You are on page 1of 10

CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

REPORT
Experiment 5: FACTORS
AFFECTING REACTION RATE

To: Instructor: PhD Hoang Le Son

From: Do Truong Anh Thu - Student ID: BTBCIU14046

Subject: General Chemistry Laboratory

Date: October 12th, 2015


I. INTRODUCTION

This experiment gives us the general factors affecting the reaction rate in order to raise or
slow down the speed of the reaction as we want. Those factors are temperature, the nature
of the reactants, pressure, the surface area, and the catalyst. The rate of the reactions can
be determined by measuring the time it takes, or the formation of the production such as
gas forming, precipitation and the color changes.

II. PROCEDURE

A. Instruments:

Thirty test tubes One 50 mL graduated cylinder

One test tube rack One stop watch

Three 150 mL beakers One medicine dropper

Buret, clamp and ring Stirring rod


B. Experimental Procedure:

Part 1: Effect of concentration on reaction time

The solutions to be used are as follows:

Prepare solution A: 0.2 M potassium iodide

Prepare solution B: 0.005 M sodium thiosulfate. This solution also contains starch that will act
as an indicator to detect the presence of iodine.

Prepare solution C: 0.1 M ammonium peroxydisulfate.

In this reaction, solution B will be the limiting reagent. The system consists of these reaction :

Reaction 1: 2I- + S2O82- I2 + 2SO42-

Iodide ions+peroxydisulfate iodine + sulfate ion

Reaction 2: I2 + 2S2O32- 2I- + S4O62-

Iodine + thiosulfate ion iodide ion + tetrathionate

Reaction 1 is relatively slow. As the iodine is formed it is quickly used in reaction 2,


which is relatively fast. The limiting reaction (solution B) is a source of the thiosulfate ions.
When solution B is used up, the excess iodine formed will react with strach to form a deep blue
solution.

In this experiment, we have vary the concentration of solution A and C. The temperature will
remain constant at room temperature.

Combine the solution in 11 different combinations. The prodcedure foe each of the reaction is the
same.

- Step 1: label 11 test tubes #1-11

- Step 2: place 5 mL of solution B in each test tube.

- Step 3: add solution A ans C into the test tube with the volume as shown in the table
below. Begin timing using stopwatch. Sir the solution with a clean stirring rod. At the
first sign of color, stop timing. Recor the results.
- Step 4: calculations

For example: iodide ion: (10 mL x 1.2 mol/L)/ 25 mL = 0.08 mol/L

Peroxydisulfate: (10 mL x 0.1 mol/L) / 25 mL = 0.04 mol/L

- Step 5: make graph

Part 2: Effect of temperature on the reaction rate

The reaction rate for the oxidation- reduction between potassium permanganate, KMnO4, and
oxalic acid, H2C2O4, can be mearsured by observing the time elapsed for the purple color of the
permanganate ion, MnO4, to disappear.

5H2C2O4(aq) + 2KMnO4(aq) + 3H2SO4

2MnSO4-(aq) + K2SO4(aq) + 10CO2(g) + 8H2O

Prepare the reaction system:

- Pipet 1 mL of 0.01 M KMnO4 and 5 mL of 3 M H2SO4 into a clean test tube.

- Pipet 5 mL of 0.33 M H2C2O4 into a second clean test tube.

Observe the reaction at room temperature:

Pour the H2C2O4 solution into the KMnO4 solution, observe and record the time for the purple
color of the permanganate ion to sisappear.

Observe the reaction at high temperature:

- Place a second KMnO4- H2C2O4 pair of test tubes in warm water (500C) bath until thermal
equilibrium is established. Pour the H2C2O4 solution into the KMnO4 solution, mix well
and return the reaction system to the warm water bath. Record the time for the purple
color to disappear.

- Repeat the same procedure, but increase the temperature of the water bath to about 90oC.
Record the change.

Part 3: Effect of a catalyst on the reaction rate

Hydrogen peroxide is relatively, but readily decomposes in the presence of a catalyst. In


this part, we observed which reagent(s) act as a catalyst for the decomposition of
hydrogen peroxide.
2H2O2 2H2O + O2

- Label 8 test tubes #1-8

- Place 5 mL of the 3% H2O2 solution into each of the 8 test tubes.

- Add a pinch of each of the following reagents to separate test tubes

- Mix well and observe the change with the production of gas bubbles. Record each
reaction rate as fast, slow, very slow, or none in data table.

III. DATA AND DISCUSSION

1. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION ON REACTION TIME

Reaction 1: 2I- + S2O82- I2 + 2SO42-

Reaction 2: I2 + 2S2O32- 2I- + S4O62-

Calculate the initial concentrations of I- and S2O82- ions:

Mixture # 5:

[I-] = (VI- x CM I-)/ Vtotal = (4ml x 0.2 mol)/ 25ml = 0.032 mol/L

[S2O82-] = (VS2O82- x CM S2O82-)/ Vtotal = (10ml x 0.1 mol)/25ml = 0.04 mol/L

Mixture Iodide ion (mol/L) Peroxydisulfate (mol/L) Time in seconds

1 0.08 0.04 30

2 0.068 0.04 35

3 0.056 0.04 51

4 0.044 0.04 61

5 0.032 0.04 109

6 0.02 0.04 126

7 0.08 0.034 33

8 0.08 0.028 38
9 0.08 0.022 56

10 0.08 0.016 87

11 0.08 0.01 148

Plotting the concentration of iodide ion versus time: [Note: X axis: time; Y axis:
concentrations].

- Mixtures # 1-6: Graph

Comment:

The order of reaction with respect to iodide ion followed: Mixture 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5 > 6
If a greater concentration of reactant atoms and molecules (concentration of Iodine ion increases
and concentration of peroxydisulfate is constant) is present, the greater chance for collisions will
occur among them. More collisions mean a higher reactions rate. Thus decreasing the
concentration of Iodine in this reactions result in lower reaction rate as well as the time for the
reaction is longer.

- Mixtures # 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11: Graph

Comments:

The order of reaction with respect to peroxydisulfate ion followed:


Mixture 1 > 7 > 8 > 9 > 10 >11

If a greater concentration of reactant atoms and molecules (concentration of peroxydisulfate


increases and concentration of Iodine ion is constant) is present, the greater chance for collisions
will occur among them. More collisions mean a higher reactions rate. Thus decreasing the
concentration of peroxydisulfate in this reactions result in lower reaction rate as well as the time
for the reaction is longer.

2. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE REACTION RATE

Reaction System:

H2C2O4(aq) + 2KMnO4(aq) + 3H2SO4 2MnO42-(aq) + K2SO4 + 10CO2 + 8H2O

Description Predicte Observation Reaction Explanation


of conditions d time
outcome

Room The color The color 116s At room temperature, the


temperature changes changes from reaction occurs with the
purple to normal conditions
colorless

500C The color The color 15s When increasing temperature,


changes changes from the atoms and molecules of
purple to reactants are provided more
colorless energy so they move faster
and increase the collision
900C The color The color 1s among them. Therefore, the
changes changes from reaction rate is higher and the
purple to less time is consumed
colorless

3. EFFECT OF A CATALYST ON THE REACTION RATE

Reaction System: 2H2O2 2H2O + O2


Trial Description Predicted Observation
Explanation
of conditions outcome (Reaction rate)

1 + MnCl2 Slow Fast 6s MnCl2 is not a catalyst for this


reaction

2 + MnO2 Very fast Very fast 2s MnO2 is a good catalyst for this
reaction

3 + MnO

4 + NaCl Slow Slower than NaCl is not a catalyst for this


MnCl2 22s reaction

5 + CaCl2 Slow Fast 10s CaCl2 is not a catalyst for this


reaction

6 + Zn Slow Slow 45s Zn is not a catalyst for this


reaction

7 + KNO3 Slow Very slow 78s KNO3 is not a catalyst for this
reaction

8 + Fe(NO3)3 Fast Very fast 4s Fe(NO3)3 is a good catalyst for


this reaction

Comments:

The order of catalyst activity: MnO2 > Fe(NO3)3 > CaCl2 > MnCl2 > Zn > KNO3 > NaCl

Catalyst plays role to initiates or accelerates a reaction without itself being affected by reducing
the amount of energy required to break and form a new chemical bonds. If we use the right
catalyst for the reaction, it will happen faster and less energy is used.

IV. CONCLUSION

After accessing with 3 sub-experiments above, we can know the method to examine the effect of
concentration, temperature, and catalyst on the reaction rates. Thus we will able to maintain the
reaction, speed up and slow down the reaction rate as well by adding more concentration for the
reactants or substances possibly react with the components of the reactions, increasing or
decreasing the temperature, and choosing the suitable catalyst for the reactions.