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Contents
8.1 Standard Thee Phase Transformer Connections ................................
....................................... 2
8.1.1 Star connection.......................................................
............................................................ 3
8.1.2 Delta connection .....................................................
........................................................... 5
8.1.3 Three phase power ....................................................
......................................................... 6
8.1.4 Three phase transformation............................................
.................................................... 7
8.1.5 Standard three phase transformer connections .........................
....................................... 14
8.2 Thee Phase Transformer Construction.........................................
........................................... 15
8.5 Open-Delta connection (V-V Connection or V connection) .....................
............................. 28
8.5.1 Voltage relations in open delta connection ...........................
........................................... 28
8.5.2 kVA delivered by an open delta connection ............................
........................................ 31
8.5.3 Applications of open delta system ....................................
............................................... 33
8.6 Three- phase to two-phase conversion (Scott connection) ....................
................................. 35
8.6.1 Basic Theory of Scott Connection .....................................
.............................................. 35
8.6.2 Voltage Relations in Scott Connection ................................
............................................ 39
8.6.3 Position of the Neutral Point on Primary .............................
............................................ 40
8.6.4 Current Relations in Scott Connection ................................
............................................ 41
8.7 Three phase to multi-phase transformer connections .........................
.................................... 48
8.7.1 3-phase to 6-phase conversion ........................................
................................................. 48
8.7.2 3-phase to 12-phase conversion ...........................................
................................................ 60

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Chapter 8

Three Phase Transformer

Three phase systems are used for transmission of electric power at optimum cost
where the total
power is divided between three conductors. These three lines are commonly design
ated as R-Y-B
or A-B-C or U-V-W with an optional neutral line.
In most power generating stations, three phase AC generators are used for genera
tion of electric
power. Power is transmitted from the generating station by three phase overh
ead transmission
lines. Three phase transformers are therefore necessary to bring up the voltage
(step up) before
transmission and to step down the voltage at the receiving station for distribut
ion.
A three-phase balanced system is characterized by three voltages and currents, e
ach individually
being pure sinusoidal signals under ideal conditions. RMS values of th
ese three sinusoidal
0
signals are same, but they are displaced from each other in phase by 120 in a b
alanced system.
For such a balanced supply system, summation of the three signals at every ins
tant is zero as
shown in Figure 8.1.

Figure 8.1 Balanced three phase system of signals

8.1 Standard Thee Phase Transformer Connections


When a three phase transformer is to be connected to such a three phase power tr
ansmission and
distribution system, each of the two sides, i.e. HV and LV sides of the three ph
ase transformer
must have at least three terminals coming out of the tank through bushings to ge
t connected to
such a three phase system. In both HV and LV windings, there will be three coils
, one coil for
each of the three phases, with two terminals per coil. Depending on how these si
x terminals of
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the three coils in each winding are connected together, three phase transformer
windings can be
connected either as star (Y) or delta ( ).

8.1.1 Star connection


When one end of each of the three coils are connected to the three power lines
and the other
three ends are connected together to form a neutral or star point, the winding conne
ction is
said to be star as shown in Figure 8.2.
IB B
B1
VBN
B2 N
C2
VCN A2 VAN
C1
IC
A 1 A
C
I
A

Figure 8.2 Three phase star connected transformer windings


In the star connected system as shown in Figure 8.2, V
, V , and V are called the line to
AN BN CN
neutral voltages or simply the phase voltages. These phase voltages are mea
sured across each
individual coils, i.e. A1-A2, B1-B2, and C1-C2. When voltage is measur
ed between two
terminals A-B, B-C, or C-A, the line-to-line voltages or simply the line voltage
s V , V , and
AB BC
V are obtained. I , I , and I are the line currents, which also happen t
o be the phase currents in
CA A B C
a star connected system. The line currents (= phase currents) are mea
sured by connecting
ammeters in series with the lines.
Relationships between line and phase quantities in a balanced star connected thr
ee phase system
can be obtained from the phasor diagram shown in Figure 8.3. Note that the phase
voltages are
shown by three phasors V , V , and V that are of equal
length, but are displaced from each
AN BN CN
0
other by 120 .
Let V V V V
(8.1)
AN BN CN ph
Then, the line-to-line voltage between terminals A and B is determined as:

V V V V V V V V V V V V
(8.2)
AB A B A N B N A N B N
AN BN
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The line voltage V can thus be represented in the phasor diagram as
the phasor summation of
AB
V and V reversed.
AN BN

VBN
1200
N
600
VCN VAN
-VBN
VAB

Figure 8.3 Phasor diagram of balanced star connected system of voltages


From the phasor diagram, magnitude of the line voltage can be determined as:
2 2 0
V V V 2 V V cos60
AB AN BN AN BN
2 2 1
V V 2 V V
ph ph ph ph 2
2 2 2
V V V
ph ph ph
2
3V
ph
3V (8.3)
ph
For a balanced three phase system, the other line voltages can also
be derived in the same
manner as:
V V V 3V (8.4)
AB BC CA ph
The line voltages in a balanced star connected system are thus related to the ph
ase voltages as:
V 3V (8.5)
L ph
For a balanced system, if the line currents are denoted as I and
currents in each of the three
L
phase windings are denoted by the quantity Iph , then they are basica
lly same as indicated in
Figure 8.2 such that:
I L I ph (8.5)

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In a balanced star connected system, line currents are equal to phase currents,
but line
voltages are 3 times the phase voltages.

8.1.2 Delta connection


When the two ends of each coil are connected to one end each of the other two co
ils, thereby
making a total of three terminals to be connected to the three power
lines, the winding
connection is said to be in delta, as shown in Figure 8.4.
IB B
A2
I
B1 AB
A 1
IBC A
C2
ICA
IC B2
C1
C
I
A
Figure 8.4 Three phase delta connected transformer windings
In the delta connected system as shown in Figure 8.4, line-to-line voltages or
line voltages as
measured between lines A-B, B-C, or C-A are same as the voltage across each of t
he phase coils
measured between A1-A2, B1-B2, or C1-C2 respectively. Line currents are
measured by
ammeters connected in series with the liens and phase currents are me
asured by inserting
ammeters along the phase coils.
Relationships between line and phase quantities in a balanced delta connected th
ree phase system
can be obtained from the phasor diagram shown in Figure 8.5. Note that the phase
currents are
shown by three phasors IAB , IB C, and ICA that are of equal length, but are di
splaced from each
0
other by 120 .
The phase currents can be designated as I AB I BC I CA I
ph (8.6)

Then, the line current, say at node A in Figure 8.4, can be expressed following
KCL as:

I A I AB I CA I AB I CA
(8.7)
The line current I can thus be represented in the phasor diagram as
the phasor summation of
A
I and I reversed.
AB CA
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I I
AB CA
1200
600
I
A
-ICA
IBC
Figure 8.5 Phasor diagram of balanced delta connected system of currents
From the phasor diagram, magnitude of the line current can be determined as:
2 2 0
I I I 2 I I cos60
A CA AB CA AB
2 2 1
I I 2 I I
ph ph ph ph 2
2 2 2
I I I
ph ph ph
2
3I
ph
3I ph (8.8
)
For a balanced three phase system, the other line currents can also be derived i
n the same manner
as:
I A I B I C 3I ph (8.9)
The line currents in a balanced delta connected system are thus related to the p
hase currents as:
I L 3I ph (8.1
0)
For a balanced system, if the line voltages are denoted as V and voltages acro
ss each of the three
L
phase windings are denoted by the quantity V , the
n they are basically same as indicated in
ph
Figure 8.4 such that:
V V (8.1
1)
L ph

In a balanced delta connected system, line voltages are equal to phas


e voltages, but line
currents are 3 times the phase currents.
8.1.3 Three phase power
Total three phase power delivered to a three-phase load is three times the power
delivered per
phase.

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If the load has a power factor of cos , then for a star connected system, the tot
al three phase
power is given by:
P 3 V I cos
ph ph
V
L
3 I cos
L
3
3V I cos (8.12)
L L

If the same load is connected to a delta connected system, the total three phas
e power is given
by:
P 3 V I cos
ph ph
I
L
3 V cos
L
3
3V I cos (8.13)
L L

The equivalence between (8.12) and (8.13) indicates that irrespective of the typ
e of connection,
star or delta, the power delivered (or consumed) remains same for a given three
system. Power is
generally expressed in terms of the line voltage and line currents since it is c
onvenient to connect
voltmeter and ammeter in the line that are external to the device, rather than
in the phase coils
which are often inaccessible.

8.1.4 Three phase transformation


In a three phase transformer, there are three HV coils and three LV coils. The t
hree HV coils can
either be connected as star or delta as per requirement, so as the LV coils. Acc
ordingly, a three
phase transformer can basically have four types of possible connections star-sta
r (both HV and
LV star), star-delta (HV star, LV delta), delta-delta (both HV and LV delta), an
d delta-star (HV
delta, LV star). To transform a three phase voltage, either a bank of three iden
tical single phase
transformers are required, or a single poly -phase transformer having six windi
ngs on a common
iron core is used. Whatever may be the case, before interconnecting the coils in
star or delta, care
is to be taken that they are properly connected with regards to thei
r instantaneous polarities.
Before connecting either of the windings as star or delta it is necessary to per
form the polarity
test and mark the terminals of all the six windings that have same instantaneous
polarity with
dots. Typically, the dotted terminals are marked with odd numbered subscripts and th
e other
with even numbered subscripts. Figure 8.6 shows three identical transformers, say
of voltage
ratings 400/200 V with polarity markings as indicated.
A 1 A2 B1 B2
C1 C2
a1 a2 b1 b2
c1 c2
Figure 8.6 Three identical single phase transformers showing polarity markings

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Let us try to connect both HV and LV coils as star. For connecting the HV as sta
r, either the
three dotted terminals of three HV coils are to be connected together
to form the common
junction point and the other three terminals are connected to the three supply l
ines, or the three
un-dotted terminals be connected together as the common point and the three dott
ed terminals be
connected to the three supply lines.
Figure 8.7(a) shows the connection diagram when the three HV coils are connected
as star with
their dotted terminals connected to the supply lines and LV coils yet to be inte
rconnected.
A
A 1 A2
A a2
a1
B
e y VAB
s l B1 B2 b2
b1
a p VCA B N
h p
p u
3 s VBC C
C1 C2 c2
c1
C

(a)
B
300
VBC VBN VAB
b
N
c
VCN VAN
a
C A
VCA

(b) (c
)
Figure 8.7 (a) Star connected HV side connected to 3 phase supply, while LV is s
till unconnected
(b) Line and phase voltages applied to HV side (c) Phase voltages in
duced in unconnected
secondary LV coils a, b, and c.
The line and phase voltages prevailing in the HV side is shown in Figure 8.7(b).
With the phase
voltage magnitudes being 400 V (rated HV voltage), the line voltages are 400 3=693
V. Note
that both the three phase voltages and the three line voltages maintain phase
displacements of
0
120 from each other.
Due to transformer action, voltages induced in the secondary LV coils a, b, and
c, respectively,
bear the same relation to each other as the phase voltages of primary HV side. M
agnitude of each
of the phase voltages on LV side is 200 V as per the turns ratio, and their phas
or relationships,
when unconnected, is shown in Figure 8.7(c). Different possibilities for interc
onnection of the
secondary LV coils will now be investigated.
Star connected LV with dotted terminals as output
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Figure 8.8(a) shows a connection where the secondary LV windings are star conne
cted with the
un-dotted terminals are joined together to a common point (n) and the
dotted terminals are
connected to external lines a, b, and c. As per the phasor relations of Figure 8
.7(c), the phase and
line voltages of the star connected secondary LV is shown in Figure 8.8 (b). Lin
e voltage across
any two LV terminals is obtained as phasor combination of two corresponding ph
ase voltages.
Thus, the voltage between lines a and b is the phasor summation of phase voltage
s between a1-n
and n-b1. In LV side also, the line voltage is 3 times phase voltage, i.e. 200 3 = 3
46 V.
A
a
A 1 A2 a2
a1
A
a
VCA B VAB B1 B B2 N n b2
b b1 Vab b Vca
VBC C
c Vbc
C1 C2 c2
c1
C
c
(a)

b
300
Vbc Vbn Vab
n
Vcn Van
c a
Vca
(b)
Figure 8.8 (a) LV side star connected with un-dotted terminals joined together t
o common point
(b) Line and phase voltages available at LV side
Compare the LV phasors in Figure 8.8(b) with the HV phasors in Figure 8.7(b). Fo
r the type of
connection made in Figure 8.8(a), there is no phase displacement between the lin
e voltages of the
secondaries and line voltages of the corresponding primaries. Same is true for t
he phase voltages
of primaries and secondaries. The two phasor diagrams of Figure 8.8(b) and Figur
e 8.7(b) look
exactly similar, the only difference being in magnitude of the voltages due to t
urns ratio of the
transformer.
Star connected LV with dotted terminals as the common junction point
Figure 8.9(a) shows a connection where the secondary LV windings are star connec
ted with the
dotted terminals are joined together to a common point (n) and the u
n-dotted terminals are
connected to external lines a, b, and c. The HV star connection however, remains
same as before.
Connecting the instantaneous positive terminals to the common point n, rather th
an to the lines,
0
produces 180 reversal of the secondary LV phase voltages with respect to Figu
re 8.7(c). The
0
line voltage will thus also be reversed by 180 as shown in Figure 8.9 (b).

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A
a
A 1 A2 a1
a2
A
a
VCA B VAB B1 B B2 N n b1
b b2 Vab b Vca
VBC C1 C C2 c1
c c2 Vbc
C
c

(a)
Vca
a c
Van Vcn
n
Vab Vbn
300 Vbc
b
(b)
Figure 8.9 (a) LV side star connected with dotted terminals joined together to c
ommon point (b)
Line and phase voltages available at LV side
While magnitudes of all phase and line voltages are the same in Figures 8.8(b) a
nd 8.9(b), they
0
are 180 out of phase with respect to each other. When operating individually, t
hese two different
connections can be used with equal effectiveness, but they can never be connect
ed in parallel.
Doing so will produce an immediate short circuit and large circulating current a
mong the parallel
connected secondary LV windings.
Star connected LV with one coil reversed with respect to polarity
The two LV star connections demonstrated in Figures 8.8 and 8.9 are individually
correct and
can be used individually, if one does not attempt to connect these two in paral
lel. However, if
accidentally one makes a wrong connection by reversing any one of the LV coils w
ith respect to
polarity, then the line voltages get disturbed, even if the phase vol
tage magnitudes remain
undisturbed. This is demonstrated in Figure 8.10(a) where the coil b
on LV side has been
reversed as compared to Figure 8.8(a). The HV connection howev
er, remains same as
previously.
A
a
A 1 A2 a2
a1
A
a
VCA B VAB B1 B B2 N n b1
b b2 Vab b Vca
VBC C
c Vbc
C1 C2 c2
c1
C
c

(a)
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n
Vcn
Van
Vca
c
a
600 Vbn
Vbc Vab
b

(b)
Figure 8.10 (a) LV side star connected with coil b reversed (b) Line and phase v
oltages available
at LV side
As observed in Figure 8.10(b), reversal of coil b in the secondary LV side distu
rbs the relative
displacement between the three phase voltages and also the three line voltages.
Though the phase
voltages still remain 200 V, the line voltage magnitudes get disturbed. The two
line voltages Vab,
and Vbc reduce to 200 V each (equal to phase voltage), while the third line volt
age Vca is 200 3
= 346 V. The three secondary LV line voltages are thus neither equal in magnitud
e, nor displaced
0
from each other by 120 .
When used independently, such connection will not give satisfactory ope
ration of the load
connected to the secondary LV side due to unbalanced line voltages available. In
addition, if this
transformer is paralleled with any one of Figures 8.8 and 8.9, large circulating
current among the
LV coils will flow due to large differences in respective line voltages across t
he three terminals.
Delta connected LV with correct polarity
With the primary HV coils connected as star as before, the three sec
ondary LV coils can be
connected in delta. For correct delta connection it is required that
coil ends of opposite
instantaneous polarity are connected together to form a closed loop as shown in
Figure 8.11(a).
A
a
A 1 A2 a2
a1
A
a
VAB B B2 b2
b Vab
VCA B B1 N
b1 b Vca
VBC C
c Vbc
C1 C2 c2
c1
C
c

(a)
B
b
Vab
300
VBC VBN VAB
Vbc
a
N
VCN VAN Vca
C VCA A c

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(b) (c
)
Figure 8.11 (a) HV side star connected, LV side delta connected, both
with proper regard to
polarity (b) Line and phase voltages applied to primary HV star side (b) Line an
d phase voltages
available at secondary LV delta side
The line and phase voltages in secondary LV side are same with each other in mag
nitude as well
as in phase, as is the property of delta connection. As such the li
ne voltages overlap the
corresponding phase voltages as shown in Figure 8.11(c). All of the three second
ary LV voltages
are 200 V each, as obtained from the transformer turns ratio with respect to the
primary supply
voltage of 400 V per phase. Figure 8.11(b) shows phase and line voltages of the
primary HV star
connected side for ready reference. Comparing Figures 8.11(b) and 8.11(c) it is
to be noted that
though the three secondary phase voltages are in the same phase as t
he three corresponding
0
primary phase voltages, the secondary line voltages have a phase displ
acement of 30 with
respect to their corresponding primary line voltages.
Since the three LV coils connected in delta forms a closed loop, the resultant v
oltage around the
loop must be zero. Thus, phasor summation of the three secondary LV voltages mu
st be zero,
which is evident from the phasor diagram of Figure 8.11(c). To physic
ally check whether the
delta has been properly formed with respect to instantaneous polarities of the t
hree LV coils, it is
often customary to measure this resultant voltage V before closing the seconda
ry delta between
R
terminal c2 of coil c and terminal a1 of coil a, as shown in Figure 8.12. If the
voltmeter reads
zero (or close to zero considering slight imbalances), then the delta
can be safely closed by
removing the voltmeter and connecting c2 with a1 as shown in Figure 8.11(a).
A a
A 1 A2 a2
a1
A
a
VAB B B2 VR b2
b Vab
VCA B B1 N
b1 b Vca
VBC C
c Vbc
C1 C2 c2
c1
C
c

(a)
b
Vab
Vbc
a
Vca
V =0
R
c

(b)
Figure 8.12 Use of voltmeter to check correct delta connection in secondary LV (
a) connection
diagram for checking V = 0 (b) Secondary LV phasor diagram for cor
rect delta connection
R
resulting in V = 0.
R

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Another connection scheme is possible for the secondary LV side as sh
own in Figure 8.13(a)
where coil ends that are being connected together are the ones different from Fi
gure 8.11 to form
the delta.
A
a
A 1 A2 a2
a1
A
a
VAB B B2 b2
b Vab
VCA B B1 N
b1 b Vca
VBC C
c Vbc
C1 C2 c2
c1
C
c

(a)
B

b
300
Vbc
VBC VBN VAB
N c
Vab
VCN VAN
Vca
C A
a
VCA

(b)
(c)
Figure 8.13 (a) HV side star connected, LV side delta connected, both
with proper regard to
polarity (b) Line and phase voltages applied to primary HV star side (c) Line an
d phase voltages
available at secondary LV delta side
Reversing the terminals of LV coils to be connected as delta with regard to thei
r instantaneous
polarities produces makes the secondary LV phase voltages re-orient as shown in
Figure 8.13(c).
When operating individually, both these two different delta connections shown in
Figures 8.11
and 8.13 are correct and can be used with equal effectiveness, but they can neve
r be connected in
parallel . Doing so will produce an immediate short circuit and large circulatin
g current among
the parallel connected secondary LV windings.
Delta connected LV with incorrect polarity
The mandatory requirement for correct delta connection is that
coil ends of opposite
instantaneous polarity are to be connected together to form a closed loop as was
earlier shown in
Figures 8.11 to 8.13. However, if accidentally one of the LV coils of the transf
ormer is reversed,
high circulating currents will flow in the transformer secondary LV de
lta connection causing
severe damage. Let us consider the case when the coil c of LV is accidentally r
eversed making
the delta connection as shown in Figure 8.14(a). The primary HV connection howev
er, remains
connected correctly as star as before. The corresponding LV phasor diagram in Fi
gure 8.14(b)
shows that the resultant of three LV phase voltages is not zero, as would have
been for a properly
connected closed delta loop. Such an erroneous connection will cause large shor
t circuit current
to flow in the secondary LV delta once the loop is closed. It is t
hus recommended that a
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voltmeter be used as earlier to check this resultant voltage before c
losing the delta. In such a
case, Vab will read 200 V, Vbc will read 3200 = 364 V and Vca will read 2200 = 400
V. The
moment the voltmeter is removed and attempt is made to close the delta by connec
ting a1 and c1
together, we are actually shorting two terminals which are at a poten
tial difference of 400V.
Such a wrong delta connection will thus not only make the line voltages totally
unbalanced in the
secondary LV delta side, but will damage the transformer due to flow
of large short circuit
current. Effect of such severe short circuit on the secondary will also get refl
ected on the primary
side as well causing primary voltages to get unbalanced as well unles
s the supply is not
sufficiently stiff.
A a
A 1 A2 a2 a1
A
a
VAB B B2 VR b2 b V
ab
VCA B B1 N b1
b Vca
VBC C c V
bc
C1 C2 c2 c1
C
c

(a)
b
Vab
h
p a
V V
3 b
=
c
b
V
Vc
h
p
V
2
=
c R
V
=
a
c
V
(b)
Figure 8.14 (a) HV side correctly star connected, LV side delta conne
cted, but with improper
polarity (b) Line and phase voltages of wrongly connected secondary LV delta sid
e
Foregoing discussions in this section have enumerated the importance of
checking the correct
instantaneous polarity markings on the coils to be interconnected in three phase
transformers.
8.1.5 Standard three phase transformer connections
As discussed previously, both the HV and LV coils of a three phase
transformer may be
connected as star or delta as per the requirement. Accordingly, the s
tandard connections
available for three phase transformers are star-delta, delta-star, delta-delta,
or star-star. Whether
the connection type to be used for a given application is star or delta depends
on factors such as
the operating voltage level, insulation, load to be connected, and har
monic suppression.
Remember that for a delta connection, line voltages are equal to the phase volta
ges and for a star
1
connection, phase voltages are times line voltages. Consider the sc
hematic diagram of a part
3
of a power system shown in Figure 8.15. The generator voltage of 25 kV is first
stepped up to a
higher voltage level of 132 kV by the generator transformer T1. Power is transmi
tted at 132 kV
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before being stepped down by the transformer T2 to a voltage level o
f 11 kV for primary
distribution. A third transformer T3 is used to step down the voltage
further to 415 V to
distribute the power at low voltage to consumers. All the three trans
formers shown in the
diagram are three phase transformers that are used to transfer the po
wer at different voltage
levels.

25 kV 132 kV 132 kV
11 kV
G
T1 T2
T3

Consumer
25 kV 25/ 132 kV 132/
11 kV 11/0.4 15 kV

Figure 8.15 Schematic line diagram of a power network


For the step down power transformer T1, the HV 132 kV side it to be connected as
star. Doing
so, the phase voltage that is impressed across each winding of the transformer i
s less, being only
1
132 76.2 kV as compared to the line voltage of 132 kV, which is
very high. Thus,
3
insulation requirement will be less if the HV side of the generator transformer
T1 is connected as
star. Thus, transformer T1 is connected as delta-star (LV side delta, and HV sid
e star connected).
Similarly, to reduce insulation requirements, the HV side of primary distributio
n transformer T2
should be connected as star. Thus transformer T2 should have a connection scheme
of star-delta,
its 132 kV HV side being connected as star, and 11 kV LV side may be connected a
s delta.
Step down transformers used for secondary distribution, such as T3, sh
ould be connected as
delta-star, i.e. its LV 415 V side must be connected as star. In the LV distribu
tion side thus both
415 V three phase power is available between lines to run three phase loads such
as pumps, lifts,
1
motors etc., as well as 415 240V is available between phase i.e. be
tween any one of the
3
lines and the neutral to supply single phase loads such as domestic loads.
Delta-delta connected (LV and HV both connected as delta) transformer
is mostly used for
special applications where suppressing or reducing harmonics (specially
3rd harmonic) is
essential. Delta connection is however generally restricted to voltage levels o
f less than 11 kV,
otherwise insulation requirements and cost become high.
Star-star connected (LV and HV both connected as star) transformers are rarely u
sed; because it
is always recommended that at least one of the two sides, either the
HV or the LV side of a
transformer needs to be connected as delta so as to reduce harmonics. If at all,
star-star connected
transformers can be used as small distribution transformers only where
reduced insulation
requirements in both windings reduces cost to a large extent.

8.2 Thee Phase Transformer Construction

----------------------- Page 16-----------------------


The voltage transformation in a three phase system can be done by ei
ther three independent
single phase transformers interconnected together, or by a single three phase tr
ansformer. The
basic difference in construction of a three phase transformer over a single phas
e transformer is in
the magnetic core. Whereas single phase transformer core is meant to hold only t
wo coils, one
HV and one LV, a three phase transformer core has to hold six coils, three HV an
d three LV.
Other than that, everything else, including the winding construction, i
nsulation, tank and
accessories are exactly similar in a three phase transformer and a single phase
transformer.
Like in a single phase transformer, three phase transformer core can also be con
structed as core
type or shell type. In core type construction, shown in Figure 8.16, three pha
se windings are
placed on three limbs. Each limb contain both HV and LV windings, with LV placed
nearer to
the core and HV wound outside LV. The terminals of HV coils and LV coils from ea
ch phase are
taken out of the tank through bushings and necessary connections are made outsid
e so as to make
the windings as star or delta before being connected to overhead power lines.

Figure 8.15 Three phase three-limb core type transformer construction


Flux belonging to each phase winding completes its path through the o
ther two limbs and
thereby all the three fluxes interfere with each other. Since the yok
e has to carry all the flux
created by all the three phase coils, the yoke cross section needs to be large i
n the three-limb type
construction. Height of such a transformer can go very high and this poses a dif
ficulty during
transportation.
Alternately, a five-limb core type construction may be used as shown
in Figure 8.16, which
allows certain share of the total flux to pass through the two side
limbs thereby reducing the
amount of flux that has to pass through the yokes. Thus, size of the yokes and h
ence total height
of the transformer can be reduced. Though reduction in overall height eases the
transportation
problem, but five-limb construction is usually costlier mainly due to
additional manufacturing
and assembly costs.

----------------------- Page 17-----------------------

Figure 8.16 Three phase five-limb core type transformer construction


In shell type construction, shown in Figure 8.17, each of the three phases have
both HV and LV
coils and the whole structure appears to be three single phase shell type cores
placed one over the
other. Flux belonging to each phase winding completes its path through the two s
ide limbs. Due
to availability of low reluctance path around the two adjacent windows, the thre
e fluxes of three
different phases flow mostly independent of each other, except in the two horizo
ntal sections at
middle. The magnetic circuit of such a shell type construction
is hence called quasi-
independent magnetic circuit.
Consider a balanced system where the three fluxes are equal in magnitude, i.e. R
Y B ,
0
and they are displaced from each other by 120 . Thus, total flux in each of the
vertical sections at

the middle is , whereas flux in the left and right vertical sections are only
. In the top most
2
and bottom most horizontal sections, the flux is also only .
In the two horizontal sections at the
2
3
middle, the flux is as explained in the phasor diagram of Figure 8.17 (
b).
2
----------------------- Page 18-----------------------
R R
2 2
R
Y Y
2 2
Y
R
3
2
B B
R
2
2
2
Y
2
H
V
Y B B
Y
2
2

Y
B

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.17 (a) Three phase shell type construction (b) Phasor diagram to calcul
ate resultant flux
in two horizontal sections at the middle when the two fluxes are subtractive
Such non-uniform distribution of flux makes core construction extremely difficu
lt. In order to
have uniform flux density in all sections of the core, different sections need t
o be of different
cross sections; that not only increases cost of manufacture, also makes it diffi
cult to assemble
laminations of different sizes. If the entire core is made of same cross section
, then some part of
the core will get saturated due to excessive flux density and some other part wi
ll remain under-
utilized due to low flux density.

To avoid this situation, a simple solution can be achieved by reversing the wind
ing direction of
the middle coil, i.e. the coils of Y phase. This can be done by interchanging th
e terminals of Y
phase. This makes the flux of phase Y to reverse its direction as shown in Figur
e 8.18(a). In the
two horizontal sections at the middle, the flux coming from opposite directions
are now additive
so the resultant flux there is as explained in the phasor diagram of Figu
re 8.18 (b).
2
----------------------- Page 19-----------------------
R R
2 2
R
Y Y
2 2
Y

R
B
B
2
2
R
2

H
V
2
Y B
B
Y
2
2

Y
B

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.18 (a) Three phase shell type construction with middle phase
terminals reversed (b)
Phasor diagram to calculate resultant flux in two horizontal sections at the mid
dle when the two
fluxes are additive
This makes flux in all the sections equal ( ), except for the vertical m
iddle section where it is
2
. The core construction is much easier and less costly since cross section in mo
st part of the core
can now be made equal without causing saturation.
Though overall size of the core is more in shell type construction a
s compared to core type
construction, one great advantage of the shell type is that since the
three magnetic paths are
mostly independent (quasi-independent), in case of fault in any one of the phase
coils, the other
two coils can still be used to supply the load without hampering the magnetic fl
ux. One such
condition is the open delta mode of operation, as will be discussed in detail in
later sections,
where the transformer will be found to be able to deliver up to 58% of its ratin
g even with one of
the phases getting opened. This is not possible in core type construction, since
the resultant flux
in the core is influenced by all the three phase fluxes in every part of the cor
e. Thus, a fault in
any of the winding will disturb the flux distribution throughout the
entire core causing the
transformer to fail to operate satisfactorily.
----------------------- Page 20-----------------------

At this point we are ready to compare the relative merits and demerits of whethe
r to use three
single phase transformers connected in a bank, or to use a single three phase tr
ansformer.
A single three phase transformer is big and heavy as compared to any of t
he single phase
transformers. And thus a big three phase unit is more difficult to han
dle, transport and
install. Specially installation in places where space is a constraint,
such as in mines; it is
thus recommended to use bank of three single phase transformer
s that are easier to
transport individually rather than a single big three phase unit.
Single three phase unit is more difficult and costly to repair or even f
or maintenance than
single phase units. In case of fault in any one of the units of the ba
nk, it can be taken out
of service for maintenance without disturbing the other two. But for a
single three phase
transformer, the entire unit need to be taken out of service, entire oi
l to be drained out,
entire heavy core with coils need to be de-tanked before attempting any
repair job.
It is obviously less costly to keep one standby (spare) when three single
phase units are
used in a bank, rather than a single three phase unit. In case of fault
in any one of the
three single phase transformers, only the faulty unit needs to be repla
ced by the spare one
and service can be restored quickly. On the other hand, if a
single three phase unit is
used, then even for a minor fault, the total unit needs to be taken ou
t and replaced by a
similar big unit.
When three separate single phase units used in a bank are conn
ected in delta, it is
possible to supply de-rated three phase supply in open delta mo
de when one single
phase unit becomes faulty. In open-delta mode, the faulty unit
is simply removed and
continuity of three phase supply is maintained by operating th
e remaining two healthy
units in open delta mode delivering up to 58% of the original power ca
pacity till the
faulty unit is replaced. This facility is often not possible when a sin
gle three phase unit is
used where all the magnetic circuits are interlinked, thus fau
lt in any of the three
windings will affect the other two phase thereby preventing satisfactor
y operation of the
whole transformer.
In spite of these disadvantages, the common practice is to use single three
phase unit rather
than a bank of three single phase units due to the following reasons:
The great advantage of using a single three phase unit rather than t
hree separate single
phase units is in terms of large saving in core material. Whereas
as three single phase
transformers will require three independent cores, having a
t least six limbs, a core
type three phase transformer will require only three limbs . This
is possible because in
a single three phase unit, the same iron is being utilized by all
the three phases for
flow of flux, which is not possible in three single phase units wh
ere the flux paths are
obviously independent as the transformers are physically separate.
A three phase unit
used for the same purpose roughly requires only one third
of the core material
required if three single phase units are connected in a bank.
Reduced core material obviously reduces the cost of iron in a single
three phase units
in comparison to three single phase units connected in a bank.
When the interconnections between windings of different phases are d
one internally,
which is commonly the case, a single three phase unit wi
ll require only three
terminals to be brought out of the transformer tank to b
e connected to power lines
both in HV and LV sides. Thus three HV bushings and thr
ee LV bushings are
----------------------- Page 21-----------------------
sufficient when a single three phase unit is used. On the other ha
nd, when three single
phase units are to be connected in a bank, there is no
provision for internal
connections, and all connections for star or delta whatever the ca
se may be, must be
done externally. Thus from each of the three single phase units f
our terminals (two
HV and two LV) need to be brought out of the tank and then to be
interconnected
externally. Thus a bank of three single phase units will require a
t least 12 bushings
which obviously increase the cost.
Since the entire three phase assembly is compact in size, the size o
f tank and amount
of oil required is less if a single three phase unit is used in pl
ace of three separate
single phase units. This also saves overall cost.
Additionally, three separate single phase units will require three ti
mes more number
of accessories such as breather, conservator, Buchholzs relay, valv
es, indicators etc.
as compared to a single three phase unit.
A three phase transformer is thus cheaper (by approximately 15%) tha
n when a bank
of three single phase transformers are used for the same purpose.
A single three phase unit is more efficient than three single phase u
nits since the core
losses are less in former due to shorter magnetic path and less vo
lume of iron being
used in core.
The space required for installing three single phase units is genera
lly more since they
need to be physically separated from each other to enhance safety a
nd cooling. On the
other hand, the overall floor space necessary to install
a single three phase unit is
comparatively less.

Example 8.1: A bank of three single-phase transformers are connected to 33 kV su


pply and
takes 30 A. If the turns ratio (turns per phase) is 10, calculate secondary l
ine voltage and
current, primary and secondary phase currents, and output for the following conn
ections
(a) star-star (b) delta-delta (c) star-delta (d) delta-star.
(a) Star-star connection
Primary line voltage
Primary phase voltage =
3
33000
= 19053V
3
Primary phase current = Primary line current = 30 A
Primary phase voltage
Secondary phase voltage =
Ratio of turns/pha se
19053
= 1905.3 V
10
Secondary line voltage = Secondary phase voltage
3
= 1905.3 3 3300 V
Secondary phase current = Secondary line current
= Primary phase current Ratio of tu
rns/phase
= 3010 = 300 A
----------------------- Page 22-----------------------
Output = 3 Secondary line voltage Secondary line current
= 3 3300 300 = 1715 kVA
(b) Delta-delta connection
Primary phase voltage = Primary line voltage = 33000 V
Primary line current
Primary phase current =
3
30
= 17.32A
3
Primary phase voltage
Secondary phase voltage =
Ratio of turns/pha se
33000
= 3300V
10
Secondary line voltage = Secondary phase voltage = 3300 V
Secondary phase current = Primary phase current Ratio of turns/
phase
= 17.3210 = 173.2 A
Secondary line current = 3 Secondary phase current
= 3 173.2 = 300 A
Output = 3 Secondary line voltage Secondary line current
= 3 3300 300 = 1715 kVA

(c) Star-delta connection


Primary line voltage
Primary phase voltage =
3
33000
= 19053V
3
Primary phase current = Primary line current = 30 A
Primary phase voltage
Secondary phase voltage =
Ratio of turns/pha se
19053
= 1905.3 V
10
Secondary line voltage = Secondary phase voltage = 1905.3 V
Secondary phase current = Primary phase current Ratio of turns/
phase
= 3010 = 300 A
Secondary line current = 3 Secondary phase current
= 3 300 = 519.6 A
----------------------- Page 23-----------------------

Output = 3 Secondary line voltage Secondary line current


= 3 1905.3 519.6 = 1715 kVA

(d) Delta-star connection


Primary phase voltage = Primary line voltage = 33000 V
Primary line current
Primary phase current =
3
30
= 17.32A
3
Primary phase voltage
Secondary phase voltage =
Ratio of turns/pha se
33000
= 3300V
10
Secondary line voltage = Secondary phase voltage
3
= 3300 3 5715.8 V
Secondary phase current = Secondary line current
= Primary phase current Ratio of
turns/phase
= 17.3210 = 173.2 A
Output = 3 Secondary line voltage Secondary line current
= 3 5715.8 173.2 = 1715 kVA
The results are summarized in the following table:
Connection Primary Seco
ndary Output (kVA)
Voltage (V) Current (A) Voltage (V)
Current (A)
Star-star Line 33000 30 3300
519.6 1715
Phase 19053 30 1905.3
300
Delta-delta Line 33000 30 3300
300 1715
Phase 33000 17.32 3300
173.2
Star-delta Line 33000 30 1905.3
519.6 1715
Phase 19053 30 1905.3
300
Delta-star Line 33000 30 5715.8
173.2 1715
Phase 33000 17.32 3300
173.2
It is very interesting to note that power rating of the transformer
remains same (1715 kVA),
irrespective of the type of connection in primary or secondary.

Example 8.2: Three single phase 50 kVA, 2300/230 V, 50 Hz transformers are conn
ected to
form a three phase star-delta transformer. The equivalent impedance of each tran
sformer
referred to HV side is (1.2 + j1.6) . The three phase transformer thus formed sup
plies a
----------------------- Page 24-----------------------
three-phase load of 120 kVA at 230 V with 0.85 power factor (lag).
Determine voltage
regulation of the transformer.

3
120 10
With the connected load, secondary line current I
301.23 A
2L
3 230
301.23
Secondary phase current I 2ph
173.92 A
3
2300
Ratio of turns per phase = a 10
230
The impedance of (1.2 + j1.6) when referred to LV side is:
Z 1.2 j 1.6
e
Z 0.012 j 0.16 R jX
e 2 2 e e
a 10
Given, load power factor, cos 0.85
1 0
cos 0.85 31.79
Thus, the secondary load current per phase can be represented as: I 2ph
173.92 31.790
Taking the no-load secondary voltage of 230 V as reference, the secondary voltag
e at full load
is given by:
V E I R jX
2 2 2 e e
230 173.92 31.790 0.012 j 0.016
226.76 0.320 V

E V 230 226.76
% Regulation = 2 2 100% 100% 1.43%
V 226.76
2

Example 8.3: A balanced star-connected and purely resistive load is


connected at the
secondary of a star connected transformer as shown in the figure. The line-to-l
ine voltage
rating of the transformer is 110V/220V. Neglecting the non-idealities o
f the transformer,
the impedance Z of the equivalent star connected load, referred to the primary sid
e of the
transformer is:
(a) (3 + j0) (b) (0.866 j0.5) (c) (0.866 + j0.5) (d) (1 + j0)
[GATE EE 2010]

220 V is the line to line voltage in secondary


220
Voltage across each of the 4 star-connected load resistance =
V
3
----------------------- Page 25-----------------------
220
Current in each of the 4 load resistance = A = Line current in s
econdary
3 4
Line current
220
Phase current in each of the secondary delta coils = =
A
3
3 3 4
110
Voltage per phase in star connected primary = V
3
Voltage per phase in delta connected secondary = Line to line voltage in seconda
ry = 220 V
110
3
Transformation ratio =
220
Thus, primary current per phase = Secondary current per phase/transformation rat
io
220
3 3 4 220 220 3
A
110 3 3 4 110
3
220
Primary
voltage per phase
Equivalent load resistance per phase referred to primary =
Primary
current per phase
110
3 110 3
3 4 110
1
220 220 3 3 220
220 3
3 3 4 110
Thus, correct option is (d) (1 + j0)

Example 8.4: The resistance and reactance of a 100 kVA, 11000/400 V


, delta-star
distribution transformer are 0.02 and 0.07 pu respectively. The phase
impedance of the
transformer referred to the primary is:
(a) (0.02 + j0.07) (b) (0.55 + j1.925)
(c) (15.125 + j52.94) (d) (72.6 + j254.1)
[
GATE EE 2004]

3
100 10
Power per phase
3 100
Rated current per phase in delta connected primary
Voltage per phas
e 11000 33
Rated Primary voltage per phase 11000
Base impedance 3630
Rated Primary current per phase100
33
Note that per unit impedance of a transformer remain unaffected whether it is re
ferred to primary
or the secondary.

----------------------- Page 26-----------------------


Phase impedance referred to primary = 3630 (0.02 + j0.07) = (72.6 + j254.1)
Thus, correct option is (d)

Example 8.5: A three phase transformer has a rating of 20 MVA, 220


kV(star) 33
kV(delta) with leakage reactance of 12%. The transformer reactance (in ohms) ref
erred to
each phase of the LV delta connected side is:
(a) 23 (b) 19.6 (c) 18.5 (d) 8.7
[GATE EE 2001]
Rated current phase in delta connected LV is given from the equation:
3V I kVA
ph ph
3 6
3 33 10 I 20 10
ph
I 202A
ph
V
3
ph
33 10
Base impedance referred to delta connected LV Zbase
163.35
I
202
ph
Given, leakage reactance = 12%.
Thus, ohmic value of leakage reactance referred to LV side
12
X Z 163.35 19.6
eLV x base
100
Thus, correct option is (b)
Example 8.5: A three phase delta/star transformer is supplied at 600
0 V on the delta
connected side. The terminal voltage in the secondary side when supplying full l
oad at 0.8
lagging power factor is 415 V. The equivalent resistance and reactance
drops of the
transformer are 1% and 5% respectively. The turns ratio of the transformer is:
(a) 14 (b) 24 (c) 42 (d) 20
[GATE EE 2000]
I Re
Given, equivalent resistance drop = 2 2 100% 1%
V
2
I Xe
And, equivalent reactance drop = 2 2 100% 5%
V
2
Both these two drops can be expressed either in terms of secondary (as done abov
e) or in terms
of primary.
Given, load power factor cos 0.8
2
sin 1 cos 0.6

----------------------- Page 27-----------------------


Percentage regulation (Line to line)
E V I Re I Xe
2 2 2 2 2 2
100% cos sin 100% cos sin
V r x V V
2 2 2
E2 415 1 5
or, 0.8 0.6
415 100 100
E2 415
or, 0.038
415
or, E2 415 415 0.038 430.77V
430.77
Since secondary is star connected, induced emf per phase in secondary =
249V
3
Thus, turns ratio = 6000/249 24
Thus, correct option is (b)

Example 8.5: The percentage impedance of a 100 kVA, 11 kV/400 V, d


elta-wye, 50 Hz
transformer is 4%. For circulation of half the full load current during short c
ircuit test,
with low voltage terminals shorted, the applied voltage on the high v
oltage side will be
________.
[GATE EE 1995]

3
100 10
Power per phase
3
Full load LV winding current per phase I 2
144A
Voltage per phase
400
3
400
Voltage per phase 3
LV winding base impedance = 1.6 ohm
Current per phase 144
LV winding impedance = Per unit impedance base impedance
4.5
= 1.6 0.072 ohm
100
When LV is short circuited, the LV winding voltage is entirely consum
ed in the internal
impedance of the winding.
Thus, to circulate half the full load current i.e. 144/2 = 72 A current, the req
uired LV voltage is
720.072 = 5.18 V
HV voltage per phase 11000
Now, per phase turns ratio a 47.63
LV voltage per phase 400
3
Hence, corresponding voltage to be applied to the HV side is 47.635.18 = 246.7 V
Ans

----------------------- Page 28-----------------------


8.5 Open-Delta connection (V-V Connection or V connection)
When a three phase transformer bank connected in Delta-delta supplies a three ph
ase balanced
load, then each transformer carries 1/3rd of the total load. If any one of th
e three transformers
gets damaged accidentally, then it can be removed from the bank, and three-phase
power can still
be supplied to the load, though at a reduced level. Such a connection after remo
val of one of the
transformer from the conventional Dd configuration is called the open delta con
nection or V-V
connection or simply V connection. Thus in open-delta system, instead
of three single phase
transformers, two single phase transformers can be used to form a bank and suppl
y three phase
power to a load.

8.5.1 Voltage relations in open delta connection


Let, out of the three transformers used for phase A, B, and C, the
transformer for phase C is
damaged and had been removed. So that, in the delta connections both in primary
and secondary,
the coils to be connected between terminals C 1 and C2 (in primary) and betwee
n c1 and c2 (in
secondary) are absent as shown in Figure 8.80. Note that the direction of curren
ts in primary and
its corresponding coil in secondary are opposite.
IB
I B1 B2
Ia
A
A
B
b1
b2
b Ib
A2 I C1 a
AB
Balanced a2
Iba c1
3-phase
Balanced
Supply ICA
Iac 3-phase

Load

c2
A 1 C2
a1 c Ic
C
IC
Figure 8.80 Open delta (V-V) connection of transformers
Let the primary supply line to line voltages are VAB, VBC and VCA as applied t
o the three input
terminals A, B, and C. These three line voltages form a balanced set of three-ph
ase voltage being
0
displaced by 120 with respect to each other. Arbitrarily considering the phase
sequence A-B-C,
these three voltages can be represented as following taking V
as the reference phasor:
AB

V V 00
AB P
0
V V 120
BC P
----------------------- Page 29-----------------------
0
V V 120
CA P
Where, V is the magnitude of primary line voltage.
P

The primary voltage phasor diagram is shown in Figure 8.81. A three phase balan
ced voltage
0
(each of same magnitude and displaced from each other by 120 ) is applied at the
three terminals
A, B, and C.
VAB
A B
VCA VBC
C
Figure 8.81 Three phase balanced supply line voltage phasors
Voltages induced in the two healthy secondary coils are available between the ou
tput terminals
a-b, and c-a. Let these voltages be denoted by Vab, and Vca. Magnitudes of these
two secondary
voltages are determined by the per-phase turns ratio:
V V V Primary turns per phase
AB CA P Turns ratio a

V V V Secondary turns per phase


ab ca S

Where V is the magnitude of secondary line voltage.


S

Remember that the primary and secondary coils of the same phase are put one the
same limb and
are linked by the same mutual flux. Thus the primary and secondary voltages of s
ame phase coils
do not have any phase angle difference between them. Thus, since the primary vol
tages on AB
0
0
and CA phases are represented by V V 0 , and V
V 120 , so the two
AB P
CA P
corresponding secondary line voltages can be denoted as:

V V 0 0 V V
0 0
V AB P 0 V 0 , and V CA P 120 V
ab S ca
S
a a a a

Though there is no winding between the terminals b and c in the secondary side (
coil c1-c2 is
absent), but there exists a potential difference between the terminals b and c.
Let this voltage be
denoted by Vbc :
V V V
bc b c
or, V V V V V
bc b a c a
----------------------- Page 30-----------------------

or, V V V V V
bc a b c a
or, V V V
bc ab ca

or, V V V
bc ab ca
0 0
or, V V 0 V 120
bc S S
0 0 0 0
or, V V cos0 j sin 0 cos120 j sin 120
bc S
1
or, V V 1 j 0.866
bc S
2
1
V V j 0.866
or, bc S
2
1
V V j 0.866
or, bc S
2
0 0
or, V V cos 120 j sin 120
bc S
0
or, V V 120
bc S

Thus, across the three secondary terminals we get three line voltages given by:

0 0 0
V V 0 , V V 120 , and V V 120
ab S ca S bc S

It is interesting to note that these three secondary line voltages form a triad
of three balanced
0
voltages of equal magnitude and displaced from each other by 120 . Thus, with t
wo transformers
only, it is possible to obtain a three phase balanced set of voltage
s in the secondary with no
difficulty in supplying a three phase load.
Phasor diagram of the secondary side line voltages are shown in Figure 8.82(a).
The line voltage
Vbc is represented by dotted line to indicate that the corresponding coil is act
ually absent.
Vab
a b
Vca Vbc
c
Figure 8.82 Three phase balanced secondary line voltage phasors

----------------------- Page 31-----------------------


8.5.2 kVA delivered by an open delta connection
With the absence of one of the three transformers, it may appear that the bank w
ill now be able
to deliver 2/3rd of the total power it would have delivered with all three tran
sformers working.
This however, is not the case.
With healthy delta connection, the relationships between line and phase quantiti
es are expressed
as:
V V , i.e. line and phase voltages are equal
L ph

And I L 3I ph , i.e line currents are 3 times the phase curren


ts

Power (VA) rating of the three phase healthy delta connected transformer bank i
s:
P 3V I 3V 3I 3V I (8
.14)
healthy L L ph ph ph ph

Now, with open delta connection, the line voltages still remain same as that acr
oss each of the
phase coils (i.e V V ) for all the three voltages Vab, Vbc
, and Vca. For a balanced load
L ph
connected between the three lines of secondary, since the three phases of the lo
ad receive same
0
voltage (at 120 with respect to each other), the three line currents must also
be balanced (same
0
magnitude, but displaced from each other by 120 ). However, the line currents in
lines b and c (I
b
and I ) should not be more than the rated currents in the corresponding phase co
ils, i.e. I = I =
c
L1 b
I = I , I = I = I = I . The third line current I =
I must be equal to (I + I ) for satisfying
ba ph L2 c ac ph L3
a b c
KCL at node a.
Thus,
0 0
I I I I 0 I 120
a b c ph ph

I ph I ph 0.5 j 0.866 I ph 0.5 j 0.866


0
I 120
ph

The three secondary line currents are thus seen to form a balanced set of three-
phase currents
0
with same magnitude (= Iph) and displaced from each other by 120 .
It is thus seen that without overloading any of the two remaining coils, the lin
e currents can no
longer be more than the currents flowing through individual phase coil
s, i.e. I L I ph for the
secondary line currents.
Thus, power (VA) delivered to the load by the open delta connected transformer b
ank is:
P 3V I 3V I (8.15)
open L L ph ph
----------------------- Page 32-----------------------

kVA rating of open delta 3V I 1


ph ph
Thus, 0.577
kVA rating of closed delta 3V I 3
ph ph

Hence, when one out of the three transformers in a delta-delta bank fails, it is
still possible to
supply a three phase load, but with a reduced capacity of 57.7%.
[It means that when one of the three transformers in a healthy three-phase delta
connection
gets damaged, then with open delta mode it is still possible to supp
ly balanced three phase
powe r but the load current must be reduced to 57.7% of its original value. Othe
rwise the two
healthy coils will get over loaded by 1/0.577 = 1.732 times, i.e. 73.2% more].
Thus, without exceeding the ratings of the two remaining healthy tran
sformers, the capacity
available under open-delta mode is less than the total available capa
city of the two healthy
transformers. Each of the two healthy transformers have power (VA) ratings of V
I , so the
ph ph
total installed capacity is 2V I , whereas the open delta
connection can only provide a
ph ph
capacity of 3V I .
ph ph

The ratio of actual open delta capacity and the total available (or installed)
capacity is expressed
by the term utilization factor (UF) or rating factor for open delta connection:

Actual kVA capacity of open d


elta
UF
Sum of total installed capacity of the two health
y transformers
3V I 3
ph ph 0.866 86.6%
2V I 2
ph ph
(8.16)
It is also interesting to find out the individual shares of the two healthy tra
nsformers when they
are supplying a total three phase load:
VA shared by each transformer V I 1
ph ph 0.577
Total 3 phase VA supplied 3V I 3
ph ph
(8.17)

Thus, each transformer shares 57.7% of the total VA, and not 50% of the total V
A as anticipated.
It is now understood that an open delta connection can still be used to supply
a three phase load,
but with reduced capacity. If by any means, the same load stay connected to the
system, then the
share of load to be supplied by the healthy transformers gets increased drastic
ally and both the
two healthy transformers get overloaded. This increased amount of load can be ca
lculated as:

----------------------- Page 33-----------------------


Percent increase in VA load on each of the two healthy transformers when connect
ed as open

VA load per transformer in V V original VA load per transformer in



delta =

original VA load per transformer in


0.577 0.333
0.732 73.2%
0.333
(8.18)

[Note that in a healthy three phase system, each of the three transformers take
1/3rd (33.3%) of
the total load.]
Thus, each of the two healthy transformers will get overloaded by 73.
2% if the same load is
continued to be supplied even after one of the three transformers in the three-p
hase delta-delta
bank has failed.
The other difference that can be observed is in values of the power
factor of the two healthy
transformers in comparison to the load power factor when open delta connection i
s being used. It
can be shown that if the load power factor angle is , then one of two transforme
rs in the open
0
0
delta configuration operates at a power factor of cos(30 + ) while the other o
perates at cos(30
- ).

8.5.3 Applications of open delta system


In an existing delta-delta system of transformer bank, if one of the transformer
s gets damaged,
then the open-delta system can be used as a temporary measure till the damaged t
ransformer is
being repaired.
Open-delta connected transformers can be used to provide service to a
new area under
development. Initially the load demand is less which is projected to increase ov
er the years. So
initially to save investment, only two transformers may be used as open-delta t
o provide three
phase supply to the load. Once the load increases, then the third transformer ma
y be added to
complete the delta-delta bank. By adding the third transformer, total load capac
ity of the system
increases from 57.7% to 100%, i.e. and increase of 42.3%.
Example: Three single phase transformers, connected in / supply a balanced 3-pha
se load of
150 kW at 440 V at 0.8 power factor lagging. The transformers are supplied from
3-phase mains
at 11000 V. Find the current in the windings of the each transformer. If one tra
nsformer is found
faulty and is removed and the supply is maintained in V-V connection, determine
the currents in
the windings and power supplied by each of the transformers.

Solution:
With healthy / connection:
Secondary load = 150 kW, at VLS = 440 V and 0.8 pf lagging.
----------------------- Page 34-----------------------
3
P 3V I cos 150 10 3 440 I 0.8
healthy LS LS LS
Thus, secondary line current I LS 246A
Given primary line voltage VLP = 11000 V
V
440
Thus, primary line current can be calculated as I LP LS I LS
246 9.84A
V
11000
LP
Since both the primary and secondary windings are connected in delta, current in
each phase, i.e
1
current in each winding will be times the corresponding line cur
rents.
3
246
Thus, current in secondary phase windings = I phS 142A
3
9.84
And, current in primary phase windings = I phP 5.68A
3
With V-V connection:
The secondary load is maintained at 150 kW, at VLS = 440 V and 0.8 pf lagging.

3
150 10
Thus, secondary line current I LS 246 A
3 440 0.8
Since in open delta mode, the secondary line current is equal to the
phase current, now the
current in secondary phase windings become IphS = 246 A (as compared
to 142 A in /
connection).
And, primary phase current = I phP Secondary phase cur
rent x transformation ratio
440
246 9.84 A (as compared to 5.68 A in / connection)
11000
To find out the power shared by each of two healthy transformers, re
member that in V-V
connection, if the load power factor angle is , then one of two transformers oper
ates at a power
0 0
factor of cos(30 + ) while the other operates at cos(30 - ).
For load power factor of 0.8, = cos-10.8 = 36.870

st
0 0
Thus, power delivered by 1 transformer P = 440x246xcos(30 + 36.87 ) = 42.52
kW
1

nd
0 0
And, power delivered by 2 transformer P = 440x246xcos(30 - 36.87
) = 107.47 kW
2

[Note that total power =P + P = 42.52 + 107.47 150 kW].


1 2

----------------------- Page 35-----------------------


8.6 Three- phase to two-phase conversion (Scott connection)

The main idea behind developing a three-phase to two-phase conversion system is


that when a
two-phase load is to be supplied, the main three-phase system should
not get unbalanced.
Otherwise, taking any two of the three lines of a three-phase supply along with
the neutral would
have been sufficient to drive a two-phase load, but that would have made the mai
n three-phase
0
supply drastically unbalanced. In a three-phase balanced system the sup
ply voltages are 120
apart in phase; in contrast for a balanced two-phase system, the two supply volt
ages are made
0
90 apart. By the use of Scott-connection (also called T connection or Scott T
connection) , two
single-phase transformers can be suitably connected to perform three-pha
se to two-phase
conversion and vice versa.
Main applications of Scott-connected transformers are:
1. Electric arc furnace supply needs to be given from a two-phase source
where it is desired
to operate two single-phase furnaces together without unbalancing the
main three-phase
supply.
2. Overhead supply for electric trains where two consecutive sections are
supplied from a 2-
phase supply without unbalancing the main three-phase source.
3. Low voltage single-phase rural supplies.
4. Two-phase servo-motors used for control purpose

8.6.1 Basic Theory of Scott Connection

In Scott connection, two specially constructed identical single-phase tr


ansformers are used to
convert a three-phase signal to a two-phase signal and vice versa. One transform
er is called the
main transformer and the other is called the auxiliary or the teaser transfo
rmer. The main
transformer has a center-tap on its primary coil and the teaser transformer has
a tap at 86.6% on
its primary winding as shown in Figure 8.83.

50%
86.6%

(a) (b)

Figure 8.83 (a) Main transformer (b) Teaser transformer


These two transformers are interconnected as shown in Figure 8.84(a). The three-
phase supply is
given to their primary side, and two-phase supply is available from their indivi
dual secondaries.
The schematic connection is redrawn in Figure 8.84(b) in a visually effective ma
nner.
----------------------- Page 36-----------------------

A
d
a
VL o
L
86.6%
e
d Teaser e
i d
s i
e s
s e
a s
h a
p h
e- VL B p-
e o
r w
h
T T
d
a
o
VL 50% L
Main
C
(a)
I =I
A 1T A
A
I2T
a
V1T V2T Phase 1
Load
VL 86.6%
d
Teaser
VL
I =I 50%
B 1M D
B C
B
b c
I2M
V =V V2M
L 1M
Main
Phase 2 Load
IC
C
(b)
Figure 8.84 Schematic diagrams for Scott connection
For a balanced three-phase input voltage source,
----------------------- Page 37-----------------------
V V V V
(8.19)
AB BC CA L

Let us take VBC as the reference voltage, and draw it along the hor
izontal axis, so that the
primary voltage phasor diagram is as shown in Figure 8.85.
VAB
1200
1200
VBC
1200
VCA
Figure 8.85 Primary voltages phasor diagram
The three line voltages can be represented as:
V V 00
BC L
0
V V 120
CA L
0
V V 120
AB L

Primary winding voltage of the main transformer is given by:


V V V 00
(8.20)
1M BC L
Since D is the center point of primary winding of the main transformer,
then number of
turns in the section BD is equal to the number of turns in the section
DC which is equal to
T
1M , where T1M is the total number of turns in the pri
mary winding of the main
2
transformer.
1 1 0
Thus, V V V V 0
BD DC BC L
2 2
Primary voltage of the teaser transformer ( V ) is the
voltage between A and D, which
1T
can be expressed as V .
AD

Now, V V V
AB AD DB
or, V V V
AD AB DB
Since, V V , the expression for teaser transformer primary winding volt
age can be written
BD DB
as:
V V V V
(8.21)
1T AD AB BD
----------------------- Page 38-----------------------
0 1 0
V 120 V 0
L L
2
0 0 0 0
V cos120 j sin120 0.5V cos0 j sin 0
L L

V 0.5 j 0.866 0.5V 1 j 0


L L
0.5V j 0.866V 0.5V
L L L
j 0.866V
L

V j 0.866V
AD L
0.866V 900
(8.22)
L
3 0
V 90
L
2
Comparing (8.22) with (8.20), we see that the voltage across teaser transformer
primary V is
AD
0.866 times (i.e. 86.6%) the voltage across the main transformer primary, and al
so that the teaser
V 0
transformer primary voltage leads the main transformer primary voltage
BC by 90 . Voltage
rating of the teaser transformer primary winding is thus only 86.6% o
f that of the main
transformer.
These two primary voltages across the main and the teaser transformers, V
and V , are now
BC AD
included in the primary voltage phasor diagram as shown in Figure 8.86.
VAB VAD
V V V
AD AB BD
900
VBD VBC
VCA

Figure 8.86 Phasor diagram of Scott connected primary windings


Remember that for both the main transformer and the teaser transformer, their re
spective primary
and secondary windings are put on the same limb. Thus primary and secondary emfs
of the main
transformer will be at the same phase, and so will be the primary a
nd secondary emfs of the
teaser transformer. This implies that the secondary voltages of the main and tea
ser transformer
----------------------- Page 39-----------------------
obey the same phasor relationship as their primary voltages. The primary and sec
ondary voltage
phasors of the main and teaser transformer can thus be drawn as in Figure 8.87.

VAD
r Vad
e
s
a r
e e
T 900 s
a 900
e
T
Main VBC Main V
bc
(a) (b)
Figure 8.87 Main and Teaser transformer voltage phasors (a) primary (b) secondar
y
Since the phase angle between the two secondary voltages of main and teaser tran
sformer i.e. Vbc
0
and Vad is 90 , the two voltages Vbc and Vad produce a set of two-phase system
. Thus, a three-
phase system has been converted to a two-phase system. In a reverse
manner, a two-phase
system can be converted to a three-phase system. If a two-phase volta
ge is applied at the
terminals a-d and b-c, the voltages at terminals A-B-C will produce a three-phas
e system.

8.6.2 Voltage Relations in Scott Connection


If the main and teaser transformers are designed to be identical in terms of cor
e losses, then they
must carry the same amount of flux. Thus, from the relation:
V E 4.44f m T
V
or, m Voltage per turn
T
This means that if the main and teaser transformer are identical in terms of the
ir core flux, then
they must have same value of voltage per turn in their windings.
Remember that the teaser transformer primary voltage is 86.6% of the main transf
ormer primary
voltage (8.22), i.e. V 0.866V .
1T 1M

Thus, in order to keep same value of voltage per turn in both the two transforme
r, the number of
turns in the teaser transformer primary (T1T) must be 86.6% of that
in the main transformer
primary (T1M). That is why a tap is taken out from 86.6% of the pr
imary turns on the teaser
transformer to be connected to the mid-point of the main transformer as shown in
Figure 8.84.
Thus, T 0.866T
(8.23)
1T 1M

For the teaser transformer:


----------------------- Page 40-----------------------
V V T
AD 1T 1T
V V T
ad 2T 2T
0.866V 0.866T
1M 1M
or.
V T
2T 2T
V T V V
1M 1M 1M 2T
(8.24)
V T T T
or, 2T 2T 1M 2T
For the main transformer:
V V T V V
BC 1M 1M 1M 2M
(8.25)
V V T T T
bc 2M 2M 1M 2M

Equating (8.24) and (8.25), we get:


V V
2T 2M

T T
2T 2M

V T
or, 2T 2T
(8.26)
V T
2M 2M

Thus, secondary voltages V2T and V2M of the two transformers can be
made equal if the two
transformers have same number of turns in their secondaries, i.e. if T2T = T2M .
Thus, we can get a
0
perfectly balanced set of two-phase voltages at the output, of equal magnitude
and at 90
phase difference with respect to each other.
Two exactly identical transformers with tappings at 50% and 86.6% on their prima
ry windings
and equal number turns in their secondary windings can thus be used
for Scott connection
purpose. For the transformer being used as the main, the 50% tap position is to
be used, and the
transformer being used as the teaser, its 86.6% tap position is to be used.
8.6.3 Position of the Neutral Point on Primary
When the three-phase supply on primary side is from a 4-wire system,
then it is necessary to
provide a proper position for the neutral point on the Scott connected transform
er. The neutral
point N is provided on the teaser transformer as shown in Figure 8.88 at a prope
r position such
that:
V
Phase voltage: V L
AN
3
3
From (8.22), since V V , we must have:
AD L
2
3V V V
V V V L L L
ND AD AN
2 3 2 3
----------------------- Page 41-----------------------
A
A
N
VL 86.6%
Teaser
VL
D 50%
B
VL Main
C

Figure 8.88 Position of neutral point on teaser transformer


In order to distribute the total supply voltage uniformly across the teaser turn
s, i.e. in order to
keep same value of voltage per turn, we must have:
T
Number of turns in the section A-N, T 1T 0.577T
AN 1T
3
T
Number of turns in the section N-D, T 1T 0.289T
ND 1T
2 3
3T
And, number of turns in the section A-D, T 1T 0.866T
AD 1
T
2
T 0.577T
AN 1T 2
(8.27)
T 0.289T
ND 1T
Thus the neutral point N divides the primary winding of the teaser transformer i
n the ratio:
T :T 2 :1
AN ND
Thus, the neutral point N is placed on primary winding of the teaser transformer
at 1/3rd distance
from D such that the voltage V 0.577V , and V 0.0.289V .
AN L ND
L

8.6.4 Current Relations in Scott Connection


It is necessary to establish relationships between the 2-phase secondary current
s I2T, I2M and the
primary three-phase currents I , I , and I as marked in Figure 8.84(b
).
A B C
----------------------- Page 42-----------------------

When two identical transformers are used for the Scott connection, if T (= T
) is the primary
1 1M
number turns in main transformer, then number of turns used in the primary win
ding of teaser
transformer is T = 0.866T .
1T 1

Let, both main and teaser transformers have same number of turns T
(= T =T ) in their
2 2M 2T
secondaries.
Neglecting no-load current, the primary and secondary winding MMFs must be balan
ced in the
teaser transformer, such that:
Primary MMF = Secondary MMF
I 0.866T I T
A 1 2T 2
1 T
2
I I
A 2T
0.866 T
1
T
2
or, I A 1.155 I 2T
T
1
T
If the turns ratio per phase is designated as 1 a , then:
T
2
I
I A 1.155 2T
(8.28)
a
If the primary and secondary windings of the main transformer are made with same
number of
turns, i.e. if it is an 1:1 transformer, then a = 1, leading to the relation:
I A 1.155 I 2T
(8.29)
In order to establish such MMF balance equation for the main transformer it is n
ecessary to note
that the current directions in sections BD and CD of the main winding primary a
re opposite to
each other (refer Figure 8.84(b)).
Primary MMF = Secondary MMF
I T I T I T
(8.30)
B BD C CD 2M 2

Since D is at 50% tap position of the main transformer primary winding, it divid
es the total turns
1
equally. So, T T T
BD CD 1
2
T T
From (8.30), I 1 I 1 I T
B C 2M 2
2 2
T
or, I I 1 I T
B C 2M 2
2
T
or, I B I C 2 I 2M 2
T
1
----------------------- Page 43-----------------------
I
or, I B I C 2 2M
(8.31)
a
If a = 1, i.e. the main transformer primary and secondary turns are equal, then:

I B I C 2I 2M
(8.32)
For a 3-wire system, KCL at D (Figure 8.84(b)) gives:
I I I 0
A B C

I C I A I B
(8.33)
From (8.31) and (8.33):
I
2M
I I I 2
B A B
a
I
2M
or, 2I B I A 2
a
I
2M
or, 2I B I A 2
a
1 I
or, I B I A 2M
(8.34)
2 a
If a = 1, i.e. the main transformer primary and secondary turns are equal, then:
1
I B I A I 2M
(8.35)
2
Now from (8.33) and (8.34):

I I I
C A B
1 I
2M
or, I C I A I A
2 a
1 I
2M
or, I C I A
2 a
1 I
or, I C I A 2M
(8.36)
2 a
If a = 1, i.e. the main transformer primary and secondary turns are equal, then:

1
I C I A I 2M
(8.37)
2
----------------------- Page 44-----------------------

Example: Resistive loads of 5 and 10 are connected respectively across the teaser
and main
transformer secondaries of a Scott connected transformer arrangement, fed from a
3-phase, 230
V supply mains. If the main transformer primary to secondary turns ratio is 2, t
hen determine the
supply line currents. Neglect the magnetizing current and internal impedance dro
ps.
Solution:
Given supply voltage is V = 230 V.
L
Teaser transformer primary voltage V = 0.8
66 V
AD
L
= 0
.866230 = 199.18 V
And, Main transformer primary voltage V = V
= 230V
BC
L

T
Turns ratio of main transformer: a 1 2 .
T
2

V 230
Main transformer secondary voltage Vbc = V2M =
BC 115V
a 2
0.866T T
Turns ratio of teaser transformer 1 0.866 1 0.86
6 2 1.732
T T
2 2

V 199.18
Teaser transformer secondary voltage Vad = V2T =
AD 115V
1.732 1.732

I
A A
A
I2T
a
V2T
ZL1
VL 86.6%
d
Teaser
VL
IB D 50%
B C
B
b c
I2M
V2M
VL Main
ZL2
IC
C
V
115
Load current in teaser transformer secondary I 2T 2T
23 A
Z
5
L
1
V
115
Load current in main transformer secondary I 2M 2M
11.5A
Z
10
L
2
Since only resistive loads are connected, current and voltage are in
the same phase in the
secondary sides of both the teaser as well as the main transformer.
The secondary phasor
diagram is:
----------------------- Page 45-----------------------

Vad=V2T
I2T = 23 A
I2M = 11.5 A
Vbc=V2M
I
23
Teaser primary current: I A 1.155 2T 1.155
13.28A. This current is in the same
a
2
direction as the teaser secondary current, i.e. vertically upwards with
respect to the phasor
diagram.
1 I
To find out I B from the relation I B I A 2M ,
we need to construct the phasor diagram
2 a
involving I A and I 2M .

I
A From the phasor diagram,
1 2 I 2
M 2
I I
B A
2
a

2 2
I2M or, I 13.28 11.5
B
a I2M 2
2
or, I B 8.784A

-I
A
2 IB
1 I
To find out I C from the relation I C I A 2M ,
we need to construct the phasor diagram
2 a
involving I A and I 2M .
I
A

From the phasor diagr


am,
I2M I2M
a
-I
A
Ic 2
----------------------- Page 46-----------------------
1 2 I 2M 2
I C I A
2 a

2 2
13.28 11.5
or, I B
2 2
or, I B 8.784A

Thus, the supply line currents are: I = 13.28 A, I = I = 8.784 A


A B C

Example: A set of Scott connected transformers is supplying two single phase loa
ds at 100 V.
Load across teaser secondary is 350 kW at unity power factor, and th
e load across main
secondary is 250 kW at 0.8 power factor lagging. For input three-phase line volt
age of 6600 V,
calculate primary line currents. Neglect magnetizing current and leakage impedan
ce drops.
Solution:
3
350 10
Load current in teaser transformer secondary I 2T 3
500A at unity pf
100 1
i.e. I 3500A , in
the same direction as V
2T
ad
3
250 10
Load current in main transformer secondary I 2M 3
125A at 0.8 pf (lag)
100 0.8
i.e.
1 0
I 3125 cos
0.8 3125 36.9
2M
0
i.e. lagging V b
y 36.9 .
bc
Vad = 100 V
Thus, the secondary sid
e voltage and current phasor
diagram can be drawn as:
0
I2T = 3500 0 A
T
V 6600
Turns ratio a 1 1
66
T
V 100
2
2

Teaser primary current:


I
3500
Vbc= 100 V I 1.155 2T 1.155
61.25 A.
A
36.90 a
600
This current is in the
same direction as the teaser
I2M = 3125 A secondary current, i.e.
vertically upwards with respect
to the phasor diagram.
1 I
To find out I B from the relation I B I A 2M , we need to
construct the phasor diagram
2 a
involving I A and I 2M .
----------------------- Page 47-----------------------

I
A
0 0 0
In the phasor diagram, B
90 36.9 53.1
From the phasor diagram
,

2 2
1 I 2M
I 2M 1
I I 2
I cos
B A
A B
2 a
a 2
2
2
36.90 61.25 3125
3125 61.25 0
or, I B
cos53.1
2 66
66 2
B I2M
a or, I B 70.15A
-I
A
2 I
2M

IB
1 I
To find out I C from the relation I C I A 2M , we
need to construct the phasor diagram
2 a
involving I A and I 2M .
I
A
In the phasor dia
gram,
0
0 0 0
180 (90
36.9 ) 126.9
C
I2M
a
From the phasor
diagram,

2
2
C 1 I 2M
I 2M 1
I I
2 I cos
C A
A C
IC 36.90 2 a
a 2
or,
2
2
61.25 312
5 3125 61.25 0
I
2 cos126.9
-I C
A I2M 2 6
6 66 2
2
or, I C 37.9 A

Thus, the supply line currents are: I = 61.25 A, I = 70.15 A, and I = 37.9
A
A B
C

----------------------- Page 48-----------------------


8.7 Three phase to multi-phase transformer connections
For applications such as HVDC transmission, testing equipment, Cyclotrons etc.,
large amounts
of AC power are required to be transformed to DC power by means of electronic r
ectifiers or
vacuum tubes. Figure 8.89 shows the rectified DC signal with 3-phase AC input; n
ote the ripples
of the rectified DC output. Ripple content of the rectified DC signal will be mu
ch reduced when
the input AC signal contain more number of phases. A smoother voltage wave form
can thus be
obtained on the DC side as the number of phases is increased on the AC input sid
e.

Figure 8.89 3-phase rectifier (a) schematic arrangement, (b) 3-phase AC input,
(c) rectified DC
output showing ripples
Transformers for 3-phase to 6-phase conversion or even 3-phase to 12-phase conve
rsion are thus
widely used for such applications. More number of phases in the input AC side
also reduces
harmonics in the alternating current.

8.7.1 3-phase to 6-phase conversion


In a 6-phase AC signal, the voltages are of the same magnitude, but
are displaced from each
0 0
other by 360 /6 = 60 . The three phase supply is given to primaries of the thre
e transformers and
six phase output can be obtained from the secondary terminals. Among
the various schemes,
some popular ones are discussed below:
1) Double-star connection
2) Six phase Star Connection
3) Diametrical Connection
4) Double delta connection
5) Ring connection
1. Double-Star Connection
----------------------- Page 49-----------------------
Three identical single phase transformers are used to realize the requ
ired connection, each
transformer having one primary and two equal sections of secondary win
dings. The three
primaries are connected in delta, three of the six secondary coils are connected
in star and the
other three secondary coils are connected in reverse star. Note that the three c
oils (one primary
and two secondaries) of each one of the transformers are put on the same limb. T
his means that
the emf in primary of one transformer is in the same phase with the emfs induc
ed in the two
secondary coils of the same transformer.
The schematic connection diagram is shown in Figure 8.90.

Figure 8.90 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion by delta double-s


tar connection
The nine windings shown in Figure 8.90 can be redrawn as shown in F
igure 8.91 to enhance
0
visual appearance. Note that the coil orientations in primaries are drawn 120 a
part. Primary and
secondary coils of the same phase are drawn parallel to each other since all thr
ee are on the same
limb. Hence a1-a2 & a3-a4 have been drawn parallel to A1-A2. Similarly windings
b1-b2 & b3-
b4 are drawn parallel to B1-B2 and c1-c2 & c3-c4 are drawn parallel to C1-C2.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.91 (a) Primary coils (b) secondary coils
As indicated in Figure 8.90, while making 3-phase connection delta connection in
primary, A1-
B2, B1-C2, and C1-A2 are connected together and the three terminals A2, B2, C2 a
re taken out
of transformer where the 3-phase input AC is given. On the secondary
side, a1, b1, c1 are
connected together as the first secondary star with neutral point marked as n1.
The reverse star in
----------------------- Page 50-----------------------
secondary is made by connecting a4, b4, c4 together as the second neutral point
n2. The six free
terminals a2, b2, c2, and a3, b3, c3 are connected to the 6-phase load terminals
as shown in Fig.
2. Winding diagram of the primary delta side is shown in Figure 8.92(a) while th
ose for the first
secondary star and the second secondary reverse star are shown in Fig
ure 8.92(b) and (c)
respectively.

(a)
(b)

(c)
Figure 8.92 Winding connection diagram of delta double-star connection, (a) pri
mary delta (b)
secondary star (c) secondary reverse star
In the phasor diagram, the primary side voltage phasors A1A2, B1B2 and C1C2 are
drawn as
0
shown in Figure 8.93(a). As usual for three phase system, these are the phasors
displaced 120
from each other. Similarly in the secondary side voltage phasors a1a2, b1b2 and
c1c2 are drawn
as the first secondary star in Figure 8.93(b). The second secondary s
tar (reversed star) with
phasors a3a4, b3b4, and c3c4 are shown in Figure 8.93(c). Observe that a1a2 & a3
a4 are parallel
to A1A2; b1b2 & b3b4 are parallel to B1B2; and c1c2 & c3c4 are parallel to C1C2.

Phasor diagram can be easily drawn based on the winding connection diagram of F
igure 8.92
simply by replacing the winding coils with arrow headed straight lines (phasors)
.
----------------------- Page 51-----------------------

(a) (b)
(c)
Figure 8.93 Phasor diagram of delta double-star connection, (a) primary delta (b
) secondary star
(c) secondary reverse star
The six secondary terminals a2, c3, b2, a3, c2, b3 are connected to the 6-phase
load terminals 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively as shown in Figure 8.90. If the two secondary neu
trals n1, and n2
are joined together to form the single neutral point n, then a true 6-phase volt
age is obtained at
0
the six secondary terminals. In this way, six equal voltages with 60
phase displacement with
respect to each other can be obtained. In the case of six phase rectifier, the n
eutral point formed
by the coils serves as the neutral point of the DC supply from the rectifier. It
is interesting to note
that in case of such a double-star connection, the secondary line to line volta
ges (between two
consecutive line terminals) are same as the individual secondary phase (line to
neutral) voltages.
Winding connection and phasor diagram, of the complete 6-phase winding is shown
in Figure
8.94(a) and (b) respectively.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.94 Six phase secondary double star connection (a) winding con
nection (b) phasor
diagram
To mark the six output terminals, start from a2 in Fig. 6 and mark it as 1. Then
move cyclically
clockwise to mark c3 as 2, b2 as 3, a3 as 4, c2 as 5 and finally b3 as 6.
----------------------- Page 52-----------------------
It is worth noting here that the primary can also be connected as star, but delt
a connection in
primary is generally preferred because of the triple frequency harmonics of volt
ages which are
introduced in star-star connection.
2. Six phase Star Connection
In six-phase star connection, either three single phase transformers, or even a
single unit of three
phase transformer can be used to convert 3-phase signal to 6-phase. In the three
secondary coils,
there must be provision for center taps. The primary can be either connected as
star or delta. Six
phase signals are obtained from the six secondary terminals with the
three center taps being
joined together as the neutral as shown in schematic diagram of Figure 8.95.

Figure 8.95 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion by six phase star
connection
Winding connection and phasor diagrams are shown in Figure 8.96 and Figure 8.97
respectively.
Note that in this case, it is not necessary to have two separate secondary coil
s on each phase,
only a tap point at 50% position is sufficient.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.96 Winding connection for six-phase star connection with neutr
al (a) primary (b)
secondary
----------------------- Page 53-----------------------

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.97 Phasor diagram for six-phase star connection with neutral (a) primar
y (b) secondary
The six secondary terminals a2, c1, b2, a1, c2, b1 are connected to the 6-phase
load terminals 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively as shown in Figure 8.95. In this case also the li
ne to line voltages
between secondary terminals (say a1-b2) are same as the line to neutral voltages
(say a1-n).
3. Diametrical Connection
In this type of connection for converting 3-phase to 6-phase, it is not necessar
y to have center tap
points on the secondary coils. However, due to absence of the neutral in the sec
ondary, the six
phase output can be used for rectifiers. In this connection also, the primary c
an be connected in
either star or delta, but as usual delta is preferred in order to s
uppress harmonics. The six
secondary outputs are obtained from the six secondary terminals as sho
wn in the schematic
diagram of Figure 8.98. When there is no need for the secondary neut
ral, such a diametrical
connection is often the cheapest.

Figure 8.98 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion by diametrical co


nnection

----------------------- Page 54-----------------------


Winding connection and phasor diagrams are shown in Figure 8.9
9 and Figure 8.100
respectively.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.99 Winding connection for six-phase diametrical connection (a) primary
(b) secondary

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.100 Phasor diagram for six-phase diametrical connection (a) primary (b)
secondary

0
To achieve proper phasor relationships among the six output voltages (
60 apart), the six
secondary terminals a2, c1, b2, a1, c2, b1 need to be connected to the six load
terminals 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, and 6 respectively as shown in Figure 8.98. In this case, however, the lin
e to line voltages
between secondary terminals (say a1-b2) are half of the voltage across each seco
ndary phase coil
(say a1-a2).
4. Double delta connection
In this type of connection also, three identical single phase transfor
mers are used, each
transformer having one primary and two equal sections of secondary win
dings. The six half
sections of the secondary windings are used to make two deltas. One delta is mad
e by normal
connection, i.e. start of phase a (a1) connected to finish of phase b (b2), then
start of phase b (b1)
connected to finish of phase c(c2) and finally, start of phase c (c1) connected
to finish of phase a
(a2). The other set of terminals a3a4, b3b4, and c3c4 are also connected to form
a delta, but in an
opposite manner, i.e. finish of phase a (a4) connected to start of phase b (b3)
, finish of phase b
(b4) connected to start of phase c (c3), finish of phase c (c4) connected to sta
rt of phase a (a3).
Note that since no neutral is available on the double-delta six phase secondary,
this connection is
----------------------- Page 55-----------------------
not suitable for rectifier circuits. Six output terminals are taken out from the
three terminals of
the two deltas as shown in the schematic diagram of Figure 8.101. One set of th
ree outputs are
taken from a2, b2, and c2; and the three remaining secondary terminals are taken
out from a3,
b3, and c3.

Figure 8.101 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion by double delta


connection
The nine windings shown in Figure 8.101 can be redrawn as shown in Figure 8.102
to enhance
0
visual appearance. Note that the coil orientations in primaries are dr
awn 120 apart. Since
primary and secondary coils of the same phase are on the same limb, a1-a2 & a3-a
4 have been
drawn parallel to A1-A2; b1-b2 & b3-b4 are drawn parallel to B1-B2; and c1-c2 &
c3-c4 are
drawn parallel to C1-C2.

(a)

(b)
Figure 8.102 (a) Primary coils (b) secondary coils
The primary may be connected for star or delta. Since the two deltas in the seco
ndary provide
closed path for the third harmonic current to be arrested, the primary winding f
or this scheme can
be connected in star. Let the terminals A1, B1, and C1 of primary are connected
as the star point
----------------------- Page 56-----------------------
and three phase supply is given to terminals A2, B2, and C2. Winding connection
diagrams are
shown in Figure 8.103. In the first delta on the secondary side, shown in Figur
e 8.103(b), the
outputs are taken from terminals a2, b2, and c2. In the second secondary delta,
the three output
terminals are taken out from a3, b3, and c3 as shown in Figure 8.103(c).

(a)
(b) (c)
Figure 8.103 Winding scheme for double delta connection (a) primary star (b), (c
) two secondary
deltas
Phasor diagram of the two secondary deltas when overlapped over each other can b
e shown to
take the form as shown in Figure 8.104. Note that the two individual
deltas are electrically
isolated from each other, and get interconnected only through the output 6-phase
load.

Figure 8.104 Double delta connection phasor diagram for obtaining 6-phase voltag
e
The six-phase voltages are available at the six output terminals a2, c3, b2, a3,
c2, and b3 which
are connected to the six load terminals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively as sho
wn in Figure 8.101.
0
Phasor relationships (60 apart) between the individual voltages in the 6-phase
secondary can be
understood by considering the six terminal voltages with respect to the virtual
neutral (common
centroid of the two delta triangles) of the deltas as shown in Figure 8.105.
----------------------- Page 57-----------------------

Figure 8.105 Secondary voltage relationships in double delta connection

Consider the equilateral triangle a2-n-c3, where all the three sides ar
e of equal length
a2n=nc3=c3a2=V .
L

0
In the right angled triangle a2-p-c3, the base a2p=V cos30 = 0.866 V .
L
L
Note that the point p bisects the line a1a2. Thus, a1a2 = 2xa2p = 2x0.866V = 1.7
32V
L L
Thus, voltage across the half secondary coils is 1.732 ( 3) times the line to line
voltage.
Note that a1a4 = a1n+na4 = a2n+nc3 = 2x a2c3 = 2V
L
Thus, voltage across the full secondary coil in one phase is 2 times the line to
line voltage.

5. Ring connection (or six phase mesh connection)


The primary winding is connected as delta, whereas the six secondary coils are i
nterconnected
together in the way shown in Figure 8.106 to form a closed hexagonal ring like s
tructure.

----------------------- Page 58-----------------------


Figure 8.106 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion by ring connecti
on
Referring to the coil positions as shown earlier in Figure 8.102, winding connec
tions of the six
secondary coils in the shape of a closed ring is shown in Figure 8.107 and corre
sponding phasor
diagram is shown in Figure 8.108. Winding connections for the three primary coil
s are omitted
here since it will be nothing but a simple delta connection.

Figure 8.107 Winding diagram of ring connection for 3-phase to 6-phase conversio
n

Figure 8.108 Phasor diagram of ring connection for 3-phase to 6-phase conversion

While connecting the six secondary coils in ring form, care should be taken that
the terminals a1,
0
b1, c1 are 120 apart with proper phase sequence (i.e. b1 lagging a1 and so on)
. Also, extreme
ends of the same phase, i.e. a1-a4, b1-b4, and c1-c4 must be diametrically oppos
ite to each other.
These can be confirmed from either Figure 8.107 or Figure 8.108. How the six te
rminals of the
ring are going to be connected to the load is determined by passing clockwise st
arting from any
one terminal and sequentially putting the numbers. As noted from Figure 8.108, i
f c1b3 terminal
is to be connected to terminal number 1 of the load, then moving clockwise, the
a2b4 is to be
connected to terminal number 2 of the six phase load and so on. Thus, as shown i
n the schematic
diagram, the six output terminals c1, b4, a1, c4, b1, and a4 are connected to te
rminal 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
and 6 of the six phase load respectively as shown in Figure 8.106.

----------------------- Page 59-----------------------


The line to line voltage in this case is same as the voltage across
each half coil in individual
phases.

The clue is to draw either the winding diagram (Figure 8.107) or the phasor di
agram (Figure
8.108) based on the coil orientations (Figure 8.102); identify how the six sec
ondary coils are to
be interconnected and accordingly join them to complete the schematic diagram
of Figure
8.106.
----------------------- Page 60-----------------------
8.7.2 3-phase to 12-phase conversion
Though ripple contents in the rectified output will be less when 12
phases are used, the
connections become more complicated and costly. Thus use of 12-phase A
C for rectification
purpose is restricted to large installations only. In a 12-phase AC signal, the
voltages are of the
0 0
same magnitude, but are displaced from each other by 360 /12 = 30 .
The basic connection principle for converting 3-phase to 12-phase is however sim
ple. First it is
necessary to convert 3-phase signal to 6-phase, and then connect two
such 6-phase signal
properly to obtain the 12-phase output. There are various schemes, out of which
only some will
be discussed in detail in this section.
1. Double-star pair connection (or star-delta/double star connection)
In this scheme, two three phase transformers are used. In both of them, the seco
ndary coils have
center taps. The first transformer primary is connected in delta, while its seco
ndary is connected
as double-star to produce a 6-phase signal (refer Figure 8.95 to Figu
re 8.97). The second
transformer primary is connected in star, while its secondary is once again conn
ected as double-
star to produce another 6-phase signal. The two primaries are connected together
to the same 3-
phase supply system. The two secondaries together now can produce a 1
2-phase signal. The
scheme is shown by the block diagram of Figure 8.109.

Figure 8.109 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 12-phase conversion using double-st


ar pair

----------------------- Page 61-----------------------


Connection scheme for transformer 1 for which the primary is connected as delta
and secondary
as double star is shown in Figure 8.110.

Figure 8.110 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion by six phase sta
r connection
Phasor diagrams of the primary delta and secondary 6-phase double star
are shown in Figure
8.111(a) and (b) respectively. Considering a supply phase sequence of
A-B-C, the respective
positions of primary delta phasors are assumed to be oriented in the positions a
s shown in Figure
8.111(a). Note the positions of corresponding phasors in the secondary
side. The secondary
phasors n1-a2 and n1-a1 are drawn parallel to the corresponding primary phasor A
1-A2, since
the primary and secondary coils of same phase are always put on the
same limb. In similar
manner, the primary and secondary phasors of B phase are also drawn parallel to
each other and
so are the phasors for C phase.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.111 Phasor diagram of delta/double-star connection (a) primary (b) seco
ndary

Connection scheme for transformer 2 for which the primary is connected as star a
nd secondary
as double star is shown in Figure 8.112.
----------------------- Page 62-----------------------

Figure 8.112 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion by six phase sta
r connection
Phasor diagrams of the primary star and secondary 6-phase double star
are shown in Figure
8.113(a) and (b) respectively. For the same phase sequence A-B-C, the primary st
ar phasors are
oriented as shown in Figure 8.113(a). Note the positions of corresponding phasor
s in the double-
star connected secondary side. The secondary phasors n2-a2 and n2-a1 are once agai
n drawn
parallel to the corresponding primary phasor A1-A2 , since the primary and seconda
ry coils of
same phase are always put on the same limb. In similar manner, the
primary and secondary
phasors of B phase are also drawn parallel to each other and so are the phasors
for C phase.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.113 Phasor diagram of star/double-star connection (a) primary (b) secon
dary
Considering a supply phase sequence of A-B-C, the respective positions of primar
y star phasors
will be oriented in the positions as shown in Figure 8.113(a). Compar
e the positions of the
terminals A2, B2, and C2 of the primary star of transformer 2 in Figur
e 8.111(a) with the
corresponding terminals A2, B2, and C2 of the primary delta of Transf
ormer 1 in Figure
8.113(a). Since the corresponding primary line terminals of both the t
wo transformers are
connected to the same 3-phase supply lines, the positions of A2, B2, and C2 will be
same as
A2, B2, and C2 respectively. The situation can be visualized more effectively w
ith Figure 8.114
where the two primary phasor diagrams, delta for transformer 1, and star for tra
nsformer 2 are
assumed to be superimposed one over the other.
----------------------- Page 63-----------------------

Figure 8.114 Primary voltage phasors of two transformers superimposed to demonst


rate identical
positioning of corresponding line terminals
The first set of 6-phase output is obtained from the six secondary terminals a2,
c1, b2, a1, c2, and
b1, with the secondary neutral n1 of the first transformer. The second set of 6-
phase output is
obtained from the six secondary terminals a2, c1, b2, a1, c2, and b1, wi
h the secondary
neutral n2 of the second transformer. If the two neutrals n1 and n2
are connected together to
form a common neutral n on the secondary side, then the secondary voltage phasor
diagrams of
Figure 8.111(b) and Figure 8.113(b) get superimposed on each other. The result i
s a 12-phase
0
voltage as shown in Figure 8.115. Note that the angle between two adjacent phaso
rs is 30 , as
desired for a 12-phase system.

Figure 8.115 12-phase voltage


Numbering of the 12 terminals from 1, 2, 3, 12 has been done start
ing from any arbitrary
position (a2 in Figure 8.115) and then moving cyclically in clockwise
direction. Thus, it is
----------------------- Page 64-----------------------
obvious that in order to obtain proper 12-phase system of voltage at
the load, the sic output
terminals each from the two transformer secondaries must be connected
to corresponding
numbered terminals of the 12-phase load as marked in Figure 8.110 and
Figure 8.112. It is
interesting to note that all even numbered terminals of the 12-phase load are ob
tained from the
delta/double-star transformer, while all odd numbered terminals ar
e obtained from the
star/double-star transformer. Presence of the neutral n in the 12-phase secondar
y output makes
this scheme very much suitable for use in large capacity rectifiers.
2. Star-delta/Double delta connection (Double-delta pair)
In this scheme for conversion of 3-phase voltage to 12-phase voltage, six identi
cal single phase
transformers are used, each transformer having one primary and two equal section
s of secondary
windings. Out of the six transformers, three are used to make one and set and
the other three
making the second set. In the first set, the primary coils of three transformers
are connected as
star, while the six half sections of secondary windings are used to make two del
tas, so that a 6-
phase output is obtained as shown in Figure 8.101 to Figure 104. In the second s
et, the primary
coils of three transformers are connected as delta, while the six hal
f sections of secondary
windings are used to make two deltas, as previously, so that another 6-phase out
put is obtained.
The two 6-phase outputs thus obtained when connected properly to a 12
-terminal load, can
provide 12-phase output. Note that the two primaries, one in star and
the other in delta, are
connected to the same 3-phase supply source. The scheme is pictorially shown in
Figure 8.116.
Figure 8.116 Schematic diagram of 3-phase to 12-phase conversion using double-de
lta pair
Phasor diagram of the primary star of transformer 1 and the two seco
ndary deltas when
overlapped over each other are shown in Figure 8.117 (a) and Figure 8.117(b) res
pectively. Note
that a1-a2, and a3-a4 phasors in secondary deltas are parallel with A
1-A2 phasor of primary.
----------------------- Page 65-----------------------
This is obvious since primary and two secondary coils of the same phase (phase A
in this case)
are wound on the same limb. Similar explanation could be given for the phasors o
f other two
phases also.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.117 Phasor diagram of star/double-delta connection (a) primary (b) seco
ndary
Phasor diagram of the primary delta of transformer 2 and the two sec
ondary deltas when
overlapped over each other are shown in Figure 8.118 (a) and Figure 8.118(b) re
spectively. In
this case also, note that a1-a2, and a3-a4 phasors in secondary deltas are p
arallel with A1-A2
phasor of primary. Similar orientations of the phasors are also valid for other
two phases.

(a)
(b)
Figure 8.118 Phasor diagram of delta/double-delta connection (a) primary (b) sec
ondary
Comparing the primary phasors of Figure 8.117(a) and Figure 8.118(a), it is seen
that position of
the terminals A2 and A2 are exactly the same, even though one is star connected a
nd the other is
delta connected. Similarly, positions of B2 and B2 are same, and positions of C2
and C2 are
also same. This is because both the two primaries are supplied from the same 3-p
hase source as
shown in Figure 8.116. Thus, while the two primary phasors can be assumed to be
overlapping
with each other with output terminals A2, B2, and C2 of transformer 1 matching p
erfectly with
the terminals A2, B2, and C2 respectively of transformer 2, then the two secondary
double-
deltas could also be made to overlap as shown in Figure 8.119. The
double delta of Figure
8.117(b) has been redrawn with dotted line so as to enhance visual appearance of
the double-
delta pair in Figure 8.119. The virtual neutral point n is also marked in Figure
8.119.

----------------------- Page 66-----------------------

Figure 8.119 Double-delta pair producing 12-phase output


The terminals a2, a2, c3, c3, b2, b2, a3, a3, c2, c2, b3, and b3 can now be connected
to the
terminals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, , 12 of a 12-terminal load to avail a true 12-phase volta
ge. Note that
the adjacent phasors (terminal voltage with respect to the virtual neutral n2) o
f the double-delta
0
pair are 30 apart. However, since the secondary double-delta pair does not have
any neutral, this
scheme cannot be used for rectifiers.
In similar manner, one can now realize how a set of 12-phase voltage can be obta
ined from a 3-
phase voltage by the use of star-delta/ring pair scheme of connection. In this s
cheme also there
will be two sets of 3-phase to 6-phase conversion systems. In the fi
rst system, the primary
winding is connected as delta, whereas the six secondary coils are in
terconnected together to
form a closed hexagonal ring. The output terminals of the secondary hexagonal ri
ng will produce
the first set of 6-phase output. In the second system, the primary winding is co
nnected as star,
and the six secondary coils are once again interconnected together to form a clo
sed hexagonal
ring. The output terminals of the secondary hexagonal ring of this set will prod
uce another set of
6-phase output. While the two primaries are connected to the same 3-phase supply
line, the two
hexagonal rings when superimposed will be able to produce a 12-phase
output that can be
supplied to a 12-terminal load. But since the secondary ring-pair does not have
any neutral, this
scheme cannot be used for rectifiers.
6-phase or 12 -phase (or even higher number phases) systems that d
o not have any neutral,
cannot be used for rectifiers, since there wont be any return path for the DC
current from load.
These schemes are instead used for applications, such as in furnaces
, where the current
requirement is very high. When more number of phases are used (sometimes even
a 48 -phase
system are used), the large current can be distributed among more n
umber of supply phase
conductors. It is needless to point out that more number of phases
increases the cost and
complexity of supply system.