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1

Topics

Servo Motors

Servo Drives

Mechanical Gearing

Feedback Types

Motion Controllers

Torque

Inertia

Design Considerations

2

Motion Control Theory

Closed Loop

System

3

Definitions

Accuracy

This term defines the ability of the controlled

axes to position an object in a spatial domain.

(how close you can come to the bulls-eye).

Another definition is the ability to reach a

predetermined point in space.

Resolution

Resolution is defined as resolving by the

breaking into parts.

The action of a rotary or linear feedback device

used for control purposes.

Repeatability

The ability to exactly replicate or reproduce a

motion profile as a continuous operation.

This term defines the ability of the controlled

axes to position the controlled object after

several moves

6

Definitions

Position Error

The dynamic difference between the position commanded by the controller

and the actual position of the object being moved.

Position Loop

The controller algorithm correcting the difference between the controller

commanded position and the feedback from the controlled axes used to

determine actual position

Speed or Velocity Loop

This loop is typically located in a drive. The function of the loop is to output

the motor torque required to maintain the speed/velocity commanded to the

drive amplifier.

Torque (current) Loop

The loop in the drive amplifier that is responsible for controlling the torque

producing current by comparing the motor actual shaft position (incremental

shaft position is integrated within the controller to determine the shaft

speed/velocity) to the actual shaft position.

7

When is Motion Control Required?

Rule of Thumb: Accuracy of motor shaft less than

5 degrees or linear movement less than .0001.

Precise Control of Speed

Rule of Thumb: Speed regulation of .05% or better

Rapid Acceleration and Deceleration Requirements

Rule of Thumb: Motor acceleration from 0 to 2000 rpm in

less than .5 sec.

Control of Torque

Ability to provide full torque at 0 rpm.

8

Example Closed Loop Control System

Reducer Load

Table Encoder

Motor

Power Ballscrew

AC/DC Position

Velocity Servo Loop Controller

Loop Amp

0 to 10V DC

10

What is a Servo?

A Servo is a control system which, through the use of feedback or internal control,

has the capability for accurate and repeatable control of one or more of the following

dynamic parameters

Position

Velocity

Torque

A Servo Axis is a principal direction along which motion occurs. The machine

hardware (mechanics) that make up that movement.

ROTARY LINEAR

Load

Motor

Ballscrew

Gearbox Ballnut

Pulleys

Motor

11

Components of a Motion Control System

Software

Servo Axis

Mechanical

Motion Drive/ Actuator/

Linkages

Controller Amplifier Motor And Load

Feedback

Transducer

12

Motion Control Theory

Servo

Motors

13

DC Motor Limitations

the rotor windings to the case of the motor.

Limitation to how fast a motor can be run using mechanical

commutation...

Brush

Arcing

Rotor

windings

Air gap

Magnet

Commutator

Case

14

Servo Motors - Theory

the rotor and the windings on the stator...

Permanent Windings

Magnets

15

Servo Motors - Theory

dissipation and commutation induced speed limits.

Heat generated in

windings is directly

conducted to motor

case.

Winding is electronically

commutated.

16

Servo Motors - Theory

windings are not required.

Magnet material

on rotor is lighter

than copper wire

windings.

17

Performance Limitations

Better heat dissipation

Higher continuous torque

Magnets on the rotor

Mechanical commutator

replaced by electronic

commutator in the amplifier

No Commutation Limit

No speed limit due to arc- Intermittent Duty Zone

over

Continuous Duty Zone

18

Servo Motors - Properties

Flux Density - B

(Kilo Gauss)

14

12

10

4

Rotor

2 Magnets

12 10 8 6 4 2

De-magnetizing force - H (Kilo Oersteds)

19

Rare Earth vs. Ferrite Motors

Rare Earth Magnets (Samarium Cobalt or Neodymium-Iron-Boron)

Ceramic Magnets (Ferrite)

Rare Earth Motors fall into two categories:

Medium Inertia Motors

Low Inertia Motors

Rare Earth Magnets considerations.

Lower inertia means higher theoretical acceleration

Stability and Bandwidth become an important consideration

Proper System inertia sizing becomes very critical

Do not exceed 6 to 1 system to rotor inertia (3 to 1 in critical/contouring applications)

when using standard encoder or resolver feedback

20

Rare Earth vs. Ferrite Motors

Rare Earth Advantages:

Excellent magnetic properties (up to 30 MGOe).

Lower rotor inertia.

Smaller motor sizes for a given torque

Effective where high response speed, quick acceleration, high

efficiency and small size are required.

Rare Earth Disadvantages:

Magnetic material is expensive.

Samarium Cobalt and Neodymium material has a limited supply

(only available in a few areas of the world).

The system inertia must also be low (within at least 6 to 1 of motor

inertia). BEWARE! BEWARE! Inertia mismatch means stability

and control problems. System sizing is very critical. (High

resoultion feedback can help expand the range)

21

Rare Earth vs. Ferrite Motors

Low cost magnetic material

Virtually unlimited availability

May be easier to match the motor to a system due to inertia.

Ferrite Motor Disadvantages:

Inferior magnetic properties (~4 MGOe). More material required to

provide the same flux.

Larger frame size and higher inertia per given torque.

Torque to Rotor Inertia Comparison (Rule of Thumb)

The Rare-Earths ratio of Torque to Rotor Inertia is about 4 times

higher than the standard Ferrite motor.

22

Motion Control Theory

Servo Drives

23

Servo Drives - Theory

200 Volts

Transistor is pulsed

on and off - low

Power from power dissipation.

DC Bus

Motor 20 Volts

10 Amps

24

Servo Drives - Theory

Period Period

Positive

Zero

Negative

Negative

25

Servo Drives - Theory

Period Period

75% 25%

Positive

Positive

Zero

Negative

Negative

26

Servo Drives - Theory

Period Period

Positive

Zero

Negative

Negative

27

Servo Drives - Theory

Carrier

Reference and

Input Reference

+

Comparator

+

PWM Output

Saw Tooth

Carrier

28

Servo Drives - Theory

inductance of the motor has a smoothing effect on

the pulses...

Motor

Voltage

Motor

Current

29

What makes a Servo Drive Unique?

Controls output Torque to 0 rpm

Always use Motor feedback (velocity and commutation)

Speed Regulation < 0.1% standard with 100% torque disturbance

Extreme stiffness to Transient Loading

Velocity Loop Bandwidth > 100 Rads/sec (16Hz)

Motor not included

Digital drive has 40+ Hz typical

Use special permanent magnet servomotors

Current limit and bandwidth control standard

External control/sequencing circuits required

30

Servo Drives - Theory

Trapezoidal

Sinusoidal

31

Servo Drives - Theory

There are two common methods of servo drive commutation:

Trapezoidal

Sinsoidal

Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal refer to the shape of the voltage

waveforms that the amplifier generates...

Trapezoidal

Sinusoidal

32

Servo Drives - Theory

Trapezoidal Commutation-

Requires only hall effect

feedback of rotor position

Sinusoidal Commutation

Requires encoder or

resolver feedback of rotor

position

33

Servo Drives - Theory

Torque

10-15%

Trapezoidal commutation

- Torque ripple

- Only hall effect feedback

required

Torque

Sinusoidal commutation

- Minimal torque ripple

- Encoder or resolver

feedback required

34

Motion Control Theory

Mechanical

Gearing

35

Definitions

Backlash

The relative movement between interacting mechanical

parts resulting from looseness.

Preload:

The process of forcing interacting mechanical parts

together to eliminate backlash.

Angular measurement:

60 Arc-minutes = 1 degree of rotation

3600 Arc-seconds = 1 degree of rotation Motion

Dictionary

36

Backlash

resulting from looseness when motion is reversed.

Backlash in

tooth profiles

37

Gearing

Types

Gearbox, Belt and Pulley, Gear Mechanism

Why?

Torque Increaser (Ratio), Tout = Tin x Z

Speed Reducer (Ratio), nout = nin x Z

Inertia Reducer (Ratio2) , jref = jload / Z2

(Servomotor) (Application)

38

Gearing Advantages

reduction - Approx. 70%

Torque Multiplication

Inertia Matching

Increased Stiffness

Increased Resolution

Speed Reduction

Utilize Full Motor Characteristics

39

Application Considerations

Is the machine moving material in space where there is no

concern about path accuracy?

In this case torque is the primary concern.

Why am I concerned about inertia mismatch?

What is the customers primary concern?

An application that resists external disturbances during a move

select a motor with higher inertia

Not paying for KW that is simply used to get the motor moving

This was one of the first criteria in the development of rare earth motors

(high torque and very low inertia)

40

Gearing Drawbacks

Reduces system efficiency

Reduces output speed

requires higher motor speed

Can increase audible noise

Increases cost

41

Speed Reduction

ratio: Vo = VM/Z

Where:

VM = Motor Speed(RPM) = 500 RPM

VO = Output Speed(RPM) = 50 RPM

Z = Gearbox Ratio = 10:1

42

Torque Multiplication

times the gearbox efficiency: TO = TM x Z x e

Where:

TO = Output Torque(In-Lb) = 90 In-Lb

TM = Motor Torque(In-Lb) = 10 In-Lb

Z = Gearbox Ratio = 10:1

e = Gearbox Efficiency(%) = 90 %

You cannot exceed the gearbox output torque specification!

43

Torque Multiplication

Motor - coupled to

Input gear input of speed

reducer.

the size of input gear

so torque output is

doubled and speed

is halved.

44

Inertia Matching

system inertia divided by the square of the gearbox ratio:

JREF =JL/Z2

Where:

JL = System inertia(In-Lb-Sec2) = 2 In-Lb-Sec2

JREF = Reflected inertia(In-Lb-Sec2) = 0.5 In-Lb-Sec2

Z = Gearbox Ratio = 2:1

45

Typical Gearing Technologies

Spur/Helical

Out

Planetary

Non-Parallel Axis Gearing

In

Worm

Bevel Out

Other In

Belt Driven

46

Spur/Helical Gear Technology

High Stiffness

Very Smooth Operation

96-98% Efficient Per Pass

High Input Speeds

Low Inertia

Excellent back-drive capability Helical

47

Planetary Gear Technology

Low Backlash

Very High Stiffness

Smooth Output Torque

90-95% Efficient Per Pass

Input Speeds < 3000 Rpm

Low Inertia

Limit to gear ratios without

staging planetary

48

Worm/Bevel Technology

Worm Gear Worm

Low Backlash

Very High Stiffness

40% Efficient, Lower At Start-Up

Moderate Input Speeds, Frictional

Heat

Low Inertia

Poor Back-Drive Capability

Bevel Gear

Spur gear technology but right angle Bevel

Right Angle Torque Transmission

Moderate Backlash

High Stiffness

96-98% Efficient

High Input Speed

Excellent Back Drive Capability

49

Belt Driven Technology

High Efficiency - 90%

Minimal mechanical noise

Long life

Potential for stretch

Potential for slip if positive drive

isnt used

50

Gearhead Sizing

application,

It is important to first determine whether the application is

of a cyclic or continuous operation.

Whether the application is cyclic or continuous

determines which of a gearheads speed and torque

ratings should be used for proper sizing and selection of

a gearhead (maximum vs nominal ratings).

51

Motion Control Theory

Feedback

Devices

52

Feedback Devices

Current / Commutation Loop

Motor Based Feedback Provides

Commutation Feedback (motor rotor position for AC control)

Can also be used for Velocity & Position Loop feedback

Velocity / Position Loop

Velocity Loop controls speed of motor

Position Loop controls linear or rotary machine position

Velocity Loop could be performed by the Drive

Velocity/Position Loop

Position/ Motion

Velocity Control Servo

Control Drive Axis

Current/

Commutation

Loop

Feedback

Position/

Velocity 53

Feedback Devices

load that detect speed and/or position.

54

Feedback Devices

Encoder

Voltage

Encoder Time

Output

Pulses/Sec Indicate Speed

55

Incremental Encoder Output

Electrical Characteristics

TTL (5V) or CMOS (12v)

Single Ended

Complementary

Differential Line Driver

56

Incremental Encoder Output

(A+Noise)-(-A+Noise)=A+Noise+A-Noise=2A

57

Incremental Encoder Output

Channel A

Clockwise

Channel B

Rotation

Marker

Channel A

Counterclockwise

Channel B Rotation

Marker

58

Incremental Encoder Output

Channel A

Channel B

1X Multiply

2X Multiply

4X Multiply

59

Resolvers

Rotary transformers

Single rotating winding (rotor)

Two stationary windings (stators)

Coupling between rotor and stators varies with shaft

angle

Brushless transformer couples signal to rotor

Provide absolute position over one revolution

60

Resolvers

Transmitter

Transmitter is excited at the rotor signal.

Position information is read at the SIN and COSINE windings

Receiver

Receiver is excited at the SIN and COSINE windings and the absolute

position is read from the rotor winding

Functional Differences

Transmitter is more noise immune and requires less

hardware to support.

61

Resolvers

Two Phase Stator

Circular Transformer

Sinusoidal

Input Sinusoidal

Output

Sinusoidal

Output

62

Resolvers

Winding A

(Sine Winding)

Winding B

(Cosine Winding)

Rotor

63

Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine

winding:

64

Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine

winding:

65

Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine

winding:

66

Resolvers

Sine winding:

Signal on Cosine

winding:

67

Resolvers

0o 90o 180o 270o 360o

Sine Output

Electronics looks

at portion of signal

indicated by green

lines.

Cosine Output

Rotor Signal

68

Resolvers

0o 90o 180o 270o 360o

Sine value

Sine Output

Cosine value

Cosine Output

comparator and compared to

the reference signal.

69

Resolvers

Sine value

Sine Output

Resolvers tell you where you are within

1 shaft rotation (Even immediately

after power up).

Cosine value

Cosine Output

70

Resolver - Interface

Converter Excitation

Digital counter tracks the Resolver Oscillator

position

Counter provides parallel binary

output representing absolute position

R2

Up to 16 bit resolution typical Tracking

R/D

R4

Converter

Resolver

Binary Angle

Output

71

Resolvers vs. Incremental Encoders

Resolvers Encoders

Lower device cost Lower interface cost

Absolute within one rev Variable resolutions

Higher noise immunity Easier to debug

Lower maintenance Easier to ratio together

Passive device

Smaller Package

Less Wires

Higher environmental specs.

72

Feedback Devices

When a magnet is passed by a Hall effect device, current flows

through it.

Hall Effect

Device

Magnet

S N

73

Feedback Devices

Hall effect switches are often used as a way to roughly determine

the position of the rotor on a brushless motor.

0o 60o 120o 180o 240o 300o 360o

B

Hall Effect

Devices Hall A

A

N C

Hall B

S

Hall C

Magnetic disk attached

to motor shaft.

74

Feedback Devices

Rockwell-Automation products combine the A, B, and C signals

into one output called the ABS signal to reduce wire count.

A

N C

ABS

S Signal

ABS Signal

75

Feedback Devices

Hall effect switch functionality (including the ABS signal)

is now being built into standard optical encoders.

Channel A+

Channel A-

Channel B+

Channel B-

Channel Z+

Channel Z-

ABS

76

Feedback Trends

Devices:

Moving towards Motor Based Absolute Encoders

Encoders are approaching resolvers in robustness

Resolution:

Applications demanding 1M to 4M counts/motor rev in

precision applications (CNC, converting, etc.)

Motor based Absolute Encoders:

Want to eliminate homing on power up

Smart encoders that store motor parameters

77

Hi-Res Feedback

Hiperface

SRS, SRM Optical Encoder

ST & MT Absolute Versions Sin

F2

Vpps2

_Sin

Vpps2

Allows long cable lengths (to

Data

300m) _Data

Rejection (PSRR)

On Board Temperature Sensor

Plug and Play, on board E2PROM

78

Stegmann Hiperface

Process

Data 2 n+2

Channel Counter

Controller

Channel Absolute Position 42H Event Counter User defined Data

RS 485

Driver/Receiver

Power

7 to 12 VDC Power

SRS/SRM Drive

79

Block Diagram of the Stegmann Multi-Turn Encoder

optical pick up

system vector Sin/Cos

controlled operational

LED-current amplifier

1 8 parameter

controller RS 485

driver

mechanical

gearbox with 1 8

customized power supply

magnetic (hall) Linear

pick up system integrated EEprom Regulator

for the multiturn circuit

1 8

function

1 8

80

Feedback Devices

Accuracy Resolution Shock Temp Comments

only

Encoders

Resolvers ~10 Arc-Min ~16,000 counts 50 G -55o to 175o C

Encoders counts

position for

commutation

*Typical values

81

Motion Control Theory

Motion

Controllers

82

Motion Controllers

microprocessors to accumulate an input command, compare

it to a feedback and make appropriate corrections

Usually one of the following types.

PLC Based

Bus-Based

Integrated Drive/Controller

Stand-Alone

Open Architecture

83

Motion Controller Elements

Servos

Steppers

Hydraulics

VFDs

Mainframes

MIS Switches

SPC Indicators

Peer to Peer Readout

Actuators

Machine

Controller

Sensors

Gauges

Displays Meters

Keyboards Data Acquisition

Touch Screens Proportional Valves

84

Motion Controllers Provide

Precise speed regulation & high acceleration rate control

Precise control of servo motors, stepper motors, hydraulic actuators,

VFDs, Linear Motors

Feedback is often used for position and speed control

Networking to host or peer computer/controllers

Synchronization of multiple moving machine members (axes)

Processing Inputs & Outputs (discrete or analog)

85

Motion Control

Desired Position Faults Commands Set Outputs

Determine

Position Error

Apply PID to

Position Error

I (Integral) - For Accuracy - Slow response.

D (Derivative) - For stability and Damping.

86

Motion Control Profiles

important for a successful completion of a process?

Distance

Velocity

Acceleration

Deceleration

Torque

Inertia

Other Motion profile items

Index

Incremental Move

Absolute Move

Home

87

When to use Triangular Velocity Profiles?

Triangular Profile

Accel to speed and decel back to

original speed or zero, rest and repeat Accel Decel

the process as needed.Ex. Pick & Place

0 1 2

88

When to use Trap / S-Curve Velocity Profiles?

Constant

Trapezoidal Profile Speed

Accel to constant speed, travel at

constant speed, and decel to zero.

Ex.Cut to Length Accel Decel

0 2

1 time (s)

S-Curve Profile

Accel to speed at a variable rate

(slower first, then faster, then slower),

travel constant speed, decel to zero at a

variable rate (slower first, then faster,

then slower).Ex. Bottling; Train ride at

Airports. 0 1 2 time (s)

89

Profiles

including time at rest.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 time (s)

Rest or Dwell

Cycle

90

Index Profile

Speed

Constant

Speed Batch

Dwell

Time

An index:

91

Move

D C

B C

A B

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Incremental Move

Go in the direction indicated (+/-) from where you are at the time the command is issued.

The # of units is specified.

A B = +2 2 units positive

B C = +1 1 unit positive

C D = -7 7 units negative

Absolute Move

A B=2 go to a position of 2

B C=3 go to a position of 3

C D = -4 go to a position of -4

92

Home

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Home Position

Home position is the base (zero) reference for all absolute moves.

It can be defined anywhere in the travel.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Home Position = all absolute moves are positive (+)

Load

Home

93

Overtravel

Overtravel = Going beyond the physical limits of the machine

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

-5 +5

Overtravel limit switches shut down the drive before damage occurs from

crashing into machine limits.

Software overtravel limits are established inside of the hardware overtravel limits

(eg. +4.5, -4.5)

Move to 4 = Travel to 4 units = OK = Move

Move to 10 = Beyond SW OT = No Move

94

Resolution

In motion...

Defined by the feedback counts/rev & the smallest

programmable distance.

C B A B C

Commanded Position

If position A and B look the same to the controller but position C does

not, the positioning resolution of the system is 0.0001

96

Application Accuracy Requirements

Terms are in linear measurements of fractions of inches

or millimeters

Rotary Accuracy can be addressed in various terms

Radians

Units of linear measurements about the circumference of

a roll

Degrees

Minutes 1/60 of a degree

Seconds 1/60 of a Minute

Arc Seconds

1 arc second = 1/3600 of one degree of an arc

Length of arc for a center angle of n= 0.008727d (where d is the diameter)

97

Bandwidth

actuator can respond

The higher the Bandwidth, the more commands / Unit of

time the system can respond to

98

Motion Profiles

Things to Remember

required by each application.

Triangular profiles are limited by the maximum speed of

the system.

Trapezoidal profiles can be used when maximum speed

is a limitation.

Trapezoidal profiles are limited by the maximum

acceleration of the system.

S-Curve and Parabolic profiles have smoother speed

transitions but require greater acceleration and

deceleration rates.

100

Motion Control Theory

Torque

110

Torque

The turning force applied to a shaft tending to cause rotation

Torque is defined by these two equations:

Torque = Force Radius

= FX

Torque = Inertia x rotational acceleration

= Ja

Unit = in.- lb; N m;

Motion

Dictionary

111

Torque

Torque:

Force

the force applied is 1

Radius pound:

Torque = 1 lbs x 16 inches

Torque = 16 inch-lbs

Torque Inertia

Produced

112

Torque

Torque - Example:

a = 50p rad/sec2 = 157.1 rad/sec2

Velocity

100p rad/sec

wmax

83p rad/sec

T = Jcyl x a = 146.6 in-lbs

67p rad/sec

Jcyl = .933 in-lbs-sec2

50p rad/sec

33p rad/sec

qa

17p rad/sec

0 rad/sec

0 1 2 3 4 Seconds Time

113

Torque

profile you must

determine:

Peak Intermittent Torque

is within Servo System

capabilities

RMS Torque is within the

continuous operating

region

Continuous Duty Zone

114

Velocity/Torque vs. Time Profile

Vpeak

Desired

Load

Velocity

time

T1

Required

Motor T2

Torque T4

time

Tpeak

T3

t1 t2 t3 t4

Trms T 1 2 t1 + T 2 2 t2 + T 3 2 t 3 + T 4 2 t4

=

t1 + t2 + t3 + t4

115

Motion Control Theory

Inertia

116

Inertia

The product of the weight of an object (W) and the square of

the radius of gyration (K) (how the weight is distributed

around the axis of rotation).

Result = WK2 = Lb - Ft2

The magnitude of inertia is a function fourth power of its

radial dimension. Therefore a small diameter cylindrical rotor

inherently has a much lower inertia than a large diameter

motor.

A smaller Radius part has much less inertia than a larger

radius part.

Double radius - 24 = 16 times the inertia

Triple radius - 34 = 81 times the inertia

Servo System inertias are generally defined as IN-LB-SEC2

117

Inertia

Inertia - Examples:

determined by the length, diameter,and density of

the object.

118

Inertia

Inertia - Examples:

L

r

The inertia of a cylinder

rotating on the axis shown is:

2g 2g

r = Density (lbs/in3) r = Radius (in) g = 386 in/sec2

119

Inertia Calculation using Diameter

Inertia - Examples:

L = 10 inches

r = 3 inches

Steel cylinder (r = .283 lbs/in3)

2g (2)(386 in/sec2)

120

Inertia Calculation using Mass

Inertia - Examples:

r = 3 inches

Steel cylinder (W = 80 lbs)

2g (2)(386 in/sec2)

121

Torque, Inertia, and Time

Time

Directly Inversely

Proportional Proportional

Inertia Directly

Torque

Proportional

122

Motion Control Theory

Design

Considerations

123

When is Motion Control Required?

Rule of Thumb: Accuracy of motor shaft less than

5 degrees or linear movement less than .0001.

Precise Control of Speed

Rule of Thumb: Speed regulation of .05% or better

Rapid Acceleration and Deceleration Requirements

Rule of Thumb: Motor acceleration from 0 to 2000 rpm in

less than .5 sec.

Control of Torque

Ability to provide full torque at 0 rpm.

124

Selecting the Correct Motor

Continuous process

Pick and Place

Motion Intensive

Feed to Length

Rotary Shear

Flying Cutoff

Is high Inertia a help or a hindrance

Is the application subject to disturbances

Do axes need to follow a precise path

125

Relevant Application Data

Motor / Load Coupling Type

Rigid

Backlash (i.e. Gearbox)

Compliant (i.e. Resonance)

Profile

Fast acceleration / deceleration

Slow acceleration / deceleration

Dynamic Performance required

126

Backlash Influences

achievable gain

From a previous slide :- If the inertia doubles, the gain can

also be doubled thus restoring the bandwidth

But in the middle of the backlash range, the motor and load

are effectively disconnected, so the gain at this point will be

too high. The effect is severe hammering across the

backlash.

The maximum usable gain is that which would be appropriate

without the load.

135

Inertia Ratio and Backlash

What is the maximum allowable inertia mismatch ?

What is the optimum inertia match ?

The best situation for performance when backlash is present

is a motor that dominates the load :-

Jmotor >> Jload (A high inertia motor helps here)

Even a 1:1 inertia ratio reduces bandwidth by 50%

With a rigidly coupled motor and high resolution feedback

even extreme inertia ratios may perform satisfactorily

137

Coupling and Resonance

coupling, the effect on limiting gain is very similar to that of

backlash so, again, a high inertia motor helps .

At the moment the motor starts to accelerate from rest the

spring is unloaded so the load is effectively disconnected

from the motor.

As the motor moves and winds up the spring the load

inertia is felt by the motor.

Note that compliance may exist in the rotating parts or the

motor mounting.

138

Acceleration Requirements

Typically used in process lines such as calenders, extruders,

Normally select induction motors since high acceleration is not a requirement

Normal Acceleration

several seconds to attain maximum speed

These applications may require more investigation to determine the correct solution

High acceleration -- complete cycle occurs in milliseconds

requires PID or zero following error system

Includes feed forward and integral terms to keep the proportional error near zero.

There is always a small error

sizing based on motor inertia and gearing

140

Selecting The System

you to identify the appropriate motion control components

and a successful application.

141

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