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This is the

DRAFT Three Year Action Agenda,


2017-18 to 2019-20, circulated to the Governing Council of
the NITI Aayog on 23rd April, 2017.

Work on the Vision & Strategy document and the Action Agenda document
has progressed in parallel. The latter, thus, forms an integral part of
the former. However, the Action Agenda has been fast tracked recognizing
its immediate policy relevance.
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List of Boxes
Box 11-1: Service Delivery through e-Mitra in Rajasthan 86
Box 18-1: Urban Land Ceilings and Regulations Act A Case of Unintended Harmful Effects of Regulation 119
Box 18-2: Past Entry Restrictions on Digital Mobile Payments in India 121
Box 18-3: Anti-competitive Electricity Regulations Acting as a Barrier to Make in India 122
Box 21-1: Specific Health Goals to be Achieved by the Year 2020 141
Box 22-1: Kanyashree Prakalpa Scheme, 2013 151

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PPP Public Private Partnership
PPP PMU PPP Project Monitoring Unit
PPP PRU PPP Performance Review Unit
PRAGATI Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation
PSB Public Sector Bank
PSC Production Sharing Contract
PSE Public Sector Enterprise
PwDs Persons with Disabilities
QP Qualification Packs
R&D Research and Development
R&M Renovation and Modernization
RADMS Road Accident Data Management System
RBI Reserve Bank of India
RBO River Basin Organizations
RCEP Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
RCI Rehabilitation Council of India
RE Revised Estimate
REMC Renewable Energy Management Centres
RFID Radio Frequency Identification Device
RFP Request for Proposal
RFQ Request for Qualification
ROFR Right of First Refusal
RPL Recognition of Prior Learning
RPO Renewable Purchase Obligations
RRR Repair, Renovation and Restoration
RRTC Regional Resource and Training Centres
RRTS Regional Rapid Transit System
RTE Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education
RUSA Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan
S&T Science and Technology
S.U.R.E Specifications for Urban Roads Execution
SAAP State Annual Action Plans
SANKALP Skill Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion Programme
SARDP-NE Special Accelerated Road Development Project
SBM Swachh Bharat Mission
SC Scheduled Caste
SCB Scheduled Commercial Banks
SCCL Singareni Collieries Company Limited
SCSP Scheduled Caste Sub-Plan
SEBI Securities and Exchange Board of India
SECC Socio-Economic Caste Census
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USTR United States Trade Representative
UT Union Territory
VAT Value Added Tax
VRDL Viral Research & Diagnostic Lab
VGF Viability Gap Funding
WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
WECI Waste to Energy Corporation of India
WEF World Economic Forum
WHO World Health Organization
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WPI Wholesale Price Index
WRIS Water Resource Information System
WTO World Trade Organization

xiv
Chapter 1. Three Year Action Agenda: An Overview
VISION AND CHALLENGES
1.1. The objective of eliminating poverty in all its dimensions such that every citizen has access to a minimum standard
of food, education, health, clothing, shelter, transportation and energy has been at the heart of Indias
development efforts since Independence. The extremely low level of per-capita income and widespread poverty
made it impossible for us to achieve this objective without growing the economy. Tax revenues were so meagre and
the economys needs so vast that no serious dent into poverty could be made through redistribution alone. While
we substantially improved economic performance during the first four decades of independence over that during
the preceding fifty years, growth remained below 4%, which was woefully inadequate for a meaningful decline in
poverty.

1.2. But the signs of change began to emerge during the second half of the 1980s, with 1991 proving to be a turning
point. The reforms that followed first under Prime Minister Narasimha Rao and then under Prime Minister Atal
Bihari Vajpayee placed India first on a 6% growth trajectory and then, beginning in 2003-04, on an 8% plus
trajectory. Rising wages accompanied faster growth and pulled many out of abject poverty. Growth also yielded
handsome gains in tax revenues, which helped expand social spending manifold, reinforcing the direct effect of
growth on poverty reduction.

1.3. Although a combination of global economic developments and domestic policy choices led to a dip in the growth
rate to 5.6% in 2012-13, quick corrective action in 2014, followed by sustained policy reforms, has helped the
economy sustain 7% plus growth during the three years ending on 31 March 2017. Indeed, there are good
prospects that we will return to the 8% plus growth trajectory in another two to three years if not sooner.
Therefore, the chances of a massive cut in the poverty rate in the upcoming decade are excellent.

1.4. Indias 125 Crore citizens, the majority of which consists of the youth, increasingly aspire for greater
empowerment and a better quality of life. It is in recognition of these joint aspirations that the Prime Minister has
called for the transformation of India with the Participation of All and Development of All or Sabka Saath,
Sabka Vikas.

1.5. In this backdrop, the present document charts an ambitious, transformational yet achievable Action Agenda for
the government during 2017-18 to 2019-20, that constitute the last three years of the Fourteenth Finance
Commission. The Agenda is a part of a longer-term Fifteen-year Vision and Seven-year Strategy outlined in a
separate document. The Action Agenda proposes a path to achieve all-round development of India and its people.
A brief outline of the subjects covered in the document is provided below.

Part I: Medium-term Revenue and Expenditure Framework


1.6. The most direct and visible policy tool of the government is the budget. The allocation of expenditure needs to be
aligned to the governments overall objectives. Accordingly, chapters 2-4 in Part I present expenditure proposals
for three years based on revenue forecasts. This exercise has been limited to the Central government.

1.7. During the past three years (2014-15 to 2016-17), the government has made significant progress towards
implementing a sound and stable fiscal strategy. The fiscal deficit has been cut from 4.5% of the Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) in 2013-14 to 3.5% in 2016-17 while the revenue deficit has been reduced from 3.2% to 2.1% of
the GDP over the same period.1 It is proposed that the government should capitalize on this progress by
maintaining its course during the next three years. Under the proposed fiscal framework, the fiscal deficit is to be
reduced to its eventual target of 3% of the GDP under the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM)
framework by 2018-19, while the revenue deficit is expected to fall to 0.9% of the GDP by 2019-20.

1.8. The Action Agenda proposes linking Central government expenditures to future priorities. It suggests shifting the
composition of expenditures by allocating a larger proportion of additional revenues that become available over
time to high-priority sectors. Under the proposed agenda, the share of non-developmental revenue expenditure in
total revenue expenditure would decline from 47% in 2015-16 to 41% in 2019-20. At the same time, the share of

1
capital expenditure, which is more likely to promote development, would rise significantly. The proposals imply
substantial expansion in expenditures by 2019-20 on education, health, agriculture, rural development, defence,
railways, roads and other categories of capital expenditure.

Part II: Economic Transformations in Major Sectors


1.9. This part includes two chapters, one dealing with agriculture, which is the backbone of the rural economy, and the
other focuses on industry and services in which the key issue is the creation of well-paid jobs.

Agriculture: Doubling Farmers Incomes

1.10. Farmers make up nearly half of Indias workforce. Therefore, for India to flourish, its farmers and the farm
economy must prosper. It is against this background that the Prime Minister has called for doubling farmers
incomes by 2022. To achieve this goal, the Action Agenda outlines a strong programme for agricultural
transformation. It includes numerous measures to raise farm productivity, bring remunerative prices to farmers,
put farmers land to productive uses when they are not able to farm it themselves and improve the implementation
of relief measures. Chapters in subsequent parts of the document offer an ambitious agenda for empowering the
rural population through improved road and digital connectivity, access to clean energy, financial inclusion and
Housing for All.

1.11. Enhancing agricultural productivity requires of efficiently using inputs, introducing new technologies and shifting
from low to high value commodities. We need to expand the scope of irrigation to increase crop intensity, improve
access to irrigation, enhance the seed replacement rate and encourage the balanced use of fertilizers. Precision
farming and related new technologies, that allow highly efficient farming and conserve resources, must be spread
through appropriate policy interventions. Conditions conducive to shift into high value commodities such as
horticulture, dairying, poultry, piggery, small ruminant husbandry, fisheries and forestry need to be created.

1.12. The reform of the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees (APMC) Act needs a new lease of life. Farmers
should get genuine rights for direct sales to buyers of all commodities, potential buyers should get the rights to buy
produce directly from farmers, entry of private agricultural markets should be free and an effective legal
framework for contract farming should be established. Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) have distorted cropping
patterns due to their use in certain commodities in selected regions. There has been an excessive focus on the
procurement of wheat, rice and sugarcane at the expense of other crops such as pulses, oilseed and coarse grains.
These distortions have led to the depletion of water resources, soil degradation and deterioration in water quality
in the North-west. At the same time, eastern states, where procurement at the MSP is minimal or non-existent,
have suffered. One measure that can help reduce distortions in the MSP system is the system of Price Deficiency
Payment. While MSP may still be used for need-based procurement, under the deficiency payments system, a
subsidy may be provided to farmers on other targeted produce, contingent on prices falling below an MSP-linked
threshold.

1.13. Over the years, landholdings in India have become smaller and fragmented. According to the 2010-11
Agricultural Census, 47% of landholdings had become less than half a hectare in size. These holdings are too
small to support a family of five so that many farmers now seek alternative sources of income. But stringent
tenancy laws in most states have meant that these farmers hesitate to lease the land they leave behind. As a result,
an increasing amount of farmland is being left fallow. The introduction of a modern land-leasing law that balances
and protects the rights of the tenant and landowners would be a potential solution.

1.14. Finally, to alleviate distress in case of natural calamities, the government has recently introduced the Fasal Bima
Yojana. This is an important positive step toward mitigating risk but requires improvement. Capping the subsidy
amount per farm household to a fixed amount and charging the full premium for additional insurance would not
only economize on financial resources but will also be more equitable.

Trade, Industry and Services: Creating Well-Paid Jobs

1.15. Contrary to some assertions that Indias growth has been jobless, the Employment Unemployment Surveys
(EUS) of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), which till date remain the most reliable sources of
information on Indias employment situation, have consistently reported low and stable rates of unemployment

2
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but also increase the efficiency of existing players.

6.61. Measures to improve financial inclusion should be complemented with steps to improve financial literacy,
especially to make people more aware of the benefits of using the formal banking system to send and receive
payments, save and borrow money. While the share of population with bank accounts has gone up sharply over
the past few years, active use of these accounts or financial involvement remains low. Enhancing financial literacy
through campaigns, creating financial literacy modules in school and vocational curricula. The government should
leverage the staff of public and private banks in rural areas to spread knowledge about the use of financial services.
Additional action points on increasing financial literacy and inclusion through digital financial services are
discussed in the Chapter on Digital Connectivity.

TOURISM, CULTURE AND SOFT POWER


6.62. The Hospitality, Travel and Tourism sector is a major driver of growth and employment worldwide and especially
in India where it made up 6.7% of the GDP in 2014. Foreign tourist arrivals in India have increased from 5.1
million in 2009 to 8.1 million in 2015.45 As a host to 35 world heritage sites, 10 bio-geographical zones and 26
biotic provinces, India has significant potential to increase number of arrivals going forward and increase its global
presence by leveraging its cultural industries and soft power. Further, as a highly labour intensive sector, tourism
has the capacity to generate large-scale employment. It is an important sector to create jobs amongst the poorest
segments of the population and can act as a gateway to formal sector employment. To capitalize on the job
creation potential of the tourism sector and leverage soft power, six key areas for action are identified: visas,
infrastructure, promotion and marketing, skill development, taxes and soft power.

Visas

6.63. The 2015 extension of the e-Tourist visa to 150 countries contributed to the growth of the tourism sector. After
the extension of the e-visa, the number of tourists that arrived between January and July 2016 increased by
266%.46 We need to ensure that the existing facility works efficiently. In addition, the following steps may be taken.
1. Increase Awareness. We should increase information and awareness of the e-visa facility globally so that an
increasing number of tourists avail it. One possible way to do this is to launch an information campaign
through our consulates abroad.
2. Solicit Feedback. We should solicit feedback on foreign travellers experiences during the application process and
in obtaining the visa through a centralized online form or kiosks at airports. Data from users of the e-visa on
specific aspects can help improve its functioning.
3. Simplify Conference Visas. Industry experts report that travellers find it hard to obtain conference visas.
Individuals circumvent this by entering on tourist visas. We should launch an e-visa regime to attract the
Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions (MICE) market.
4. Simplify Entry for Cruise Tourists. We should also streamline immigration processes for cruise tourists with
Advance Passenger Information (API), on-board clearances and other processes to ease entry.

Infrastructure

6.64. Develop Five Beach Destinations as Tourism Zones. The government and private sector should develop 5 exclusive
tourism zones around beaches. Globally, beach holidays have grown by 18 % over the last five years and remain
an important segment of leisure travel with 28 % of all holiday trips.47 Indias zones should be based on master
planning including best practices in engineering (drainage, sewage, solid waste management) and sustainability. In
developing these zones, we should draw upon examples that have successfully developed tourism around beaches
such as Bali, Sentosa and Antalya.

6.65. Develop identified islands by 2020. The central government has already expressed interest in developing about ten
islands in India into global destinations. Of these, 5 have been identified in Lakshadweep and another five in the
Andaman Islands. These islands would primarily target foreign tourists. We should partner with investors to start
developing hotels and resorts on all 5 islands by 2020.

6.66. Plan and Develop Five National Circuits. Even though funds have been committed to the development of public
infrastructure there are no truly world-class destinations in India. Developing fewer circuits will allow us to shift the
focus to quality, creating world class tourism circuits from entry to exit. We should focus efforts on building five

41
globally competitive destinations and complete these by 2020, partnering with state governments and the private
sector.

6.67. Swachh Bharat. It is important that we take the Swachh Bharat campaign to its logical conclusion. For repeat visits,
it is important that tourists carry the memories of a clean India with them. They are also more likely to
recommend India as a tourist destination to their friends and family if they carry good impression of their visits.
Minimally, we need to ensure that the tourist circuits, islands and beach destinations we develop are kept
immaculate.

Promotion and Marketing

6.68. Enhance Digital Marketing Efforts. We should enhance digital efforts by building aggressive digital and social media
centric campaigns. The Ministry of Tourism currently has 14 overseas and 20 domestic offices. It should conduct
a cost-benefit analysis of these offices relative to the effectiveness of digital marketing efforts. If the physical
locations appear ineffective, closing them where appropriate would release funds for digital marketing efforts.

6.69. Promote India Abroad. A key element in tourism promotion must be targeted advertising abroad. In the richer
countries in Asia such as China, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and South Korea, prospects of attracting tourists
are excellent. Income levels in countries such as Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Vietnam are also rising
rapidly. India also shares cultural similarity with many of these countries with Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand,
Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh even having substantial populations of Indian origin. Therefore, targeted
promotion in these countries using digital media including TV advertisements can have a high yield. With its large
population and relatively high incomes, China can be a particularly significant source of tourists.

6.70. Incentivize the Private Sector to Contribute Resources and earmark funds for marketing. We should create a scheme under which
the government matches in equal amount private sector expenditure on tourism marketing. Depending on its star
rating, size and other parameters, the government may offer a fixed contribution to each hotel and travel agency.
Under Experience India, this is being done but on a small scale. Further, we can also mandate that a pre-defined
amount or share of tourism revenues such as the e-Tourist visa fee is set aside for marketing and promotion.
The Ministry of Tourism can draw upon the experience of the Brand USA campaign where USD 10 of each
applicants visa fee is allocated to marketing.

6.71. Design policies using data. The campaign should use market statistics and data on consumer usage and dynamics to
target its marketing efforts. It should also use data to offer specific products and themes to different segments of the
population. For example, based on usage statistics, it could target adventure tourism promotional materials to a
younger audience. The campaign can also draw on data from successful strategies in Australia, UK and Turkey.

Skill Development

6.72. Create a dedicated university for leadership in the tourism sector. A specialized university, which will not only regulate taught
courses but also become the fulcrum of professional education, research and advocacy, will help create managers
and entrepreneurs in tourism. In addition, courses on tourism may be introduced in the existing universities and
vocational education institutions as well.

6.73. Support private sector institutes in tourism regulated by the government. In addition to the state run or state supported
institutes, private institutes should be encouraged to be able to create the required talent pool. India has 21 central
institutes of hotel management. A broader set of skills needs to move beyond hotels to other aspects of tourism.
The private sector can provide elementary training at the managerial level and we should encourage private
institutes to do so formally.

6.74. Update the skills of existing workers. Current service providers such as taxi drivers, boat operators, guides, restaurant
and dhaba workers would benefit from retraining on a regular basis. This can be done by the state tourism
departments in association with the local tourism and hospitality institutes with the active participation of the
industry as per a fixed schedule.

42
Cultural Tourism

6.75. Create a National Museum Authority to oversee all museums. Currently, Indias museums fall under different departments
and ministries across the central and state governments. There is no overarching body for their management,
funding, development and maintenance. Further, although several museums receive technical and financial
support from international agencies, funds are often insufficient to maintain the museums and cover new initiatives
such as digitization of collections. There is already an existing national expert committee on museums. However,
an overarching authority with a broader mandate is needed to sufficiently address the issues faced by museums in
a coordinated manner and should be created in the next three years.

Tax Reforms

6.76. Tax reforms will be necessary to reduce barriers to trade and tourism. The smooth implementations of the Goods
and Services Tax (GST) and related reforms will help facilitate travel and tourism. We should consider placing
tourism in the lower tax bracket of the GST to ensure competitiveness with foreign destinations. In addition to the
successful rollout of the GST, we should help streamline taxes specific to the tourism sector. This will also improve
the ease of doing business and attract investment into the sector.

Soft Power

6.77. Soft power, the ability of a country to attract others through its culture, spiritual and political values and foreign
policies rather than coercion or economic rewards, occupies an increasingly greater role across the globe. India is
no exception. Given our democratic values, rich history, the diversity of languages, cultural practices and crafts we
have many sources of soft power. While several aspects of Indias soft power such as democratic ideals, yoga, sufi
music, literature, traditional textiles and Bollywood are commonly found across the world, India still has a long
way to go to maximise the benefits of its cultural treasures. For example, even though a large number of foreign
tourists travel to India to learn more about our culture and ancient civilization, low levels of funding and poor
maintenance of museums and heritage sites prevent them from realising their full potential. Similarly, the absence
of a coordinated strategy to promote and disseminate practices such as yoga and ayurveda also prevents their
greater proliferation globally. This section highlights how we can leverage our cultural, creative and human
resources more effectively to increase our international presence.

6.78. Establish cultural centres across the globe. During the next three years, a comprehensive soft power policy must be
finalised to leverage Indias cultural and creative strengths. Further, we should establish cultural centres in various
countries, similar to the Alliance Francaise Centres (France), Goethe Institutes (Germany), Instituto Cervantes
(Spain) and Confucius Institutes (China). These centres will serve as symbols of youth and modernity and help
leverage Indian culture worldwide, with implementation that involves a wide range of academics, artists and
experts. Beyond creating centres abroad, we should also develop and improve museums and heritage sites within
India to spread knowledge. Further details related to improving the management of museums and heritage sites
within India have been discussed previously.

6.79. Create a dedicated humanitarian and relief agency. A specialized humanitarian assistance and disaster relief agency should
be created under the joint aegis of the Ministry of External Affairs and National Security Council Secretariat
(NSCS) to deliver humanitarian assistance in less developed countries. Further, along the lines of EXIM Banks
funding of a medical facility in the Cayman Islands, we can launch other initiatives to provide assistance in health
in African and Asian countries leveraging Indian human resources in leading hospital chains.

6.80. Create a database of artisans and craft preservation. We should collect and disseminate information on different craft
forms, their preservation and areas where they exist. As part of this exercise, we should also document best
practices and create a database of these as well as a list of master craftsmen. This will not only help us preserve
practices but also share knowledge with others. We could draw lessons from other countries experiences. For
example, Koreas Development Agency has developed a repository of more than 4,000 traditional skills.

6.81. Increase emphasis on global marketing and promotion. We should create a uniquely Indian brand around traditional crafts
and cultural practices such that it not only has global appeal but it also serves as a source of revenue. For example,
Indian animation could be developed using our own visual vocabulary and themes. We should also devise
promotional campaigns addressing informational asymmetries on electronic media. Often, trade events, thematic

43
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!
CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
16.8. Civil service is the backbone of the government. It needs to be empowered to make quick decisions and
implement them. Sustained high levels of performance can only be achieved if performance is objectively
measured with high performance rewarded and poor performance reprimanded.

16.9. Today, rising complexity of the economy has meant that policy making is a specialized activity. Therefore, it is
essential that specialists be inducted into the system through lateral entry. Such entry will also have the beneficial
side effect of bringing competition to the established career bureaucracy.

16.10. Institutionalize goal setting and tracking for each department. Each Ministry and government agency should set
outcome-based goals with a clear timeline. The current government has moved in this direction but the process
could be formalized and institutionalised. Making the goals and progress available publicly would go some
distance towards incentivising delivery.

16.11. Implement an HR system for government employees. Human Resource Management needs to be a strategic function in
the government. It should be implemented through a unified single online platform that covers employees from
the time they are hired to when they leave service. Such a portal would incorporate all HR related requirements
such as performance appraisal, training, leave and disciplinary proceedings. It could also facilitate Massively
Open Online Course style capacity building for government employees.

16.12. E-governance and paperless governance ranking for ministries at central and state levels. Each government department and
agency should be ranked on the basis of their move to the e-office system, reduction of paper use, and citizen
engagement through the electronic medium. This would permit increased efficiency, better tracking of progress
on files and improved interface with citizens. Some ministries and agencies have already made the move and
demonstrated that this change can be achieved immediately. A ranking will shine the spotlight on ministries that
are dragging feet and incentivise them to change. The goal should be full digitization by the end of 2018-19.
Several other measures to promote e-Governance are also mentioned in the Digital Connectivity chapter.

16.13. Outsource service delivery where possible. We should reduce dependence on government administrative machinery
wherever possible. We can make use of the power of Aadhaar based identity verification to allow private
channels to provide services wherever possible. Identification of such services should be taken up and PPP
models to provide those services should be explored.

16.14. Longer tenure of Secretaries. Currently, by the time an officer is promoted from Additional Secretary to Secretary,
usually she has two years or less left before retirement. This feature creates two important inefficiencies. One,
with a time horizon shorter than two years, the officer is hesitant to take any major initiatives. Two, and more
importantly, to the extent that any misstep may become the cause for charges of favouritism or corruption post
retirement, the officer hesitates to take decisions on any major project. This causes inordinate amount of delay
in decision-making. One possible solution to this problem is early promotion to the Secretary position.
Introduction of lateral entry, discussed immediately below, will facilitate this change.

16.15. Increase specialization and induct lateral entry. Finally, in areas requiring specialised knowledge, it is important to
develop expertise among internal staff and induct lateral entry. For the former, officers may be encouraged to
gain expertise in specific areas in the early stages of careers and the current system of rapid rotation of officers
across ministries may be replaced by a system of longer postings according to specialization. Officers should also
be encouraged to enhance their knowledge and skills in the chosen area of specialization through intensive
training.

16.16. This specialization by the internal staff needs to be complemented by lateral entry of highly specialized staff on
fixed-term contracts. Specialists could be brought on three to five year contracts. Such a system will bring top
talent and energy into the government and will lend new dynamism to the ministries. The NITI Aayog performs
many tasks requiring specialized knowledge and skills. Therefore, it has recently proposed changes to its Rules of
Recruitment, which if approved would open the door to lateral entry. This initiative could serve as a pilot for
other ministries.

110
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