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Original Title: Art_1982_a Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method

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Zhong Wan-xic( ~ )

(Dalian Institute of Technology)

He Qiong(~ ~ )

(Shanghai University of Technology)

XueHui-yu(~,~ ), Young Po(~ ~ )

(The Chinese Ship Scientific Research Center)

Abstract

(Received Feb. 27, 1982)

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

#BSTRACT

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

~ e n the beam theory was used to calculate ship hull vibra-

behavior of tion,

the reflection

greatershock in the explosive

discrepancies were products, and applying

found between the small cal-

theoretical parameter pur-

terbation method,

culations and actual measurements especially at highermodes. Thus of flying

an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem

plate driven the

by various high explosives

beam model cannot be withconsidered

polytropic indices other than one

as a practical but forhigher-

nearly equal to three.

modeofcalculations.

Final velocities flying plate obtainedThis agree

paper presents

very well withthe application

numerical results by of computers.

two- Thus

an analytic dimensional

formula with two finite elementof model

parameters for the(i.e.

high explosive calculation o f ~ i I, and

detonation velocity ver-polytropic

tical vibration. Using the multi-element structural dynamic a-

index) for estimation

nalysis of the velocity

program DDJ(DL)of flying plate is established.

developed by ourselves, the hull vibra-

tion analysis of two ships (vessel A and vessel B ) was carried

out on the Model-709 Computer made in the People's Republic of

China.

1. Introduction

The results of the calculation, when compared with actual

Explosive driven flying-plate

measurements, technique

show that ffmds its important model

the two-dimensional use in isthemuch

studymore

of behavior of

efficient

materials under than the loading,

intense impulsive traditional

shock beam model.

synthesis The agreement

of diamonds, be- welding and

and explosive

tween the calculations and measurements has been inTrovedgreatly,

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

and this discrepancy at the 4th. and 5th-modes has decreased to

of common interest.

within 5Z as compared to that of more than 20% in the tradi~onal

Undermodel.

the assumptions of one-dimensional

Furthermore, the model plane detonation and

is relatively rigid the

simple, flyingcost

plate,and

the normal

approach oftimesolving the problem

required of motion

for the of flyor is

computation is to solve the following

comparatively lowersystem

and of equations

governing theshorter,

flow field and the calculation

of detonation can bethe

products behind carried outI):on a medium--siezed

flyor (Fig.

computer. Therefore, this model is especially appropriate for

analyzing the dynamic characteristics of ships at early design

stages. --ff

ap +u_~_xp+ au

=o,

au au

I. Introauction y1 =0,

people have continuously searched for better methods in the computation

(i.0

of

aS as

ship hull vibration. The beama--T =o,widely used for sometime

theory was in the past:

in this method a ship was simplified as a variable section heam with variable

p =p(p, s),

mass and stiffness along the ship length, and by solving the Timoshenko beam e-

where p, p, which

quation S, u arealso

pressure,

took density, specificofentropy

the effect shear andand particle

rotary velocity

inertiaof detonation products

into account, the

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

natural frequencies and vibration modes of the ship were calculated. With res-

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-

pect on

meters to itthe approximate

are governed by thenumerical

flow field solution

I of central of this differential

rarefaction equation,various

wave behind the detonation wave

D methods,

and by initial

suchstage

as of

themotion of flyor

energy also; the

method, the position

finite of F and the state

difference parameters

method, the of products

integral

equation method, the transfer matrix method ..., etc. were used [I]-[41 293

.The tran

42 Zhong Wan-xie, He Oiong, Xue Hui-yu and Youno Po

tical calculation and actual measurements were small in the regime of the lower

modes, the d i s c r e p a n c i e s might reach 20, or more. Thus the b e a m model cannot be

meas .value

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic solution only when the polytropic - - index of detonation

Ships at abroadproducts equals to three. In

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

.... Vessel A

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate driven by variousl.Ohigh explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree

n o d e very

n u m bwell

e r with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic formula with0.B

two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

Fig. 1 Comparison of measured natural frequencies of ship ver-

tical vibration 1.withIntroduction

the calculated values from the beam

theory

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

Recently, the p r o p e l l e r s w i t h g r e a t e r o u t p u t p o w e r and s]ower r o t a t i o n a l

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

speed have been u s u a l l y used in ship, and the e x c i t a t i o n c a u s e d by the p r o p e l l e r

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

ofwith

common b l a dinterest.

e f r e q u e n c i e s m a y o f t e n fall into the regime of h i g h e r - m o d e s of hull

Under thesoassumptions

vibration, it is an of imp one-dimensional plane

o r t a n t subject to detonation

study theand m e trigid

h o d flying

of c oplate,

m p u t athe

t i o normal

n of

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following

h i g h e r - m o d e v i b r a t i o n and to improve the a c c u r a c y of the calculation.

system of equations

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

The g r e a t e r discrepancies at higher mode are fundamentally due to the unrea-

--ff +u_~_xp

ap the

=o,

tance between nodes is close to t r a n+s v eau

r s e size of the ship, and the slender

valid. auIn o r1d e r to increase the a c c u r a c y in higher-

y =0,

modes calculation, it is n e c e s s a r y to b u i l d more reasonable models for computa- (i.0

tion.

aS as

a--T =o,

In recent years, extensive s t u d i e s on ship hull vibration using the finite

p =p(p, s),

element method have been p e r f o r m e d abroad. Various types of finite element mo-

dels,p, such

where p, S, uasarethe t w o - d idensity,

pressure, m e n s i o nspecific

a l model, theand

entropy thr e e - d i m velocity

particle e n s i o n a lof detonation

model and products

the hy-

respectively,

brid m o d e l with(bythe

c o mtrajectory

b i n i n g aR mof

e m breflected

r a n e - b a rshock

modeofl detonation

or t h r e e -wave

d i m e nDs ias

o naa lboundary

m o d e l and

for the

the

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position

a f t e r p a r t of the ship w i t h a b e a m m o d e l of the f o r w a r d part), etc. have been of R and the state para-

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

Demployed [0]''[9] "

and by initial (

stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

Our aim here is to f o r m u l a t e a computation model which can not only be uti--

293

lized w i t h sufficient ease in the early design stage but can also p r e d i c t with a

A Study on Ship Vibration Using F i n i t e Element Method 43

In this paper the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l and three dimensional finite element ap-

proach for ship hull v i b r a t i o n and the relevant selection of calculation para-

Abstract

ti-elements composite structures is also briefly mentioned. Finally, through

c h a r a c t e r iproblem of theresponse

s t i c s and motion ofcalculation

a rigid flyingofplate under (vessel

a ship explosive A),attack as has

anananalytic

example, and c o m p a r i n g the p r e d i c t e d values with actual measurements, some In

solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three.

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

p r o b l e m s in hull v i b r a t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n using finite element model are discussed.

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate

I!. driven T h e byF ivarious

n i t e high E ] e mexplosives

ent A p pwith

r o a c polytropic

h t o S hindices other Vthan

i p }full i b r a but

t i o nnearly

C aequal

l c u l ato

t ithree.

on

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very

The ship structure is a kind of box-type shell beam structure

well with numerical results by computers.

composed of

Thus

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

plates, shells and bars. It v i b r a t e s under the excitation of waves, propellers

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

and main p r o p u l s i o n machineries. Generally, the vertical vibration of a ship is

1. Introduction

and masses of a ship are, strictly speaking, not symmetrical about the vertical

p l a nExplosive

e a l o n g driven

the m a jflying-plate

o r axis of technique ffmds

the ship, a its important

vertical use in the

exciting studyonofthis

force behavior

axis of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds,

will p r o d u c e t r a n s v e r s e v i b r a t i o n in addition to the vertical as well as fore-

and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

a n d - a f t vibrations. However, it has been found from a series of full-scale vi--

of common interest.

b r a tUnder

i o n m the

e a s uassumptions

r e m e n t s , that coupling theplane

of one-dimensional transverse

detonationdirection with plate,

and rigid flying a vertical ex-

the normal

approach

c i t i n g of solving

force canthe be problem

n e g l e c tof

e d motion of flyor

to first a p p r oisx ito

m asolve

t i o n the

andfollowing system

therefore of equations

a two-dimen:

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

sional model is c o n s i d e r e d to be s a t i s f a c t o r y for vertical v i b r a t i o n w i t h i n the

frequency range considered. In this model, the ship is compressed into a set of

ap a+u_~_xp

=o,

single+ vertical

au plane on the ship's longitudi-

nal axis and it vibrates vertically.

au au Each1 element used in the model is assumed

to have uniform thickness

y

or c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l

=0, and

area to be of e l a s t i c , i s o t r o l d c

(i.0

and h o m o g e n e o u s materials, andaSany naosn - l i n e a r i t i e s in the structure are ignored.

a--T an axial

=o, l o a d - b e a r i n g member; it has no bendin,

strength and it is g e n e r a l l y p =p(p, along

placed s), an edge (i.e., a side) of a m e m b r a n e

element which has both axial- load--bearing and s h e a r - l o a d - b e a r i n g capabilities.

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

The b o t t o m or deck p l a t i n g of the ship in vertical v i b r a t i o n m a i n l y bears

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

trajectory load

axial and can

F of flyor be c o nboundary.

as another s i d e r e d as a bar

Both element the

are unknown; placed on its

position of R actual

and the state location.para-

meters

The con

r o it

s s are

- s e cgoverned

t i o n a l by the of

area flow the field

barI of

iscentral

takenrarefaction

as the sumwaveofbehind

the the

c r o sdetonation

s - s e c t i o n wave

al

D areas

and by ofinitial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters

the b o t t o m or deck p l a t i n g as well as its c o n t i n u o u s longitudinal areas

of products

of the b o t t o m or d e c k p l a t i n g as w e l l as c o n t i n u o u s longitudinal s t i f f e n e r s . T h2e9 3

44 Zhong Wan-xie, He @iong, Xue Hui-yuand Young Po

to the v e r t i c a l side shell together with any longitudinal bulkheads. In the case

longitudi!~al bars.

In c r d e r to check the a c c u r a c y of the m e m b r a n e - b a r idealization, the second

the former is slightly smaller than the lat-

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n both the m o d e l and the actual ship is achieved, and the neutral

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

axis of

general, both should

a numerical alsois be

analysis very close.

required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behaviorThe of the

t h r ereflection

e - d i m e n s ishock

o n a l inm othe

d e l explosive

of the products,

complete and shipapplying

can r ethe

p r esmall

s e n t parameter pur-

more reason-

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained

ably the v i b r a t i o n d e f o r m a t i o n of a ship hull and p r o d u c e more accurate results. for the problem of flying

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Using this kind of m o d e l we have c a r r i e d out v i b r a t i o n analysis for vessel B. A

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

ant hanalytic

r e e - d i mformula

e n s i o n a lwithfinite element m

two parameters ofo dhigh

e l of the c o(i.e.

explosive m p l edetonation

t e ship structure

velocity and upolytropic

sually

index)

c o n s ifor

s t sestimation

of m e m b r ofa nthe

e velocity

elements, of flying plate is established.

and involves bar and b e a m elements. The ship side,

Introduction

elements were introduced in deck, ship side

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

b o t t o m girders, w h i c h are not included in the m e m b r a n e elements. The smaller

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

stiffeners were added into the m e m b r a n e elements and the m e m b r a n e elements are con-

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of scommon

i d e r e d interest.

as o r t h o t r o p i c . As we are solely i n t e r e s t e d in s y m m e t r i c a l v i b r a t i o n s , n e -

g l e cUnder

t i n g the

t r a assumptions

n s v e r s a l and of one-dimensional planeonly

torsional modes, detonation

one halfand rigid

of the flyingship plate,

is the

b e inormal

ng con

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

sidered, and a p p r o p r i a t e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s in the c e n t e r l i n e taken into account.

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

For the a f t e r - p a r t of the ship finer meshes were used and for the forward-part we

--ff =o,

A lumped mass f o r m u l a t i o nap is+u_~_xp

a d o p t+

ed au

in this paper. The a c c u r a c y in the pre-

t a i n e d auw h e n 1 using the distributed mass model, and in

y =0,

some cases lumped mass m o d e l s give even b e t t e r results [10]'[12] (i.0

When a ship is v i b r a t i n g aSin as

water, the fluctuating pressure acting on the im-

a--T =o,

mersed hull surface has s i g n i f i c a n t effect on the dynamic characteristics of the

p =p(p, s),

ship. In the p r e s e n t work, a c o n v e n { i o n a l strip theory method has been adopted. In

this approach, a basic two p a r a m e t e r Lewis form d e f i n e d by the w a t e r - p l a n e section

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively,

beam, depthwithand the area

trajectory

is aR s s uof

m ereflected

d for the shock of detonation

ship wave D aswith

section together a boundary

a t h r eand

e - d ithe

men-

trajectory F of flyor as another

sional c o r r e c t i o n factor_

boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

The structure d a m p i n g is one i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r d i f f i c u l t to d e t e r m i n e in

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

dynamic response calculation. At p r e s e n t it is a p p r o x i m a t e d by the viscous damping

293

proportional to the v i b r a t i o n velocity. When only the first few modes of structure

A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method 45

are investigated, especially for structures composed mainly of plates and beams,

it is u s u a l l y considered that the damping coefficient matrix is proportional to

the stiffness matrix {z,~ ,i.e., [C]=~[f] 9 In this paper, based on the measured

results of the first few modes of three ships of similar type, and considering

the membrane bar model, the p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y constant ~ was found to be 0.0018.

In order to compare wxth the m e a s u r e d results of the exciting experiment,

for vessel A, a sinusoidal exciting force applided at node number I having am-

plitude p r o p o r t i o n a l to the square of rotation speed is used to simulate the ex-

citing force applied on the extreme stern of upper deck during the vibration

test. This corresponds to the position in which the mechanical exciter was placed

Abstract

during vibration tests.

TheTheone-dimensional

finite element problem

modelof of thevessel

motion Aofisa rigid

shownflying plate under

in Fig.2 explosive

in which attack has

94 nodes,

an188

analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation

degrees of freedom, 75 bar elements, 63 4-noded quadrilateral elements and 3

products equals to three. In

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

5-nodedof qthe

behavior u a d rreflection

i l a t e r a l sshock

are in employed.

the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-

terbation~"~ne

method,

methodan manalytic,

e n t i o n e dfirst-order

above can approximate

also be solution

adapted,is obtained for the problem

in principle, of flying

to predict the

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices

transverse vibration, in which case there will be more factors to be considered other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

than in the case of vertical vibration.

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

3 .7 t 9 4 46 8 62 66 70 74 78 82. 86 ~'94

1. Introduction

Fig. 2 Two-dimensional finite element model for vessel A

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials

III. Dunder

y n a m i cintense

A n a limpulsive

ysis o loading,

f C o m p oshock

s i t e synthesis

S t r u c tof

u r ediamonds,

i n F iand

n i t eexplosive

F l e m e welding

nt and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

In computing the natural frequencies of the whole ship structure, the effect

of common interest.

of damping

Under themay be neglected.

assumptions The equations

of one-dimensional of motion and

plane detonation for rigid

the flying

structural

plate, thesystem

normal

approach

can be of solving as:

written the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

[ M]la} +[ Kproducts

governing the flow field of detonation ] l u } = 0behind the flyor (Fig. I): (3.1)

For harmonic motion, let {u}={x}sin~t, which leads to the g e n e r a l i z e d ei-

ap +u_~_xp+ au

=o,

[K] ~x} = ~ = [ M ] Ix~ (3.2)

au au 1

where ~* is an eigenvalue solution.

y =0,

(i.0

In order to reduce both the computing time and the computer storage require-

aS as

a--T =o,

ments, we employ the transfer subspace iteration method in which subspace itera-

tion is combined with the use pof=p(p,

the s),

property of M-orthonormality satisfied by

eigenvectors [14][15] In the following, O is the number of eigenvalue required,

where

and p,[x0]

p, S,isu the

are pressure,

primary density,

specific

iteration

entropyWhen

matrix.

and particle velocity ofstep

one iteration

detonation products

is finished,we

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

identify the number of eigenmodes (suppose the first F Q modes) satisfying the

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-

meters on it are

accuracy governed byofthe8/10

requirement flow field

(where I ofe central

is therarefaction

requiredwave behind the

accuracy in detonation wave

the solution

D of

and the

by initial stage ofproblem).

eigenvalue motion of flyor also;next

In the the position of F and

iteration, we the statelet

only parameters of products

the iteration co-

lumn vectors from FQ+I to O of the matrix 293

[x0] continue to be iterated.Before

46 Zhong Wan-xie, He Qi0ng, Xue Hui-yu and Young P0

continuing the iteration, we must clear the first F Q modes of eigenvector com-

ponents from these Q-FQ mode iteration vectors by the M - o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n

property.

Let the lowest eigenvectors in ix0] be expressed asx,, x~, ......~ 9v0~ ......,x~, ......, x0.

Assuming that after going through a certain iteration, the first F Q mode eigen--

values have satisfied the accuracy requirement of e/10, an arbitrary column in

the remaining Q--FQ columns is denoted by 9~ 9 In order to clear the first

FQ modes eigenvector components from 9, , we may constitute the new starting

iteration vector ~

Y~----.{,--a,9,--a29~........ apqgro

Abstract (3.3)

The M-orthogonality of 9, with x,, x~, ......,-~P0 gives:

The one-dimensional problem 9] [M]9,= of the0 motion ] of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic solution only when the

9[[M]9,= 0 ~ polytropic index of detonation products (3.4) equals to three. In

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior of the reflection shock

! products, and applying the small parameter pur-

9~o[inM]9,= the explosive

0

terbation

B e c a u s e method,

o f 9 , , x an

~ , analytic,

9..... ,gm0 first-order

b e i n g t h eapproximate

e x a c t e i g solution

e n v e c t o r sis obtained

( s a t i s f yfor the

t h e problem

a c c u r a cof

y flying

re-

plate driven

quirement by various high explosives with polytropic

o f e/10 ) , t h e M - o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n indices

condition other than but nearly

between them must be satis- equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

anf i eanalytic

d.

formula with two9 Tparameters[M]9,= 0

of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity

(s~:t) (3.5)

and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate

s,t----- l , 2 , . . . . . . ,FQ

is established.

1. it is not difficult

Introduction to obtain the following

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

9T[M]9,

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

a,= 97[M]9, 1

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

9~[M]9,

of common interest. a:= 9T[M]gt (3.6)

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

9~Q[M]9, ...... i

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

After these values of ~ are obtained, the expression for 9~ can be formed

--ff

ap +u_~_xp+ au

=o,

by eq.(3.3).

In our computer program, au

we require

au that in each iteration only the first 12

y1 =0,

column iteration vectors be included. Once the first EQ eigenmodes satisfying

(i.0

the accuracy requirement aS are adetected,

of e/J0 s they are removed from the iteration,

and the columns

a--T modes=o,in [x0] are complemented

following the F Q to make up the

next 12 columns/ p =p(p,

Our computing s), shows that this procedure

practice is quite effec-

tive.

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

Sincewith

respectively, thethe

ship floatsR in

trajectory water, in

of reflected addition

shock to flexual

of detonation wave Dvibration it and

as a boundary may the

also

trajectory F of rigid

experience flyor asbody

another boundary. such

movements, Both as

are heaving

unknown;and the position

pitching.of R Therefore,

and the state para-

the

meters on it are governed by the flow field

structural stiffness matrix is singular. I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation

We can eliminate this singularity be wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

shifting stiffness matrix. We rewrite the general eigenvalue problem [ K ] { x } =

293

~'[g]{x}in the form of:

A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method 47

or

where [ K ] is p o s i t i v e definite.

yields the eigenvalues, ~z of the same problem.

position method.

Abstract

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an IV.

analytic

C a l csolution

u l a t i o nonlyR ewhen s u l t sthe and

polytropic

D i s c uindex

s s i o nofs detonation products equals to three. In

general, aThenumerical analysis

main characteristics is required.

of the c o m p u t e d however,

In this paper, ships areby rutilizing

e s u m e d the "weak"

in the f o l lshock

owing

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-

table :

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

TABLE 1

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analyticS hformula

i p c h a rwith

a c t e rtwo

i s t iparameters

cs V e s s e l (i.e.

of high explosive A detonation Vvelocity

e s s e l and

B polytropic

Displacement 1500 D W T 5842.6 D W T

Introduction 164,3 m

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials under

B r e a d tintense

h impulsive loading, shock synthesis

10.8 m of diamonds, and explosive

22.88 m welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of commonD einterest.

pth B.3 m 13.20 m

UnderD r the

a f t assumptions of one-dimensional plane

S.I m detonation and rigid2.5

flying

m plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

Using the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d 2-dimensional model for v e s s e l A and e m p l o y i n g

DDJ(DL), the first 28 m o d e s were calculated on a 709 c o m p u t e r . The finite ele-

--ff +u_~_xp+ =o,

ment model of v e s s e l A is s h oap

w n in Fig.2. au Some of the m o s t important model size

au au

parameters are summarized below:

y1 =0,

No. of structural nodal points 94 (i.0

No. of d e g r e e s of f r e e d o aS

m as 188

a--T =o, 66

No. of m e m b r a n e elements

p =p(p, s), 75

No. of t r u s s elements

No. of f r e q u e n c i e s 28

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively, C o m pwith

u t i n gthe t trajectory

i m e u s e d R(free and f oshock

of reflected rced v ofi bdetonation

r a t i o n s analyses)

wave D as a120 mins. and the

boundary

trajectoryTFh e ofc oflyorm p u t ias

n ganother

r e s u l tboundary.

s for v e Both

s s e l are unknown;

A are shown the in position

T a b l e 2,of R

theand the state

first para-mode:

three

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

r e p r e s e n t r i g i d b o d y m o t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of h e a v i n g , p i t c h i n g and s h i f t i n g of the

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

ship. The real elastic modes start from the 4th-mode on.

293

48 Zhon~ Wan-xie, He Qiong, Xue Hui-yu and Young Po

Mode Number : 1 I 2 1 3 1 4 [ 5 ] 6 J T [ 8 I 9 .I 10 J 11 12 13 14

~requen~y ~C.~.M.)11"1~!I'0'11"0 1.0 I.~ I~001---- .~2 .I~ 1~5~ 1.~ 101,

A comparison between the computed results and the actually measured results

is shown in Table 3. The first 12 elastic mode shapes calculated are shown in

Fig.3. Fig.4 shows the comparison between calculated modes and measured modes at

the first 4 frequencies, and Fig.5 shows the comparison of the resonance curve

Abstract

between calculated and measured results in forced vibration test at node 94 of

the The

bow.one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

By using 3-dimensional finite element model, the first 13 modes were calcu-

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

lated of

behavior forthe

vessel B. shock

reflection The 3-dimensional

in the explosive finite

products,element model the

and applying of small

vessel B are pur-

parameter shown

terbation

in Fig.6.method,

Somean of

analytic, first-order

the most approximate

important model solution is obtained for

size parameters arethesum/~arized

problem of flying

below:

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

TABLE 3 Comparison between Calculation and Measurement of Hull Vibration

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic formulaofwithVessel A

two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

Vibration mode ,]21314~Iol7t,, ~ I,o;,,

node number

1. Introduction

measured results(c.p.m.) -~ ]~ L= 1__~

"~ I__] "~ i I

beamExplosive

model driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

cal.value

(transfer

materials (c.p.m.)

under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

matrix cal. mea.

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

method) _-]-_-L_ I. _ L -

of two-dimen-

common interest.

cal.value

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal 1089

sional

(c.p.m.)

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

E.L.model m _ _

(4-noded cal.

governing the flow field of detonation products

1 02 1 behind

05/ 1 04 the flyor

1.12(Fig. I): __, ! -

conforming mea.

element)

two-dimen- cal. --ff

ap +u_~_xp+ au

=o,

sional value 904-!9S5 108~

E.L. model L

(c.p.m.) au au 1

(4- noded y =0,

non-confor- cal. (i.0

ming element mea. aS as

two-dimen- a--T =o,

sional E.L. cal.

model (4- value p =p(p, s),

noded non- (c.p.m.) i 1 I__ . J _ _ L I .... [

conforming

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

element con-

respectively, with cal.

the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as la boundary I and the

sidering

trajectory F

shear cor- of

mea.

flyor as another boundary. Both are,0!

unknown;

i

the ,0.!

position of R 111,

and the state para-

meters on

rection)it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

293

A Study on Shi.p Vibration Using Finite Element Me,thod 49

mode 1

96.3 c.p.m.

mode 2

203.4 c.p.m.

t-,,

mode 3

320.4 c.p.m.

,....--"

Abstract mode 4

431.1 c.p.m.

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation mode products

5 equals to three. In

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by488.7 utilizing the "weak" shock

c.p.m.

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

mode 6

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

563.8 c.p.m.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity

Fig.3(a) of flying

Calculated plateshapes

mode is established.

of vessel A

1. Introduction mode 7

668.8 c.p.m.

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the mode

way of8 raising it are questions

765.3 c.p.m.

of common interest.

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following

mode 9 system of equations

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):826.4 c.p.m.

,

I._ ~

.- , i --ff 71+

ap +u_~_xp i,au =o, /

mode i0

858.5 c.p.m.

au au

y1 =0,,4

m o d e Ii (i.0

936.8 c.p.m.

aS as

a--T =o,

p =p(p, s), mode 12

1014.2 c.p.m.

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively, with Fig.S(b)

the trajectory R of reflected

Calculated modeshock of detonation

shapes of vesselwaveA D as a boundary and the

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

mode 1 293

5_0 Zhong Wan-xie, He Qiong, xue Hui-j/u and Youno Po

mode 2

mode 3

Abstract

mode 4

calculated results

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products

o measured results

equals to three. In

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior Fig.

of the

4 reflection

C o m p a r i s oshock

n b e tin

w e the

e n cexplosive

a l c u l a t eproducts,

d m o d e s and

and applying

measured them osmall

d e s parameter

of the pur-

terbation method,first

an analytic,

4 r e s ofirst-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

n a n c e frequencies

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities ofa mflying

plitude

plate obtained agree very well with numerical

(mm)

--- Measured value

results by computers. Thus

3.1

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e.. detonation . . . C a l c u lvelocity

a t e d v aand

l u e polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

exciting force Toh

1.0

1. Introduction

A

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

O,

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

Fre.

governing the 0.03

flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

50 I00 150 200 250 300 350 400 (r p. m)

Fig. 5

(at node 94 of the

--ff +u_~_xp+ au

ap bow)

=o,

au au

No. of structural Nodal Points y1 =0, 195

(i.0

No. of d e g r e e s of freedom. 414

aS as

No. of m e m b r a n e elements a--T =o, 224

No. of b e a m elements 38

where p, No.

p, S,ofu are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation

frequencies 13

products

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

trajectoryT iFm eof uflyor

s e d for c o m p u t a t i o n

as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and ii0 min.

the state para-

meters onT hite are

c o mgoverned

p u t e d r eby

s u the

l t s flow

for field

v e s sIe l

of central

B are rarefaction

s h o w n in wave

T a b l ebehind

4. the detonation wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

293

A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method 51

~_~_o_de number , ; 2 3 4 1 5 6 I 7 8 .9 1 ,0

F_requency (C.P.M) _ 0 r 0.15 i 1.2~i I 109.8 199 352 j 358 413 502

Mode Number 11 [ 12 ! 13

/

b

FFeoyency (C.P.M.) 572 ' r~09 Tit)

i I

two-dimensional finite

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

values. When compared with the p r e d i c t e d values ob-

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

tained by

general, a numerical beam model,

analysis the agreement

is required. In between

this paper,thehowever,

cal- by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior

culated of the reflection

results and shock

m e a s u rin

e m ethe

n t sexplosive

has been products, and applying the small parameter pur-

improved

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

greatly, especially at the 4th- and 5th-modes the

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

d i s c r e p a n c y has d e c r e a s e d to within 5% as compared

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an with

analytic that formula withthan

of more two parameters

20% in theoftraditional

high explosivebeam

(i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index)

model.for estimation of the velocity

Furthermore, of flying plate

the calculated modeis established.

shapes

improvement has been

o

achieved in ship vertical vibration calculation by

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

using the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l model used here than by

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and o

employing

cladding of metals. the The

beammethod

model.of estimation

However, of

the reduction

flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

of a three--dimensional ship to a two dimensional

clearly presents ofa one-dimensional

limitation onplane

the detonation

range of and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model. If the value of the

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I): 4~

shear m o d u l u s is suitably adjusted to take into ac-

count the effect of transverse d i s t o r t i o n s , t h e range

--ff

ap +u_~_xp+ au

=o,

of a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model can be extended espe-

o

cially for the c o m p u t a t i o n ofau

v i b r a tau

y1 higher-

i o n at

=0, i.n

H

the results thus o b t a i n e d aS

will then a sbe more reason-.

a--T =o,

able. B a s e d on the shear coefficient formula in

p =p(p, s),

Timoshenko beam equation d e d u c e d acoording to three-

d i mp,

where e n sp,i oS,

n au

l

aree lpressure,

a s t i c i t ydensity, by Cowper

theoryspecific [16],

entropy particle velocity of detonation products <o

and in

respectively,

this p a p ewith

r a the trajectoryfactor

reduction R of reflected

for theshock of detonation

reduction of wave D as a boundary and the <

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown;

a three--dimensional body to a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l one the position of R and the state para-

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

is introduced to make the necessary adjustment for

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of ttproducts

the shear modulus. From the computer results for

293

52. . Zhon9 Wan-xie, He qiong, XueHui-yu and YounN Po

vessel A with this c o r r e c t i o n taken into account, it is noted that the accuracy

The t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l can represent more reasonably the v i b r a t i o n

plex m o d e l with finer mesh requires a great deal of data p r e p a r a t i o n and large

computer memory, and eventually costs more. For the 3-dimensional fi'nite e l e

ment model of vessel B, due to rough n e t w o r k of elements (especially the fore-

part of the model), o n l y for the lower--mode hull v i b r a t i o n s is an accurate re-

sult to be expected. With this network shear lag and local vibration, impor--

Abstract

rant for h i g h e r - m o d e vibrations, are not taken into account. In order to ac-

quire Theanone-dimensional

accurate result problem for ofh itheg h emotion

r - m o d e ofhull

a rigid flying plate under

vibrations, a finer explosive

network attack

of has

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

elements must be used.

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-

terbation

V. C omethod,

n c l u s i o nan analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate drivena. The by various

t w o - d ihigh

mensi explosives

o n a l finite with polytropic

element model indices isother than but nearly

a reasonable model equalfor to three.

the

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

anc analytic

a l c u l a t i o n of ship hull v e r t i c a l vibration.

formula with two parameters of high explosiveIn(i.e.

c o m p a r i n g with the b e a m model,

detonation velocity and polytropic

it represents

index) for estimation more

of ther e velocity

a l i s t i c of

a l lflying

y theplate d i sis

t oestablished.

r t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e s p e c i a l l y in

h i g h e r - m o d e vibrations. Therefore the agreement b e t w e e n the c a l c u l a t i o n s and

measurements 1. Introduction

has been improved greatly, and the d i s c r e p a n c y at 4th- and 5th-

modes has d e c r e a s e d to within 5%. At the same time, the estimates of the res-

ponse Explosive

of a ship driveninflying-plate

v e r t i c a l technique

v i b r a t i o nffmds its important

agree fairly well use within the the

study

m e aof

s ubehavior

r e d re- of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

sults in forced v i b r a t i o n tests using a m e c h a n i c a l exciter.

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common b. interest.

C o m p a r e d with the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l finite element model, the two-di-

m e n sUnder

i o n a l the assumptions

model is r e l aof

t ione-dimensional

v e l y simple, the planedata

detonation

p r e p a rand

a t i origid

n isflying

not plate, the normal

too tedious

approach

and time consuming, the cost and time required for c o m p u t a t i o n is c o m p a requations

of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of atively

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

lower and shorter. The c a l c u l a t i o n can be t a r r i e d out by using only 32K words

of internal m e m o r y of a m e d i u m - s i z e d computer. Therefore, this model is espe-

--ff +u_~_xp+ =o,

cially suitable for analyzing ap

the dynamic au

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ghips at early de-

au au

sign stages.

y1 =0,

c. E m p l o y i n g the transfer subspace (i.0

iteration m e t h o d t o calculate eigenva-

lues in d y n a m i c analysis, moreaS e i g e navsa l u e s can be e x t r a c t e d in a shorter time

a--T =o,

with less internal storage space of the computer. On the other hand, having

p =p(p, s),

c o n s i d e r e d the p a r t i c u l a r feature of the s i n g u l a r i t y of the stiffness matrix

caused by floating ships having no b o u n d a r y restraints, we can use the p r o g r a m

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively,

d i r e c t l y with the trajectory

to calculate shipR hull

of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

vibration.

trajectoryd.F The of flyor

a d j uas

s tanother

m e n t ofboundary.

the shear Both

m oare

d u l unknown;

u s is quitethe position of Rwhen

necessary and the

thestate para-

limita-

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation

tion caused by r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a three d i m e n s i o n a l ship by a two d i m e n s i o n a l

wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

moCel is considered. Using the results o b t a i n e d by Cowper, we introduce a sim-

293

ple m e t h o d to obtain a r e l a t i v e l y reasonable reduction factor which is especially

A Study on Ship Vibration Usino Finite Element ~iethod 53

References

1. Yan Shu-bang, Xue Hui-yu, Zhuang He--xun and Li Chang--long, Calculation me-

thods for ship hull free vibration, Technical Report of C.S.S.R.C. Jan.

(1977). (in Chinese)

2. Liu Xing- sen and Jin Xian-ding, The computer program of transfer matrix me-

thod and its application for ship hull vibration, Report of Shanghai Jiao-

tung University, July(1978). (in Chinese)

3. Ma Guang-zong, Prediction of ship hull vibration with Riccati transfer me-.

thod, Report of Shanghai Ship Design Institute (1978).(in Chinese)

4. Xue Hui-yu and Wu Ze liang, Application of transfer matrix method to pre-

diction of ship hull vibration response, Technical Report of C.S.R.C. Jan.

(1979). (in Chinese) Abstract

5. Hylarides, Recent developments in hull and shaft vibration analysis, I.S.P.

Thevol.

one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

17 No. 190(1970).

6. Norris,

an analytic C. only

solution and D. whenCatley, Application

the polytropic indexofof two-dimensional

detonation products finite

equals elements

to three. In

model to ship vertical vibration and comparison with ship mobility measure-

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

ments, Symposium on Propeller Induced Ship Vibration, Dec.(1979).

behavior of the reflection

7. Kavlte, Dag and shockAbsjord,in theHalvand,

explosive Prediction

products, andof applying the small

vibration in theparameter

afterbodypur-

terbationofmethod, an analytic, first-order approximate

ship, Norwegian Maritime Research, Vol.15 No.4, (1977).solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate8.driven by various

Armand, J. and highP.explosives

Orsero, with polytropic

Dynamic indicesofother

analysis the than but nearly

afterbody of equal

a ship__to three.

towardsof aflying

Final velocities successful correlation

plate obtained between

agree very analysis

well with numericalandresults

experiment results,

by computers. Thus

SNAME

an analytic Ship with

formula Vibration Symposium,

two parameters Newexplosive

of high York(1978).

(i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

9. Volocy, G. C., M. Baudin and Morel, Integrated Treatment of Static and Vi-

index) forbratory

estimation of the velocity

Behaviour of Twin of flying

Screw plate is established.

553000 dwt Tankers, RINA London (1978).

10. Clough, R.W., Analysis of structural vibrations and dynamic response,Recent

Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis and Design(Papers Presente(

1. Introduction

at the U.S.-- Japan Siminar), Tokyo, Japan(1969).

11. Wilson; E.L., A computer program for the dynamic analysis of underground

Explosive driven Report

structures, flying-plate

68-i, technique ffmds its important

Civil Engineering use in the

Department, study of behavior

University of Cali- of

materials fornia, Jan. impulsive

under intense (AD 832 681, N.T.I.S.),

loading, (1968).

shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

12. Clough, R.W. and C.A. Felippa, A refined quadrilateral element for analysis

cladding ofof metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

plate bending, Proceedings of the Second Conference on Matrix Methods in

of common interest.

Structural Mechanics, Oct. (AD 703 685, N.T.I.S.), (1968).

13.Under the assumptions

Armand, J.L. and of one-dimensional

P.Orsero, plane detonation

Analytical identification and rigid

of flying

damping plate,intheship

normal

vi--"

approachbration

of solving the full-scale

from problem of motion of flyor RINA

measurement, is to solve the following

Symposium system ofInduced

of Propeller equations

governingShip Vibration,

the flow Dec. (1979).

field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

14. Zhong Wan-xie, Lin Jia hao, Cheng Geng--dong and Tian Yu-shan, Study of

characteristic value of vibrational mechanics and its application to dyna.-

mic calculation of frametype --ff base, A Collection

+u_~_xp+ au

ap Mechanics

=o, of Papers at the Symposium

on Computational Structure of Universities under the Auspices of

the Ministry of ~Eduction,(1978) -(in Chinese)

au au

15. Bathe, K,J. and E.L. wilson, Numericaly1 Methods

=0, in Finite Elements Analysis,

Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1976). (i.0

16. Cowper, G.R., The shear aS coefficient in Timoshenko's beam theory, Journal of

as

Applied Mechanics, Voi.33, a--T No.2,(1966).

=o,

17. Structural Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Technology, March, (1978).(in

Chinese) p =p(p, s),

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

293

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