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Applied Mathematics and Mechanics Published by HUST Press,

(English Edition, Vol.4, No.l, Jan. 1983) Wuhan, China

A STUDY ON S~IP VIBRATION USING FINITE ELEMENT M~THOD

Zhong Wan-xic( ~ )
(Dalian Institute of Technology)
He Qiong(~ ~ )
(Shanghai University of Technology)
XueHui-yu(~,~ ), Young Po(~ ~ )
(The Chinese Ship Scientific Research Center)
Abstract
(Received Feb. 27, 1982)

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
#BSTRACT
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
~ e n the beam theory was used to calculate ship hull vibra-
behavior of tion,
the reflection
greatershock in the explosive
discrepancies were products, and applying
found between the small cal-
theoretical parameter pur-
terbation method,
culations and actual measurements especially at highermodes. Thus of flying
an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem
plate driven the
by various high explosives
beam model cannot be withconsidered
polytropic indices other than one
as a practical but forhigher-
nearly equal to three.
modeofcalculations.
Final velocities flying plate obtainedThis agree
paper presents
very well withthe application
numerical results by of computers.
two- Thus
an analytic dimensional
formula with two finite elementof model
parameters for the(i.e.
high explosive calculation o f ~ i I, and
detonation velocity ver-polytropic
tical vibration. Using the multi-element structural dynamic a-
index) for estimation
nalysis of the velocity
program DDJ(DL)of flying plate is established.
developed by ourselves, the hull vibra-
tion analysis of two ships (vessel A and vessel B ) was carried
out on the Model-709 Computer made in the People's Republic of
China.
1. Introduction
The results of the calculation, when compared with actual
Explosive driven flying-plate
measurements, technique
show that ffmds its important model
the two-dimensional use in isthemuch
studymore
of behavior of
efficient
materials under than the loading,
intense impulsive traditional
shock beam model.
synthesis The agreement
of diamonds, be- welding and
and explosive
tween the calculations and measurements has been inTrovedgreatly,
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
and this discrepancy at the 4th. and 5th-modes has decreased to
of common interest.
within 5Z as compared to that of more than 20% in the tradi~onal
Undermodel.
the assumptions of one-dimensional
Furthermore, the model plane detonation and
is relatively rigid the
simple, flyingcost
plate,and
the normal
approach oftimesolving the problem
required of motion
for the of flyor is
computation is to solve the following
comparatively lowersystem
and of equations
governing theshorter,
flow field and the calculation
of detonation can bethe
products behind carried outI):on a medium--siezed
flyor (Fig.
computer. Therefore, this model is especially appropriate for
analyzing the dynamic characteristics of ships at early design
stages. --ff
ap +u_~_xp+ au
=o,

au au
I. Introauction y1 =0,
people have continuously searched for better methods in the computation
(i.0
of
aS as
ship hull vibration. The beama--T =o,widely used for sometime
theory was in the past:
in this method a ship was simplified as a variable section heam with variable
p =p(p, s),
mass and stiffness along the ship length, and by solving the Timoshenko beam e-
where p, p, which
quation S, u arealso
pressure,
took density, specificofentropy
the effect shear andand particle
rotary velocity
inertiaof detonation products
into account, the
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
natural frequencies and vibration modes of the ship were calculated. With res-
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-
pect on
meters to itthe approximate
are governed by thenumerical
flow field solution
I of central of this differential
rarefaction equation,various
wave behind the detonation wave
D methods,
and by initial
suchstage
as of
themotion of flyor
energy also; the
method, the position
finite of F and the state
difference parameters
method, the of products
integral
equation method, the transfer matrix method ..., etc. were used [I]-[41 293
.The tran
42 Zhong Wan-xie, He Oiong, Xue Hui-yu and Youno Po

sfer m a t r i x method was c o n s i d e r e d as the best of the above, m e n t i o n e d methods and

was w i d e l v used in ship b u i l d i n a and d e s i a n offices. However, when the beam

theory was used to c a l c u l a t e ship vibration, the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between theore

tical calculation and actual measurements were small in the regime of the lower

hull modes, but it b e c a m e large in h i g h e r modes, expecially at the 4 t h and 5th-.

modes, the d i s c r e p a n c i e s might reach 20, or more. Thus the b e a m model cannot be

considered as a p r a c t i c a l one for higher mode calculations. The c o m p a r i s o n of

measured natural freauencies of ship v e r t i c a l vibration with the c a l c u l a t e d va-

lues by the b e a m theory is shown in Fig.l [5]

cal. value Abstract


meas .value
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic solution only when the polytropic - - index of detonation
Ships at abroadproducts equals to three. In
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
.... Vessel A
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
plate driven by variousl.Ohigh explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree
n o d e very
n u m bwell
e r with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic formula with0.B
two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
Fig. 1 Comparison of measured natural frequencies of ship ver-
tical vibration 1.withIntroduction
the calculated values from the beam
theory
Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
Recently, the p r o p e l l e r s w i t h g r e a t e r o u t p u t p o w e r and s]ower r o t a t i o n a l
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
speed have been u s u a l l y used in ship, and the e x c i t a t i o n c a u s e d by the p r o p e l l e r
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
ofwith
common b l a dinterest.
e f r e q u e n c i e s m a y o f t e n fall into the regime of h i g h e r - m o d e s of hull
Under thesoassumptions
vibration, it is an of imp one-dimensional plane
o r t a n t subject to detonation
study theand m e trigid
h o d flying
of c oplate,
m p u t athe
t i o normal
n of
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following
h i g h e r - m o d e v i b r a t i o n and to improve the a c c u r a c y of the calculation.
system of equations
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
The g r e a t e r discrepancies at higher mode are fundamentally due to the unrea-

sonably assumed ship m o d e l used. When ship v i b r a t e s in h i g h e r - m o d e s , the dis-


--ff +u_~_xp
ap the
=o,
tance between nodes is close to t r a n+s v eau
r s e size of the ship, and the slender

beam assumption is no longer au


valid. auIn o r1d e r to increase the a c c u r a c y in higher-
y =0,
modes calculation, it is n e c e s s a r y to b u i l d more reasonable models for computa- (i.0
tion.
aS as
a--T =o,
In recent years, extensive s t u d i e s on ship hull vibration using the finite
p =p(p, s),
element method have been p e r f o r m e d abroad. Various types of finite element mo-

dels,p, such
where p, S, uasarethe t w o - d idensity,
pressure, m e n s i o nspecific
a l model, theand
entropy thr e e - d i m velocity
particle e n s i o n a lof detonation
model and products
the hy-
respectively,
brid m o d e l with(bythe
c o mtrajectory
b i n i n g aR mof
e m breflected
r a n e - b a rshock
modeofl detonation
or t h r e e -wave
d i m e nDs ias
o naa lboundary
m o d e l and
for the
the
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position
a f t e r p a r t of the ship w i t h a b e a m m o d e l of the f o r w a r d part), etc. have been of R and the state para-
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
Demployed [0]''[9] "
and by initial (
stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
Our aim here is to f o r m u l a t e a computation model which can not only be uti--
293
lized w i t h sufficient ease in the early design stage but can also p r e d i c t with a
A Study on Ship Vibration Using F i n i t e Element Method 43

definite degree of c o n f i d e n c e the dynamic characteristics of a ship structure

in the frequency range up to the propeller blade-passage frequency. Using the

two-dimensional and t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l finite element models we carry out the

dynamic characteristics analysis and response calculation for two ships(vessel

A and vessel B] with the m u l t i - e l e m e n t s structural dynamic analysis program

DDJ(DL) developed by o u r s e l v e s on the C h i n a - m a d e 709-computer. The result of

the c a l c u l a t i o n is very satisfactory.


In this paper the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l and three dimensional finite element ap-

proach for ship hull v i b r a t i o n and the relevant selection of calculation para-

meters are p r e s e n t e d in some detail. The d y n a m i c response calculation for m u ]


Abstract
ti-elements composite structures is also briefly mentioned. Finally, through

the The dynamicone-dimensional


c h a r a c t e r iproblem of theresponse
s t i c s and motion ofcalculation
a rigid flyingofplate under (vessel
a ship explosive A),attack as has
anananalytic
example, and c o m p a r i n g the p r e d i c t e d values with actual measurements, some In
solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three.
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
p r o b l e m s in hull v i b r a t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n using finite element model are discussed.
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
plate
I!. driven T h e byF ivarious
n i t e high E ] e mexplosives
ent A p pwith
r o a c polytropic
h t o S hindices other Vthan
i p }full i b r a but
t i o nnearly
C aequal
l c u l ato
t ithree.
on
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very
The ship structure is a kind of box-type shell beam structure
well with numerical results by computers.
composed of
Thus
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
plates, shells and bars. It v i b r a t e s under the excitation of waves, propellers
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
and main p r o p u l s i o n machineries. Generally, the vertical vibration of a ship is

of most concern to ship d e s i g n e r s and operators. Since the internal structures


1. Introduction
and masses of a ship are, strictly speaking, not symmetrical about the vertical

p l a nExplosive
e a l o n g driven
the m a jflying-plate
o r axis of technique ffmds
the ship, a its important
vertical use in the
exciting studyonofthis
force behavior
axis of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds,
will p r o d u c e t r a n s v e r s e v i b r a t i o n in addition to the vertical as well as fore-
and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
a n d - a f t vibrations. However, it has been found from a series of full-scale vi--
of common interest.
b r a tUnder
i o n m the
e a s uassumptions
r e m e n t s , that coupling theplane
of one-dimensional transverse
detonationdirection with plate,
and rigid flying a vertical ex-
the normal
approach
c i t i n g of solving
force canthe be problem
n e g l e c tof
e d motion of flyor
to first a p p r oisx ito
m asolve
t i o n the
andfollowing system
therefore of equations
a two-dimen:
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
sional model is c o n s i d e r e d to be s a t i s f a c t o r y for vertical v i b r a t i o n w i t h i n the
frequency range considered. In this model, the ship is compressed into a set of

membrane and bar elements along --ff


ap a+u_~_xp
=o,
single+ vertical
au plane on the ship's longitudi-
nal axis and it vibrates vertically.
au au Each1 element used in the model is assumed
to have uniform thickness
y
or c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l
=0, and
area to be of e l a s t i c , i s o t r o l d c
(i.0
and h o m o g e n e o u s materials, andaSany naosn - l i n e a r i t i e s in the structure are ignored.

The 2-noded bar e l e m e n t is merely


a--T an axial
=o, l o a d - b e a r i n g member; it has no bendin,
strength and it is g e n e r a l l y p =p(p, along
placed s), an edge (i.e., a side) of a m e m b r a n e
element which has both axial- load--bearing and s h e a r - l o a d - b e a r i n g capabilities.
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
The b o t t o m or deck p l a t i n g of the ship in vertical v i b r a t i o n m a i n l y bears
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
trajectory load
axial and can
F of flyor be c o nboundary.
as another s i d e r e d as a bar
Both element the
are unknown; placed on its
position of R actual
and the state location.para-
meters
The con
r o it
s s are
- s e cgoverned
t i o n a l by the of
area flow the field
barI of
iscentral
takenrarefaction
as the sumwaveofbehind
the the
c r o sdetonation
s - s e c t i o n wave
al
D areas
and by ofinitial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters
the b o t t o m or deck p l a t i n g as well as its c o n t i n u o u s longitudinal areas
of products
of the b o t t o m or d e c k p l a t i n g as w e l l as c o n t i n u o u s longitudinal s t i f f e n e r s . T h2e9 3
44 Zhong Wan-xie, He @iong, Xue Hui-yuand Young Po

thickness of a m e m b r a n e element is the sum of the t h i c k n e s s e s across the ship of

all the c o n t i n u o u s shear-carrying steel work. In general, this will correspond

to the v e r t i c a l side shell together with any longitudinal bulkheads. In the case

of sloping plating, however, only a proportion of the t h i c k n e s s is taken as ef-

fective in v e r t i c a l shear. The r e m a i n d e r is c o n s i d e r e d to c a r r y only longitu-

dinal axial loads and is t h e r e f o r e included in the c r o s s s e c t i o n a l area of the

longitudi!~al bars.
In c r d e r to check the a c c u r a c y of the m e m b r a n e - b a r idealization, the second

moment of area of the model is c o m p a r e d with that of full-scaled ship at selected

longitudinal sections. Generally, Abstract


the former is slightly smaller than the lat-

ter. T h i s m u s t be m o d i f i e d ' b y adjusting the area of the bar e l e m e n t until the


The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n both the m o d e l and the actual ship is achieved, and the neutral
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
axis of
general, both should
a numerical alsois be
analysis very close.
required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behaviorThe of the
t h r ereflection
e - d i m e n s ishock
o n a l inm othe
d e l explosive
of the products,
complete and shipapplying
can r ethe
p r esmall
s e n t parameter pur-
more reason-
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained
ably the v i b r a t i o n d e f o r m a t i o n of a ship hull and p r o d u c e more accurate results. for the problem of flying
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Using this kind of m o d e l we have c a r r i e d out v i b r a t i o n analysis for vessel B. A
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
ant hanalytic
r e e - d i mformula
e n s i o n a lwithfinite element m
two parameters ofo dhigh
e l of the c o(i.e.
explosive m p l edetonation
t e ship structure
velocity and upolytropic
sually

index)
c o n s ifor
s t sestimation
of m e m b r ofa nthe
e velocity
elements, of flying plate is established.
and involves bar and b e a m elements. The ship side,

longitudinal and t r a n s v e r s e bulkheads and d o u b l e - b o t t o m were m o d e l l e d by means of

membrane elements. Furthermore,1. truss


Introduction
elements were introduced in deck, ship side

and bottom, i.e., to r e p r e s e n t secondary longitudinal structures, such as d o u b l e -


Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
b o t t o m girders, w h i c h are not included in the m e m b r a n e elements. The smaller
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
stiffeners were added into the m e m b r a n e elements and the m e m b r a n e elements are con-
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of scommon
i d e r e d interest.
as o r t h o t r o p i c . As we are solely i n t e r e s t e d in s y m m e t r i c a l v i b r a t i o n s , n e -

g l e cUnder
t i n g the
t r a assumptions
n s v e r s a l and of one-dimensional planeonly
torsional modes, detonation
one halfand rigid
of the flyingship plate,
is the
b e inormal
ng con
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
sidered, and a p p r o p r i a t e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s in the c e n t e r l i n e taken into account.
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
For the a f t e r - p a r t of the ship finer meshes were used and for the forward-part we

used roarser meshes.


--ff =o,
A lumped mass f o r m u l a t i o nap is+u_~_xp
a d o p t+
ed au
in this paper. The a c c u r a c y in the pre-

diction corresponds to that o bau


t a i n e d auw h e n 1 using the distributed mass model, and in
y =0,
some cases lumped mass m o d e l s give even b e t t e r results [10]'[12] (i.0
When a ship is v i b r a t i n g aSin as
water, the fluctuating pressure acting on the im-
a--T =o,
mersed hull surface has s i g n i f i c a n t effect on the dynamic characteristics of the
p =p(p, s),
ship. In the p r e s e n t work, a c o n v e n { i o n a l strip theory method has been adopted. In
this approach, a basic two p a r a m e t e r Lewis form d e f i n e d by the w a t e r - p l a n e section
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively,
beam, depthwithand the area
trajectory
is aR s s uof
m ereflected
d for the shock of detonation
ship wave D aswith
section together a boundary
a t h r eand
e - d ithe
men-
trajectory F of flyor as another
sional c o r r e c t i o n factor_
boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
The structure d a m p i n g is one i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r d i f f i c u l t to d e t e r m i n e in
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
dynamic response calculation. At p r e s e n t it is a p p r o x i m a t e d by the viscous damping
293
proportional to the v i b r a t i o n velocity. When only the first few modes of structure
A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method 45

are investigated, especially for structures composed mainly of plates and beams,
it is u s u a l l y considered that the damping coefficient matrix is proportional to

the stiffness matrix {z,~ ,i.e., [C]=~[f] 9 In this paper, based on the measured
results of the first few modes of three ships of similar type, and considering
the membrane bar model, the p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y constant ~ was found to be 0.0018.
In order to compare wxth the m e a s u r e d results of the exciting experiment,
for vessel A, a sinusoidal exciting force applided at node number I having am-
plitude p r o p o r t i o n a l to the square of rotation speed is used to simulate the ex-
citing force applied on the extreme stern of upper deck during the vibration
test. This corresponds to the position in which the mechanical exciter was placed
Abstract
during vibration tests.
TheTheone-dimensional
finite element problem
modelof of thevessel
motion Aofisa rigid
shownflying plate under
in Fig.2 explosive
in which attack has
94 nodes,
an188
analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation
degrees of freedom, 75 bar elements, 63 4-noded quadrilateral elements and 3
products equals to three. In
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
5-nodedof qthe
behavior u a d rreflection
i l a t e r a l sshock
are in employed.
the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-
terbation~"~ne
method,
methodan manalytic,
e n t i o n e dfirst-order
above can approximate
also be solution
adapted,is obtained for the problem
in principle, of flying
to predict the
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices
transverse vibration, in which case there will be more factors to be considered other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
than in the case of vertical vibration.
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

3 .7 t 9 4 46 8 62 66 70 74 78 82. 86 ~'94
1. Introduction
Fig. 2 Two-dimensional finite element model for vessel A
Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials
III. Dunder
y n a m i cintense
A n a limpulsive
ysis o loading,
f C o m p oshock
s i t e synthesis
S t r u c tof
u r ediamonds,
i n F iand
n i t eexplosive
F l e m e welding
nt and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
In computing the natural frequencies of the whole ship structure, the effect
of common interest.
of damping
Under themay be neglected.
assumptions The equations
of one-dimensional of motion and
plane detonation for rigid
the flying
structural
plate, thesystem
normal
approach
can be of solving as:
written the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
[ M]la} +[ Kproducts
governing the flow field of detonation ] l u } = 0behind the flyor (Fig. I): (3.1)
For harmonic motion, let {u}={x}sin~t, which leads to the g e n e r a l i z e d ei-

genvalue problem: --ff


ap +u_~_xp+ au
=o,
[K] ~x} = ~ = [ M ] Ix~ (3.2)
au au 1
where ~* is an eigenvalue solution.
y =0,
(i.0
In order to reduce both the computing time and the computer storage require-
aS as
a--T =o,
ments, we employ the transfer subspace iteration method in which subspace itera-
tion is combined with the use pof=p(p,
the s),
property of M-orthonormality satisfied by
eigenvectors [14][15] In the following, O is the number of eigenvalue required,
where
and p,[x0]
p, S,isu the
are pressure,
primary density,
specific
iteration
entropyWhen
matrix.
and particle velocity ofstep
one iteration
detonation products
is finished,we
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
identify the number of eigenmodes (suppose the first F Q modes) satisfying the
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-
meters on it are
accuracy governed byofthe8/10
requirement flow field
(where I ofe central
is therarefaction
requiredwave behind the
accuracy in detonation wave
the solution
D of
and the
by initial stage ofproblem).
eigenvalue motion of flyor also;next
In the the position of F and
iteration, we the statelet
only parameters of products
the iteration co-
lumn vectors from FQ+I to O of the matrix 293
[x0] continue to be iterated.Before
46 Zhong Wan-xie, He Qi0ng, Xue Hui-yu and Young P0

continuing the iteration, we must clear the first F Q modes of eigenvector com-
ponents from these Q-FQ mode iteration vectors by the M - o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n
property.
Let the lowest eigenvectors in ix0] be expressed asx,, x~, ......~ 9v0~ ......,x~, ......, x0.
Assuming that after going through a certain iteration, the first F Q mode eigen--
values have satisfied the accuracy requirement of e/10, an arbitrary column in
the remaining Q--FQ columns is denoted by 9~ 9 In order to clear the first
FQ modes eigenvector components from 9, , we may constitute the new starting
iteration vector ~

Y~----.{,--a,9,--a29~........ apqgro
Abstract (3.3)
The M-orthogonality of 9, with x,, x~, ......,-~P0 gives:
The one-dimensional problem 9] [M]9,= of the0 motion ] of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic solution only when the
9[[M]9,= 0 ~ polytropic index of detonation products (3.4) equals to three. In
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior of the reflection shock
! products, and applying the small parameter pur-
9~o[inM]9,= the explosive
0
terbation
B e c a u s e method,
o f 9 , , x an
~ , analytic,
9..... ,gm0 first-order
b e i n g t h eapproximate
e x a c t e i g solution
e n v e c t o r sis obtained
( s a t i s f yfor the
t h e problem
a c c u r a cof
y flying
re-
plate driven
quirement by various high explosives with polytropic
o f e/10 ) , t h e M - o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n indices
condition other than but nearly
between them must be satis- equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
anf i eanalytic
d.
formula with two9 Tparameters[M]9,= 0
of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity
(s~:t) (3.5)
and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate
s,t----- l , 2 , . . . . . . ,FQ
is established.

Putting (3.3) and (3.5) into (3.4)


1. it is not difficult
Introduction to obtain the following

expression for a,(i=l,2, ......,FQ)


Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
9T[M]9,
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
a,= 97[M]9, 1
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
9~[M]9,
of common interest. a:= 9T[M]gt (3.6)
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
9~Q[M]9, ...... i
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
After these values of ~ are obtained, the expression for 9~ can be formed
--ff
ap +u_~_xp+ au
=o,
by eq.(3.3).
In our computer program, au
we require
au that in each iteration only the first 12
y1 =0,
column iteration vectors be included. Once the first EQ eigenmodes satisfying
(i.0
the accuracy requirement aS are adetected,
of e/J0 s they are removed from the iteration,
and the columns
a--T modes=o,in [x0] are complemented
following the F Q to make up the
next 12 columns/ p =p(p,
Our computing s), shows that this procedure
practice is quite effec-

tive.
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
Sincewith
respectively, thethe
ship floatsR in
trajectory water, in
of reflected addition
shock to flexual
of detonation wave Dvibration it and
as a boundary may the
also

trajectory F of rigid
experience flyor asbody
another boundary. such
movements, Both as
are heaving
unknown;and the position
pitching.of R Therefore,
and the state para-
the
meters on it are governed by the flow field
structural stiffness matrix is singular. I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation
We can eliminate this singularity be wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
shifting stiffness matrix. We rewrite the general eigenvalue problem [ K ] { x } =
293
~'[g]{x}in the form of:
A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method 47

([K] + a i m ]){x} = (~=+a)[M] {x; (3.7)


or

[K](x} = ~ [ g ] ~x} (s.8)


where [ K ] is p o s i t i v e definite.

All m o d e s of {x} calculated by this method are the e i g e n v e c t o r s of the ori-

ginal general eigenvalue problem, and subtracting a from all of the A v a l u e s


yields the eigenvalues, ~z of the same problem.

After the n a t u r a l frequencies and v i b r a t i o n profiles of v a r i o u s modes are

obtained, we can calculate the d y n a m i c response of the ship by the m o d e s super-

position method.
Abstract

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an IV.
analytic
C a l csolution
u l a t i o nonlyR ewhen s u l t sthe and
polytropic
D i s c uindex
s s i o nofs detonation products equals to three. In
general, aThenumerical analysis
main characteristics is required.
of the c o m p u t e d however,
In this paper, ships areby rutilizing
e s u m e d the "weak"
in the f o l lshock
owing
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-
table :
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
TABLE 1
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analyticS hformula
i p c h a rwith
a c t e rtwo
i s t iparameters
cs V e s s e l (i.e.
of high explosive A detonation Vvelocity
e s s e l and
B polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.


Displacement 1500 D W T 5842.6 D W T

Length overall 1. 103.5 m


Introduction 164,3 m

Length between perpendiculars 98 m 154.1m


Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials under
B r e a d tintense
h impulsive loading, shock synthesis
10.8 m of diamonds, and explosive
22.88 m welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of commonD einterest.
pth B.3 m 13.20 m

UnderD r the
a f t assumptions of one-dimensional plane
S.I m detonation and rigid2.5
flying
m plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
Using the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d 2-dimensional model for v e s s e l A and e m p l o y i n g
DDJ(DL), the first 28 m o d e s were calculated on a 709 c o m p u t e r . The finite ele-
--ff +u_~_xp+ =o,
ment model of v e s s e l A is s h oap
w n in Fig.2. au Some of the m o s t important model size

au au
parameters are summarized below:
y1 =0,
No. of structural nodal points 94 (i.0
No. of d e g r e e s of f r e e d o aS
m as 188
a--T =o, 66
No. of m e m b r a n e elements
p =p(p, s), 75
No. of t r u s s elements

No. of f r e q u e n c i e s 28
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively, C o m pwith
u t i n gthe t trajectory
i m e u s e d R(free and f oshock
of reflected rced v ofi bdetonation
r a t i o n s analyses)
wave D as a120 mins. and the
boundary
trajectoryTFh e ofc oflyorm p u t ias
n ganother
r e s u l tboundary.
s for v e Both
s s e l are unknown;
A are shown the in position
T a b l e 2,of R
theand the state
first para-mode:
three
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
r e p r e s e n t r i g i d b o d y m o t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of h e a v i n g , p i t c h i n g and s h i f t i n g of the
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
ship. The real elastic modes start from the 4th-mode on.
293
48 Zhon~ Wan-xie, He Qiong, Xue Hui-yu and Young Po

TABLE 2 Calculated Natural Frequencies for Vessel A

Mode Number : 1 I 2 1 3 1 4 [ 5 ] 6 J T [ 8 I 9 .I 10 J 11 12 13 14

Mode Number 15 J [ 22 J 23 "I~'64


~requen~y ~C.~.M.)11"1~!I'0'11"0 1.0 I.~ I~001---- .~2 .I~ 1~5~ 1.~ 101,

A comparison between the computed results and the actually measured results
is shown in Table 3. The first 12 elastic mode shapes calculated are shown in
Fig.3. Fig.4 shows the comparison between calculated modes and measured modes at
the first 4 frequencies, and Fig.5 shows the comparison of the resonance curve
Abstract
between calculated and measured results in forced vibration test at node 94 of

the The
bow.one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
By using 3-dimensional finite element model, the first 13 modes were calcu-
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
lated of
behavior forthe
vessel B. shock
reflection The 3-dimensional
in the explosive finite
products,element model the
and applying of small
vessel B are pur-
parameter shown
terbation
in Fig.6.method,
Somean of
analytic, first-order
the most approximate
important model solution is obtained for
size parameters arethesum/~arized
problem of flying
below:
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
TABLE 3 Comparison between Calculation and Measurement of Hull Vibration
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic formulaofwithVessel A
two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
Vibration mode ,]21314~Iol7t,, ~ I,o;,,
node number
1. Introduction
measured results(c.p.m.) -~ ]~ L= 1__~
"~ I__] "~ i I
beamExplosive
model driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
cal.value
(transfer
materials (c.p.m.)
under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
matrix cal. mea.
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
method) _-]-_-L_ I. _ L -
of two-dimen-
common interest.
cal.value
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal 1089
sional
(c.p.m.)
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
E.L.model m _ _

(4-noded cal.
governing the flow field of detonation products
1 02 1 behind
05/ 1 04 the flyor
1.12(Fig. I): __, ! -
conforming mea.
element)
two-dimen- cal. --ff
ap +u_~_xp+ au
=o,
sional value 904-!9S5 108~
E.L. model L
(c.p.m.) au au 1
(4- noded y =0,
non-confor- cal. (i.0
ming element mea. aS as
two-dimen- a--T =o,
sional E.L. cal.
model (4- value p =p(p, s),
noded non- (c.p.m.) i 1 I__ . J _ _ L I .... [
conforming
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
element con-
respectively, with cal.
the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as la boundary I and the
sidering
trajectory F
shear cor- of
mea.
flyor as another boundary. Both are,0!
unknown;
i
the ,0.!
position of R 111,
and the state para-
meters on
rection)it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
293
A Study on Shi.p Vibration Using Finite Element Me,thod 49

mode 1
96.3 c.p.m.

mode 2
203.4 c.p.m.

t-,,
mode 3
320.4 c.p.m.

,....--"
Abstract mode 4
431.1 c.p.m.
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation mode products
5 equals to three. In
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by488.7 utilizing the "weak" shock
c.p.m.
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
mode 6
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
563.8 c.p.m.
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity
Fig.3(a) of flying
Calculated plateshapes
mode is established.
of vessel A

1. Introduction mode 7
668.8 c.p.m.
Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the mode
way of8 raising it are questions
765.3 c.p.m.
of common interest.
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following
mode 9 system of equations
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):826.4 c.p.m.

,
I._ ~

.- , i --ff 71+
ap +u_~_xp i,au =o, /
mode i0
858.5 c.p.m.

au au
y1 =0,,4
m o d e Ii (i.0
936.8 c.p.m.
aS as
a--T =o,
p =p(p, s), mode 12
1014.2 c.p.m.

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively, with Fig.S(b)
the trajectory R of reflected
Calculated modeshock of detonation
shapes of vesselwaveA D as a boundary and the
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
mode 1 293
5_0 Zhong Wan-xie, He Qiong, xue Hui-j/u and Youno Po

mode 2

mode 3

Abstract
mode 4

calculated results
The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products
o measured results
equals to three. In
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior Fig.
of the
4 reflection
C o m p a r i s oshock
n b e tin
w e the
e n cexplosive
a l c u l a t eproducts,
d m o d e s and
and applying
measured them osmall
d e s parameter
of the pur-
terbation method,first
an analytic,
4 r e s ofirst-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
n a n c e frequencies
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
Final velocities ofa mflying
plitude
plate obtained agree very well with numerical
(mm)
--- Measured value
results by computers. Thus
3.1
an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e.. detonation . . . C a l c u lvelocity
a t e d v aand
l u e polytropic
index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
exciting force Toh
1.0
1. Introduction

A
Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
O,
Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
Fre.
governing the 0.03
flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
50 I00 150 200 250 300 350 400 (r p. m)

C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n c a l c u l a t e d and m e a s u r e d resonance curves


Fig. 5
(at node 94 of the
--ff +u_~_xp+ au
ap bow)
=o,

au au
No. of structural Nodal Points y1 =0, 195
(i.0
No. of d e g r e e s of freedom. 414
aS as
No. of m e m b r a n e elements a--T =o, 224

Ne. of t r u s s element p =p(p, s), 41

No. of b e a m elements 38
where p, No.
p, S,ofu are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation
frequencies 13
products
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
trajectoryT iFm eof uflyor
s e d for c o m p u t a t i o n
as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and ii0 min.
the state para-
meters onT hite are
c o mgoverned
p u t e d r eby
s u the
l t s flow
for field
v e s sIe l
of central
B are rarefaction
s h o w n in wave
T a b l ebehind
4. the detonation wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
293
A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method 51

TABLE 4 Calculated Natural Frequencies for Vessel B

~_~_o_de number , ; 2 3 4 1 5 6 I 7 8 .9 1 ,0

F_requency (C.P.M) _ 0 r 0.15 i 1.2~i I 109.8 199 352 j 358 413 502

Mode Number 11 [ 12 ! 13
/
b
FFeoyency (C.P.M.) 572 ' r~09 Tit)
i I

From the comparison between calculated results

and m e a s u r e d results for vessel A, it is shown that

the c a l c u l a t e d results using Abstract


two-dimensional finite

element method agrees quite well with the measured


The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has
values. When compared with the p r e d i c t e d values ob-
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
tained by
general, a numerical beam model,
analysis the agreement
is required. In between
this paper,thehowever,
cal- by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior
culated of the reflection
results and shock
m e a s u rin
e m ethe
n t sexplosive
has been products, and applying the small parameter pur-
improved
terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
greatly, especially at the 4th- and 5th-modes the
plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.
d i s c r e p a n c y has d e c r e a s e d to within 5% as compared
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
an with
analytic that formula withthan
of more two parameters
20% in theoftraditional
high explosivebeam
(i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic
index)
model.for estimation of the velocity
Furthermore, of flying plate
the calculated modeis established.
shapes

coincide fairly well with the measured results.

It is evident that great 1. Introduction


improvement has been
o
achieved in ship vertical vibration calculation by
Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of
using the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l model used here than by
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and o
employing
cladding of metals. the The
beammethod
model.of estimation
However, of
the reduction
flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common interest.
of a three--dimensional ship to a two dimensional

modelUnder the assumptions


clearly presents ofa one-dimensional
limitation onplane
the detonation
range of and rigid flying plate, the normal
approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations
a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model. If the value of the
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I): 4~
shear m o d u l u s is suitably adjusted to take into ac-
count the effect of transverse d i s t o r t i o n s , t h e range
--ff
ap +u_~_xp+ au
=o,
of a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model can be extended espe-
o
cially for the c o m p u t a t i o n ofau
v i b r a tau
y1 higher-
i o n at
=0, i.n

modes in w h i c h the shear d i s t o r t i o n is d o m i n a n t , a n d (i.0 ql


H
the results thus o b t a i n e d aS
will then a sbe more reason-.
a--T =o,
able. B a s e d on the shear coefficient formula in
p =p(p, s),
Timoshenko beam equation d e d u c e d acoording to three-

d i mp,
where e n sp,i oS,
n au
l
aree lpressure,
a s t i c i t ydensity, by Cowper
theoryspecific [16],
entropy particle velocity of detonation products <o
and in
respectively,
this p a p ewith
r a the trajectoryfactor
reduction R of reflected
for theshock of detonation
reduction of wave D as a boundary and the <
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown;
a three--dimensional body to a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l one the position of R and the state para-
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
is introduced to make the necessary adjustment for
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of ttproducts
the shear modulus. From the computer results for
293
52. . Zhon9 Wan-xie, He qiong, XueHui-yu and YounN Po

vessel A with this c o r r e c t i o n taken into account, it is noted that the accuracy

of the theoretical prediction in higher--modes improves, to some extent, showing

the effect of this correction.


The t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l can represent more reasonably the v i b r a t i o n

d e f o r m a t i o n of a ship hull and produce more accurate results. However, a com-


plex m o d e l with finer mesh requires a great deal of data p r e p a r a t i o n and large
computer memory, and eventually costs more. For the 3-dimensional fi'nite e l e
ment model of vessel B, due to rough n e t w o r k of elements (especially the fore-
part of the model), o n l y for the lower--mode hull v i b r a t i o n s is an accurate re-
sult to be expected. With this network shear lag and local vibration, impor--
Abstract
rant for h i g h e r - m o d e vibrations, are not taken into account. In order to ac-
quire Theanone-dimensional
accurate result problem for ofh itheg h emotion
r - m o d e ofhull
a rigid flying plate under
vibrations, a finer explosive
network attack
of has
an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In
elements must be used.
general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock
behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-
terbation
V. C omethod,
n c l u s i o nan analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying
plate drivena. The by various
t w o - d ihigh
mensi explosives
o n a l finite with polytropic
element model indices isother than but nearly
a reasonable model equalfor to three.
the
Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus
anc analytic
a l c u l a t i o n of ship hull v e r t i c a l vibration.
formula with two parameters of high explosiveIn(i.e.
c o m p a r i n g with the b e a m model,
detonation velocity and polytropic
it represents
index) for estimation more
of ther e velocity
a l i s t i c of
a l lflying
y theplate d i sis
t oestablished.
r t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e s p e c i a l l y in
h i g h e r - m o d e vibrations. Therefore the agreement b e t w e e n the c a l c u l a t i o n s and
measurements 1. Introduction
has been improved greatly, and the d i s c r e p a n c y at 4th- and 5th-
modes has d e c r e a s e d to within 5%. At the same time, the estimates of the res-
ponse Explosive
of a ship driveninflying-plate
v e r t i c a l technique
v i b r a t i o nffmds its important
agree fairly well use within the the
study
m e aof
s ubehavior
r e d re- of
materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and
sults in forced v i b r a t i o n tests using a m e c h a n i c a l exciter.
cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions
of common b. interest.
C o m p a r e d with the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l finite element model, the two-di-
m e n sUnder
i o n a l the assumptions
model is r e l aof
t ione-dimensional
v e l y simple, the planedata
detonation
p r e p a rand
a t i origid
n isflying
not plate, the normal
too tedious
approach
and time consuming, the cost and time required for c o m p u t a t i o n is c o m p a requations
of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of atively
governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
lower and shorter. The c a l c u l a t i o n can be t a r r i e d out by using only 32K words
of internal m e m o r y of a m e d i u m - s i z e d computer. Therefore, this model is espe-
--ff +u_~_xp+ =o,
cially suitable for analyzing ap
the dynamic au
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ghips at early de-

au au
sign stages.
y1 =0,
c. E m p l o y i n g the transfer subspace (i.0
iteration m e t h o d t o calculate eigenva-
lues in d y n a m i c analysis, moreaS e i g e navsa l u e s can be e x t r a c t e d in a shorter time
a--T =o,
with less internal storage space of the computer. On the other hand, having
p =p(p, s),
c o n s i d e r e d the p a r t i c u l a r feature of the s i n g u l a r i t y of the stiffness matrix
caused by floating ships having no b o u n d a r y restraints, we can use the p r o g r a m
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively,
d i r e c t l y with the trajectory
to calculate shipR hull
of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
vibration.
trajectoryd.F The of flyor
a d j uas
s tanother
m e n t ofboundary.
the shear Both
m oare
d u l unknown;
u s is quitethe position of Rwhen
necessary and the
thestate para-
limita-
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation
tion caused by r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a three d i m e n s i o n a l ship by a two d i m e n s i o n a l
wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
moCel is considered. Using the results o b t a i n e d by Cowper, we introduce a sim-
293
ple m e t h o d to obtain a r e l a t i v e l y reasonable reduction factor which is especially
A Study on Ship Vibration Usino Finite Element ~iethod 53

suitable for use at the design stage.

References
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7. Kavlte, Dag and shockAbsjord,in theHalvand,
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Armand, J. and highP.explosives
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Dynamic indicesofother
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normal
vi--"
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ap Mechanics
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Chinese) p =p(p, s),
where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products
respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the
trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para-
meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave
D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
293