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Work Instruction

Mistras Group, Inc. | Services Division

Positive Material Identification


100-PMI-001 Rev 2
January 15, 2013
Technical Approval
Paul Haack, PT Level III
Regional QA Manager
Concurrence

Not Applicable

Issue Authorization
Donald Smith,
Quality Assurance Director
Digitally signed by Donald Smith
DN: cn=Donald Smith, o=Mistras
Services, ou=Quality Assurance Director,
email=donald.smith@mistrasgroup.com
, c=US

Internal Use Only


This document is designed for use by Mistras Group, Inc. personnel. The contents may be shared with other personnel, but may not be copied nor shall the document
remain on the premise of any party other than Mistras Group, Inc. without written agreement. This document is not valid without the Issue Authorization digital
signature. The technical content of this document has been reviewed and approved by the individuals noted above, evidentiary signatures are maintained on file.
100-PMI-001 Rev 2
Positive Material Identification

Table of Contents
1.0 Scope ............................................................................................................................................. 3
2.0 Specific Applicability ...................................................................................................................... 3
3.0 Reference Documents .................................................................................................................... 4
4.0 Definitions...................................................................................................................................... 4
5.0 Personnel Requirements ................................................................................................................ 5
6.0 General Requirements ................................................................................................................... 5
7.0 Pre-inspection Analyzer Start-up and Calibration ......................................................................... 6
8.0 Field Testing Requirements ............................................................................................................ 8
9.0 Welds New and Existing Inspection ............................................................................................ 8
10.0 Undersize or Non-contact Samples ................................................................................................ 9
11.0 Instrument Measurement Quality Control................................................................................... 10
12.0 Certification Stamps ..................................................................................................................... 10
13.0 When and How to Use an Approved Stamp ................................................................................. 10
14.0 Resolution of Material Testing Discrepancies .............................................................................. 11

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100-PMI-001 Rev 2
Positive Material Identification

1.0 Scope
1.1 This procedure establishes a standardized methodology for the Positive Material Identification (PMI)
analysis of materials, such as stainless and alloy steels, utilizing wavelength dispersive X-ray
Fluorescence Spectrometry for the determination of elements with an atomic weight greater than that
of Titanium (Ti).
NOTE: Instruments such as the Niton GOLDD may extend the range of detectable elements down to
Aluminum (Al).
1.2 This procedure may be used to assist clients in the rapid, multi-element determination of a materials
composition for the purpose of:
a. Material identification
b. Procurement compliance
c. Product quality and specification compliance
d. Manufacturing control
e. Assisting in a Clients PMI Program
1.3 This procedure meets the requirements of ASTM E572-02a (06).
2.0 Specific Applicability
2.1 Mistras Services conducts PMI testing services as a means to provide Clients the necessary information
for the purposes identified in paragraph 1.2. Mistras Services does not maintain a Clients PMI Program.
The Client is responsible for identifying on the purchase order or contract document(s) the items
requiring PMI. The following items typically require PMI however the Client shall identify the actual
items on the purchase order or contract document.
a. All pressure-containing welds
b. All pressure-containing piping components, including welds
c. Pressure-containing components and welds of heat exchangers and other pressure vessels
d. Tubular products used in the fabrication of equipment such as heat exchangers, boilers, and heaters
e. Furnace heaters, and boiler internals (tube hangers, tube supports, baffles, and tube-sheets)
f. Plate material
g. Pressure-containing machinery casings such as pumps, compressors, and process expander drivers
h. Pressure-containing instrument housing
i. Internal metallic linings & cladding, and weld overlay used for protection against corrosive
environments
j. Expansion joints and bellows
k. Tubing (except as excluded in Paragraph 2.2, item G)
l. All stud bolts included in the ASTM A-I 93 and A-320 classification
m. Any other components or materials specifically designated for PMI on the purchase order

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Positive Material Identification

2.2 The following items are typically exempted from PMI testing but can be included if so directed by the
Client.
a. Gaskets
b. Internal machinery parts.
c. Internal instrument parts.
d. Internal non-pressure containing baffles, trays, tray clips, supports, pallrings, support rings, etc.
e. Non-pressure containing welds.
f. Internal valve components.
g. Type 304 SS tubing in outside diameter and less when properly identified by paint stencil
(exchanger tubing is not included in this exemption).
h. Compression-type ferrules and fittings for use with in outside diameter and smaller tubing.
3.0 Reference Documents
The following documents of the issue in effect form a part of this procedure to the extent specified herein:
3.2 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II A, B, C, 2010 edition, 2011 addenda.
3.3 ASTM- E572 -02a(06): Standard Test Method for Analysis of Stainless and Alloy Steels by X-ray
Fluorescence Spectrometry.
3.4 API RP 578, First edition: Material Verification Program for New and Existing Alloy Piping Systems.
4.0 Definitions
4.1 C of C: Certificate of Compliance or Certificate of Conformance
4.2 Client: The purchaser/ requestor of PMI services from Mistras Services. This also includes the Clients
representative i.e. Inspector.
4.3 Inspector: The term inspector, as used in this standard, refers to the Client's representative.
4.4 Inspection Lot: An inspection lot is a group of components from the same heat number from which a
sample is drawn.
4.5 Material Nonconformance: A positive material identification (PMI) test result that is not consistent with
the selected or specified alloy.
4.6 Mill Test Report: A certified document that permits each component to be identified according to the
original heat of material from which it was produced and identifies the applicable material specification
(including documentation of all test results required by the material specification).
4.7 PMI: Positive Materials Identification: A procedure used to assure that specified metallic alloy materials
for use in the refineries, chemical plants, and other facilities are properly identified as to their true
elemental composition and are marked according to specific industry standards and Client's procedures.
4.8 Representative Sample: A representative sample consists of one or more units (pieces) selected at
random from the inspection lot, which will be examined to determine the acceptability of the inspection
lot.
4.9 Certified Reference Materials: Sample materials for which laboratory chemical analysis data are available
and are used in demonstrating test instrument accuracy and reliability.

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100-PMI-001 Rev 2
Positive Material Identification

5.0 Personnel Requirements


5.1 Qualification and Training
At the time of preparation of this process procedure, there are no Code requirements for actual
certification in the Positive Material Identification method. However, recommendations for training and
qualification can be found in API 578. Therefore, personnel performing PMI testing shall be
knowledgeable about all aspects of the operation of PMI test equipment and the PMI test method.
Qualifications of the technician, including training and work experience, shall be available for review
when requested by Clients.
5.2 Safety
All personnel using PMI equipment shall have a working knowledge of the instruments operation before
putting it to use. In addition to the proper use of the equipment, personnel shall also observe the
following:
5.2.1 Safety glasses or goggles shall be worn while operating the equipment.
5.2.2 Never aim the probe at any parts of the body or at anyone else.
5.2.3 Radiation dosimetry is not required unless specifically required by the Client or the state in
which work is performed.
5.2.4 Always assure that the unit is turned off after use and that storage instructions recommended
by the manufacturer are followed.
6.0 General Requirements
6.1 When PMI is specified by the Client and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been determined as the
method to use, Mistras Services shall perform all work in accordance with this procedure and comply
with the requirements of the governing Codes and Standards specified on the purchase order or
contract document.
6.2 Prior to commencing testing services, an agreement shall be made between Mistras Services and the
Client for the approval and use of this method.
6.3 The Client will determine and specify all materials requiring PMI. Test results shall be analyzed for alloy
chemistry conformity to purchase documents and be properly identified to the applicable specifications
such as ASME, ASTM, and color coded as required.
6.4 For warehouse test sites, a copy of the mill test report shall be obtained from the Client for each
component or lot tested.
6.5 For field fabrication test sites, when welding is to be conducted, the weld electrode or wire shall be
tested and the results compared to the mill test report. This shall be done prior to welding and shall be
done for each box of electrodes or spool of wire that will be used for that days welding.
6.6 Sampling
6.6.1 100% Testing: Unless otherwise specified by the Client or purchase order, 100% testing shall be
performed on all components and materials designated for testing.
6.6.2 Representative Sample: When specified by the Client or purchase order, representative samples
shall be taken in the following manner as a minimum:
a. For lots of five units or less, the testing shall be 100%

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Positive Material Identification

b. For lots greater than five units, the greatest of five units or 5% shall be analyzed unless
otherwise dictated by the client.
6.7 Equipment and materials
6.7.1 XRF Spectrometry equipment shall meet the requirements of reference 3.3. The Client shall
have final approval of equipment used on their product.
6.7.2 Equipment used for testing shall have factory calibration certificates on file.
6.7.3 Rental equipment shall be supplied with a factory calibration certificate. Copies of calibration
certificates shall be kept on file at Mistras Services.
6.7.4 Reference standards shall be Certified Reference Materials, such as those available from
Analytical Reference Materials International (ARMI), and shall be supplied with their respective
certified test reports. The reference standards shall be homogenous and free of voids, porosity,
and surface contamination.
7.0 Pre-inspection Analyzer Start-up and Calibration
7.1 Start-up and Stabilization
The Analyzer will be turned on and user will log in with the designated password. The instrument should
be allowed to run 1 minute to stabilize the electronics before proceeding.
7.2 Perform Instrument Calibration
7.2.1 A daily detector calibration should be performed after the 1 minute initial instrument
stabilization period. Calibrate the analyzer by pressing the Utilities screen icon, then the
Calibrate Detector button. This will start the instrument auto-calibration routine. When the
instrument completes the auto-calibration routine, return to the menu and press the Test
screen icon and then measure an approved alloy test standard, such as the 1 Cr - Mo alloy
standard supplied with the analyzer by the manufacturer. If the sample is correctly identified
and the Major alloying elements concentration values (Cr and Mo primarily) read within the
calculated acceptance limits (within 3-Sigma of the average value of the factory readings),
testing may commence.
7.2.2 If the check standard values do not read correctly, then re-calibrate the instrument as specified
in Section 7.2.1. If after re-calibrating the readings still do not fall within the 3-Sigma accuracy
boundaries, contact a supervisor and discontinue use of the instrument.
7.3 The need for a Hot Surface Adapter should be determined before analyzing any unknown samples. If
surface temperatures of components to be tested will exceed 315C/600F, but are below 427C/800 F,
the operator may operate the analyzer so there is a 6 mm (~ inch) air gap between the front of the
instrument measuring plate and the sample. When testing hot surfaces with the Weld Adapter in place,
the operator should use double the standard measuring time to maintain measurement precision (this
compensates for signal loss due to the air gap and the smaller 3mm Weld Adapter aperture).
Measurement Accuracy compensation is handled automatically by the software.
7.4 If measurements are to be taken on vibrating surfaces, like a hot sample surface, the analyzer should be
held a few millimeters (~in) away from the vibrating surface, and the measurement time doubled to
maintain precision. All measurement concentration accuracy compensation (for the air gap) is handled
automatically by the software (up to a maximum of 6mm).

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Positive Material Identification

7.5 The analyzer should be checked for material-specific performance prior to doing any testing. Typically
this should be done using a Certified Reference Material (CRM), such as an ARMI1 CRM. The CRM(s)
used in this Procedure should be representative of each of the materials expected to be encountered in
the inspection process.

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100-PMI-001 Rev 2
Positive Material Identification

8.0 Field Testing Requirements


8.1 Prior to beginning testing, the specific PMI testing and documentation requirements for the job should
be discussed with the PMI Coordinator or designate.
8.2 Good sample surface preparation is essential for obtaining accurate results. All non-representative
material (paint, scale, markings, dust) must be removed prior to testing. This may be accomplished by
using hand files, grinders, rotary files, etc. to obtain a clean metal surface on which to conduct the test.
(Note: attention should be paid to the composition of any abrasives being used to clean sample
surfaces; i.e., they do not contain any elements that could compromise measurement accuracy by
embedding in the sample surface. Care shall also be taken to not transfer elements between
examination specimen, or compromise the material integrity during the surface preparation process. For
example, a grinding wheel that has been used on carbon steel should not be used on stainless steel. It is
best to use light element abrasives free of interfering elements (Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, etc.), such as silicon
carbides (carborundum), corundum (alumina), and diamonds.
8.3 Test areas on welds may have to be ground flat. Note: the battery powered grinder (right angle) with
several extra batteries has been found to provide good service with rapid surface preparation.
8.4 Test times for the analyzer should be a minimum of 5 seconds for grade identification and 10 seconds
for chemistry determinations. Although the analyzer may display a result before the specified time
interval, the operator will continue to measure until the specified time has elapsed. Note: see Sections
below covering special cases that require longer measurement times.
8.5 One test point for each piping component (pipe, tee, ell or elbow, etc.) is required. Weld test
requirements vary according to size. See Section 9.
8.6 Minimum Documentation required for field work will include:
a. An isometric drawing or sketch of the as-installed and tested piping or equipment tested. This
drawing should include equipment ID and piping line number, or other documentation reference(s)
as specified.
b. Chemistry data results for the primary elements required for PMI of the material for all units tested.
c. Documentation must be signed and dated by the personnel performing the tests, and signed
documentation given to the PMI Coordinator or designate.
d. The PMI Coordinator or designate may require additional documentation which will be specified
prior to testing. Electronic copies of the secure encrypted files should be maintained in addition to
all paper documentation copies.
9.0 Welds New and Existing Inspection
9.1 Prior to welding, consumables shall be tested per Section 9.5 below.
9.2 Number of test locations per weld required:
a. in to 1in, butt welds One Test Point
b. in to 2in, socket welds One Test Point
c. 2in to 4in, butt welds Two Test Points
d. 6in and larger welds At least Four Test Points evenly distributed around the circumference of
the weld should be measured. If no discrepancies are found, the average of the primary
identifier element chemistries for all points tested on that weld can be used for documentation.

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9.3 At the discretion of the inspector, as in the case of large diameter welds or at any other time deemed
necessary to ensure correctness of the weld material, additional locations on the weld may be tested.
9.4 Care must be taken in testing welds to position the analyzer window to read only the weld material, and
not any adjacent piping component material(s), to avoid false readings.
9.4.1 If not equipped with the optional IsoWeld feature, and if the weld bead is smaller than 10 mm,
insert the Weld Adapter and activate the Weld Mode3 with the Weld icon. Alternatively, if
the IsoWeld option is installed, select the IsoWeld icon to reduce the measuring area to 3mm by
software function. Whichever aperture reduction method is used, be sure it reduces the
measurement aperture width to a size smaller that the width of the weld to be tested, or;
9.4.2 Isolate the weld by masking adjacent metal with a non-readable material such as several layers
of pure aluminum tape (care should be taken that the aluminum mask material contains no
interfering elements, is not an aluminum alloy or has surface contamination, and the mask
material is thick enough to block any x-rays coming from the underlying material).
9.4.3 Quadruple the measurement time lengths when using the Weld Adapter; e.g., increase the
measurement time from 5 seconds to 20 seconds for material ID and from 10 seconds for
chemistry to 40 seconds, to compensate for the added air gap and/or reduced analysis area.
9.5 Procedures for Testing of Welding Consumables
9.5.1 Each and every box of welding rod to be used for the job will be prepared by first puddling a
sample, using at least two passes, and grinding the resulting bead smooth for testing.
9.5.2 Documentation for Weld Rod Testing should include:
a. Rod designation
b. Rod Manufacturers Name
c. Box Lot Number
d. Elemental Composition of Samples
9.5.3 Rod Box to be Marked PMI Confirmed with:
a. Name of authorized person who performed the testing
b. Date of Testing
c. Other Information Specified (e.g., vendor or contactor ID)
9.5.4 GTAW (TIG) wire can often be tested directly from the box either individually with a Weld
aperture or IsoWeld, or by using several bundled wire pieces to cover more of the aperture
window of the analyzer. If satisfactory results cannot be obtained, then puddling and grinding
of the wire shall be done as specified in Section 9.5.1 above.
10.0 Undersize or Non-contact Samples
10.1 For samples that do not fully cover the measurement aperture, increase the testing time by increasing
the time in inverse proportion to the decrease in percentage of aperture covered. For example, if a rod
only covers of the aperture area, increase the measurement time by a factor of two; i.e., from 10
seconds to 20 seconds for chemistry.
10.1.1 Undersize samples should be placed in a radiation-safe, test stand (optional) or similar test
fixture.

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NOTE: Do Not Test an undersized sample by laying it on another substrate material, such as a wood, plastic, or
metal surface (table, stand, stool, or benchtop), for erroneous measurements may occur due to the
interfering elemental signals coming from the substrate(s). It is highly recommended a suitable
radiation-safe Test Stand be acquired or fabricated for safely measuring undersized samples.
10.2 Non-contact sample measurements include those measured with an air gap of up to a maximum of in
(~6mm) from the measurement aperture. Such measurements require double exposure times; e.g.,
from 5 to 10 seconds for ID tests and from 10 to 20 seconds for chemistry tests.
10.3 Inside pipe measurements on pipes that are less than two feet in diameter will result in non-contact
measurements. Follow directions in Section 10.2 above.
11.0 Instrument Measurement Quality Control
11.1 Measure the certified 1 Cr - Mo alloy calibration check standard that is supplied with the analyzer At
Least once for every two hours of operation. If correct, continue testing. If incorrect, re-calibrate the
detector and re-take the previous two hours of measurements.
12.0 Certification Stamps
12.1 All stamping should be done with a specified/approved stamp.
12.2 All stamps purchased for special marking should be marked with a control number. A list indicating the
number and locations of these stamps is to be held by the PMI Coordinator.
12.3 Typically a stamp is assigned to each individual analyzer, and the stamp is carried in the respective
analyzers field carry bag.
12.4 Report any loss of a stamp immediately to the PMI Coordinator or designate.
12.5 Stamp shall include the letters PMIV
12.6 Stamp shall be of the low-stress, round-face type
13.0 When and How to Use an Approved Stamp
13.1 Materials and components should be tested prior to fabrication.
13.2 Items checked prior to fabrication and before the final as-installed condition will only be marked with an
approved paint pen as follows: PMIV.
13.3 Chemistry documentation may not be necessary for this phase of PMI inspection.
13.4 Number of components and type tested should be documented for the job.
13.5 Discrepancies are to be noted and handled as specified in an appropriate procedures document.
13.6 Shop made spool pieces may be stamped, providing their final field location in the piping system can be
tracked and documented. Final field installation must be confirmed by visual inspection of the stamp.
13.7 Usage of an approval stamp should be in accordance with an appropriate company procedures
document for PMI of existing equipment.
13.8 Usage of an approval stamp does not negate the need for any written documentation required.

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14.0 Resolution of Material Testing Discrepancies


14.1 When an analysis or validation test indicates the presence of the wrong material (weld or component),
the following steps shall be followed:
14.1.1 Test several other areas on the same sample. For welds, check adjacent components.
14.1.2 Check the analyzer calibration against the certified check standard supplied with the analyzer
(1 Cr - Mo alloy standard) or other certified alloy standard.
14.1.3 If performing pre-fabrication testing, and an incorrect material is identified, components having
reached this point must be rejected according to established procedures.
14.2 Discrepancies on field-installed or on in-place existing materials require notification of the responsible
inspector and completion of the following items:
14.2.1 Complete chemistries with minimum of 20 second measuring time should be taken for all
elements present in the suspect material to help to positively identify it.
14.2.2 Review the test data for the suspect component and, if possible, confirm the results using a
second analyzer.
14.2.3 If conclusive results cannot be obtained with field analyzers, the inspector may request a
certified laboratory analysis of a small sample taken from the suspect material.
14.3 The Client shall be notified of the results and shall be responsible for the final disposition of their
product.

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