WHERE TPLNR LIKE 'K%' AND TPLNR NOT LIKE 'K1%' AND RBNR = 'VALVE'

Where clauses are applied to all tables that contain the specified fields.

SAP Portal Analytics Options


Options displayed in the Analytics tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Default to start of malfunction date for TTF calculations


If this option is checked the Portal will use the notification start of malfunction date for TTF calculations by default rather
than the maintenance order start date date, order creation data or notification date. The user may override this option for
individual maintenance orders using the Date used for calculations column of the maintenance order grid control.

Corrective activity types


The SAP activity types that will be used to identify corrective activityies. Up to eight types may be specified. A maximum of
4 characters is permitted for each type.

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PM activity types
The SAP activity types that will be used to identify PM activities. Up to eight types may be specified. A maximum of 4
characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection activity types


The SAP activity types that will be used to identify inspection activities. Up to eight types may be specified. A maximum of
4 characters is permitted for each type.

Corrective maintenance order types


The SAP maintenance order types that will be used to identify corrective maintenance orders. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

PM maintenance order types


The SAP maintenance order types that will be used to identify PM maintenance orders. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection maintenance order types


The SAP maintenance order types that will be used to identify inspection maintenance orders. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted for each type.

Corrective notification types


The SAP notification types that will be used to identify corrective notifications. Up to eight types may be specified. A
maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

PM notification types
The SAP notification types that will be used to identify PM notifications. Up to eight types may be specified. A maximum of
2 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection notification types


The SAP notification types that will be used to identify inspection notifications. Up to eight types may be specified. A
maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Effect ranking order


The order (Ascending or Descending) in which effects are organized in SAP. Ascending indicates that the severity of the
effect increases as we progress down the list. Descending indicates that severity of the effect decreases as we progress
down the list. The SAP Portal uses the effect rank order when determining the worst effect for functional locations and
equipments.

SAP Portal Upload Options


Options displayed in the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Labeling system
The SAP labeling system to be assigned to a functional location when uploading to SAP. A maximum of 1 character is
permitted.

Structure indicator
The SAP structure indicator to be assigned to a functional location when uploading to SAP. A maximum of 1 character is
permitted.

Customizing request code


The customizing request code required when creating catalog profiles and code groups in SAP. In many SAP systems this
code may be left blank.

SAP duration unit


The SAP time unit to be specified for task durations in the SAP system. A maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

SAP interval unit


The SAP time unit to be specified for task intervals in the SAP system. A maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

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Minimum duration and increment


When tasks are built in the SAP Portal (using the Sap Build, Build SAP Maintenance Plans menu option) the program
will re-align task durations according to the Minimum duration & increment settings.

Operation grouping
This setting determines how task lists and operations will be built.

If the Group all tasks in a single operation option is selected, individual AWB tasks will be grouped into a single SAP
operation for each maintenance item.

If the Single operation for each task option is selected a separate operation will be created for each AWB task.

If the Group tasks by labor category option is selected a separate operation will be created for each labor category. If
multiple item plans have been requested, each labor category will be assigned to a separate maintenance item.

If the Assign operations manually option is selected operations are not created automatically when building task lists in
the SAP Portal. They may be added manually in the Task List Properties dialog

Attach PRT document to operations


If this option is selected a PRT document will be attached to operations when building task lists. PRT documents
reference work instructions automatically created when building plans and the associated operations.

Create document object links


If this option is selected newly created PRT documents will be assigned the appropriate functional location and equipment
object links.

Create document object links from document side


Document object links may be created from the functional location and equipment side within SAP or from the document
side. As some SAP systems impose restrictions on how object links are created, this option allows Portal users to access
alternative object link creation options.

Create multiple item plans


If this option is selected, the Portal will create a new maintenance item for each equipment, or for each labor category,
when building a new plan. Items will be split by labor category only if the Group tasks by labor category option is selected.

Create maintenance item object list


If this option is selected the maintenance item object list will be populated with the appropriate functional location and
equipment references when building a plan.

Internal numbering for SAP maintenance plans


If this option is selected the AWB portal will allow the SAP system to automatically assign maintenance plan numbers as a
new plan is uploaded to SAP rather than use the SAP Portal plan ID If maintenance plan numbers are automatically
assigned in this way, users can then choose to assign these SAP-generated numbers to the AWB task groups by
selecting the RCM Build, Synchronize IDs for Linked Task Groups and Plans pull-down menu option.

Always default to general task list for new plans


If this option is selected the task lists associated with each item of a maintenance plan will default to the 'general' type
rather than 'functional location' or 'equipment' types. Task list types may also be set locally in the Maintenance Plan
Properties dialog before upload to SAP.

Increment task list counter for modified plans


If this option is checked the SAP Portal will create new task lists for modified plans by setting the group counter to null.
This has the effect of creating a new task list in the group on upload to SAP.

Default to internal numbering for general task list


If this option is selected the AWB portal will default to the SAP internal numbering scheme when creating new general
task lists. If this option is not set then the Portal will use the ID associated with the task group.

Calculate operation work in SAP


If this option is selected then the uploaded operation work will be calculated directly in SAP rather than AWB

Folder for work instructions

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The folder in which work instruction documents will be generated.

Work instruction template file


The full path of the work instruction template file. Work instruction files will be created if PRT documents are attached to
operations.

Report template file


The full path of the maintenance plan report template file. Maintenance plan report files may be created from the
Maintenance Plan dialog (for individual plans) or by selecting the SAP Build, Write Maintenance Plan Report pull-down
menu option.

SAP Portal Upload Defaults


Options displayed in the two Upload Defaults tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

Spare material type


The default spare material type to use when building SAP materials

Main work center


The default SAP work center ID for maintenance items. Users may override the default by typing a different ID into the
Main work center field in the Item tab of the Maintenance Plan dialog. A maximum of 8 characters is permitted.

Operation work center


The default SAP work center ID for maintenance operations. Users may override the default by typing a different ID into
the Work Ctr field in the Operations tab of the Maintenance Plan dialog. If this option is left blank the default work center
for the item will be used. A maximum of 8 characters is permitted.

Operation activity type


The default SAP operation activity type. Operation activity types will often be automatically set by SAP based on the work
center. Where SAP sets this field automatically the user should leave this field blank.

Document application
The SAP document application type to be used when building SAP documents. The default is DOC.

Task list document type


The SAP document type to be created for work instructions. The default is technical document TP1. A maximum of 3
characters is permitted.

Task list status


The status key for the SAP task list. A maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

Task list usage


The task list usage value to be used for task list operations

Planner group
The default SAP planner group for each plan. Users may override the default by typing a different group ID into the
Planner Group field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

Control key
The SAP control key for each maintenance plan. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Activity type for PM


The default SAP activity type for each planned maintenance. Users may override the default by typing a different ID into
the Activity Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

Activity type for inspections


The default SAP activity type for each inspection plan. Users may override the default by typing a different ID into the
Activity Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 3 characters is permitted.

Order type for PM

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The default SAP order type for each planned maintenance. Users may override the default by typing a different ID into the
Order Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Order type for inspections


The default SAP order type for each inspection plan. Users may override the default by typing a different ID into the Order
Type field of the Maintenance Plan Properties dialog. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Strategy
The default strategy ID to be used when creating new strategy plans in SAP.

Functional location category


The default SAP functional location category to be used when building new functional locations. A maximum of 1
character is permitted.

Equipment category
The default SAP equipment category to be used when building new equipments. A maximum of 1 character is permitted.

Plan category
The SAP maintenance plan category to use when building new plans. By default, the maintenance plan category is set to
PM.

System condition
The default system condition to be used when building a new maintenance plan item.

Call horizon (%)


The default call horizon percentage to be associated with new maintenance plans

Scheduling period and unit


The default scheduling period and SAP unit to be used when building maintenance plans.

Key date
The key date to be used when building maintenance plans and their associated task lists

Sort field
The default sort field to be used when building maintenance plans

Business area
The SAP business area. This value is used when building functional locations, equipments and maintenance plans in the
SAP portal. A maximum of 4 characters is permitted.

Authorization group
The SAP authorization group to be used when building locations and equipments.

Cost center
The SAP cost center to be used when building locations and equipments

Priority
The default priority to be used when building a new maintenance plan item.

SAP Portal Connection Options


Options displayed in the SAP Connection tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog are described below.

For users connecting via the SAP connector for Microsoft .NET the options allow users to log on with a user ID and
password or using single sign on. Load balancing may also be optionally specified.

For users connecting via SAP NetWeaver Web Services the options allow specification of the service address, user ID
and password.

Application server

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The SAP application server.

SAProuter string
The SAProuter string.

System number
The SAP system number.

Client
The SAP client number.

User
The default user name for SAP log on.

Load balancing
This flag indicates that load balancing is to be employed.

System ID
The system ID for load balancing.

Message server
The message server for load balancing

Group
The group name for load balancing.

Language
The language key (e.g. EN for English)

Use SAP NetWeaver Web Service


Select this check-box if you wish to connect to SAP via web services.

Read service address


The address of the ZISO_RFC_READ_TABLE web service. Typical URL to discover web service endpoints from your
browser is of the form http://sapserver.domain.com:8000/sap/bc/srt/wsil?sap-client=800

Transaction service address


The address of the ZISO_CALL_TRANSACTION_USING web service. This web service is only required when uploading
data into SAP. Typical URL to discover web service endpoints from your browser is of the form
http://sapserver.domain.com:8000/sap/bc/srt/wsil?sap-client=800

Single sign on
This flag indicates that connection should be made to SAP using single sign on.

Quality of protection
The quality of protection level for SAP single sign on.

SNC name
The SNC name for single sign on

External security library


The path to the external security dll to be used for single sign on.

Downloading Data from SAP


You can download data from SAP into the Portal by selecting the SAP Download, Download SAP Data pull-down menu
option. The SAP Portal Options dialog will be displayed allowing you to select the SAP object types for download and
modify any of the download options or filters. On selecting the OK button the SAP Logon dialog will appear (unless you
have already connected to SAP). After entering your logon credentials, and selecting the OK button, the Portal will

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download data from SAP.

You can abort the download process at any time by selecting the SAP Download, Abort Download pull-down menu
option.

Once data has been downloaded you will be asked whether you wish to view data in the message log. The message log
contains a record of the download process and any errors that may have occurred during the download process.

Downloaded data is now part of your current project and will be retained when you save your project.
Building Data in RCMCost
Building Master Data
You can build RCM master data in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost Master Data pull-
down menu option. Only objects that are checked in the SAP Portal tree control and dependent objects will be converted
to their equivalent RCMCost representations. SAP Portal master data objects that may be converted in this way are
technical objects, effects, ABC indicators (mapped as criticality rankings), labor, material groups, materials (mapped as
spares) and BOMs.

Building RCMCost Causes


You can build RCM causes in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost Causes pull-down
menu option. Only technical objects that are checked in the SAP Portal tree control will have their causes created in the
RCMCost module. The technical objects must already exist in the RCMCost module. The SAP Portal creates RCMCost
causes by identifying the catalog profiles attached to technical objects. Causes are then assigned to represent the code
groups associated with the catalog profile. Only code groups associated with the Cause catalog setting in the SAP
Options dialog (General tab) will be assigned.

You may also build RCM causes in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost Causes using
Forms pull-down menu option. This option allows the user to select individual causes from a list rather than have all
associated causes automatically assigned to technical objects in the RCMCost module.

Building RCMCost Tasks


You can build RCM task groups and tasks in the RCMCost module by selecting the RCM Build, Build RCMCost Tasks
pull-down menu option. Only maintenance plans that are checked in the SAP Portal tree control will have their tasks
created in the RCMCost module.

Calculating Times To Failure


Before performing a time to failure (TTF) calculation ensure that you have maintenance orders displayed in the grid
control. You must also filter the maintenance orders that you wish to be analyzed to produce the Weibull set. This may be
done using the standard Filter by Tree Selection function and setting the standard grid control filter settings. For example
you might select a technical object type in the tree control to filter all orders associated with that technical object, followed
by setting a filter on the 'Object parts' field. Maintenance orders that were the result of a failure that require replacement of
a part should be identified as a Failure in the category field of the grid control. Maintenance orders that resulted in
replacement of a part without a failure having taken place (normally a PM activity) should be identified as a Replacement.
All other work orders (such as inspections that resulted in no change to the condition of a part) should have the category
column set to Exclude. You should also set the Date used for calculations field.

Note that during the download process from your SAP system the Portal automatically joins notification data to the
appropriate maintenance orders. It will also download notifications that are not associated with a maintenance order as a
'pseudo maintenance order' entry in the Portal maintenance order table (so long as the Include notifications not
attached to work orders option is selected in the Download Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog).

Select the RCM Build, Calculate TTFs pull-down menu option to prompt the Portal to calculate times to failure for the
displayed work orders. The Portal calculates time to failures using the following steps:

The work orders associated with an equipment are ordered chronologically.


The time to failure associated with the first work order is determined by finding the difference between the work
order date and the equipment installation date.
Subsequent times to failure are determined by finding the difference between consecutive work orders for an
equipment
Times to failures that are associated with a replacement category are identified as suspensions.

Maintenance orders and notifications associated with a functional location in SAP, rather than an equipment, may be
identified with an equipment by the Portal if the functional location has a single equipment below it. To activate this
function select the Assign equipment to location only maintenance orders option in the SAP Portal Options dialog
(Download Options tab).

Note that if the Portal cannot determine a realistic TTF value for the work order (because consecutive work orders have

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the same date, for example) then the TTF calculated column of the grid control will be left un-checked and the TTF will
not be included in any subsequent Weibull set creation.

Building SAP Data


Building SAP Master Data
The SAP Portal may be used to create SAP master data objects (technical objects, BOMs, material, ABC indicators,
effects and catalog profiles) by selecting the SAP Build, Build SAP Master Data pull-down menu option.

Building SAP Maintenance Plans


The SAP Portal converts task groups to single-cycle or strategy maintenance plans in the SAP Portal on selection of the
SAP Build, Build SAP maintenance plans pull-down menu option. Task groups that have their interval (cycle) assigned
to all the associated tasks (task groups with the Assign interval to associated tasks property set to true) will create single-
cycle plans in the SAP Portal. Task groups that have tasks with varying intervals (cycles) create strategy plans. Note that
the maintenance strategy should already exist in the SAP Portal so that the correct packages can be assigned.

Users may choose to create single item or multiple item plans using the Create multiple item plans on upload option in
the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog. Each task group is uploaded to a single maintenance plan.
Uploaded maintenance items are associated with a single task list. Users may choose whether they wish to associate a
single operation to the task list or whether multiple operations should be associated with the task list. This is done by
choosing the appropriate Operation Grouping setting in the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog. If
the Group all tasks in a single operation option is selected, the Portal will group all the tasks associated with a
maintenance item into a single operation. If the Single operation for each task option is selected the Portal will create an
operation for each task. If the Group tasks by labor category option is selected each operation will contain all the tasks
associated with a particular labor category. If this option is used in conjunction with multiple item plans each item will
represent a different labor category. If the Assign operations manually option is selected operations must be added
manually by the user in the SAP Portal once the plan has been created.

Building a new maintenance plan in the SAP Portal typically consists of the following operations:

Optionally create a technical document for each operation


Optionally create a work instruction document in Microsoft Word format for each technical document
Create a task list for each maintenance item with the appropriate operations
Assign the appropriate technical document as a PRT to each operation
Create the plan and associated maintenance items
Attach the appropriate task list to each item

SAP maintenance plans are automatically assigned names identical to the original task group ID. General task lists are
also given the same group name as the task group ID by default when built in the SAP Portal for the first time. Equipment
and functional location task lists have their group names set to null in the portal (they will be allocated when uploaded to
SAP).

See Also
Work Instruction Document Formats

Uploading Data to SAP


Uploading Master Data
The SAP Portal allows users to upload selected master data into SAP. Users may upload technical objects (functional
locations and equipment), catalog profiles, code groups, ABC indicators and effects.

Before uploading data to SAP you should check the elements you wish to upload in the project tree control. Checking a
high level tree node will also check the tree nodes connected beneath it. To upload data select the SAP Upload, Upload
Master Data pull-down menu option. During data upload information and error messages will be displayed in message
strip at the bottom of the main window. A message log will be displayed when the upload is complete.

Alternatively you can upload individual items using the Upload button in the appropriate Properties dialog.

Uploading Maintenance Plans


Selection of the SAP Upload, Upload Maintenance Plans pull-down menu option prompts the Portal to upload plans to

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SAP. Before uploading data to SAP you should check the maintenance plans you wish to upload in the project tree
control.. The Maintenance Plan Properties dialog will also allow you to create new plans individually using the Upload
Plan button. If the plan already exists in SAP the dialog will allow you to activate or deactivate a plan and set or remove
deletion flags for that plan.

Note that SAP requires single-cycle plan intervals to be multiples of 24 hour periods. The Portal will adjust RCMCost
intervals to comply with this requirement when building plans in the Portal.

The Maintenance Plan Properties dialog contains a Create Report button. Selecting this button will produce a Word
document containing data associated with the SAP plan and associated task group.

Maintenance plan reports are particularly useful if you wish to upload or modify SAP plans using the SAP GUI rather than
the AWB SAP Portal. You may also produce a report for all the plans in a single Word document by selecting the SAP
Build, Write Maintenance Plan Report pull-down menu option.
During data upload information and error messages will be displayed in the message area at the bottom of the main
window. A full message log will be displayed on completion of the upload process.

Analyzing Performance Data


The SAP Portal enables users to analyze performance data originating from maintenance orders that have been
downloaded into the SAP Portal from your SAP system. Performance data may be displayed in the plot and grid control
windows. Performance data consists of costs, activity durations and the number of maintenance actions performed. You
may view performance data for different types of SAP Portal objects. For example you can view the maintenance costs
associated with locations and equipments, technical object types and classes.

Performance data allow users to identify critical areas of a system where maintenance optimisation will potentially provide
the most benefit. The Performance plot is interactive allowing you to select bars in the plot area to drill down the hierarchy
and reveal associated data in the grid control.

Downloading Criticality Rankings to AWB


Performance data may also be used to assign criticality rankings to equipments in the RCMCost module. This is
particularly useful when first populating RCMCost with functional location and equipment data originating from SAP as
criticality rankings may be used to prioritize equipments for RCM analysis. If ABC indicators have already been assigned
to equipments and function locations in SAP then these rankings may be assigned to equipments in an AWB project by
selecting the RCM Build, Set RCMCost Criticality Rankings using Direct Assignment pull-down menu option.
However, if these rankings have not been assigned in SAP, the RCM Build, Set Criticality Rankings using ERP
Assignment Criteria pull-down menu option will automatically assign criticality rankings in the RCMCost module.
Rankings are assigned according to settings in the Criticality Rankings dialog in the RCMCost module of AWB. To
access this dialog select the Edit, Criticality Rankings pull-down menu option in the RCMCost module.

SAP Portal Object Properties


As in the other modules of Availability Workbench the properties of the SAP Portal data objects may be viewed and
modified using dialogs or the grid control. These data objects will normally have been downloaded from a SAP system or
automatically built from RCMCost data ready for upload to a SAP system. In some circumstances users may wish to
create SAP Portal objects manually within the SAP Portal module. Typical SAP Portal objects are functional locations,
equipments, work centers, maintenance plans, works orders etc.

Portal Object IDs


As in the other modules of Availability Workbench each object must be identified by a unique ID. For most of the SAP
Portal objects this ID will match the ID of objects dowloaded from SAP. However. some objects downloaded from SAP can
only be uniquely identified by a combination of SAP fields. An example would be a Task List that is identified by its type,
group and group counter. Therefore a task list in SAP with type A, group number 1 and group counter 3 would be
identified with the ID A-1-3 when downloaded into the SAP Portal. For such objects the Portal provides separate fields in
addition to the unique ID to allow flexibility in naming objects when uploading back into SAP. Therefore a Task List in the
SAP Portal will have an ID field and also type, group and group counter fields. A user could therefore modify the group
counter field (e.g. set it to blank) so that when the modified task list is uploaded back into SAP a new task list will be
created with an automatically assigned group counter.

Modifying Properties
Many of the properties of SAP Portal objects will not normally be modified by the user. They will have been downloaded
from SAP and play an important role in the analyzing of SAP data. For example classes and technical object types may be
used to group work orders for processing into Weibull sets that will be used in RCMCost for maintenance optimisation.
Some fields may be modified, however, if you are uploading data back into SAP. For example, you may wish to set a work
center or modify task list operation descriptions.

Library Comparisons
The SAP Maintenance Plan Properties and Task List Properties forms allow you to compare the properties of
matching plans and task lists in an attached library. This is useful if you have want to compare modified plans and task

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lists with data currently existing in a SAP system. The library must represent data directly downloaded from the SAP
system and the current project should represent SAP Portal data modified through the maintenance optimisation process
prior to upload to SAP. Fields are either color-coded or displayed for both the library and project data.

The SAP Portal will disable some of the fields in dialogs where there is no appropriate upload function to SAP.

SAP Portal Work Instruction Document Formats


The SAP Portal automatically produces a Microsoft Word document for each maintenance operation uploaded to SAP.
The layout of each document is determined from a Word template file. The locations of the template and generated files
are specified in the Upload Options tab of the SAP Portal Options dialog. An example template file is provided in the
Import and Export Templates directory of the AWB installation. The file is named WorkInstructionTemplate.doc.

During work instruction document generation, the SAP portal inserts tables into a copy of the template file and populates
these tables with task and resource data associated with the appropriate maintenance plan (task group). These tables are
at the beginning of the file.

SAP Portal Custom Read Table Function


In some SAP implementations the standard SAP function RFC_READ_TABLE (used to download data from SAP using
remote function calls) is restricted by buffer sizes and other limitations that will prevent the successful download of data.
For this reason an alternative function is provided. This function must be named ZISO_READ_TABLE. A copy of the
source code for this function is provided below.

To create this new function in your SAP system use the SAP GUI to copy the existing RFC_READ_TABLE function to a
new function named ZISO_READ_TABLE. This may be done using transaction SE37. Then copy the new source code
from below. The function should be identified as a Remote-enabled module in the Attributes tab for the function. Finally
save and activate the new function.

After creating the new function ensure that the Use custom read function option is checked in the General tab of the
SAP Portal Options dialog.

ZISO_READ_TABLE
FUNCTION ZISO_READ_TABLE.
*"--------------------------------------------------------------------
*"*"Local interface:
*" IMPORTING
*" VALUE(QUERY_TABLE) LIKE DD02L-TABNAME
*" VALUE(DELIMITER) LIKE SONV-FLAG DEFAULT SPACE
*" VALUE(NO_DATA) LIKE SONV-FLAG DEFAULT SPACE
*" VALUE(ROWSKIPS) LIKE SOID-ACCNT DEFAULT 0
*" VALUE(ROWCOUNT) LIKE SOID-ACCNT DEFAULT 0
*" TABLES
*" OPTIONS STRUCTURE RFC_DB_OPT
*" FIELDS STRUCTURE RFC_DB_FLD
*" DATA STRUCTURE TAB512
*" EXCEPTIONS
*" TABLE_NOT_AVAILABLE
*" TABLE_WITHOUT_DATA
*" OPTION_NOT_VALID
*" FIELD_NOT_VALID
*" NOT_AUTHORIZED
*" DATA_BUFFER_EXCEEDED
*"--------------------------------------------------------------------
"
CALL FUNCTION 'VIEW_AUTHORITY_CHECK'
EXPORTING
VIEW_ACTION = 'S'
VIEW_NAME = QUERY_TABLE
EXCEPTIONS
NO_AUTHORITY =2
NO_CLIENTINDEPENDENT_AUTHORITY = 2
NO_LINEDEPENDENT_AUTHORITY = 2
OTHERS = 1.
IF SY-SUBRC = 2.
RAISE NOT_AUTHORIZED.
ELSEIF SY-SUBRC = 1.
RAISE TABLE_NOT_AVAILABLE.
ENDIF.

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* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* find out about the structure of QUERY_TABLE
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA BEGIN OF TABLE_STRUCTURE OCCURS 10.
INCLUDE STRUCTURE DFIES.
DATA END OF TABLE_STRUCTURE.
"DATA TABLE_HEADER LIKE X030L.
DATA TABLE_TYPE TYPE DD02V-TABCLASS.
CALL FUNCTION 'DDIF_FIELDINFO_GET'
EXPORTING
TABNAME = QUERY_TABLE
* FIELDNAME =''
* LANGU = SY-LANGU
* LFIELDNAME =''
* ALL_TYPES =''
* GROUP_NAMES =''
IMPORTING
* X030L_WA =
DDOBJTYPE = TABLE_TYPE
* DFIES_WA =
* LINES_DESCR =
TABLES
DFIES_TAB = TABLE_STRUCTURE
* FIXED_VALUES =
EXCEPTIONS
NOT_FOUND =1
INTERNAL_ERROR =2
OTHERS =3
.
IF SY-SUBRC <> 0.
RAISE TABLE_NOT_AVAILABLE.
ENDIF.
IF TABLE_TYPE = 'INTTAB'.
RAISE TABLE_WITHOUT_DATA.
ENDIF.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* isolate first field of DATA as output field
* (i.e. allow for changes to structure DATA!)
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA LINE_LENGTH TYPE I.
FIELD-SYMBOLS <D>.
ASSIGN COMPONENT 0 OF STRUCTURE DATA TO <D>.
DESCRIBE FIELD <D> LENGTH LINE_LENGTH in character mode.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* if FIELDS are not specified, read all available fields
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA NUMBER_OF_FIELDS TYPE I.
DESCRIBE TABLE FIELDS LINES NUMBER_OF_FIELDS.
IF NUMBER_OF_FIELDS = 0.
LOOP AT TABLE_STRUCTURE.
MOVE TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDNAME TO FIELDS-FIELDNAME.
APPEND FIELDS.
ENDLOOP.
ENDIF.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* for each field which has to be read, copy structure information
* into tables FIELDS_INT (internal use) and FIELDS (output)
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
DATA: BEGIN OF FIELDS_INT OCCURS 10,
FIELDNAME LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDNAME,
TYPE LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTTYPE,
DECIMALS LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-DECIMALS,
LENGTH_SRC LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTLEN,
LENGTH_DST LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-LENG,
OFFSET_SRC LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-OFFSET,
OFFSET_DST LIKE TABLE_STRUCTURE-OFFSET,
END OF FIELDS_INT,
LINE_CURSOR TYPE I.
LINE_CURSOR = 0.
* for each field which has to be read ...
LOOP AT FIELDS.
READ TABLE TABLE_STRUCTURE WITH KEY FIELDNAME = FIELDS-FIELDNAME.

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IF SY-SUBRC NE 0.
RAISE FIELD_NOT_VALID.
ENDIF.
* compute the place for field contents in DATA rows:
* if not first field in row, allow space for delimiter
IF LINE_CURSOR <> 0.
IF NO_DATA EQ SPACE AND DELIMITER NE SPACE.
MOVE DELIMITER TO DATA+LINE_CURSOR.
ENDIF.
LINE_CURSOR = LINE_CURSOR + STRLEN( DELIMITER ).
ENDIF.
* ... copy structure information into tables FIELDS_INT
* (which is used internally during SELECT) ...
FIELDS_INT-FIELDNAME = TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDNAME.
FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_SRC = TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTLEN.
FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_DST = TABLE_STRUCTURE-LENG.
FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_SRC = TABLE_STRUCTURE-OFFSET.
FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_DST = LINE_CURSOR.
FIELDS_INT-TYPE = TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTTYPE.
FIELDS_INT-DECIMALS = TABLE_STRUCTURE-DECIMALS.
* compute the place for contents of next field in DATA rows
LINE_CURSOR = LINE_CURSOR + TABLE_STRUCTURE-LENG.
IF LINE_CURSOR > LINE_LENGTH AND NO_DATA EQ SPACE.
RAISE DATA_BUFFER_EXCEEDED.
ENDIF.
APPEND FIELDS_INT.
* ... and into table FIELDS (which is output to the caller)
FIELDS-FIELDTEXT = TABLE_STRUCTURE-FIELDTEXT.
FIELDS-TYPE = TABLE_STRUCTURE-INTTYPE.
FIELDS-LENGTH = FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_DST.
FIELDS-OFFSET = FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_DST.
MODIFY FIELDS.
ENDLOOP.
* end of loop at FIELDS
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* read data from the database and copy relevant portions into DATA
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------
* output data only if NO_DATA equals space (otherwise the structure
* information in FIELDS is the only result of the module)
IF NO_DATA EQ SPACE.
*DATA: BEGIN OF WORK, BUFFER(30000), END OF WORK.
*MODIFICATION FROM STANDARD FUNCTION
DATA: BEGIN OF WORK, BUFFER(30000), F TYPE F, END OF WORK.
FIELD-SYMBOLS: <WA> TYPE ANY, <COMP> TYPE ANY.
ASSIGN WORK TO <WA> CASTING TYPE (QUERY_TABLE).
IF ROWCOUNT > 0.
ROWCOUNT = ROWCOUNT + ROWSKIPS.
ENDIF.
SELECT * FROM (QUERY_TABLE) INTO <WA> WHERE (OPTIONS).
IF SY-DBCNT GT ROWSKIPS.
* copy all relevant fields into DATA (output) table
LOOP AT FIELDS_INT.
IF FIELDS_INT-TYPE = 'P'.
ASSIGN COMPONENT FIELDS_INT-FIELDNAME
OF STRUCTURE <WA> TO <COMP>
TYPE FIELDS_INT-TYPE
DECIMALS FIELDS_INT-DECIMALS.
ELSE.
ASSIGN COMPONENT FIELDS_INT-FIELDNAME
OF STRUCTURE <WA> TO <COMP>
TYPE FIELDS_INT-TYPE.
ENDIF.
MOVE <COMP> TO
<D>+FIELDS_INT-OFFSET_DST(FIELDS_INT-LENGTH_DST).
ENDLOOP.
* end of loop at FIELDS_INT
APPEND DATA.
IF ROWCOUNT > 0 AND SY-DBCNT GE ROWCOUNT. EXIT. ENDIF.
ENDIF.
ENDSELECT.
ENDIF.
ENDFUNCTION.

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Sap Download Utility


The Download Utility is accessed by selecting the Sap Download, Download Utility pull-down menu option.

The Download Utility dialog will be displayed allowing you to specify a Sap table or view, the fields you wish to download
and an optional where clause. For example specifying the table IFLO and the fields TPLNR and PLTXT will allow you to
download functional location names and descriptions. You might also specify an optional where clause such as SPRAS
LIKE 'E' to only download rows relating to the English language. Note that you should not include the word WHERE as
this is automatically added to the where clause specified by the user. If you wish to download all the fields in a table then
you may select the All fields check box. This may result in an exception if there are many fields in the Sap table you have
specified. In such cases you will need to specify the fields explicitly.

The Download Utility dialog allows the user to limit the number of rows downloaded from the database and listed in the
dialog by setting the Maximum download rows and Maximum list rows values respectively.

Data is downloaded when the Download Data button is selected. After data download is complete you may export the
data to a comma delimited file by selecting the Export Results to File button.
Connecting to SAP using Web Services
If you wish to connect to SAP using Web Services you must first create two services.within the SAP system. One web
service needs to be set up for the SAP function RFC_READ_TABLE (for downloading data into AWB) and another for the
SAP function RFC_CALL_TRANSACTION_USING. These services may be created using the SAP GUI.

Use transaction SE37 to access each SAP Function in turn. After displaying the appropriate function select the Utilities,
More Utilities, Create Web Service, From the Function Module pull-down menu option. Enter a service definition of
ZISO_RFC_READ_TABLE or ZISO_CALL_TRANSACTION_USING depending on which service you are creating. Use
the default settings in the subsequent dialogs but check the Release Service for Runtime option.

Once the web services have been created they may be viewed using the WSADMIN transaction code. If you select the
ZISO_RFC_READ_TABLE service and then select the Web Service, WSDL pull-down menu option, the SAP GUI will
display the WSDL for that web service using the web service address. This address may be copied into the Service
address field of the SAP Portal Options Dialog (Connection tab).

Alternatively discover the web service endpoint using


SAP Portal Performance Plots
Performance plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the
right-hand window. Then select the Performance option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Performance plots display data originating from the maintenance orders and notifications downloaded from SAP.

Plot type
The type of performance plot. Options are:

Cost
Activity count
Task duration

The Cost plot type is based on maintenance costs calculated by the SAP system. The Activity count plot type is based
on the number of maintenance activities performed. The Task duration plot type is based on the duration of maintenance
activities.

Object type
The object type for which performance data is to be displayed. The SAP Portal processes performance data originating
from maintenance orders and assigns this data to dependent object types.

Show grid
If this option is selected the background grid will be displayed in the plot area.

Maximum no. of bars


The maximum number of plot bars to be displayed.

Use descriptions for labels

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If this option is checked descriptions will be used for labels rather than IDs.

SAP Portal Profile Plots


Profile plots may be displayed by selecting the Plot option of the Current right window mode menu above the right-hand
window. Then select the Profile option on the Plot type selector menu above the right-hand window.

Profile plots display performance data over a time range based on the dates associated with maintenance orders and
notifications.

Plot type
The type of profile plot. Options are:

Cost
Activity count
Task duration

The Cost plot type is based on maintenance costs calculated by the SAP system. The Activity count plot type is based
on the number of maintenance activities performed. The Task duration plot type is based on the duration of maintenance
activities.

Interval
The interval at which to display profile data.

Automatic
If this option is checked the time range will be based on the dates of all the maintenance orders in the current project.

Start date
The start date for which to display data

End date
The end date for which to display data

SAP Portal Message Log


The SAP Portal message log displays messages from batch upload, download and build functions. The log may be
displayed after a download of data from SAP is completed or by selecting the SAP Options, Message Log pull-down
menu option.

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The MAXIMO Portal - Overview


The MAXIMO Portal allows users to connect directly to their MAXIMO system from within Availability Workbench (AWB).
Historical maintenance data may be downloaded from MAXIMO into AWB, analyzed, and then uploaded back into
MAXIMO in the form of PMs and the associated job plans,. If MAXIMO has not yet been configured for plant maintenance,
the portal may also be used to upload a functional location hierarchy with installed assets and failure classes from the
RCMCost module of AWB. Alternatively, an existing MAXIMO functional location and asset hierarchy may be downloaded
to populate a new AWB project together with failure classes, spare parts, tools, labor resources, PMs and the associated
job plans.

The MAXIMO Portal functions may be summarized as:

Uploading master data to MAXIMO


Downloading master data to AWB
Uploading PMs to MAXIMO
Analyzing maintenance data for use in AWB

Requirements
Before using the AWB MAXIMO Portal you will need to install the integration objects that allow AWB to upload and
download data using web services. Further information is provided in the sections Maximo 6.2 - Importing Integration
Objects and Interfaces (for Maximo V6.2) or Maximo 7.0 - Importing Object Structures (for Maximo V7.0).

MAXIMO Logon
Before entering the MAXIMO Portal ensure that the AWB project you wish to download data to, or upload data from, is
already open. Then select the File, ERP Portal, MAXIMO Portal pull-down menu option. You will then be presented with
the MAXIMO Logon dialog. If you have previously entered logon details for your MAXIMO system, and saved these
details to a MAXIMO Portal template file, these details will already be entered (except for the password). Enter the
password and select the Log on button to connect to MAXIMO.

Refreshing Data and Saving Data Images


All download operations require the Portal to obtain an image of all relevant MAXIMO data before the operation can take
place. It is also recommended that users obtain an image of the MAXIMO data before performing an upload operation.
This allows the Portal to determine which elements of the current AWB project already exist in MAXIMO. Download
operations need to be able to display the MAXIMO data to the user for selection before the actual download takes place.
Users must therefore select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button to obtain
an image of the relevant MAXIMO data. Selection of this option will extract all data that matches the filter options specified
in the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog.

Typically the data extraction operation may take a few minutes and so the Portal provides a facility to save an image of
this data once it has been obtained. This is useful if you intend to re-enter the portal frequently for downloading data and
the MAXIMO database is not likely to have changed since the last refresh operation. Images may be saved to a file using
the Connection, Save MAXIMO Data Image pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. They may later be
retrieved using the Connection, Open MAXIMO Data Image pull-down menu option. If you are using the portal to upload
information to MAXIMO you should refresh the MAXIMO image between separate upload operations unless the
operations are unrelated.

MAXIMO is a registered trademark of IBM.

Uploading Master Data to MAXIMO


The Upload Master Data to MAXIMO tab of the MAXIMO Portal enables users to view functional location and asset data
originating from the RCMCost module of AWB and upload all or part of that data to MAXIMO. Failure classes may also be
uploaded to MAXIMO.

Displaying AWB Master Data


Before uploading master data to MAXIMO you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button to populate the left-hand tree control with the functional location and asset hierarchy originating
from the current AWB project (RCMCost module). Alternatively, select the Connection, Open MAXIMO Data Image pull-
down menu option to open a previously saved data image.

If you wish to distinguish assets from functional locations in the AWB location hierarchy you must assign an equipment
type to each root location in your AWB project before entering the Portal. If an equipment type is assigned to a location in
AWB the location ID will be used as the asset ID in MAXIMO. Users must ensure that MAXIMO naming conventions for
functional locations and assets are adhered to.

MAXIMO failure classes, codes and causes are determined by grouping causes belonging to the same equipment types
and functional failure categories in the current AWB project. Failure classes will be attached to the appropriate assets.

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Before populating the tree control the Portal will check to see if the locations, assets and failure classes originating from
the AWB RCMCost module already exist in MAXIMO. The Portal will color code data items that already exist in MAXIMO
in the tree control.

Once data is displayed in the tree control, nodes may be expanded or collapsed using the + and - icons to the left of
each node, or by selecting a node and using the View, Expand Tree or View, Collapse Tree pull-down menu options.

Uploading Master Data to MAXIMO


Before uploading data to MAXIMO you should ensure that the system and top level location are specified in the Master
Data tab of the Maximo Portal Options dialog. The top level location must already exist in Maximo and cannot be
created using the Portal.

You should then select the functional locations, assets and failure classes you wish to upload. Selection of a high level
tree node will also select the tree nodes connected beneath it. To upload data select the Upload Data, Upload Selected
Master Data to MAXIMO pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button.

During data upload information and error messages will be displayed in the list to the right of the tree control. If you wish
to clear these messages after the upload has been completed select the View, Clear Messages pull-down menu option.

Downloading Master Data to AWB


The Download Master Data to AWB tab of the MAXIMO Portal enables you to view functional location and asset data
originating from your MAXIMO system and download all or part of that data to AWB. You may also download failure
classes, spares, equipment (tools), labor resources. BOMs. PMs and their associated job plans.

Displaying MAXIMO Master Data


Before downloading master data to AWB you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button to populate the left-hand tree controls with the functional location, asset and other data
originating from the connected MAXIMO system. Alternatively, select the Connection, Open MAXIMO Data Image pull-
down menu option to open a previously saved data image.

Functional locations will only be displayed for the organization and site specified in the General tab of the MAXIMO Portal
Options dialog. Functional location and asset attributes must also match the filter values set in the Master Data tab of the
MAXIMO Portal Options dialog.

Once data is displayed in the tree controls, nodes may be expanded or collapsed using the + and - icons to the left of
each node, or by selecting a node and using the View, Expand Tree or View, Collapse Tree pull-down menu options.

Downloading Master Data to AWB


Before downloading data to AWB you should select the functional locations, assets, failure classes, spares. equipment
(tools), labor and BOMs you wish to download. Selection of a high level node will also select the nodes connected
beneath it. To download data select one of the Download Data pull-down menu options or equivalent toolbar button.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Selected Master Data to AWB pull-down menu option will download
selected functional locations, assets, labor, equipment (tools), spares and BOMs. Note that Maximo crafts are downloaded
to RCMCost labor types. Individual Maximo craft skills are downloaded to the RCMCost labor table. Each craft skill is
given an ID int the format CRAFTID-CRAFTSKILLID when downloaded to RCMCost. This naming convention must also
be used when uploading labor resources as part of a Maximo job plan.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Causes to AWB pull-down menu option will download selected failure
classes to the appropriate location in the AWB project.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Selected Maintenance Task(s) to AWB pull-down menu option reveals the
Preventive Maintenance dialog for the selected PM or job plan. Note that this download function applies to a single
selection and so the PM or job plan must be selected (highlighted in dark blue and not just checked). This dialog enables
users to download the associated job plans. To download one ore more job plans to a task in AWB first select the
appropriate MAXIMO job plan in one of the tabs (if there are multiple job plans associated with the PM) and then select
the Download Job Plan button. The Link MAXIMO Job Plan to AWB Task dialog will then appear allowing you to
specify the existing AWB cause and task to attach the MAXIMO job plan(s) to. You may create a new task in the AWB
project or choose an existing task. If a new task is created then the task will be associated with an AWB task group with
the same name as the MAXIMO PM.

During data download information and error messages will be displayed in the list to the right of the tree controls. If you
wish to clear these messages after the upload has been completed select the View, Clear Messages pull-down menu
option.

Uploading PMs to MAXIMO

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You may use the Maximo Portal to upload task groups as PMs and their associated job plans. Different schemes are
available to upload all tasks in a task group to a single job plan or to upload individual tasks to a PM sequence or a route
stop. A PM hierarchy may also be created by matching task group types to parent PMs in Maximo. If all tasks are
uploaded to a single PM the Portal will provide the option to group all the tasks associated with a task group into a single
MAXIMO document attached to the job plan associated with the PM.

The PM Upload tab of the MAXIMO Portal enables users to view PMs (task groups) originating from AWB and upload all
or a selection of these PMs to MAXIMO. This facility may be used to create new PMs or modify existing PMs.

The upload schemes available are

Map RCMCost task to Maximo job task


Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop
Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence

Map RCMCost task to Maximo job task


Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo job task scheme consists of the following
operations:

Create a document in MAXIMO for operation to be uploaded (if Attach work instruction document to PM option
is selected)
Create a work instruction document in Microsoft Word format (if Attach work instruction document to PM option
is selected)
Create a job plan with the appropriate job tasks and resources
Assign the document to the job plan (if Attach work instruction document to PM option is selected)
Create the PM and assign the job plan to the PM

Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop


Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop scheme consists of the following
operations:

Create a route in Maximo with a route stop for each RCMCost task
Create a job plan for each route stop and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
Create the PM and assign the route to the PM

Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence


Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence scheme consists of the
following operations:

Create a PM sequence in Maximo with an entry for each RCMCost task


Create a job plan for each sequence entry and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
Create the PM and assign sequence entries to the PM

Creating a PM hierarchy
If the Create PM hierarchy option is selected in the PM tab of the Maximo Portal Options dialog the Portal will create
parent PMs to match the task group type structure in the AWB project.

Labor naming convention


For RCMCost labor categories to be correctly uploaded as part of a Maximo job plan the following naming convention
must be used in RCMCost. RCMCost labor categories must use the naming convention CRAFTID-CRAFTSKILLID. For
example the RCMCost labor category MECH-FIRSTCLASS will be uploaded in the job plan as craft MECH and craft skill
FIRSTCLASS. The labor category MECH will be uploaded as craft MECH only without the craft skill defined.

PM naming
MAXIMO PMs will be assigned names identical to the original task group and task group type IDs in AWB.

Displaying PMs
Before uploading PMs to MAXIMO you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button to build an image of the data in your MAXIMO system.. Alternatively, select the Connection,
Open MAXIMO Data Image pull-down menu option to open a previously saved data image. Once this data image has
been obtained the Portal will populate the top grid control with the PMs (task groups) originating from the current AWB

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project. Maintenance plans that already exists in MAXIMO are color coded. Non-matching intervals are also color coded.
The grid control at the bottom of the MAXIMO Portal screen is populated with PMs that exist in MAXIMO but do not match
the IDs of task groups originating from AWB.

Uploading PMs
Selection of the Upload Data, Upload PMs to MAXIMO pull-down menu option prompts the Portal to display the
Preventive Maintenance dialog for all plans with the Upload to MAXIMO check-box selected in the grid control. The
Preventive Maintenance dialog will allow you to create new PMs and modify existing PMs using the Upload PM button.
Note that MAXIMO requires intervals to be multiples of 24 hour periods. The Portal will adjust AWB intervals to comply
with this requirement.

The MAXIMO Portal also contains a facility to produce a PM report containing data associated with the MAXIMO PMs and
the associated AWB task groups. PM reports are particularly useful if you wish to upload or modify MAXIMO PMs from
within MAXIMO rather than the AWB MAXIMO Portal. You may produce a report for all the plans in a single Word
document by selecting the Upload Data, PM Report pull-down menu option. The Preventive Maintenance dialog
contains a Next PM button allowing users to move to the next selected PM without making any further uploads.

During data upload information and error messages will be displayed in the list to the right of the tree control. If you wish
to clear these messages after the upload has been completed select the View, Clear Messages pull-down menu option.

If the Portal was unable to complete any of the necessary steps of writing documents, uploading plans, uploading tasks or
uploading technical documents this will be indicated in the appropriate columns of the top grid.

Deactivating Non-Matching PMs


Users may deactivate PMs that do not match AWB task groups. To deactivate PMs, select the Set to Inactive check-box
next to the plans you wish to deactivate in the lower grid control. Then select the Upload Data, Deactivate Non-Matching
Plans pull-down menu option.

Creating Work Instructions Without Data Upload


If you wish the portal to create work instruction documents without uploading the PMs to MAXIMO select the Upload
Data, Create Work Instruction Files pull-down menu option. Files will be created for all selected plans. File names will
be determined from the PM name. Note that a single work instruction file will be created for each PM.

See Also
Work Instruction Document Formats

Analytics
The Analytics tab of the MAXIMO Portal enables users to analyze work orders in the connected MAXIMO system and
download historical failure data into AWB Weibull sets. The Analytics tab is organized into a plot area (top left), an asset
grid control (top right) and a work order grid control (bottom). The plot area may alternatively display messages when
downloading data from MAXIMO.

After obtaining an image of the data in your MAXIMO system you will be able to click on data displayed in the plot area to
drill down to the asset you wish to analyze. You will also be able to review all the data associated with an asset class.

Displaying MAXIMO Data


In order to analyze data in your MAXIMO system you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu
option or equivalent toolbar button. The Portal will then analyze the work orders in MAXIMO together with other relevant
data and display both summary and detailed information in the plot area and grid controls.

During data download information and error messages will be displayed in the top left of the Analytics tab. Once the data
download is complete the message area will be replaced with a plot showing analytics data. You can toggle between
displaying the messages and displaying the analytics plot by selecting the View, Show Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button.

The Analytics Plot


The analytics plot displays summary data derived from the maintenance work orders downloaded from MAXIMO. Users
may change the data displayed using the Plot type and Plot variable combo-boxes. The plot displays data for corrective
(red bar) and PM (blue bar) work orders. If you hover the mouse cursor over the bars in the plot the Portal will display the
associated data.

The Location combo-box may be used to filter data for Location and Asset plot types. This combo-box also applies a
location filter to assets displayed in the grid control to the right of the plot area.

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You may also affect various settings by pressing the mouse button with the cursor positioned over a bar in the plot area.
For example, selecting a location bar will automatically drill down one level in the location hierarchy.

The Analytics Asset Grid Control


The analytics asset grid control is positioned to the right of the plot area and displays asset or asset class details
depending on the setting of the Plot type combo. Assets (but not asset classes) may be filtered by the setting in the
Location combo-box positioned above the plot area.

Work Order Grid Control


Users can determine which work orders are displayed in the work order grid control by selecting an asset or asset class in
the asset grid control. Alternatively, selecting an asset or asset class bar in the plot area will also change the displayed
work orders. Each row of the work orders grid represents a single work order. Each work order is color coded to identify
failure and PM work orders. Work orders are filtered according to the settings in the Maintenance type, Problem Code
and Cause code combo-boxes. Problem and cause code filters are not applied to PM work orders.

Calculating Times To Failure


Before performing a time to failure (TTF) calculation ensure that you have filtered the work orders that you wish to
ultimately appear in the AWB Weibull set and that you have identified the category of work order in the Category column
of the grid control. Work orders that were the result of a failure that require replacement of a part should be identified as a
Failure. Work orders that resulted in replacement of a part without a failure having taken place (normally a PM activity)
should be identified as a Replacement. All other work orders (such as inspections that resulted in no change to the
condition of a part) should have the category column set to Exclude. You should also identify whether the failure date is to
be used (as opposed to the work order 'actual' date) to specify when the failure took place. This may be done through the
check-boxes in the Use actual date column of the grid control.

Select the Download Data, Calculate TTFs pull-down menu option to prompt the Portal to calculate times to failure for
the displayed work orders. The Portal calculates time to failures using the following steps:

The work orders associated with an asset are ordered chronologically.


The time to failure associated with the first work order is determined by finding the difference between the work
order date and the asset installation date.
Subsequent times to failure are determined by finding the difference between consecutive work orders.
Times to failures that are associated with a replacement category are identified as suspensions.

Note that if the Portal cannot determine a realistic TTF value for the work order (because consecutive work orders have
the same date, for example) then the TTF calculated column of the grid control will be left un-checked and the TTF will
not be included in any subsequent download to AWB.

Downloading Weibull Set Data to AWB


Once the times to failure have been calculated you may download the data to an AWB Weibull set by selecting the
Download Data, Download Weibull Set to AWB button. The Weibull set will be automatically named using the asset or
asset class name and cause code description (if one has been identified).

Downloading Criticality Rankings to AWB


The analytics facility may also be used to assign criticality rankings to assets in the AWB project. This is particularly useful
when first populating an AWB project with functional location and asset data originating from MAXIMO as criticality
rankings may be used to prioritize assets for analysis in AWB. If priority rankings have been assigned to assets in
MAXIMO then these rankings may be assigned to assets in an AWB project by selecting the Download Data, Set
Equipment Criticality Rankings using Direct Assignment pull-down menu option. However, if these rankings have not
been assigned in MAXIMO, the Download Data, Set Equipment Criticality Rankings using ERP Assignment Criteria
pull-down menu option will automatically assign criticality rankings in the AWB project. Rankings are assigned according
to settings in the Criticality Rankings dialog in the RCMCost module of AWB. To access this dialog select the Edit,
Criticality Rankings pull-down menu option in the RCMCost module.

MAXIMO Portal Options and Templates


MAXIMO Portal options may be accessed by selecting the Options, Modify pull-down menu option. The MAXIMO Portal
Options dialog will then be displayed allowing you to modify global settings that will affect the way that data is transferred
to and from MAXIMO.

Portal options are saved in template files. If you are accessing more than one MAXIMO system then you can save
separate template files to represent logon details and other options associated with each system. MAXIMO portal
templates may be created, saved and opened by selecting the New Template, Open Template, Save Template and
Save Template As options on the Options pull-down menu.

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MAXIMO Portal General Options


Options displayed in the General tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described below.

AWB time unit


The time unit for data residing in the current AWB project. The MAXIMO portal needs to know how to convert time related
parameters such as intervals when transferring these quantities to and from MAXIMO.

Organization
The MAXIMO organization. This value is used when uploading and downloading data to and from MAXIMO. A maximum
of 8 characters is permitted.

Site
The MAXIMO site. This value is used when uploading and downloading data to and from MAXIMO. A maximum of 8
characters is permitted.

MAXIMO Portal Master Data Options


Options displayed in the Master Data tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described below.

Location system for upload


The MAXIMO functional location system to be used when uploading data to MAXIMO. A maximum of 8 characters are
permitted.

Top level location for upload


The MAXIMO top level functional location to be used when uploading functional locations from AWB. This top level
location must be specified and must already exist in MAXIMO. RCMCost top level locations will be uploaded to this
MAXIMO location.

Asset type for upload


The MAXIMO asset type to be used when uploading data to MAXIMO. A maximum of 25 characters are permitted.

Location systems to filter on


The MAXIMO functional location systems to be considered when downloading data from MAXIMO. A maximum of 8
characters is permitted for each system. If all of the 4 system values are left blank the Portal will not filter by system.

Location types to filter on


The MAXIMO functional location types to be considered when downloading data from MAXIMO. A maximum of 16
characters is permitted for each type. If all of the 4 type values are left blank the Portal will not filter by type.

Location status values to filter on


The MAXIMO functional location status values to be considered when downloading data from MAXIMO. A maximum of 14
characters is permitted for each status value. If all of the 4 system values are left blank the Portal will not filter by status
value.

Filter on locations starting with


The MAXIMO functional location partial strings to filter on. For example, if ISOD is specified then all locations beginning
with ISOD will be included such as ISOD-ABC, ISOD-ABCD-1 etc. If all of the 4 system values are left blank the Portal will
not apply this type of filter.

MAXIMO Portal PM Options


Options displayed in the PM tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described below.

Upload scheme
The upload schemes available are

Map RCMCost task to Maximo job task


Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop

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Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence

Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo job task scheme consists of the following
operations:

Create a document in MAXIMO for operation to be uploaded (if Attach work instruction document to PM option
is selected)
Create a work instruction document in Microsoft Word format (if Attach work instruction document to PM option
is selected)
Create a job plan with the appropriate job tasks and resources
Assign the document to the job plan (if Attach work instruction document to PM option is selected)
Create the PM and assign the job plan to the PM

Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo route stop scheme consists of the following
operations:

Create a route in Maximo with a route stop for each RCMCost task
Create a job plan for each route stop and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
Create the PM and assign the route to the PM

Uploading a new PM to MAXIMO using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo job sequence scheme consists of the
following operations:

Create a PM sequence in Maximo with an entry for each RCMCost task


Create a job plan for each sequence entry and assign the appropriate resources to the job plan
Create the PM and assign sequence entries to the PM

Create PM hierarchy
If the Create PM hierarchy option is selected in the PM tab of the Maximo Portal Options dialog the Portal will create
parent PMs to match the task group type structure in the AWB project.

Default work type


The default MAXIMO work type for PMs. A maximum of 5 characters is permitted.

Attach work instruction document to PM


If this option is selected a work instruction document will be created in Word format and attached to the PM during upload.
Note that this option is only available when using the Map RCMCost task to Maximo job task upload scheme.

Use notes fields for job tasks


If this option is selected then the Portal will populate the job tasks for a job plan using text set in RCMCost task notes
fields. You may use a group of consecutive notes fields to specify task descriptions. This option is not available for the
Map RCMCost task to Maximo job task upload scheme.

First and last notes fields for job tasks


These combo boxes are used to specify the group of task fields to be used to populate job tasks in Maximo.

Document type
The MAXIMO document type to be used when uploading work instructions. A maximum of 16 characters is permitted.

Folder for work instructions


The folder in which work instruction documents will be generated.

Work instruction template file


The full path of the work instruction template file. Work instruction files will be created on PM upload or if the user selects
the Upload Data, Create Work Instruction Files pull-down menu option.

Report template file


The full path of the PM report template file. PM report files may be created by selecting the PM Report pull-down menu
option from within the Download Master Data to AWB or PM tabs.

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MAXIMO Portal Analytics Options


Options displayed in the Analytics tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described below.

Corrective work order types to filter on


The MAXIMO work order types that will be used to identify corrective work orders. Up to eight types may be specified. A
maximum of 5 characters is permitted for each type.

PM work order types to filter on


The MAXIMO work order types that will be used to identify PM work orders. Up to eight types may be specified. A
maximum of 5 characters is permitted for each type.

Work order classes to filter on


The MAXIMO work order classes that will be used to filter all work orders. Up to four classes may be specified. A
maximum of 16 characters is permitted for each class.

Start date for work orders


The earliest date of the work orders to be considered when analyzing MAXIMO data.

End date for work orders


The latest date of the work orders to be considered when analyzing MAXIMO data.

Use actual date for TTF calculations


If this option is checked the Portal will use the actual work order date for TTF calculations rather than the failure date. The
user may override this option for individual work orders using the Use actual date column of the work order grid control.

Maximum number of plot bars


The maximum number of plot bars to display in the analytics plot.

Minimum plot width (pixels)


The minimum width to be used for analytics plots. If the plot will not fit into the available space in the plot area the Portal
will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Minimum plot height (pixels)


The minimum height to be used for analytics plots. If the plot will not fit into the available plot area the Portal will display
scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Failure PROBLEM alias


The alias to use when identifying PROBLEM codes

Failure CAUSE alias


The alias to use when identifying CAUSEcodes

Failure REMEDY alias


The alias to use when identifying REMEDY codes

MAXIMO Portal Connection Options


Options displayed in the MAXIMO Connection tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog are described below.

MAXIMO version
The version of MAXIMO you are connecting to.

Web services address


The MAXIMO web services address

User

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The default user name for MAXIMO logon.

Data transfer options


The data transfer options Timeout, Block size and Number of retries normally only need to be modified if the data
transfer speed from MAXIMO to the Portal is slow. If you experience difficulties in downloading data from MAXIMO then
contact Isograph support for advice on how to change these settings.

MAXIMO Portal Work Instruction Document Formats


The MAXIMO Portal automatically produces a Microsoft Word document for each PM and associated job plan uploaded to
MAXIMO. The layout of each document is determined from a Word template file. The locations of the template and
generated files are specified in the PM tab of the MAXIMO Portal Options dialog. An example template file is provided in
the Import and Export Templates directory of the AWB installation. The file is named WorkInstructionTemplate.doc.

During work instruction document generation, the MAXIMO portal inserts tables into a copy of the template file and
populates these tables with task and resource data associated with the appropriate PM (task group). These tables are at
the beginning of the file.

MAXIMO 6.2 - Importing the Integration External System, Interfaces and


Objects
The import process consists of: ensuring that the pre-requisites described below are configured , importing the integration
objects, importing the integration interfaces, importing the integration external system and then deploying the web
services associated with the integration interfaces.

IBM WebSphere must be configured with the additional JMS features in the WebSphere administrative console. These
configuration tasks include creating the JMS bus and configuring the various options for supporting the sequential
inbound, sequential outbound and the continuous outbound queues. These steps are fully described in Appendix B1 of the
IBM Maximo Installation Guide.

The Maximo Enterprise Adapter basic configuration is described in chapter 6 of the IBM Maximo Enterprise Adapter
System Administrators Guide.

The pre-requisites below have been determined by extensive testing on a clean Maximo 6.2 system.

Maximo 6.2 import processes are complex and the order described below must be adhered to !

The integration external system, interfaces and objects are defined in three xml files: extsys.xml, interface.xml and
object.xml. These are located in the Availability Workbench program directory.

The IBM WebSphere administration console URL is of the form http://<maximo hostname>:<websphere port>/ibm/console
(e.g. http://sun:9060/ibm/console). The Maximo Administrator administration console URL is of the form http://<maximo
hostname>:<maximo port>/maximo (e.g. http://sun:9080/maximo). These examples are based on the default installation
ports.

Please note: if you already have the Availability Workbench V1 web services installed then please proceed to Importing
the Integration Objects, Interfaces and External System.

Pre-Requisites
1. Ensure that a web service end point MXWEBSERVICE exists before import. This is required by the extsys.xml
import file. To add the end point:
a. In the Maximo Administrator select Go To Integration External Systems.
b. Select the Filter Table icon to display all the external systems.
c. Select the built-in EXTSYS1 external system.
d. From the Select Action drop-down list select the Add/Modify End Point option to display the Add/Modify
End Point dialog.
e. If the end point MXWEBSERVICE of type WEB SERVICE does not exist then proceed with the following
instructions.
f. Select New Row.
g. Enter the End Point name (highlighted) as MXWEBSERVICE.
h. Select the Handler select icon to display the Select Value dialog and select WEBSERVICE.
i. The end point properties are now displayed below the New Row button.
j. Enter the following properties:
i. ENDPOINTURL - http://<maximo hostname>:<maximo_port>/meaweb/services (e.g.
http://sun:9080/meaweb/services)
ii. TARGETNAMESPACE - http://www.mro.com/mx/wsdl
iii. WSEXIT - psdi.iface.router.DefaultWSExit
k. Select OK to save the new end point.

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2. Ensure that EXTSYS1 is enabled:


a. In the Maximo Administrator select Go To Integration External Systems.
b. Select the Filter Table icon to display all the external systems.
c. Select the built-in EXTSYS1 external system.
d. Select the Enabled check box and then select the List tab. You will be prompted to save changes. Select
Yes.
3. Set the import directory in Integration Administration setup:
a. In the Maximo Administrator select Go To Integration External Systems.
b. Select the Filter Table icon to display all the external systems.
c. Select the built-in EXTSYS1 external system.
d. From the Select Action drop-down list select the Integration Administration Setup option to display the
Integration Administration Setup dialog.
e. Enter a location for the Global Directory Location e.g. c:\import
f. Using Windows Explorer create the load directory for the 3 xml files e.g. c:\import\load\xml. This must be
created on the Maximo server.
g. Copy extsys.xml, interface.xml and object.xml to the load directory e.g. :\import\load\xml.
4. Enable the CRON tasks for processing the sequential JMS queues:
a. In the Maximo Administrator select Go To Configuration Cron Task Setup.
b. Select the Filter Table icon to display the list of CRON tasks.
c. Select the JMSQSEQCONSUMER CRON task.
d. Check the Active check boxes for both the SEQQIN and SEQQOUT cron task instance names and then
select the List tab. You will be prompted to save changes. Select Yes.
5. Enable web service administration by setting the integration web application URL correctly:
a. In the Maximo Administrator select Go To Integration Integration Interfaces.
b. Select the Filter Table icon to display the pre-defined integration interfaces.
c. Select any interface.
d. From the Select Action drop-down list select the Web Service Administration option to display the Web
Service Administration dialog.
e. Enter the correct value for the Integration Web Application URL:
http://<maximo_hostname>:<maximo_port>/meaweb (e.g. http://sun:9080/meaweb)
6. Restart the Maximo application in the IBM WebSphere administration console:
a. Start the WebSphere Administrative Console.
b. Expand the Servers node in the left hand tree and then select the Application servers node.
c. Select the check box next to the Maximo application server and then select the Stop button. Respond OK
to the subsequent prompts until the application is stopped.
d. Select the check box next to the Maximo application and the select the Start button. The start process may
take some time.
e. When the application server has started select the Applications node in the left hand tree and then select
the Enterprise applications node. Check that the ACWEB, MAXIMO and MAXIMOHELP applications have
started.

Importing the Integration Objects, Interfaces and External System


The next step is to import the integration objects, interfaces and external system in that order. Each import step is run as a
background task so it is vital to wait for each step to complete before proceeding with the next step. To monitor the
completion of each step open a second Maximo Administrator window (this is in addition to the Maximo Administrator
window used to perform the import).

Please note: if you already have the Availability Workbench V1 web services installed then these steps must be repeated
so that the web services can be upgraded. However the existing web services do not require re-deployment in step 4 -
only new web services need to be deployed.

1. Importing the integration objects:


a. In the Maximo Administrator select Go To Integration External Systems.
b. Select the Filter Table icon to display all the external systems.
c. Select the built-in EXTSYS1 external system.
d. From the Select Action drop-down list select the Data Import option to display the Data Import dialog
e. Select the Select Value icon to display the Select Value dialog. Select the object.xml file.
f. Select IMPORT to begin the import. As mentioned previously even though the hourglass cursor will revert
to normal the import process will still be running via the CRON SEQQIN task instance.
g. Examine the import status using the second Maximo Administrator window by:
i. Select Go To Integration Integration Objects.
ii. Enter awb in the Integration Object text box and then select the Filter Value icon.
iii. There will be 28 AWB integration objects after a successful import.
h. You can now proceed to the next step, importing the integration interfaces.
2. Importing the integration interfaces:
a. In the EXTSYS1 external system select the Data Import option from the Select Action drop-down list to
display the Data Import dialog.
b. Select the Select Value icon to display the Select Value dialog. Select the interface.xml file.
c. Select OK to begin the import.
d. Examine the import status using the second Maximo Administrator window by:
i. Select Go To Integration Interface Interfaces.
ii. Enter awb in the Interface text box and then select the Filter Value icon.

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iii. There will be 46 AWB integration interfaces after a successful import.


e. You can now proceed to the next step, importing the external system.
3. Importing the external system:
a. In the EXTSYS1 external system select the Data Import option from the Select Action drop-down list to
display the Data Import dialog.
b. Select the Select Value icon to display the Select Value dialog. Select the extsys.xml file.
c. Select OK to begin the import.
d. Examine the import status using the second Maximo Administrator window by:
i. Select Go To Integration External Systems.
ii. Enter awb in the System text box and then select the Filter Value icon.
iii. There will be 1 AWB external system after a successful import.
e. You can now proceed to the next step, deploying the web services.
4. Deploying the web services
a. In the Maximo Administrator select Go To Integration Integration Interfaces.
b. Enter awb in the Interface text box and then select the Filter Value icon.
c. Repeat the following steps for each interface named AWB_XXX_Q_Int and AWB_XXX_N_Int. Please note:
if you already have the Availability Workbench V1 web services installed the only web services requiring
deployment are:
i. AWB_COMMODITY_Q_Int
ii. AWB_FREP_Q_Int
iii. AWB_LOCSYSTEM_Q_Int
iv. AWB_INVENT_Q_Int
v. AWB_DOCTYPES_N_Int
vi. AWB_ROUTE_N_Int
d. Select the interface and then select Deploy Web Service from the Select Action drop-down list.
e. Select OK in response to the Do you want to deploy prompt.
f. Select the List tab to return to the list of AWB interfaces. Note that the Web Service Deployed flag is not
updated unless you select the Filter Value icon (in which case the list position is lost!).

When you have deployed all the interfaces the import process is complete and you may now access Maximo data using
Availability Workbench.

Importing the Maximo 7.1 Object Structures, Enterprise Services and


External System
The import process consists of: importing the integration object structures, importing the integration enterprise services,
importing the integration external system, and deploying the web services associated with the integration enterprise
services.

Unlike Maximo 6.2 the import process is simple and will work with Maximo as installed out of the box, with the proviso
that the Migration Manager is installed.

The integration object structures, enterprise services and external system are defined in three zip files:

AWB_OBJECTS_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip,
AWB_ENTERPRISE_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip
AWB_EXTERNAL_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip (where NNN is a non-constant version
number)

These are located in the Availability Workbench program directory. Please note: DO NOT rename these files or the
import process will fail.

Please ensure that you have a backup of the current Maximo database before performing these operations.

Importing the Object Structures, Enterprise Services and External System


The first step is to import the object structures, enterprise services and external system (in that order).

In the Maximo Administrator select Go To System Configuration Migration Migration Manager.

1. Select Upload Package from the Select Action drop-down list to display the Upload Package dialog.
2. Select Browse to display the Choose File dialog. Select the
AWB_OBJECTS_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip file from the Availability Workbench program
directory and then select OK.
3. Select Deploy Package from the Select Action drop-down list to display the Deploy Package dialog.
4. Check the Do you have a current backup? check box and then select Deploy to display the Electronic Signature
Authentication dialog.
5. Enter the Password and the Reason for change and then select OK.
6. The Please Wait dialog is displayed as the package is imported. When the Processing Complete message is
displayed you should see the status message Package
AWB_OBJECTS_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN deployed successfully displayed.

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7. Select OK to dismiss the Please Wait dialog. The object structure import is complete.
8. Repeat steps 1 through to 7 for the files AWB_ENTERPRISE_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip
and AWB_EXTERNAL_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip. Please note that the files must be
imported in order.

Deploying the Web Services


In the Maximo Administrator select Go To IntegrationWeb Services Library.

1. Select the Create Web Service-Create WS From Enterprise Service option from the Select Action drop-down list to
display the Create Web Service from an Enterprise Service Definition dialog.
2. You will see all the Availability Workbench enterprise services (for example AWB_EXTSYS_AWB_LOCATIONS)
displayed. There are 37 in total.
3. Select the check box to the left of each enterprise service in turn. Only select those prefixed with AWB_. Select
the right arrow button on the toolbar (to the right of the 1-20 of N label) to page through the services.
4. When all the enterprise services have been selected select CREATE to create the web services. The dialog will be
closed and you will see the web service list displayed in the main window.
5. Enter AWB in the Name text box (just below the Web Services Library banner).
6. Select the Filter Table button on the toolbar (to the right of the Filter label) to display only the web services
beginning with AWB.
7. Select the Select Records check box (at the bottom left of the web service list). This displays all the web services
with a check box to the left.
8. Select the check box to the left of the Name label (just below the Web Services Library banner). This will
automatically select all the web services.
9. Select the Deploy Web Service option from the Select Action drop-down list to deploy all the web services.

When you have deployed all the web services the import process is complete and you may now access Maximo data
using Availability Workbench

Importing the Maximo 7.5 Object Structures, Enterprise Services and


External System
The import process consists of: importing the integration object structures, importing the integration enterprise services,
importing the integration external system, and deploying the web services associated with the integration enterprise
services.

Unlike Maximo 6.2 the import process is relatively straightforward (although more complex than Maximo 7.1) and will
work with Maximo installed out of the box , with the proviso that the Migration Manager is installed and the
mxe.int.containerdeploy system property modified.

The integration object structures, enterprise services and external system are defined in three zip files:

AWB_OBJECTS_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip
AWB_ENTERPRISE_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip
AWB_EXTERNAL_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip (where NNN is a non-constant version
number).

These are located in the Availability Workbench program directory. Please note: DO NOT rename these files or the
import process will fail.

Please ensure that you have a backup of the current Maximo database before performing these operations.

Importing the Object Structures, Enterprise Services and External System


The first step is to import the object structures, enterprise services and external system (in that order).

In the Maximo Administrator select Go To System Configuration Migration Migration Manager.

1. Select Upload Package from the Select Action drop-down list to display the Upload Package dialog.
2. Select Browse to display the Choose File dialog. Select the
AWB_OBJECTS_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip file from the Availability Workbench program
directory and then select OK.
3. Select Deploy Package from the Select Action drop-down list to display the Deploy Package dialog.
4. Check the Do you have a current backup? check box and then select Deploy to display the Electronic Signature
Authentication dialog.
5. Enter the Password and the Reason for change and then select OK.
6. The Please Wait dialog is displayed as the package is imported. When the Processing Complete message is
displayed you should see the status message Package
AWB_OBJECTS_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN deployed successfully displayed.
7. Select OK to dismiss the Please Wait dialog. The object structure import is complete.
8. Repeat steps 1 through to 7 for the files AWB_ENTERPRISE_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip

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and AWB_EXTERNAL_V2_MAXIMO7ENT_MAXDB71_MAXIMO_NNN.zip. Please note that the files must be


imported in order.

Deploying the Web Services


Before deploying the web services it is necessary to check the value of the mxe.int.containerdeploy system property. This
property determines whether the web services are deployed to the product web services container (value 0) or the
application server web services container (value 1). It is critical that this value is changed before the web services are
created. If this value has to be modified it will also be necessary to restart the Maximo application server using the
WebSphere console.

In the Maximo Administrator select Go To-System Configuration-Platform Configuration-System Properties.

1. Select the Filter button and enter containerdeploy in the Property Name. Select the Filter Table button (to the right
of the Filter button). The mxe.int.containerdeploy global property is displayed in the list.
2. Select the right arrow button next to the property to drop-down the property details.
3. If the Global Value is 1 it is necessary to change it to 0 so that the web service is deployed to the product web
services container rather than the application server web services container.
4. Change the Global Value to 0 and then select the Save Property button (to the right of the Select Action drop-
down) to save the property.
5. Now restart the Maximo application server using the WebSphere console.

In the Maximo Administrator select Go To IntegrationWeb Services Library.

1. Select the Create Web Service-Create WS From Enterprise Service option from the Select Action drop-down list to
display the Create Web Service from an Enterprise Service Definition dialog.
2. You will see all the Availability Workbench enterprise services (for example AWB_EXTSYS_AWB_LOCATIONS)
displayed. There are 37 in total.
3. Select the check box to the left of each enterprise service in turn. Only select those prefixed with AWB_. Select
the right arrow button on the toolbar (to the right of the 1-20 of N label) to page through the services.
4. When all the enterprise services have been selected select CREATE to create the web services. The dialog will be
closed and you will see the web service list displayed in the main window.
5. Enter AWB in the Name text box (just below the Web Services Library banner).
6. Select the Filter Table button on the toolbar (to the right of the Filter label) to display only the web services
beginning with AWB.
7. Select the Select Records check box (at the bottom left of the web service list). This displays all the web services
with a check box to the left.
8. Select the check box to the left of the Name label (just below the Web Services Library banner). This will
automatically select all the web services.
9. Select the Deploy Web Service option from the Select Action drop-down list to deploy all the web services.

When you have deployed all the web services the import process is complete and you may now access Maximo data
using Availability Workbench.

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The Ellipse Portal - Overview


The Ellipse Portal allows users to connect directly to their Ellipse system from within Availability Workbench (AWB).
Historical maintenance data may be analyzed and downloaded from Ellipse into AWB. An existing Ellipse equipment
location hierarchy may be downloaded to populate a new AWB project together with failure codes, resources and
scheduled maintenance tasks.

The Ellipse Portal functions may be summarized as:

Downloading master data to AWB


Analyzing maintenance data for use in AWB

Requirements
Before using the AWB Ellipse Portal you will need to set up a link to your Ellipse database using the Windows ODBC Data
Source Administrator. The Ellipse Portal connects to the Ellipse database using the Data Source Name.

Ellipse Logon
Before entering the Ellipse Portal ensure that the AWB project you wish to download data to is already open. Then select
the File, ERP Portal, Ellipse Portal pull-down menu option. You will then be presented with the Ellipse Logon dialog. If
you have previously entered logon details for your Ellipse system, and saved these details to a Ellipse Portal template file,
these details will already be entered (except for the password). Enter the password and select the Log on button to
connect to Ellipse.

Refreshing Data and Saving Data Images


All download operations require the Portal to obtain an image of all relevant Ellipse data before the operation can take
place. Download operations need to be able to display the Ellipse data to the user for selection before the actual
download takes place. Users must therefore select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu option or equivalent
toolbar button to obtain an image of the relevant Ellipse data. Selection of this option will extract all data that matches the
filter options specified in the Ellipse Portal Options dialog.

Typically the data extraction operation may take a few minutes and so the Portal provides a facility to save an image of
this data once it has been obtained. This is useful if you intend to re-enter the portal frequently for downloading data and
the Ellipse database is not likely to have changed since the last refresh operation. Images may be saved to a file using the
Connection, Save Ellipse Data Image pull-down menu option or equivalent toolbar button. They may later be retrieved
using the Connection, Open Ellipse Data Image pull-down menu option.

Ellipse is a registered trademark of Mincom.

Downloading Master Data to AWB


The Download Master Data to AWB tab of the Ellipse Portal enables you to view functional location and equipment data
originating from your Ellipse system and download all or part of that data to AWB. You may also download resources,
failure codes and maintenance data.

Displaying Ellipse Master Data


Before downloading master data to AWB you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button to populate the left-hand tree controls with the functional location, equipment and other data
originating from the connected Ellipse system. Alternatively, select the Connection, Open Ellipse Data Image pull-down
menu option to open a previously saved data image.

Functional locations will only be displayed for the district code specified in the General tab of the Ellipse Portal Options
dialog. Functional location and equipment attributes must also match the filter values set in the Master Data tab of the
Ellipse Portal Options dialog.

Once data is displayed in the tree controls, nodes may be expanded or collapsed using the + and - icons to the left of
each node, or by selecting a node and using the View, Expand Tree or View, Collapse Tree pull-down menu options.

Downloading Master Data to AWB


Before downloading data to AWB you should select the functional locations, equipments, causes and PMs you wish to
download. Selection of a high level node will also select the nodes connected beneath it. To download data select one of
the Download Data pull-down menu options or equivalent toolbar button.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Selected Master Data to AWB pull-down menu option will download
selected functional locations, equipments and resources.

Selection of the Download Data, Download Root Causes to AWB pull-down menu option will download selected root
failure codes to the appropriate location in the AWB project.

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Selection of the Download Data, Download Selected Maintenance Task(s) to AWB pull-down menu option reveals the
Scheduled Maintenance Task dialog for the selected plan. This dialog enables users to download the associated
standard job tasks and resources. To download all Ellipse tasks to a single AWB task select the Download All button. To
download selected Ellipse tasks to a single AWB task first select the appropriate Ellipse tasks in Standard Job Tasks tab
and then select the Download Selected Tasks button. The Link Ellipse Task to AWB Task dialog will then appear
allowing you to specify the existing AWB cause and task to attach the Ellipse task(s) to. You may create a new task in the
AWB project or choose an existing task.

During data download information and error messages will be displayed in the list to the right of the tree controls. If you
wish to clear these messages after the upload has been completed select the View, Clear Messages pull-down menu
option.

Analytics
The Analytics tab of the Ellipse Portal enables users to analyze work orders in the connected Ellipse system and
download historical failure data into AWB Weibull sets. The Analytics tab is organized into a plot area (top left), an
equipment grid control (top right) and a work order grid control (bottom). The plot area may alternatively display messages
when downloading data from Ellipse.

After obtaining an image of the data in your Ellipse system you will be able to click on data displayed in the plot area to
drill down to the equipment you wish to analyze. You will also be able to review all the data associated with an equipment
group.

Displaying Ellipse Data


In order to analyze data in your Ellipse system you must first select the Connection, Refresh Data pull-down menu option
or equivalent toolbar button. The Portal will then analyze the work orders in Ellipse together with other relevant data and
display both summary and detailed information in the plot area and grid controls.

During data download information and error messages will be displayed in the top left of the Analytics tab. Once the data
download is complete the message area will be replaced with a plot showing analytics data. You can toggle between
displaying the messages and displaying the analytics plot by selecting the View, Show Plot pull-down menu option or
equivalent toolbar button.

The Analytics Plot


The analytics plot displays summary data derived from the maintenance work orders downloaded from Ellipse. Users may
change the data displayed using the Plot type and Plot variable combo-boxes. The plot displays data for corrective (red
bar) and PM (blue bar) work orders. If you hover the mouse cursor over the bars in the plot the Portal will display the
associated data.

The Location combo-box may be used to filter data for Location and Equipment plot types. This combo-box also applies
a location filter to equipments displayed in the grid control to the right of the plot area.

You may also affect various settings by pressing the mouse button with the cursor positioned over a bar in the plot area.
For example, selecting a location bar will automatically drill down one level in the location hierarchy.

The Analytics Equipment Grid Control


The analytics equipment grid control is positioned to the right of the plot area and displays equipment or equipment group
details depending on the setting of the Plot type combo. Equipments (but not equipment groups) may be filtered by the
setting in the Location combo-box positioned above the plot area.

Work Order Grid Control


Users can determine which work orders are displayed in the work order grid control by selecting an equipment or
equipment group in the equipment grid control. Alternatively, selecting an equipment or equipment group bar in the plot
area will also change the displayed work orders. Each row of the work orders grid represents a single work order. Each
work order is color coded to identify failure and PM work order types. Work orders are filtered according to the settings in
the Maintenance type and Failure cause combo-boxes. Failure cause filters are not applied to PM work orders.

Calculating Times To Failure


Before performing a time to failure (TTF) calculation ensure that you have filtered the work orders that you wish to
ultimately appear in the AWB Weibull set and that you have identified the category of work order in the Category column
of the grid control. Work orders that were the result of a failure that require replacement of a part should be identified as a
Failure. Work orders that resulted in replacement of a part without a failure having taken place (normally a PM activity)
should be identified as a Replacement. All other work orders (such as inspections that resulted in no change to the
condition of a part) should have the category column set to Exclude.

Select the Download Data, Calculate TTFs pull-down menu option to prompt the Portal to calculate times to failure for
the displayed work orders. The Portal calculates time to failures using the following steps:

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The work orders associated with an equipment are ordered chronologically.


The time to failure associated with the first work order is determined by finding the difference between the work
order date and the equipment installation date.
Subsequent times to failure are determined by finding the difference between consecutive work orders.
Times to failures that are associated with a replacement category are identified as suspensions.

Note that if the Portal cannot determine a realistic TTF value for the work order (because consecutive work orders have
the same date, for example) then the TTF calculated column of the grid control will be left un-checked and the TTF will
not be included in any subsequent download to AWB.

Downloading Weibull Set Data to AWB


Once the times to failure have been calculated you may download the data to an AWB Weibull set by selecting the
Download Data, Download Weibull Set to AWB button. The Weibull set will be automatically named using the
equipment or equipment group name and failure cause description (if one has been identified).

Downloading Criticality Rankings to AWB


The analytics facility may also be used to assign criticality rankings to equipments in the AWB project. This is particularly
useful when first populating an AWB project with functional location and equipment data originating from Ellipse as
criticality rankings may be used to prioritize equipments for analysis in AWB. The Download Data, Set Equipment
Criticality Rankings using ERP Assignment Criteria pull-down menu option will automatically assign criticality rankings
in the AWB project. Rankings are assigned according to settings in the Criticality Rankings dialog in the RCMCost
module of AWB. To access this dialog select the Edit, Criticality Rankings pull-down menu option in the RCMCost
module.

Ellipse Portal Options and Templates


Ellipse Portal options may be accessed by selecting the Options, Modify pull-down menu option. The Ellipse Portal
Options dialog will then be displayed allowing you to modify global settings that will affect the way that data is transferred
to and from Ellipse.

Portal options are saved in template files. If you are accessing more than one Ellipse system then you can save separate
template files to represent logon details and other options associated with each system. Ellipse portal templates may be
created, saved and opened by selecting the New Template, Open Template, Save Template and Save Template As
options on the Options pull-down menu.

Ellipse Portal General Options


Options displayed in the General tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

AWB time unit


The time unit for data residing in the current AWB project. The Ellipse portal needs to know how to convert time related
parameters such as intervals when transferring these quantities to and from Ellipse.

District code
The Ellipse district code. This value is used as a filter when downloading data from Ellipse.

Ellipse Portal Master Data Options


Options displayed in the Master Data tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

Download active equipment only


If this flag is set only active equipment will be downloaded from Ellipse.

Plant numbers to filter on


The Ellipse plant numbers to be considered when downloading data from Ellipse. Only equipments with plant numbers
that match one or more of the filters will be downloaded. Filter values may include standard SQL wild-card characters
such as %. If all of the 8 values are left blank the Portal will not filter by plant number.

Equipment status to filter on


The Ellipse equipment status values to be considered when downloading data from Ellipse. A maximum of 2 characters is
permitted for each status type. If all of the 4 values are left blank the Portal will not filter by status.

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Only download resources assigned to tasks


If this flag is set the Portal will only download labor, equipment and spare resources that are associated with tasks
downloaded in the location hierarchy.

Ellipse Portal PM Options


Options displayed in the PM tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

Folder for PM reports


The folder in which PM report documents will be generated.

Report template file


The full path of the PM report template file. PM report files may be created by selecting the PM Report pull-down menu
option from within the Download Master Data to AWB tab.

Ellipse Portal Analytics Options


Options displayed in the Analytics tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

Corrective maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify corrective work orders. Up to eight types may be specified. A
maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Planned maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify planned maintenance work orders. Up to eight types may be
specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Secondary action maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify secondary action maintenance work orders. Up to eight types
may be specified. A maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Inspection maintenance types


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to identify inspection work orders. Up to eight types may be specified. A
maximum of 2 characters is permitted for each type.

Corrective work order date


The date to be used to identify when a corrective action took place.

Planned work order date


The date to be used to identify when a planned action took place.

Secondary work order date


The date to be used to identify when a secondary action took place.

Inspection work order date


The date to be used to identify when an inspection took place.

Work order types to filter on


The Ellipse work order types that will be used to filter all work orders. Up to eight types may be specified. A maximum of
2characters is permitted for each type.

Completed codes to filter on


The Ellipse work order completed codes that will be used to filter all work orders. Up to eight codes may be specified. A
maximum of 2characters is permitted for each code.

Maximum number of plot bars


The maximum number of plot bars to display in the analytics plot.

Minimum plot width (pixels)

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The minimum width to be used for analytics plots. If the plot will not fit into the available space in the plot area the Portal
will display scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Minimum plot height (pixels)


The minimum height to be used for analytics plots. If the plot will not fit into the available plot area the Portal will display
scroll bars to allow the user to view hidden areas of the plot.

Ellipse Portal Connection Options


Options displayed in the Ellipse Connection tab of the Ellipse Portal Options dialog are described below.

DSN
The Ellipse Data Source Name specified in the Windows ODBC Data Source Administrator.

User
The default user name for Ellipse logon.

Table prefix
Specifies the prefix to Ellipse database tables. For example if the Ellipse tables commence with MSF then no prefix should
be specified. However, if tables begin with Ellipse_MSF the prefix 'Ellipse_' should be specified.

SQL Server database


Check this option if the Ellipse system is based on SQL Server rather than Oracle.

Ellipse Download Utility


The Download Utility is accessed by selecting the Download Data, Download Utility pull-down menu option in the
Download Master Data to AWB or Analytics tab of the Ellipse Portal.

The Download Utility dialog will be displayed allowing you to specify an Ellipse table or view, the fields you wish to
download and an optional where clause. For example specifying the table MSF600and the fields EQUIP_NOand
PLANT_NO will allow you to download equipment names and plant numbers. You might also specify an optional where
clause such as DSTRCT_CODE=1234 to only download rows relating to the specified district. Note that you should not
include the word WHERE as this is automatically added to the where clause specified by the user. If you wish to download
all the fields in a table then you may select the All fields check box.

The Download Utility dialog allows the user to limit the number of rows downloaded from the database and listed in the
dialog by setting the Maximum download rows and Maximum list rows values respectively.

Data is downloaded when the Download Data button is selected. After data download is complete you may export the
data to a comma delimited file by selecting the Export Results to File button.

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The Dynamic Link Library - Overview Page 1 of 7

The Dynamic Link Library - Overview


The Availability Workbench Dynamic-Link Library (DLL) enables users to seamlessly link their databases or external
applications to Availability Workbench projects. For example, the DLL may be used to create a custom link between a
CMMS database for importing RCM data into an Availability Workbench project. The custom link may then be used to
transfer data from the project back to the CMMS database after the RCM analysis has been completed using Availability
Workbench. In summary, the DLL allows programmers to directly access project data without using the Availability
Workbench application interface.

In addition to accessing data you may also programmatically request the AWB DLL to perform simulations and
calculations. The following simulations and calculations may be performed:

Perform a RCMCost system simulation


Automatically optimize maintenance plans for RCMCost tasks or task groups
Perform an AvSim system simulation
Perform a Weibull analysis
Perform a LCC calculation
Perform a process reliability analysis

The Availability Workbench DLL is a .NET assembly that runs under the Microsoft .NET Framework Version 2.0. No
separate installation is necessary to access the DLL. The DLL is part of the AvailabilityWorkbench.exe file. You will,
however, require a DLL license to access the main functionality of the DLL. In addition, if you use any of the analysis or
simulation methods provided by the DLL you will require the appropriate module license.

In addition to the Availability Workbench DLL you will also require a .NET assembly development tool such as Microsofts
Visual Studio.

How the Dynamic Link Library Works


The Availability Workbench DLL provides a DataSet class that may be used to hold project data in memory. A DataSet
contains tables, columns and rows. The DataSet constructor automatically constructs all the tables and columns
representing the Availability Workbench project schema. However, no rows are added when a DataSet object is created,
i.e. a DataSet object contains no data on construction.

A DataSet object may be initially populated with the very minimum of default data for a project by calling the DataSet New
method. This method would be called if you are intending to populate a project with data from scratch.

A DataSet object may also be initially populated with data using the DataSet Read method. In this case data is extracted
from an existing Availability Workbench project file.

The DataSet class provides methods for writing and reading data to and from the DataSet. Tables and columns in the
DataSet are identified by unique string identifiers. These identifiers are listed in the document Availability Workbench DLL
Reference Manual.

If you wish to write modified project data to a new or existing Availability Workbench project file then simply call the
DataSet Write method. If you wish to validate the data first then call the DataSet Verify method.

The Availability Workbench DLL DataSet class also provides methods for performing simulations and analyzing data. You
must have the appropriate module licenses to use these methods. The analysis and simulation methods are:

RCMPerformSystemAnalysisRun
RCMPerformAutoTaskOptimizationRun
RCMPerformAutoTaskGroupOptimizationRun
AvsimPerformRun
WeibullPerformAnalysis
LCCPerformAnalysis
ProcessPerformAnalysis

Only create one instance of the DataSet class during a program session. If necessary use the New method to
clear all the project tables.

The Dynamic Link Library - Sample Code


The sample code below (C#) demonstrates how a programmer would add a new spare to the Spares table of an existing
project and then save the data to a new project file.

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A sample project AWBDllSample is also provided with the Availability Workbench installation and illustrates the creation
of structured data.

// Create a new DataSet object


DataSet dataSet = new DataSet();
DataTable dataTable;
// Initialize your DLL license
LicenseConfiguration licenseConfiguration = new LicenseConfiguration
(AvailabilityWorkbench.LicenseSettings.LicenseType.SERVER, "@ABC");
dataSet.InitializeLicense(licenseConfiguration);
// Read existing project data into dataset
dataSet.Read("c:\\temp\\dlldemo1.awbx");
// Add a spare
dataTable = dataSet.GetTable("Spares");
int newRowIndex = dataTable.AddRow();
DataRow newDataRow = dataTable.GetRow(newRowIndex);
DataValue dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("Id");
dataValue.SetString("ABC123");
dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("Description");
dataValue.SetString("Centrifugal pump");
dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("UnitCost");
dataValue.SetDouble(25400.0);
// Validate data
string[] errorMessages = dataSet.Verify();
// If OK write to new project file
if (errorMessages.Length == 0) dataSet.Write("c:\\temp\\dlldemo2.awbx", false);
// Release DLL license
dataSet.TerminateLicense();

DataSet Class
Constructor

DataSet()
Constructor method. Initializes a new instance of the DataSet class. Automatically creates the tables and columns that
represent the Availability Workbench project schema.

Public Methods

bool InitializeLicense(LicenseConfiguration licenseConfiguration)


Checks out a DLL license. If no valid license is available returns false and methods belonging to this class will be
disabled.
licenseConfiguration: Specifies the type and location of the DLL license.

void TerminateLicense()
Terminates the current license and releases it to other users.

int TableCount()
Returns the total number of tables in the project schema.

DataTable GetTable(int tableIndex) : DataTable GetTable(string tableID)


Overloaded method to obtain the DataTable object for the specified table. Returns null if an invalid table index or ID is
specified.
tableIndex: Zero-based index of the table.
tableID: String ID of the table.

int GetTableIndex(string tableID)


Returns the index corresponding to the specified table ID or 1 for an invalid ID.
tableID: String ID of the table.

bool New()
Populates a DataSet with basic project data.

bool Read(string fileName)


Reads data from an Availability Workbench project file to a DataSet.

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fileName: Full path name of the file.

bool Write(string fileName, bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Writes data contained in DataSet tables to an Availability Workbench project file.
fileName: Full path name of the file.
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.

string[] Verify()
Checks data contained in the DataSet tables for errors.

public bool AvsimPerformRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs an AvSim simulation
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.

public bool RCMPerformSystemAnalysisRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a RCMCost system analysis
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.

public bool RCMPerformAutoTaskOptimizationRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a RCMCost automatic optimization for all tasks
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.

public bool RCMPerformAutoTaskGroupOptimizationRun(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a RCMCost automatic optimization for all task groups
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.

public bool LCCPerformAnalysis(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs a LCC analysis.
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.

public bool WeibullPerformAnalysis(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys, bool selectDistribution)


Performs an analysis for all automatic Weibull sets in the project
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.
selectDistribution: Indicates whether the best-fit distribution should be automatically selected

public bool ProcessPerformAnalysis(bool useIndicesForForeignKeys)


Performs an analysis for all process sets in the project
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.

public string RCMSimulationProgressMessage()


Provides a message indicating the progress of a RCMCost simulation

public string AvsimSimulationProgressMessage()


Provides a message indicating the progress of an AvSim simulation

public bool ResetCulture(string culture)


Overrides the default culture setting for messages
culture: The new culture string for messages

public void EnterpriseSetBindingConfiguration(string bindingConfiguration, string scheme, string host, int port,
string userPrincipalName)
Sets the binding configuration of the Enterprise System
bindingConfiguration: The binding configuration string for the Enterprise system
scheme: The scheme to use (leaving blank uses the default scheme)

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host: The host name


port: The port number
userPrincipalName: The user principal name if required

public bool EnterpriseCheckout(Form mainForm, string ID)


Reads data from a Reliability Workbench Enterprise project to a DataSet. Project is checked-out of the Enterprise System.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise check out message forms
ID: The Enterprise project ID

public bool EnterpriseCheckin(Form mainForm, bool useIndicesForForeignKeys, string description, bool


newVersion)
Writes data contained in DataSet tables to an Reliability Workbench project and checks it in to the Enterprise system.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms
useIndicesForForeignKeys: Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID
in the foreign table.
description: A description for the project version
newVersion: If set to true a new version of the Enterprise project will be created on check-in

public bool EnterpriseView(Form mainForm, string ID)


Reads data from a Reliability Workbench Enterprise project to a DataSet.
Project is read-only with respect to the Enterprise System.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms
ID: The Enterprise project ID

public string EnterpriseBrowse(Form mainForm)


Provides a browse dialog to select an Enterprise project. Returns the Enterprise project ID.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms

public void EnterpriseAdministration(Form mainForm)


Provides access to the Enterprise Administration dialog and associated functions.
mainForm: The parent form for any Enterprise message forms

public bool EnterpriseProjectExists(string ID)


Determines whether an Enterprise project exists with the specified ID
ID: The Enterprise project ID

public string BuildUrl(string tableId, string objectId, string objectGuid)


Builds the Url representing the specified object in the current project
tableId: The table identifier for the object
objectId: The object ID
objectGuid: The object GUID

public string GetUrlProjectFile(string urlString)


Retrieves the project file from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlProjectGuid(string urlString)


Retrieves the project GUID from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlTable(string urlString)


Retrieves the project table identifier from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlObjectId(string urlString)


Retrieves the object ID from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

public string GetUrlObjectGuid(string urlString)


Retrieves the object GUID from a Url string
urlString: The Url string

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See Also
LicenseConfiguration Class
DataTable Class
DataColumn Class
DataRow Class
DataValue Class

LicenseConfiguration Class
Constructor (overloaded)

LicenseConfiguration(LicenseSettings.LicenseType licenseType, string licenseLocation)

LicenseConfiguration(LicenseSettings.LicenseType licenseType, string licenseLocation, bool


checkoutRCMLicense, bool checkoutAvSimLicense, bool checkoutLCCLicense, bool checkoutWeibullLicense,
bool checkoutProcessLicense)

Initializes a new instance of the LicenseConfiguration class. The properties of the LicenseConfiguration class specify the
type and location of the DLL license.
licenseType: The licenseType must be set to HARDWARE, SERVER or STANDALONE.
licenseLocation: Must be set to the path name of the standalone license file or the server location. A server location is
specified as <server port number>@<server host name or IP address>. The licenseLocation does not need to be set for
the HARDWARE licenseType.
checkoutRCMLicense: Check out a RCMCost module license (required if performing RCM simulations)
checkoutAvSimLicense: Check out an AvSim module license (required if performing AvSim simulations)
checkoutLCCLicense: Check out a LCC module license (required if performing a LCC analysis)
checkoutWeibullLicense: Check out a Weibull module license (required if performing a Weibull analysis)
checkoutProcessLicense: Check out a Process Reliability module license (required if performing a process reliability
analysis)

See Also
DataSet Class
DataTable Class
DataColumn Class
DataRow Class
DataValue Class

DataTable Class
Public Properties (Read Only)
string id: The unique identifier for the table. Set automatically by the DataSet class constructor when creating all the tables
representing the project schema.
string description: The description for the table. Set automatically by the DataSet class constructor when creating all the
tables representing the project schema.

Public Methods

DataColumn GetColumn(int columnIndex) : DataColumn GetColumn(string columnID)


Overloaded method to obtain the DataColumn object for the specified column. Returns null if an invalid column index or ID
is specified.
columnIndex: The zero-based index of the column
columnID: The column ID

int GetColumnIndex(string columnID)


Returns the index corresponding to the specified column ID or 1 for an invalid ID.
columnID: The column ID

int ColumnCount()
Returns the total number of columns for the DataTable object.

int AddRow()
Adds a row to the DataTable object. Returns the index of the new row.

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DataRow GetRow(int rowIndex)

Returns the DataRow object corresponding to the specified row index value. Returns null for an invalid row index.
rowIndex: The zero-based index of the row.

int RowCount()
Returns the current number of rows for the DataTable object.

See Also
DataSet Class
LicenseConfiguration Class
DataColumn Class
DataRow Class
DataValue Class

DataColumn Class
Public Properties (Read Only)
string id: The unique identifier for the table. Set automatically by the DataSet class constructor when creating all the tables
representing the project schema.

DataType dataType: The column data type. The dataType enumerator may have the following values
String: String data type
Int32: 32-bit integer data type
Double: Double data type
Bool: Boolean data type

bool primaryKey: Indicates whether the column represents a primary key.

bool foreignKey: Indicates whether the column represents a foreign key.

int foreignTableIndex: If the foreign key flag is set to true, this property indicates the index of the foreign table.

int integerMinimum: The minimum allowable value for Int32 data types.

int integerMaximum: The maximum allowable value for Int32 data types.

double doubleMinimum: The minimum allowable value for Double data types.

double doubleMaximum: The maximum allowable value for Double data types.

int noOptions: The number of options allowable for a column that represents a choice list.

string[] optionText: The allowable option strings.

See Also
DataSet Class
LicenseConfiguration Class
DataTable Class
DataRow Class
DataValue Class

DataRow Class
A DataRow represents a row within a DataTable.

Public Methods

DataValue GetValue(int columnIndex) : DataValue GetValue(string columnID)

Overloaded method to obtain the DataValue object for the specified column. Returns null if an invalid column index or ID
is specified.
columnIndex: The zero-based index of the column
columnID: The column ID

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See Also
DataSet Class
LicenseConfiguration Class
DataTable Class
DataColumn Class
DataValue Class

DataValue Class
Represents a data value within a DataRow.

Public Methods

bool SetString(string stringValue)


Sets a string value for a DataValue object.
stringValue: String value

bool SetInt32(int int32Value)


Sets an integer value for a DataValue object.
int32Value: 32-bit integer value.

bool SetDouble(double doubleValue)


Sets a double value for a DataValue object.
doubleValue: Double value

bool SetBool(bool boolValue)


Sets a boolean value for a DataValue object.
boolValue: Boolean value (true or false)

string GetString()
Gets a string value from a DataValue object.

int GetInt32()
Gets an integer value from a DataValue object.

double GetDouble()
Gets a double value from a DataValue object.

bool GetBool()
Gets a boolean value from a DataValue object.

See Also
DataSet Class
LicenseConfiguration Class
DataTable Class
DataColumn Class
DataRow Class

Foreign Key Data Values


When populating an Availability Workbench DataTable you can choose to use strings or integer indices to represent
foreign keys. If you are using the DLL to create very large projects you might wish to use indices to speed up the
performance of the DataTable Write method.

When the DLL populates a DataTable object using the Read method, the DataValue objects created will contain both the
string and integer values for foreign keys. The integer value will be the zero-based index of the row in the foreign table.

When modifying data you may therefore use either the SetString or SetInt32 methods of the DataValue class to set new
data values for foreign keys. When you call the DataTable Write method you must specify which method you have used
by setting the useIndicesForForeignKeys argument to true or false.

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Plugins Overview
If you are licensed to use the Plugins facility you will be able to create programmable plugins that read, analyze and
modify data from the current AWB project. Plugins may be used to create specialized reports, perform specialized
operations or conversions, modify project data and call external libraries or processes. Plugin may be exported for use by
other users.

If you are licensed for plugins then a Plugins tab will be visible in the Application Options dialog. This tab allows you to
import, create and modify different plugins. You may execute a plugin from the Plugins menu. The Plugins menu will only
appear if you have a valid plugins licence and have at least one plugin defined in the Application Options dialog.
Plugin Definition
Each plugin may be defined using the Plugin Definition dialog. This dialog is displayed when adding or editing a plugin
from the Application Options dialog.

General Tab

ID
A unique identifier for the plugin

Menu Text
The text to appear in the Plugins menu

Description
A description of the plugin

Code language
The programming language for the plugin source code. The options are CSharp (C#) and Visual Basic.

Read only
Check the Read only flag if the plugin does not modify the current AWB project.

Use indices for foreign keys


Indicates whether foreign key data values will represent the zero-based index or the string ID in the foreign table.

Image file
An option image file to define a bitmap (16 x 16) that will appear alongside the menu text in the Plugins menu. You may
use the Browse button to locate an image file

Assemblies Tab

Referenced assemblies
A list of assemblies to be referenced by the plugin code. Typical assemblies might be 'System.dll' and 'System.Data.dll'.
Use the Delete and Browse buttons to delete or browse for assemblies respectively.

Code Tab

Source Code
The source code to be executed when the plugin is selected from the Plugins pull-down menu. The executed plugin code
method must be called RunCode with and pass a DataSet argument with return type bool. It must be in the namespace
Plugin and class PluginCode. Return true if project data has been modified. Return false otherwise. The DataSet
argument will be pre-populated with the current Availability Workbench project data. See the DataSet Class reference in
the Dynamic Link Library section for more information.

Sample code written in C#:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Globalization;
using System.IO;

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namespace Plugin
{
class PluginCode
{
public static bool RunCode(AvailabilityWorkbench.Dll.DataSet dataSet)
{
AvailabilityWorkbench.Dll.DataTable dataTable = dataSet.GetTable("Spares");
MessageBox.Show( dataTable.RowCount().ToString());
dataTable = dataSet.GetTable("RcmLocations");
int newRowIndex = dataTable.AddRow();
AvailabilityWorkbench.Dll.DataRow newDataRow = dataTable.GetRow(newRowIndex);
AvailabilityWorkbench.Dll.DataValue dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("Id");
dataValue.SetString("PSTAT1");
dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("Description");
dataValue.SetString("Pumping station");
dataValue = newDataRow.GetValue("Parent");
dataValue.SetString("EX1");
return true;
}
}
}

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file://C:\Users\Teddy\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4817.htm 4/7/2017