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Answer the following questions:

1. Convert the following to percentage concentration:


a. 1 g/400 ml
1g
100
400 ml
0.25 w /v

b. 6.25 mg/5 ml
0.00625 g
100
5 ml
0.125 w /v

c. 1 : 2000 (w/v)
1
100
2000
0.05 w /v

d. 250 g/6 liters


250 g
100
6000 ml
4.17 w/ v

e. 250 mg/15 ml
0.25 g
100
15 ml
1.67 w /v

2. Normal saline solution contains 0.9% w/v NaCl. Calculate the weight (in grams) of NaCl
needed to make 2.5 liters of normal saline.
0.9 g
2500 ml
100 ml
= 22.5 g

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3. A pharmacist has to prepare 25,000 ml of a suspension containing 0.5% w/v of
chloramphenicol. Instead of using pure chloramphenicol, she uses chloramphenicol palmitate,
which contains 57.5% w/w chloramphenicol. Calculate the weight (in grams) of chloramphenicol
palmitate needed for this suspension.
To prepare 25,000 ml of a 0.5% w/v suspension requires
0.5 g
25,000 ml=125 g of chloramphenicol(CMC)
100 ml
To obtain 125 g of CMC from CMC palmitate requires
125 g
100 g=217.39 g of CMC palmitate
57.5 g

4. Find the volume of alcohol 95% v/v needed to produce 2.5 liters of 50% v/v.
Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2
95 V1 = 50 2.5
50 2.5
V 1=
95
= 1.32 liters

5. A boric acid preparation contains:


Boric acid 2 parts by weight
Liquid petrolatum.. 1 part by weight
Petrolatum... 17 parts by weight
Calculate the amount of each ingredient needed (in grams) to prepare 2.5 kg of the
preparation.
Total number of parts = 2 + 1 + 17 = 20 parts
2
Boric acid= 2500 g=250 g
20
1
Liquid petrolatum= 2500 g=125 g
20
17
Petrolatum= 2500 g=2125 g
20

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6. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of a 1:1000 epinephrine HCl solution needed to make
30 ml of 1:5000 solution.
C1 = 0.1%, V1 = ?, C2 = 0.02%, V2 = 30 ml
Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2
0.1 V1 = 0.02 30
0.02 30
V 1=
0.1
= 6 ml

7. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of a 1:200 stock solution that should be used to make
60 ml of a 0.025% solution.
C1 = 0.5%, V1 = ?, C2 = 0.025%, V2 = 60 ml
Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2
0.5 V1 = 0.025 60
0.025 60
V 1=
0.5
= 3 ml

8. Calculate the number of 30 gram tubes that can be filled from 5 lbs. of 10% ammoniated
mercury ointment after it has been diluted to 3% in strength. (Note: 1 kg = 2.2 lbs.)
C1 = 10%, W1 = 5 lbs, C2 = 3%, W2 = ?
Using C1 W 1=C 2 W 2
10 5 = 3 W2
10 5
W 2=
3
= 16.67 lbs
16.67
=7.5772kg=7577.2 g
2.2
7577.2
=252.57
30
252 tubes

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9. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of a 2% stock solution of potassium permanganate that
should be used in compounding the following Rx.

C1 = 2%, V1 = ?, C2 = 0.02%, V2 = 200 ml


Using C1 V 1=C 2 V 2
2 V1 = 0.02 200
0.02 200
V 1=
2
= 2 ml

10. Calculate the weight (in grams) of coal tar and 1% coal tar ointment must be combined to
make 200 grams of 4% coal ointment.

100 3 (1) X

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Coal tar= 200 g=6.06 g
4 33

1 coal tar ointment=200 g6.06 g


1 96 (32) Y = 193.94 g
_______

99 (33) 200 g

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11. Calculate the weight (in grams) of coal tar that must be added to 200 grams of 1% coal tar
ointment to make a 4% coal tar ointment.

100 3 (1) X
1
Coal tar= 200 g=6.25 g
32
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1 96 (32) 200 g
_______
99 (33)

12. A 25% solution of ethyl alcohol may be used to bathe a small child for the purpose of
cooling and reducing fever. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of ethyl alcohol (95%) and distilled
water that must be combined to make 1,892 ml of the 25% ethyl alcohol solution.

95 25 (5) X 5
95 = 1,892 ml=497.89 ml
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25 Distilled water=1,892497.89
= 1,394.18 ml (or more accurately, to 1,892 ml)

0 70 (14) Y
_______
95 (19) 1,892 ml

13. Calculate the volume (in millilitres) of normal saline that must be added to 30 ml of 1%
phenylephrine HCl solution to reduce the strength to 0.25%.

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1 0.25 (1) 30 ml

Normal saline=3 30 ml
0.25 = 90 ml (or more accurately, to 120 ml)

0 0.75 (3) Y
_______

14. 1 (4) is soluble in alcohol (40% or higher) but is insoluble in


Terpin hydrate, an expectorant,
water. Should the alcohol concentration fall below 40%, the terpin hydrate will precipitate out of
solution. Codeine sulfate is soluble in water but only slightly soluble in alcohol. Terpin hydrate and
codeine sulfate are frequently used in combination in cough preparations. In order to allow both
medications to remain in solution, the alcohol concentration must be 40% and 50%. Calculate the
volume (in millilitres) of high alcoholic elixir (75%) and low alcoholic elixir (10%) that must be
combined to make 3,785 ml (1 gallon) of 45% alcoholic elixir to be used as a vehicle for the two
medications.

75 35 (7) X 7
75 = 3,785 ml=2,038.08 ml
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45 10 =3,7852,038.08 ml
= 1,746.92 ml

10 30 (6) Y
_______
65 (13) 3,785 ml

15. Calculate and explain how you would prepare 12 capsules containing 0.6 mg of colchicine,
with each capsule weighing 300 mg. SR of your balance is 6 mg. Accuracy in measurement
should not be less than 98%.
SR = 6 mg
2 6 mg
ensure that the error is not more than2 , =
100 X
X = 300 mg (minimum weighable quantity)
For 12 capsules:
Colchicine needed = 12 0.6 mg = 7.2 mg

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Lactose needed = (12 300) 7.2 mg = 3,592.8 mg
To obtain 7.2 mg of colchicine:
324 mg 7.2 mg
=
X mg 300 mg
324 300
X= =13,500 mg
7.2
Therefore, lactose needed to form a triturate = 13,500 324 mg = 13,176 mg
The following steps should be used:
a. Weigh 324 mg of colchicine.
b. Weigh 13,176 mg of lactose. Mix with 324 mg of colchicine by doubling-up
method.
c. Weigh 300 mg of the triturate.
d. Weigh another (3,600 300) = 3,300 mg of lactose. Mix with the 300 mg
aliquot.
e. Fill in 12 capsules, each weighing 300 mg.
(NOTE: Theoretically above calculations are correct. However, since the amount of
colchicine needed is extremely small and high accuracy is needed, it is more
accurate if the calculations are made for a greater number of capsules as more
colchicine will be needed and mixing with large proportion of lactose will be easier).

16. Calculate and explain how you would prepare 8 capsules containing 0.5 mg of
mecobalamin, with each capsule weighing 250 mg. SR of your electronic balance is 0.01 g.
Accuracy in measurement should not be less than 95%.
SR = 10 mg
5 10 mg
ensure that the error is not more than5 , =
100 X
X = 200 mg (minimum weighable quantity)
For 8 capsules:
Mecobalamin needed = 8 0.5 mg = 4 mg
Lactose needed = (8 250) 4 mg = 1,996 mg
To obtain 4 mg of mecobalamin:
200 mg 4 mg
=
X mg 200 mg
200 200
X= =10,000mg
4

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Therefore, lactose needed to form a triturate = 10,000 200 mg = 9,800 mg
The following steps should be used:
a. Weigh 200 mg of mecobalamin.
b. Weigh 9,800 mg of lactose. Mix with 200 mg of mecobalamine by doubling-up
method.
c. Weigh 200 mg of the triturate.
d. Weigh another (2,000 200) = 1,800 mg of lactose. Mix with the 200 mg
aliquot.
e. Fill in 8 capsules, each weighing 250 mg.

17. You are required to prepare 90 ml of 0.1% (w/v) copper sulphate solution, using freshly
boiled and cooled distilled water as the solvent. Calculate the amount of copper sulphate needed
and explain the method that you will use to prepare the solution. You have a triple beam balance
with SR of 0.1 g and copper sulphate is soluble in 3 parts of water at 20 oC. Error in weighing
should not be more than 5%.

18. Calculate the percentage concentration (% w/v) of a solution made by mixing a 40%, 25%,
10% and 5% w/v solution in 5:3:2:1 proportion.

19. A prescription is received for the following:

Rx:
Cap. chlorpheniramine maleate 2 mg tds 3/7

You want to make chlorpheniramine maleate capsules using chlorpheniramine maleate


powder and lactose. You have in your lab an electronic balance with Sensitivity R
equirement of 0.01 g. Show your step-by-step calculations in the preparation of the
capsules if the weight of one capsule is 200 mg.

20. Six theobroma oil suppositories (2 g), each containing 250 mg of paracetamol, are to be
prepared. The displacement value (DV) of paracetamol is 1.5. Write the complete formula for the
preparation.
PCM needed = 6 250 mg = 1,500 mg = 1.5 g
Theobroma oil needed = 6 2 g = 12 g

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1.5 g
Theobroma oil displaced= =1 g
1.5
Theobroma oil actually needed = 12 g 1 g = 11 g
Therefore, a complete formula is:
Paracetamol 1.5 g
Theobroma oil 11 g

21. Calculate the quantity of ingredients needed and write a complete formula if you want to
prepare 8 aspirin suppositories (1 g) in theobroma oil base, containing 300 mg of aspirin each (DV
of aspirin = 1.1).
Aspirin needed = 8 300 mg = 2,400 mg = 2.4 g
Theobroma oil needed = 8 1 g = 8 g
2.4 g
Theobroma oil displaced= =2.18 g
1.1
Theobroma oil actually needed = 8 g 2.18 g = 5.82 g
Therefore, a complete formula is:
Aspirin .. 2.4 g
Theobroma oil 5.82 g

22. Prepare 10 theobroma oil suppositories, each containing 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV
= 2.5). If a 2 g mould is used, write the complete formula for the preparation of the suppositories.

23. Calculate the DV of paracetamol in glycerogelatin base if the DV of paracetamol in cocoa


butter is 1.5 and correction factor (CF) for glycerogelatin base is 1.2.

24. The formula for Glycerogelatin Suppository BP is as follow:

Glycerol Suppository BP
Gelatin BP 14% w/w
Glycerin BP 70% w/w
Distilled water qs 100% w/w

Eight glycerogelatin suppositories (CF = 1.2), each containing 30 mg phenobarbitone


sodium (DV = 1.2), are to be prepared using a 2 g mould. However, the prescribing doctor

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has requested that the amount of Gelatin BP to be increased to 18% to obtain a firmer
suppository. Write the complete formula for the preparation of the suppositories.

25. Calculate the quantity of ingredients needed and write the formula for preparation of 12
suppositories, in a 2 g mould, each containing 50 mg of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DV =
1.2) using Glycerogelatin BP as the base.

26. You are required to prepare 10 theobroma oil suppositories (2 g). Each suppository must
contain 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV = 2.5) and 10 mg of hydrocortisone acetate (DV = 1.5).
Write the complete formula for the preparation of the suppositories.

27. You are required to prepare 10 suppositories (1 g) using Glycerogelatin BP as the base
(CF = 1.2). Each suppository must contain 50 mg of bismuth subgallate (DV = 2.5) and 10 mg of
hydrocortisone acetate (DV = 1.5). Write the complete formula for the preparation of the
suppositories.

28. You are required to prepare 1,000 suppositories using a new base called Base A. Each
suppository should contain 20 mg of morphine hydrochloride and weigh 2 g. Using a calibrated 2-
g mould, you found that average weight of plain Base A suppository is 2.6 g. Inclusion of 200 mg
of morphine hydrochloride into 6 suppositories resulted in a total weight of 15.64 g.
a. Calculate the correction factor (CF) of the base.
b. Calculate the displacement value (DV) of morphine hydrochloride in Base A.
c. Write the complete formula for the preparation of the 1,000 morphine hydrochloride
suppositories. Show all the calculations.
2.6
a. CF= =1.3
2
b. Weight of plain supps = 6 2 1.3 = 15.6 g
Weight of medicated supps = 15.64 g
Weight of base in medicated supps = 15.64 1.2 = 14.44 g
Weight of base displaced by 1.2 g of morphine HCl = 15.6 14.44 = 1.16
1.2
DV =
1.16
= 1.03
c. To prepare 1,000 morphine HCl supps 20 mg:

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Morphine HCl needed = 1,000 20 mg = 20,000 mg = 20 g
Base A needed = 1,000 2.6 =2,600 g
20 g
Base A displaced by morphine HCl= =19.42 g
1.03
Total base A needed = 2,600 g 19.42 g = 2,580.58 g

Therefore the formula is:


Morphine HCl . 20 g
Base A . 2,580.58 g

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