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Answers to Biology for IGCSE Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Summary Questions page 212.

(Suggested marks are given in square brackets)

1 inheritance - transmission of genetic information from generation to generation [1]

A A the alleles of this gene are the same

on the two chromosomes;

the alleles of this gene are different on

B b the two chromosomes;

pair of chromosomes

chromosome thread-like structure made of DNA that carries genes;

gene is a length of DNA that makes up part of a chromosome;
each gene is always located on the same place on a chromosome;
alleles are versions of a gene [6]

3 [5]
diploid cell in testis;

haploid cells haploid egg

23 23 23 cell;
produced in

fusion of egg
and sperm;
23 23 23 23

four sperm cells 46

haploid number of chromosomes in gamete cells / containing a single set of unpaired
chromosomes [1]

diploid number of chromosomes in body cells / containing two sets of chromosomes [1]

4 male female
gametes X, Y X ;


gametes XX

offspring XX, XY ratio 1:1 ;

the sex ratio is approximately 1:1 as approximately 50% of sperm carry an X
chromosome and 50% carry a Y chromosome;
all eggs carry an X chromosome;
sex of offspring is determined by the father;
as there is a 50% chance of eggs being fertilised by a sperm with X and a 50% chance
of being fertilised by a sperm with Y

5 (a) mitosis all cells produced have the same number of chromosomes; all are
genetically identical;
(b) meiosis gametes produced have half the number of chromosomes of body cells;
so number does not double each generation; so diploid number is formed in nucleus
at fertilisation; gametes are not genetically identical; variation is produced [3]
6 this could be marked to a maximum of 8 marks with one mark being given to each

organism feature mitosis meiosis

timing during throughout life during flowering
life cycle plants grow
throughout their life
location growing points, e.g. anthers and ovules
root tips and cambium
flowering (see page 89)

plants types of cell all cells in stems, spores pollen

produced leaves, roots, flowers grains and embryo
sacs (special cell in
ovule that makes the
female gamete)
chromosome same as the parent half the parent cell
number in cell
daughter cells
(usually diploid)
timing during throughout life production of
life cycle gametes in females
from puberty to
humans menopause; in males
from puberty onwards
location all organs testis and ovary
types of cell all cells in body gametes sperm and
produced tissues eggs
chromosome 46 (diploid) 23 (haploid)
number in
daughter cells

7 T represents the allele for tall
t represents the allele for dwarf

As the question says F1 and F2 then

start with pure bred parents
phenotypes tall x dwarf ;
homozygous dominant and
homozygous recessive
parental genotypes TT x tt ;
genotype = alleles for the gene for
height ;
parental gametes + ; phenotype = appearance, i.e. tall/dwarf ;

gene = DNA / code for height of plants;

F1 genotype(s)
Tt (gene is represented by letter T/t)

alleles = versions of the gene, T and t ;

F1 phenotype(s) all tall ;
F1 generation = offspring of cross
between two pure bred / homozygous,
F1 cross
Tt x Tt ; genotype of F1 = heterozygous
F1 gametes , + , ;


Tt tt
TT, 2Tt, tt F2 generation = offspring of a cross
F2 genotypes and
between two individuals from the F1
generation or the offspring of an F1 plant
tall, tall, dwarf ; that has self fertilised ;

TT / Tt = homozygous = two alleles are

F2 ratio the same ;
3 tall:1 dwarf ; Tt = heterozygous = two alleles are
different ;
or 75% tall: 25% dwarf

total for genetic diagram [9] total for meanings of terms [8]

phenotypes blood group A x blood group B

genotypes IA IO x IB IO ;

gametes , + , ;

genotypes of
offspring IA I B IA IO IB IO IO IO ;
blood groups
of offspring AB A B O; [5]

Chapter 16 Exam-Style Questions page 212-213.

Multiple Choice Questions (1 mark each)

1 C
2 A
3 C
4 D

Short Answer Questions

5 (a)(i) 12; [1]

(ii) 6; [1]
(iii) mitosis 12; meiosis 6; [2]
(iv) cells produced by mitosis are genetically identical, cells produced by meiosis are
genetically different (from each other); [1]
(b) growth; replacement of cells (e.g. skin cells, white blood cells; red blood cells); repair
of wounds (NOT repair of cells) [3]
NOT asexual reproduction
parental phenotypes long hair x short hair
parental genotypes hh x Hh ;
parental gametes + , ;

Hh hh ;
explanation as there are long
offspring genotypes Hh, hh
haired cats amongst the
offspring phenotypes short hair, long hair offspring, the short-haired cat
ratio must have the recessive allele
1:1 ; and be heterozygous ; [5]

6 (a)
The condition appears in every generation; all individuals who have the condition
have one parent who also has the condition (4, 6, 11 and 14); if recessive and rare
then more likely that two parents who do not have the condition will have a child with
the condition; also if recessive and rare likely that 3 and 7 would be related (i.e.
cousins) and this would be shown in the family tree [3]

without condition x with condition

parental phenotypes
bb x Bb
parental genotypes
parental gametes + , ;

Bb bb
Bb, bb ;
offspring genotypes
with condition, without condition
offspring phenotypes
1:1, 50% chance of another child
with the condition ;

7 (a)(i)

parental phenotypes parallel stripes x blotched pattern

parental genotypes TT x tt ;
parental gametes + ;

F1 genotype Tt ;
F1 phenotype all parallel stripes ; [4]
parental phenotypes parallel stripes x blotched pattern
parental genotypes Tt x tt ;
parental gametes , + ;

Tt tt

offspring genotypes Tt , tt
offspring phenotypes parallel stripes, blotched
1:1, 50% parallel stripes: 50% blotched [4]

(b) allele t is recessive, so only genotype for blotched is tt;

if the dominant allele, T, is present then the cat has parallel stripes;
parallel stripes can be homozygous dominant,TT, or heterozygous, Tt because only
one dominant allele needs to be present to give the dominant phenotype,
parallel stripes; [3]

(c) neither has a dominant allele;

only possibility is tt x tt which gives rise to offspring that are all homozygous
recessive, tt; [2]

(d) the gene is a length of DNA that controls the pattern of stripes; there are two versions
of this gene which give different patterns in the coat; T is the allele for parallel and t is
the allele for blotched; [3]

8 (a) transmission of genetic information from generation to generation; [1]

(b) cross individual with unknown genotype with one which is homozygous recessive;
observe the offspring; if there are two different phenotypes; then the individual with
unknown genotype is heterozygous; if only show one phenotype then it seems likely
that the individual with the unknown genotype is homozygous dominant;

if individual with unknown genotype is heterozygous there is a 50% chance of

offspring with the recessive phenotype this is quite high so some should appear

(c)(i) codominance; alleles for red and white flower colour are codominant; pink is
intermediate between other phenotypes; both alleles are expressed; [3]
(ii) CW = allele for white; CR = allele for red;

parental phenotypes pink x pink

parental genotypes CW CR x CW CR ;

parental gametes , + , ;


offspring genotypes CW CW , CW CR , CR CR
offspring phenotypes white, pink, red ;
ratio 1:2:1;

(d)(i) pink flowered-plants have the genotype CW CR

red flowered-plants have the genotype CR CR

parental phenotypes pink x red

parental genotypes CW CR x CR CR ;

parental gametes , + ;


offspring genotypes CW CR , CR CR
offspring phenotypes pink, red ;
ratio 1:1;

(ii) there are no white flowered-plants because there are no plants in the offspring with
the genotype CW CW ; red flowered-plants have the genotype CR CR so cannot pass
on the CW allele; pink x pink gives white, but pink x white cannot give red and pink x
red cannot give white; [3]