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2015

Food Hygiene, Sanitation &


Safety

PrabeshGhimire

Contents
UNITI:INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................5
1.1 DefinetheFoodScienceandHygiene..........................................................................................5
1.2 Describethescopeoffoodscienceandhygiene..........................................................................6
UNITII:MICROORGANISMSANDFOOD.......................................................................................................7
2.1 Definebacteria,yeastsandmoulds..............................................................................................7
2.2 Explaintheclassificationofbacteriayeastandmoulds...............................................................7
A. Classificationofbacteria...............................................................................................................7
B. ClassificationofYeast...................................................................................................................8
C. ClassificationofMoulds................................................................................................................9
2.3 Describethefactorsaffectinggrowthofbacteria,yeastsandmoulds......................................10
A. Factorsaffectinggrowthofbacteria...........................................................................................10
B. Factorsaffectinggrowthofmolds..............................................................................................12
C. FactorsaffectinggrowthofYeasts..............................................................................................14
UNITIII:FOODSPOILAGE............................................................................................................................16
2.2 Discussthespoilageoffoods......................................................................................................16
2.3 Definethetermcontamination..................................................................................................16
2.4 Explainthecausesoffoodspoilage............................................................................................16
2.5 Explainthetypesoffoodspoilage..............................................................................................18
2.6 Explainthemicrobialspoilage....................................................................................................19
2.7 Explainthenonmicrobialspoilage.............................................................................................20
2.8 Explaintheclassificationoffoodonthebasisofsusceptibilitytospoilage...............................20
2.9 Explainawaytopreventdifferenttypesofspoilage.................................................................21
UNITIV:FOODPRESERVATION...................................................................................................................23
4.1 Discusstheprinciplesoffoodpreservation................................................................................23
4.2 Explainthemethodsofpreservation..........................................................................................24
4.3 Explainthemethoddrying..........................................................................................................25
4.4 Explainhightemperaturepreservationmethod........................................................................26
4.5 Explainlowtemperaturepreservationmethod.........................................................................27
4.6 Explainirradiation.......................................................................................................................28
4.7 Explainfermentationandchemicals...........................................................................................28
PreservationbyFermentation............................................................................................................28

FoodPreservationbyChemicals.........................................................................................................30
4.8 Explainthetraditionalmethodsoffoodstorage........................................................................31
UNITV:FOODADDITIVES............................................................................................................................34
5.1 Definefoodadditives..................................................................................................................34
5.2 Explaintheclassificationoffoodadditives.................................................................................34
5.3 Explaintheapplicationsoffoodadditives..................................................................................36
5.4 Potentialhazardsoffoodadditives............................................................................................38
UNIT6:FOODADULTERATION....................................................................................................................39
6.1 Describefoodadulteration.........................................................................................................39
6.2 Explaincommonadulterationandtheirprevention..................................................................39
6.3 Discussfoodadulterationandpublichealthissue.....................................................................41
UNIT7:FOODSANITATIONANDHYGIENE.................................................................................................42
7.1 Discussthewateranditssourcesofcontamination..................................................................42
7.2 Discusstreatmentofwater.........................................................................................................42
7.3 Discussthefoodanditshandlingprocess..................................................................................46
7.4 Discusspersonalhygiene............................................................................................................47
7.5 Discusshygieneinthekitchen....................................................................................................47
7.6 Explaincleaning&sanitizing,methodofwashing,rinse............................................................48
UNIT8:FOODACCEPTANCEANDPURCHASING.........................................................................................52
8.1 Factorsaffectingtheacceptanceoffood...................................................................................52
8.2 Discusspurchasingofsafefoods................................................................................................52
8.3 Discussreceivingofsafefoods...................................................................................................53
UNIT9:FOODANDPUBLICHEALTH...........................................................................................................54
9.1 Discussfoodhazards...................................................................................................................54
9.2 Explainfoodbornedisease.........................................................................................................55
9.3 Discusssymptomsoffoodpoisoning..........................................................................................56
9.4 DiscussNaturaltoxicantsinfood,toxicmetalsandchemicals..................................................57
9.5 Explainfactorsassociatedwithfoodborneillnesses.................................................................58
9.6 Explaincontrolanderadicationofmicroorganisms,flies,cockroachesandrodents................59
Controlofmicroorganisms:................................................................................................................59
Controlofflies.....................................................................................................................................60
Preventionandcontrolofcockroach..................................................................................................61
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Controlofrodents...............................................................................................................................62
UNIT10:KITCHENSAFETY...........................................................................................................................64
10.1 Whyaccidentsshouldbeprevented...........................................................................................64
10.2 Explainhowaccidentstakeplace...............................................................................................64
10.3 Explainthetypesofaccidents.....................................................................................................65
10.4 Explainhowtopreventcuts.......................................................................................................66
10.5 Explainhowtopreventburns.....................................................................................................67
10.6 Explainhowtopreventfalls........................................................................................................67

UNIT I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Define the Food Science and Hygiene
The Institute of Food Technologists defines food science as "the discipline in which the
engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the
causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of
foods for the consuming public".

The textbook Food Science defines food science in simpler terms as "the application of basic
sciences and engineering to study the physical, chemical, and biochemical nature of foods
and the principles of food processing".

Food science draws from many disciplines such as biology, chemical engineering, and
biochemistry in an attempt to better understand food processes and ultimately improve food
products for the general public. As the stewards of the field, food scientists study the
physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. By applying their findings, they are
responsible for developing the safe & nutritious foods.

The basis of the discipline lies in an understanding of the chemistry of food components,
such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats and water and the reactions they undergo during
processing and storage. A complete understanding of processing and preservation methods is
required including drying, freezing, pasteurization, canning, irradiation, extrusion, to name
just a few. The ability to carry out analysis of food constituents is developed along with
statistical quality control methods. The microbiology and the safety aspects of food must also
be understood. Other topics covered include food additives, the physio-chemical properties
of food, flavor chemistry, product development, food engineering and packaging. Food
science integrates this broad-based knowledge and focuses it on food.

Food hygiene - all conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of
food at all stages of the food chain.(WHO)
Food can become contaminated at any point during slaughtering or harvesting, processing,
storage, distribution, transportation and preparation. Lack of adequate food hygiene can lead
to food-borne diseases and death of the consumer.
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1.2 Describe the scope of food science and hygiene


Following are the scope of food science and hygiene
i. Food Services: This can include a number of facilities in the commercial sector like food
manufacture, catering services and restaurants where nutrition professionals can do
anything from menu planning to meal preparation to quality assurance as well as
promotion of the food products.

ii. Health Care: This is one of the largest and well-known scopes of food science and
nutrition in hospitals and clinics. Food scientists/dieticians assist in treating patients with
some big hospitals also providing scope for research, food administration, teaching etc.

iii. InformationDissemination: This entails producing books, articles, promotions,


television programmes on optimum food practices, since the present era is highly health-
conscious.

iv. Institutional Catering: Food science professionals are needed to plan and prepare
nutritious and well-balanced meals for schools, colleges, factories, offices, canteens etc.

v. Research & Development: R & D, as it is called, deals with conducting research projects
on various food items to ensure welfare from both the commercial food services
viewpoint, plus that of the health care provision.

vi. Social Welfare: Run by governmental organizations, this section is busy in improving
the eating habits and consequently, the health of the less-fortunate groups in society

UNIT II: MICROORGANISMS AND FOOD

2.1 Define bacteria, yeasts and moulds


Bacteria are single-celled living microorganisms. Varying in length from 1/25,000 to
1/1,000 of an inch, they are among the smallest living creatures known.

Moulds: They are multiple cell organisms forming tubular filaments. Molds demonstrate
branching and reproduce by means of fruiting bodies, called spores, which are borne in or
on aerial structures. Their mycelia, or intertwined filaments, may resemble roots. They
are many times larger than bacteria and somewhat longer than yeasts.
The most important moulds are;
Penicillium sp. (Blue moulds),
Aspergillus sp. (Black moulds),
Mucor sp. (Gray moulds), and
Byssochlamys fulva

Yeasts are single-cell, microscopic fungi, usually egg-shaped. They are smaller than
molds, but larger than bacteria. Their greatest thickness is about 1/2,000 of an inch.
Yeasts reproduce mainly by budding. A small bud forms on the parent yeast cell,
gradually enlarges, and then breaks off into another yeast cell. A few varieties reproduce
by forming spores within a special cell; later, these spores may form new yeast cells.

2.2 Explain the classification of bacteria yeast and moulds


A. Classification of bacteria
There are many different ways to classify and group bacteria some of which are as
follows:
Classification on the Basis of Shapes:
o Round cells or cocci (varieties include diplococcic, tetrad, streptococci,
staphylococci, etc.)
o Rod cells or bacilli
o Spiral or spirilla
o Comma or vibrio
o Filamento

Classifica
ation on thee Basis of Grram Strain::
This classsification iss based on the resultss of Gram Staining Method,
M in which
w
chemical reagent is ussed to stain the
t cell wall of the bacteeria.
o Gram-positive e.g: Streptoococcus, Staaphylococcuss, Bacillus, Cornybacterrium,
Actino
omycisis
o Gram-negative- e.g:
e Vibrio, Pseudomona
P as, Neisseriaa, Shigella

Classifica
ation on thee Basis of Oxxygen Requ
uirement:
This classification iss based on the
t requirem
ment of oxyygen for thee survival of
o the
bacterium
m.
o Aerob
bic (Need Oxygen): Stapphylococcuss, Streptcocccus, Myobaccterium, Baccillus,
Pseud
domonas, etcc.
o Anaerrobic (Do not
n need Oxxygen): Clostridium tettani, Clostridium botuliinum,
Escheerichia coli, Klebsiella,
K A
Actinomyces
s, etc.

Classifica
ation on thee Basis of Grrowth and Reproductio
R on:
This classsification is based
b on thee growth andd reproductioon aspects off bacteria.
o Autotrrophic Bactteria (Obtaiin carob annd/or sugar from sunlight or chem
mical
reactio
ons)
o Hetero
otrophic Baccteria (Obtaiin carob andd/or sugar froom the environment)

B. Classificcation of Yeaast
B
A
According to MacMillan n and Phaff,, there are foour groups off yeasts

Ascomycetous or true yeast capable of forming ascospores


Basidiomycetous yeast- having a lie cycle similar to Basidiomycetes (fungi)
Ballistosporogenous yeasts- forcibly discharge spores by the drop excretion
mechanism
Asporogrnous yeast or Deuteromycetes or false yeasts- incapable of producing
ascospores, ballistospores or sporidia, since sexual lifecycle does not occur or has not
been observed so far.

Industrially important yeasts are classified by Reed and Peppler in two classes of fungi
based on their spore forming capabilities:
Ascomycetes or ascosporogenous or true yeasts: e.g. Cryptococcus neoformans
Asexual deuteromycetes or asporogenous or false yeasts: e.g. Candida albicans

C. Classification of Moulds
Moulds may be classified into Hazard classes A, B & C:
i. Hazard Class A
Moulds in this group are either directly hazardous to health due to risk of infection or
creation of toxins.
They should not be in homes or workplaces and should be removed right away if found.

ii. Hazard Class B


Moulds in this group can cause allergic reactions, especially over longer periods of time.

iii. Hazard Class C:


Moulds in this group aren't known to cause any health risks or reactions in humans.
However, that even moulds in this category can potentially cause structural damage to
things that they are growing on, and should still be gotten rid of.

Different types of moulds


a) Alternaria: Alternaria is classified in hazard class B and is usually black or grey. It grows on
dusty areas such as on walls or around windows and in damp areas such as on plants or in soil.

b) Cladosporium: Cladosporium, is classified in either hazard class B or C, depending on the


species. It is usually green, brown, grey, or black and grows in many places, including on walls,
dust and insulation.
c) Penicillium: Penicillium can be classified in either hazard class B or C, depending on the species.
It can be blue, green or white and is often found on food, like cheese and fruit, or in walls and
insulation. Thanks to a strain of Penicillium, Penicillin was discovered.
d) Stachybotrys Chartarum: Stachybotrys Chartarum, commonly referred to as black mold, is
classified in hazard class A, meaning it is a toxic mold. Unlike most species of mold, it can only
be one colour: black. Black mold can be extremely dangerous and requires a very damp area to
grow.
e) Acremonium: There are various species of acremonium that can be classified in hazard classes A,
B, or C. Acremonium can be found in white, grey, or brown. It is often found on insulation or
drywall.
f) Ulocladium: Ulocladium can be classified in hazard class B or C. It usually grows in damp areas
and is often be found on walls, around windows, and in dusty areas. Ulocladium commonly
appears as a grey or black mold.
g) Aspergillus: Depending on the species of aspergillus, it can be classified in either hazard class A
or B. It can be found in grey, brown, yellow, green, white, or black, and grows on walls,
insulation, paper products, soil, and clothing

2.3 Describe the factors affecting growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds
A. Factors affecting growth of bacteria
There are six basic factors that affect bacterial growth. One easy way to remember
these conditions is to use the easy-to-remember acronym FAT TOM: Food, Acidity,
Time, Temperature, Oxygen, and Moisture.

i. Food (nutrient requirements): A suitable food supply is the most important


condition affecting the growth of bacteria. Every living cell requires certain
nutrients to multiply. These include solutions of sugars or other carbohydrates,
proteins, and small amounts of other materials such as phosphates, chlorides, and
calcium. If the food supply is removed, bacteria will not multiply.

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ii. Acidity (pH Requirements): All bacteria have an optimum pH range for growth-
generally around neutral pH- as well as a minimum and maximum. The pH of
foods can be adjusted to help control bacterial growth.
Optimal pH for growth: 6.0 8.0
Disease causing bacteria: 4.6 - 9.5
Spoilage bacteria: 1.5 - 9.5

[Note: The term pH refers to the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. The pH scale ranges
from 0 to 14, with pH 7 being neutral. Numbers smaller than 7 indicate a more acidic condition;
numbers greater than 7 indicate a more basic, or alkaline, condition.]

iii. Time: Time is a factor in pretty much all of the other five conditions. The more
amounts of time bacteria spend in favorable conditions, the higher the rate of
reproduction.

iv. Temperature: As with pH, all bacteria have an optimum temperature range for
growth and a minimum and maximum temperature below or above which they
cannot grow. Bacterial groups bear names that indicate their relationships to
temperature psychrophile, psychrotroph, mesophile, and thermophile.
Psychrophilic (cold loving) and Psychrotrophic group.
o Both grow above the temperature range of subzero to 20 C.
o Psychrophiles have an optimum temperature of 15 C and cannot grow
above 25 C.
o Psychrotrophs grow best between 25 C to 40 C, but can grow slowly in
or on food at refrigerator temperatures (around 4 C).
o Both are primarily responsible for the spoilage of refrigerated foods.

Mesophilic group (meso = middle).


o Grows best at temperatures of 30 C to 40 C).
o Some grow well at higher temperatures, such as 46.7 C.

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o All of the bacteria that affect food safety grow within this mesophilic
temperature range, although some may be considered psychrotrophic as
well.

Thermophilic group (heat loving).


o Grow at high temperatures.
o Found in soil, manure, compost piles, and even hot springs.
o Not pathogenic and do not produce toxins during spoilage of foods;
therefore, they do not affect food safety.

v. Oxygen. Bacteria can be placed into groups based on their need for oxygen.
Aerobes require free oxygen to survive.
o Obligate aerobes need a high concentration of oxygen.
o Microaerophiles need a lower concentration of oxygen than obligate
aerobes.
Anaerobes cannot grow if free oxygen is present.
o Obligate anaerobes must avoid all oxygen.
o Facultative anaerobes use oxygen when it is present but do not need it to
grow. The majority of bacteria are facultative anaerobes.
Aerotolerant bacteria are not affected by oxygen.

vi. Moisture: Bacteria need water to grow. Foods that have a water activity of 0.85 or
higher can support the growth of bacteria. Water activity is a measure of how
much water is available to the bacteria.

B. Factors affecting growth of molds


Following are the major factors affecting growth of mould:
i. Food (Nutritional requirements)
Nutrient requirements for moulds may vary from mould to mould.
Some moulds may thrive well on substrates with high sugar or salt content.
Some may prefer simple sugars while others have the ability to utilize
complex sugars.

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ii. Temperature
Different mold species have different optimal growth temperatures, with some
able to grow in refrigerators.
The majority of moulds are mesophilic, i.e., they can grow at temperatures
within the range of 10-35C. Optimum temperatures for growth may range
between 15 and 30C.
However, some moulds such as Chaetomium thermophilum and Penicillium
dupontii are thermophilic, i.e., they can grow at 45C or higher and fail to
grow below 20C.
A few moulds are psychrophilic and are unable to grow above 20C.
A significant number are psychrotolerant and are able to grow both at freezing
point and at room temperature.

iii. Light
Many moulds species grow well in the dark, but some prefer daylight or
alternate light and darkness for them to produce spores.

iv. Oxygen
Nearly all molds require oxygen to grow.

v. Acidity (pH Requirements):


Moulds differ in their pH requirements.
Molds can grow over a pH range of 1.5 to 9.0
Most will grow well over the pH range 3-7.
Some such as Aspergillus niger and Penicillium funiculosum can grow at pH 2
and below.

vi. Moisture (Water activity)


All moulds require moisture for growth but the amount required varies widely.
Moulds that are capable of growing at very low water activity are referred to
as xerophiles, for examples Eurotium species and Wallemia sebi.
Those that are capable of growing at very high water activity are referred to as
hydrophilic, e.g. Stachybotrys, Chaetomium and Ulocladium.

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C. Factors affecting growth of Yeasts


Many environmental factors (e.g temperature, pH, water activity, nutrition etc.)
determine the physical and chemical limits for survival and growth of yeasts.
i. Temperature
Most yeasts exhibit optimal growth in the range 20-30 0C, but the upper and
lower limits are not well defined for individual species.
Very few species grow above 40-45 0C, but many grow at 2-10 0C, including
spoilages species of Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces.
Consequently yeasts can be significant in the spoilage of refrigerated foods.
Some species of Candida, Cryptococcus etc grow at temperatures less than 0
0
C and spoil frozen foods.

ii. Acidity (pH Requirements)


Yeasts grow best in the range pH 4.5-7.0. They prefer acidic environments,
and many species grow at pH values as low as 2.0-2.5.
The stronger growth of yeasts at low pH when compared with bacteria leads
to their predominance in acid foods.
Very few species grow at pH 9.0 and some species show weak or no growth at
pH 7.0-7.5.

iii. Food (Nutritional requirements)


Yeast can grow in a variety of foods but grow best in foods that contain
carbohydrates (sugar and starch) and acid.
They also need nitrogen and several minerals to grow properly. Given these
optimum conditions, yeast usually produce carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
which make them very important to the food industry.

iv. Moisture (Water Activity)


Most yeast grows best with a plentiful supply of available moisture.
Many yeasts are capable of growing in foods that contain high levels of sugar
or salt.
The water requirement of yeast is generally less than bacteria but more than
molds

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v. Oxygen
Yeasts grow best in the presence of oxygen (aerobically) but some
fermentative yeast can grow slowly without oxygen (anaerobically).

2.4 Explain harmful and useful effects

Microorganisms are of significance in food systems because they have both adverse and
beneficial effects- they can cause spoilage and illness, but they are also used to produce a
variety of foods through fermentation

i. Spoilage: Most food undergoes losses in desirability as a result of changes in


appearance, texture, odour, and taste during storage. In many foods, these changes are
the result of the activity of microorganisms.

ii. Foodborne illness: Some microorganisms are capable of illness and are called
pathogens. Salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, shigella, clostridium botulinum, and E.
coli are some major examples

iii. Fermentation: Fermentation occurs when microorganisms grow in food and cause
desirable changes. It can occur in both animal foods (e.g. sausage, cheese) and plant
foods (e.g. pickles, bread).

Microorganisms Useful effects Harmful effects


1 Bacteria Certain types of bacteria are Certain types of pathogenic bacteria
used to make cheese and causes food poisoning and food
yoghurt borne illness
2 Yeasts Fermentation is used in beer Ferments food and cause off
and wine production as well flavors in jams
as bread making.
3 Moulds Certain cheeses have mould Moulds grow on the outside of food
introduced into them to turn and affects taste and appearance;
them blue- e.g. stilton certain types of moulds can be
hazardous

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UNIT III: FOOD SPOILAGE

2.2 Discuss the spoilage of foods


Food spoilage can be defined as decomposition and damage caused to food by various
agents making it unsuitable for consumption.

Spoilage of food involves any change which renders food unacceptable for human
consumption and may result from a variety of causes, which includes
Insect damage;
Physical injury due to freezing, drying, burning, pressure, drying, radiation etc;
activity of indigenous enzymes in plant and animal tissues;
Chemical changes not induced by microbial or naturally occurring enzymes. These
changes usually involved O2, light and other than microbial spoilage, are the most
common cause of spoilage e.g. oxidative rancidity of fats and oils and the
discoloration of cured meats; and
Growth and activity of microorganisms- bacteria, yeasts and molds

2.3 Define the term contamination


Food contamination refers to the presence of harmful chemicals and microorganisms in
food which can cause consumer illness.

Contamination is the state of being impure or unfit for use due to the introduction of
unwholesome or undesirable elements. Food can be contaminated by insects, rodents,
chemicals, microbes, or other foreign particles.

2.4 Explain the causes of food spoilage


Food spoils mainly because of any one or more of the following reasons:
i. Microbial action:
Microbes are present everywhere and these organisms can contaminate and spoil
food.
Milk turns sour because of microbial action, yeasts ferment fruit juices and mould
grows on bread.
Some bacteria which cause food poisoning or food infection may contaminate
food which is unhygienically handled.

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ii. Presence of contaminants


If any unwanted inedible matter is added to or is present in food, the food is said
to be spoilt.
Contaminants present in food could be nail chipping, hair, stones, grit, dirt or
other extraneous matter.
Accidental contamination by metallic fragments (stapler pins, flexible aluminum
wires etc) and shards of glass may render food harmful.

iii. Action of insects


Foods are spoilt because of the presence of worms, weevils, fruit flies, moths, etc.
This may spoil the food and reduce its nutrient content.
The presence of insects or insect body fragments or droppings in food served to
customers is highly objectionable and will affect the reputation of the catering
establishment.

iv. Natural enzymes


Foods spoil by autolysis or the action of various enzymes naturally present in
them.
Signs of spoilage seen in fruits and vegetables include overmaturing, softening,
browning and sprouting.
Enzymes naturally present in meat act on meat fibers and bring about autolysis.
If these natural changes are not controlled, food may spoil.

v. Physical changes
These changes occur in food by freezing, desiccation, evaporation and absorption
of moisture.
Mechanical damage during harvesting and transporting foods, like bruising and
crushing of fruits and vegetables, broken eggs and cracked shells, can accelerate
spoilage by microorganisms because of easy access.

vi. Chemical reactions


A reaction between acidic food and iron from the can causes hydrogen swell in
canned foods

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Development of oxidative rancidity in fats and the fatty phases of food results in
spoilage of fried snacks and oil based pickles.
Other changes include oxidative discolouration, flavor changes and nutritive
loss.

2.5 Explain the types of food spoilage


Spoilage of food can broadly be categorized into three major types:
i. Physical spoilage
Physical damage to the protective outer layer of food during harvesting,
processing or distribution increases the chance of chemical or microbial spoilage.
Examples of physical spoilage include:
o Staling of bakery products and components
o Moisture migration between different components
o Physical separation of components or ingredients
o Moisture loss or gain

ii. Chemical spoilage


When animal or vegetable material is removed from its natural source of energy
and nutrient supply, chemical changes begin to occur which lead to deterioration
in its structure.
The two major chemical changes which occur during the processing and storage
of foods and lead to a deterioration in sensory quality are lipid oxidation
(rancidity) and enzymic browning.
Chemical reactions are also responsible for changes in the colour and flavour of
foods during processing and storage.

iii. Microbial spoilage


These micro organisms (moulds, yeasts and bacteria) do not cause disease but
they spoil food by growing in the food and producing substances which alter
colour, texture and odour of the food, making it unfit for human consumption.
For example, souring of milk, growth of mould on bread and rotting of fruit and
vegetables.

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2.6 Explain the microbial spoilage


Most foods serve as good growth medium for many different microorganisms. Considering the
variety of foods and the methods used for processing, it is apparent that practically all kinds of
microorganisms are potential contaminants. Given a chance to grow, the microorganisms will
cause changes in appearance, flavor, odour and other qualities of foods. These degradation
processes includes:

Putrefaction:
Protein foods + proteolytic microorganisms amino acids + amines + ammonia + H S.
2

Fermentation:
Carbohydrate foods + saccharolytic microorganisms organic acids + alcohol + gases.

Rancidity:
Fatty foods + lipolytic microorganisms fatty acids + glycerol.

Microorganisms cause spoilage not only by degradation of foods, but also by synthesis of
various products like pigments and polysaccharides leading to discolorations and formation of
slimes. The common spoilage defects that occur in different foods with some examples are
shown in the table below

Food Types of spoilage Microbes involved


1 Bread Moldy Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium

2 Pickles Film/ Pink Yeasts Rhodotorula

3 Fresh Meats Putrefaction Alcaligenes, Clostridium, Proteus vulgaris,


Pseudomonas fluorescens

4 Fish Discolorations Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium

5 Poultry Slime, Odor Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas

6 Eggs Colorless & Green Alcaligenes, Proteus, Pseudomonas, P.


Rots fluorescens

7 Concentrated Off flavor Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc


Juices

8 Fresh fruits and Soft rots Rhizopus, Erwinia


vegetables

9 Milk/ Cream Decomposition of Yeasts, molds, Alcaligenes, Proteus,

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fats Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Bacillus,


Clostridium

Flavor changes Lactobacillus,Streptococcus, Leuconostoc

Gray & black mold Botrytis, Aspergillus niger

2.7 Explain the non-microbial spoilage



Food may spoil as a result of chemical changes within the food itself or by a reaction
between the food and the packaging material. Rancidity is caused by a chemical reaction
that breaks down the fatty acids in fat to smaller molecular weight fatty acids and, at the
same time, releases certain odiferous products.

2.8 Explain the classification of food on the basis of susceptibility to spoilage


Food can be classified into three main groups on the basis of their shelf life or
perishability or susceptibility to spoilage.
i. Non-perishable or stable foods:
These foods do not spoil unless they are handled carelessly.
They should be stored in a cool, dry place. They can be stored for more than a
year.
They should be picked and cleaned before storage. If necessary, grains can be
washed with water to remove any dust and dirt sticking to them. These should be
dried in the sun, allowed to cool and stored in containers with tight fitting lids.
Non-perishable foods include sugar, jaggery, hydrogenated fat, vegetable oil,
ghee, whole grains, dals, whole nuts, dry salted fish and meat, papads, canned
foods, preserves such as pickles, jams, etc.

ii. Semi-perishable foods:


These foods do not spoil for a fairly long time if stored properly.
They are less likely to decay due to micro-biological contamination then other
perishable foods.
Natural chemical breakdown is also slower in such foods.
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If they are stored in a cool place with adequate ventilation they have moderately
long shelf life.
Use of proper containers is equally important.
Semi-perishable foods include processed cereals, pulses and their products like
flour, parched rice, popcorn, etc. Their shelf life depends on the storage
temperature and moisture in the air.
Other semi-perishable foods are potatoes, onions, canned foods that need
refrigeration, apples, citrus fruits, pumpkin, etc.

iii. Perishable foods:


This is the largest of the three groups and includes most of the food items we
consume everyday such as milk products, eggs, poultry, meat, fish, most fruits
and vegetables such as bananas, pineapple, papaya, green leafy vegetables, etc.
As these foods contain high amounts of protein, moisture and other nutrients, they
are an ideal medium for bacterial growths.
They also spoil easily by natural enzymatic changes.
They have a very short shelf-life of a few hours o few days, after which they spoil
rapidly.
It is this group which is responsible for the outbreak of food-borne illnesses.
This group also includes all prepared menu items, opened canned foods and
frozen foods which have thawed.
Foods in this group must be stored at low temperatures to retard the action of
micro-organisms and enzymes.

2.9 Explain a way to prevent different types of spoilage

A number of methods of prevention can be used that can totally prevent, delay, or
otherwise reduce food spoilage.

Food rotation system: Using the first in first out method (FIFO), ensures that the first
item purchased is the first item consumed.
Preservatives can expand the shelf life of food and can lengthen the time long enough
for it to be harvested, processed, sold, and kept in the consumer's home for a
reasonable length of time.

21

Refrigeration can increase the shelf life of certain foods and beverages, though with
most items, it does not indefinitely expand it. Freezing can preserve food even longer,
though even freezing has limitations.
A high-quality vacuum flask (thermos) will keep coffee, soup, and other boiling-hot
foods above the danger zone (140F/58C) for over 24 hours.
Canning of food can preserve food for a particularly long period of time, whether
canned at home or commercially. Canned food is vacuum packed in order to keep
oxygen out of the can that is needed to allow bacteria to break it down. Canning does
have limitations, and does not preserve the food indefinitely.
Lactic acid fermentation also preserves food and prevents spoilage.

22

UNIT IV: FOOD PRESERVATION

Food is a perishable commodity. The primary objective of food preservation is to prevent or slow
down the growth of micro-organisms including moulds, yeasts and bacteria as the growth of
these micro-organisms causes spoilage of food.

Importance of food preservation

i. To increase the shelf life of food as well as its supply. Although the freshness, palatability
and nutritive value may be altered with time delay, perishable foods can be preserved to
prevent spoilage and made to be available throughout the year. In this way, preservation
helps to increase variety in our diet and makes it better balanced.
ii. To save food for future use at the time of scarcity or drought etc. after suitable preservation
and proper storage. Preservation of food also minimizes the preparation time and energy at
home.
iii. To stabilize the price of food throughout the year since seasonal food can be preserved and
made available for consumption throughout the year.

4.1 Discuss the principles of food preservation


There are three major principles of food preservation:
i. Prevention or delay of the growth of microorganisms.
ii. Prevention or delay of self-decomposition
iii. Prevention of damage from insects or animals
.
i. Prevention or delay of the growth of micro-organisms
Avoiding invasion of micro-organisms e.g. by aseptic techniques
Removing micro-organisms e.g. filtration
Inhibiting the growth and activity of micro-organisms e.g. freezing, refrigeration,
drying, anaerobic conditions, chemicals or antibiotics
Killing the micro-organisms e.g. heat or irradiation

ii. Prevention or delay of self-decomposition


Destruction or inactivation of inherent enzymes naturally existing in food e.g. by
blanching
Prevention or delay of chemical reactions e.g. prevention of oxidation by using
antioxidants
23

iiii. Preventio
on of damagge from inseects or anim
mals
By using suitable chemicals too kill insectss or animals from destroyying the fooods.
oring foods in
By sto i dry, air tigght containerrs to preventt the insects or animals from
f
destro
oying them.

4.2 Explain the methods


E m of prreservation
B
Based on the mode of acttion, the major food presservation tecchniques cann be categorizzed
ass
i. Slowing down
d or inhiibiting chem
mical deteriorration and microbial
m grow
wth,
iii. Directly inactivating bacteria,
b yeaasts, molds, or
o enzymes, and
iiii. Avoiding recontamination before and after prrocessing

A num
mber of tech
hniques or methods
m from
m the above categories
c arre shown in figure
f below
w

24

4.3 Explain the method drying


The technique of drying is probably the oldest method of food preservation practiced by
mankind. The preservation of foods by drying is based on the fact that microorganisms and
enzymes need water to be active. In preserving foods by this method, one seeks to lower
the moisture content to a point where the activities of food spoilage and food-poisoning
microbes are inhibited. Dried, desiccated foods are those that generally do not contain more
than 25% moisture.

Drying techniques
Several types of dryers and drying methods are commercially used to remove moisture
from a wide variety of food products including fruit and vegetables.
There are three basic types of drying process:
i. Sun drying and solar drying
The earliest uses of food drying/ desiccation consisted of exposing fresh foods to
sunlight until drying had been achieved.
Fruits such as grapes, apricots may be dried by this method, which requires a large
amount of space for large quantities of product.
ii. Atmospheric drying including batch (kiln, tower and cabinet dryers) and continuous

(tunnel, belt, belt-trough, fluidized bed, explosion puff, foam-mat, spray, drum and
microwave)
Eggs may be dried as whole egg powder, yolks, or egg white. Dehydration stability
is increased by reducing the glucose content prior to drying. Spray drying is the
method most commonly employed.
Milk is dried as either whole milk or nonfat skim milk. The dehydration may be
accomplished by either the drum or spray method.
Meat is usually cooked before being dehydrated. The final moisture content after
drying should be approximately 4% for beef and pork.

iii. Sub-atmospheric dehydration (vacuum shelf/belt/drum and freeze dryers).

In freeze drying (lyophilization, cryophilization), actual freezing is preceded by the


blanching of vegetables and the precooking of meats. Freeze drying is generally to
high temperature vacuum drying.

25

4.4 Explain high temperature preservation method

The use of high temperatures to preserve food is based on their destructive effects on
microorganisms. With respective to food preservation, there are two temperature categories
in common use:
o Pasteurization
o Sterilization

i. Pasteurization
Pasteurization by use of heat implies either the destruction of all disease producing
organisms (e.g. pasteurization of milk) or destruction or reduction in the number of
spoilage organisms in certain foods, as in the pasteurization of vinegar.
It is a process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature (below
boiling point) for a definite length of time, and then cooling it immediately. This
process slows microbial growth in food.
Pasteurization aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to
cause disease (assuming the pasteurized product is stored as indicated and
consumed before its expiration date).
The process of pasteurization was named after Louis Pasteur who discovered that
spoilage organisms could be inactivated in wine by applying heat at temperatures
below its boiling point. The process was later applied to milk and remains the most
important operation in the processing of milk.
There are basically two methods of pasteurization in use today:
Batch: In the batch process (batch pasteurizer), a large quantity of milk is held
in a heated vat at 65C for 30 minutes, followed by quick cooling to about
4C.
Continuous flow: In the continuous flow process (continuous flow
pasteurizer,)-also known as HTST, for high temperature, short time, milk is
forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot
water. While flowing under pressure, the milk is held at 72C for at least 16
seconds. Before being chilled back to 4C or cooler, it flows through a heat
exchanger to pre-warm cold milk just entering the system.

ii. Sterilization
The heat sterilization involves exposing food to a temperature generally exceeding
100C for a period sufficient to inhibit enzymes and all forms of microorganisms
including bacteria spore.
This method can be used commonly to sterilize foods in cans or containers. Canned
foods are sometimes called commercially sterile.

26

Most of the ready to serve beverages, nectars and fruit juices are preserved in
bottles after sterilization. The liquid materials are heated up to their boiling point
(beyond 100 0C along with all additives, viz, colours, flavours, etc.) and are filled
into pre-sterilized bottles. Later the bottles are crown corked.
Canning is also a heat sterilization process for preserving food materials like fruits,
vegetables, meat, fish, etc.
Except for the consumption of large quantities of heat and can metal (usually tin
metal is used), canning is also an excellent process of food preservation.

Sterilization is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills all
forms of microbial life, including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria,
viruses, spore forms, etc.) present on a surface, contained in a fluid, in medication, or
in a compound such as biological culture media.

4.5 Explain low temperature preservation method


The commonly applied low temperature preservation (cooling) methods are refrigeration,
freezing, freeze drying, etc. Some of them are explained below

i. Refrigeration:
- Refrigeration is normally resorted to storing food materials for a limited period
which varies from 2-10 days.
- The refrigeration temperatures are usually of the order of 0 0C to 5 0C.
- Food materials, whether solids or liquids or pastes or doughs, can be stored either
with some amount of preprocessing or in the raw form.
- Refrigerated preservation is generally used for retail vending of
processes/unprocessed foods.
- Frozen foods are stored at -18 0C until they are transported to retail selling.

ii. Freezing
- Freezing is an excellent process of preservation of food materials without
virtually losing any nutrients.
- The texture of the food materials is also not lost during freezing.
- The food materials are initially preprocessed to remove most of the unwanted
materials and frozen at -18 0C to -25 0C, later they are stored at -18 0C
temperature until they are transported for retail vending.
- Ice-cream, fruit pulps, processed meat are preserved by freezing alone as it is not
amenable to canning.
- Except for consumption of high energy for freezing, it is an excellent method for
food preservation.

27

4.6 Explain irradiation


Food irradiation is a preservation process of exposing foods to high-energy rays to
improve product safety and shelf life.
Food irradiation is a technology for controlling spoilage and eliminating food-borne
pathogens, such as salmonella. The result is similar to conventional pasteurization and
is often called "cold pasteurization" or "irradiation pasteurization."
Like pasteurization, irradiation kills bacteria and other pathogens that could otherwise
result in spoilage or food poisoning.
Red meats, poultry, potatoes, onions, spices, seasonings, fresh fruits and vegetables
may be irradiated to prevent growth of food poisoning bacteria, eliminate parasites, or
delay ripening and spoilage. Also, irradiation could be used to replace chemical
preservatives in foods.
There are three main sources of radiation approved for use on foods.
Gamma rays are emitted from radioactive forms of the element cobalt (Cobalt 60)
or of the element cesium (Cesium 137).
X-rays are produced by reflecting a high-energy stream of electrons off a target
substance (usually one of the heavy metals) into food.
Electron beam (or e-beam) is similar to X-rays and is a stream of high-energy
electrons propelled from an electron accelerator into food.

4.7 Explain fermentation and chemicals


Preservation by Fermentation
Fermentation could be described as a process in which microorganisms change the sensory
(flavor, odor, etc.) and functional properties of a food to produce an end product that is desirable
to the consumer. Technically, fermentation is the biochemical conversion of sugars, starches, or
carbohydrates, into alcohol, and organic acids, by bacteria and enzymes.

Fermentation as a Preservation Method


As new preservation techniques have been developed, the importance of fermentation processes
for food preservation has declined. Yet fermentation can be effective at extending the shelf life
of foods and can often be carried out with relatively inexpensive, basic equipment. Therefore, it
remains a very appropriate method for use in developing countries and rural communities with
limited facilities

28

To reduce or prevent microbial spoilage of food, fermentations use a combination of the


following three principles.
Minimize the level of microbial contamination onto the food, particularly from high-risk
sources (asepsis)
Inhibit the growth of the contaminating micro flora
Kill the contaminating microorganisms

Fermentation improves the safety of foods by decreasing the risks of pathogens and toxins
achieving the infective or toxigenic level, and extends the shelf life by inhibiting the growth of
spoilage agents, which cause the sensory changes that make the food unacceptable to the
consumer.

Additional Benefits of Fermentation


Fermenting enhances the flavors of some foods, as with the extended fermentation of
wine, and beer, which creates their distinctive flavors.
Fermenting makes foods more edible by changing chemical compounds, or predigesting,
the foods for us. There are extreme examples of poisonous plants like cassava that are
converted to edible products by fermenting.
Fermentation increases nutritional values with the biochemical exchange it produces, and
allows us to live healthier lives. Here are a few examples:
The sprouting of grains, seeds, and nuts, multiplies the amino acid, vitamin, and
mineral content and antioxidant qualities of the starting product.
Fermented beans are easier for our bodies to digest, like the proteins found in soy
beans that are nearly indigestible until fermented.
Fermented dairy products, like, cheese, yogurt, and kifir, can be consumed by those
not able to digest the raw milk, and aid the digestion and well-being for those with
lactose intolerance and autism.
Vinegar is used to leach out certain flavors and compounds from plant materials to
make healthy and tasty additions to our meals.

Principal groups of microorganisms used in food fermentation


1. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)- Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus
29

2. Acetic Acid Bacteria Acetobacter, Gluconobacter


3. Yeasts converts food to alcohol and carbondioxide
4. Molds- converts food to enzymes

Examples of more common fermented foods


SN Food Principal Ingredient Microorganism
1 Wine Grapes Yeasts
2 Beer Barley Yeasts
3 Bread Wheat Yeasts
4 Yoghurt Milk Lactic Acid Bacterial (LAB )
5 Cheese Milk Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)
6 Soy Sauce Soybeans Molds+ LAB+ Yeasts
7 Fermented Sausages Meat LAB+ molds

Food Preservation by Chemicals

Chemical preservation of food is done by use of chemicals commonly known as food


preservatives. Preservatives are substances which, under certain conditions, either delay the
growth of microorganisms without necessarily destroying them or prevent deterioration of
quality during manufacture and distribution. The purpose of using a chemical agent as a
preservative is to retard food spoilage caused by microorganisms

Preservatives can be naturally occurring or synthetic substance that is added to food products to
prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.

These substances are added in very low quantities (up to 0.2%) which do not alter the physio-
chemical properties of the foods at or only very little.

Roles of chemical preservatives in food preservation


Chemical preservatives interfere with the cell membranes of microorganisms, their
enzyme activity or then genetic mechanisms.

30

Preservatives may also serve as antioxidants, stabilizers, firming agents as well as


moisture retainers.

Commonly used preservatives in food preservation:


Different chemical preservatives are used, which involves
i. Traditional chemical food preservatives
Sugar
Salt
ii. Acidulants
Benzoic acid
Sorbic acid
Lactic acid
iii. Gaseous chemical food preservatives/ leavening agents
Sulphur dioxide and sulphites
Carbondioxide
iv. Antioxidants
Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA)
Butylated Hydroxy Toluene(BHT)
Propyl Gallate
Natural/Synthetic Tocopherols (Vitamin E)
Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) and
Lecithin.

4.8 Explain the traditional methods of food storage

The traditional methods were mostly based on reducing the moisture or activity of water
so that the food spoiling microorganisms could not survive. This would obviously cause
some changes or damage to the physical structure of the foods viz. contraction in volume
and surface area and hence contraction in cellular structure, etc.
Some of the commonly used traditional methods are:
i. Dehydration by Sun Drying
This method is indeed considered as the grandmothers technique of preserving
foods.

31

The food on dehydration loses moisture and thus, water is not available for
microorganisms to grow and survive.
The food item also loses weight, and hence is easy to handle and transport.
In the olden days, the food materials, may be it grains, pulses, meat, fish or
vegetables, were kept in yards under sunshine to get dried.
It was an excellent method in terms of energy saving and convenience.

ii. Salting
Salt (Sodium Chloride) is used as a preservative in food processing.
It also works on the principle that it does not allow moisture to be available for
microorganisms for their survival and growth.
In fact, salt is considered as a number one natural preservative. There is no
limit for its addition except for taste.
A combination of both salting and drying is also used for preservation of fish,
meat and some vegetables.

iii. Pickling
The effect of pickling is also akin to salting, which reduces the water activity.
Pickling is done both by acids and by oil.
The food materials like fish, meat, prawns, some vegetables, etc are initially
dried (or cooked in case of some animal based products) and later the dry
material is pickled in acids (like acetic acid-vinegar) or in vegetable oils.
Some of the Nepali pickles made out of fruits/vegetables have a shelf life of
one year or more.

iv. Smoking
Smoking is one of the oldest food storage methods along with drying, when
food was cooked over open fires.
Smoked meats traditionally were sliced thin and placed over a fire where three
modes of preservation took place: The heat of the fire killed harmful

32

microorganisms, some of the chemical compounds in the wood being used for
smoking had anti-microbial actions, and dehydration prevented degradation.

33

UNIT V: FOOD ADDITIVES


5.1 Define food additives
Food additives are substances which are added to food which either improve the flavor,
texture, colour or chemical preservatives, taste, appearance or function as processing aid.
Food additives as non-nutritive substances added intentionally to food, generally in small
quantities, to improve its appearance, flavor, texture or storage properties.

According to Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (1991)


Food additive means any substance not normally consumed as a food by itself and not
normally used as a typical ingredient of the food, whether or not it has nutritive value, the
intentional addition of which to food for a technological (including organoleptic) purpose
in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or
holding of such food results, or may be reasonably expected to result (directly or
indirectly), in it or its by-products becoming a component of or otherwise affecting the
characteristics of such foods. The term does not include contaminants or substances
added to food for maintaining or improving nutritional qualities.

Food additives must serve one of the following purposes:


Preserving nutritional quality of the food;
Providing necessary ingredients or constituents of foods manufactured for group of
consumers with special dietary needs.
Enhancing the keeping quality or stability of a food;
Improving the organoleptic properties provided that the nature, substance or quality
of the food is not changed in such a way as to mislead the consumer.

5.2 Explain the classification of food additives


The classification of food additives as per Codex Alimentarius
SN Functional classes Definition
1 Acidity Regulator A food additive, which controls the acidity or alkalinity of a food.
2 Anti Caking Agent A food additive, which reduces the tendency of particles of food to
adhere to one another
3 Antifoaming agent A food additive, which prevents or reduces foaming.

34

4 Antioxidant A food additive, which prolongs the shelf-life of foods by


protecting against deterioration caused by oxidation such as fat
rancidity and color changes
5 Bleaching agent A food additive (non-flour use) used to decolourize food.
Bleaching agents do not include pigments.

6 Bulking agent A substance, other than air or water, which contributes to the bulk
of a food without contributing significantly to its available energy
value
7 Carbonating agent A food additive used to provide carbonation in a food.
8 Color A food additive, which adds or restores color in a food
9 Color retention A food additive, which stabilizes, retains or intensifies the color
of a food
agent
10 Emulsifier Forms or maintains a uniform mixture of two or more phases in a
food
11 Emulsifying salt Rearranges cheese proteins in the manufacture of processed
cheese, in order to prevent fat separation
12 Firming agent Makes or keeps tissues of fruit or vegetables firm and crisp, or
interacts with gelling agents to produce or strengthen a gel
13 Flavour enhancer Enhances the existing taste and/or odour of a food
14 Flour treatment A substance added to the flour to improve its baking quality or
agent colour
15 Foaming agent Makes it possible to form or maintain a uniform dispersion of a
gaseous phase in a liquid or solid food
16 Gelling agent Gives a food texture through formation of a gel
17 Glazing agent A substance which, when applied to the external surface of a food,
imparts a shiny appearance or provides a protective coating
18 Humectant A food additive, which prevents food from drying out by
counteracting the effect of a dry atmosphere.
19 Preservative Prolongs the shelf-life of a food by protecting against deterioration
caused by microorganisms
20 Propellant A gas, other than air, which expels a good from a container
21 Raising agent A substance or combination of substances which liberates gas and
thereby increases the volume of a dough

35

22 Stabilizer Makes it possible to maintain a uniform dispersion of two or more


substances
23 Sweetener A non-sugar substance which imparts a sweet taste to a food
24 Thickener Increases the viscosity of a food

5.3 Explain the applications of food additives

The applications of some major group of food additives are as follows:


i. Antioxidants
Antioxidants like lecithin, ascorbic acid, tocopherol. Butylated hydroxyanisole
(BHA) can be added to ghee, butter, etc to prevent its oxidative deterioration.

ii. Preservatives
Class I preservatives can be used without restriction e.g. salt, sugar, spices,
vinegar.
Class II preservative use is restricted to only certain foods.
The presence of a Class II preservative has to be declared on the packaging/ label
e.g. sulphites, nitrates and nitrites, benzoic acid, sorbic acid.

iii. Food colours


Use of colour is restricted to only specific items of food. Caramel can be used
without label declaration- other natural colours must be declared e.g. beta
carotene, chlorophyll, riboflavin, annatto,saffron, curcumin or turmeric.
Some common permitted synthetic food colors for use include: Ponceau 4R,
Carmoisine, Erythrosine (red); Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF (Yellow); Indigo
Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF (blue); Fast Green FCF (Green).
Synthetic food colours are permitted only in certain foods such as ice cream,
biscuits, cakes, canned peas, fruit squashes.

iv. Flavouing agents


There are over 1200 different flavoring agents used in foods to create flavor or
replenish flavors lost or diminished in processing, and hundreds of chemicals may
be used to simulate nature flavors. Alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, protein
hydrolysates and MSG are examples of flavoring agents.
Natural flavoring substances are extracted from plants, herbs and spices, animals,
or microbial fermentations. They also include essential oils herbs, spices and
sweetners.

36

Synthetic flavoring agents are chemically similar to natural flavorings, and offer
increased consistency in use and availability. They may be less expensive and
more readily available than the natural counterpart although they may not
adequately simulate the natural flavor.
Some examples of synthetic flavoring agents include amyl acetate, used as banana
flavoring benzaldehyde, used to create cherry or almond flavor, ethyl butyrate for
pineapple, methyl anthranilate for grape,etc.
Flavor enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) is permitted in restricted
amounts and its addition needs to be declared on the label with a warning that the
food is un-suitable for children below 12 months of age.

v. Emulsifying and stabilizing agents


Commonly used emulsifying / or stabilizing agent include agar, alginates, dextrin,
sorbitol, pectin, cellulose, mono glycerides or diglycerides of fatty acids.
Modified starches are being used the world over by the food processing industry
as thickeners, binders and stabilizers. These starches make sauces thick, potato
chips crisp, pudding smooth in texture.
Edible gums are used as thickening agent in jams, gravies and sauces: jellying
agent in pudding desserts: encapsulating agent to stabilize flavours.

vi. Anti- caking agents


Anti- caking agents are anhydrous substances that can pick up moisture without
themselves becoming wet and these are added to products such as table salt and
dry mixes.
Free flowing salt has anti- caking agents added to prevent formation of lumps.
Common permitted anti- caking agents include carbonates of calcium,
magnesium; silicates, myristates, palmitates or stearates.
In addition, calcium, potassium or sodium ferrocyanide may also be used as anti-
caking agents in common salt, iodized salt and iron-fortified salt.

vii. Buffering agents


Buffering agents are materials used to counter acidic and alkaline changes during
storage or processing of food, thus improving flavour and increasing stability of
foods.
Examples are acetic acid, calcium oxide, ammonium phosphate monobasic,
ammonium carbonate (bread improver in flour), citric acid, malic acid, DL lactic
acid, L (+) tartaric acid (acidulants).

37

5.4 Potential hazards of food additives


Some of the potential hazards of food additives are categorized in the table below:

Additives Potential Hazards


1 Preservatives Butylated Hydroxyanisole or BHA is considered to have a
carcinogenic effect.
Researches suggest that adding nitrites to food as a
preservative can actually encourage the formation of
chemicals that cause cancer within that food.
Food preservatives can weaken heart tissues.
Aspartame, sulfites, benzoates and yellow dye No. 5 as
preservatives can exacerbate breathing problems in
asthmatics and others
2 Flavoring Agents MSG promotes the growth, and spread, of cancer cells
within the body, and can also be linked to "sudden cardiac
death.
MSG is also linked with obesity and inflammation within
the body, particularly the liver.
3 Sweeteners use of artificial sweeteners over a longer period is believed
to encourage the development of urinary tract tumors
Aspartame can cause neurological problems, such as
hallucinations, and that consumption of the artificial
sweetener, over extended periods of time, increases cancer
risks.
It is suspected that cyclamate may actually increase the
cancer-causing activity of other substances, rather than
causing cancer itself.
Saccharin has been found to cause cancer of the ovaries, as
well as other organs, and increases the cancer-causing
effects of other compounds.
Mannitol (sugar alcohols) are not fully digestible and they
can cause intestinal discomfort, gas, bloating, flatulence,
and diarrhea.
4 Colors Synthetic colors like brilliant blue and indigotine have been
loosely linked to cancers in animal studies.
Colors may also cause hypersensitivity (allergy-like)
reactions in some consumers and might trigger hyperactivity
in children.

5 Emulsyfying and Carrageenan has been correlated to inflammation and been


stabilizing agents shown to cause ulcers, colon inflammation, and digestive
cancers.
6 Firming agent Citric agent In large or concentrated amounts can cause
tooth erosion

38

UNIT 6: FOOD ADULTERATION

6.1 Describe food adulteration


According to the Food Act of Nepal, 2023 (1997), "adulterated food" means any food in
any of the following conditions:
The food which is so rotten, decayed or kept or prepared in a dirty or filthy or
poisonous condition that it is injurious to health,
The food of which some or all parts have been so made of any diseased or disease
carrying animal, bird or injurious vegetation as to render it unfit for consumption by
the human being,
The food which is likely to be injurious to health because of the fact that any food
additive, preservative, inner or outer mixed chemical compound or pesticide level
exceeds the prescribed upper limit.

A food adulterant may be defined as any material which is added to food or any substance
which adversely affects the nature, substance and quality of the food.

Food adulteration takes into account not only the intentional addition or substitution or
abstraction of substances which adversely affect the nature, substances and quality of
foods, but also their incidental contamination during the period of growth, harvesting,
storage, processing, transport and distribution.
Simple example of food adulteration includes addition of water to milk; removal of fat
from milk, etc.

Reasons/Causes of food adulteration


Vested interests of individuals for profit making, ignoring public health and safety.
May be due to ignorance by individuals (lack of knowledge & regulatory provisions,
accidental causes)
In addition to individuals adding adulterants to products, companies may try to
extend their profit making by extending their products.

6.2 Explain common adulteration and their prevention

The following table gives a compilation of common adulteration in food items


SN Food Items Common adulterants
1 Milk Water, Antibiotic residues, formalin, boric acid,
pesticide residues, urea, sugar, starch.
2 Chilli powder Brick dust, saw dust
3 Turmeric powder Yellow aniline dyes, Tapioca starch, non-permitted
colors like metanil yellow

39

4 Ghee and Vanaspati Extraneous color, animal body fat, hydrogenated


vegetable oil, excessive moisture
5 Edible oils Mineral oils, argemone oil, aflatoxin, pesticide
residues, cheaper vegetable oils
6 Spices Non-permitted colors, mineral oil coating, husk
starchm foreign seeds, exhausted spices, extraneous
matter
7 Non alcoholic beverages Saccharin, non-permitted colors and excessive
permitted colors
8 Confectionary, sweets Non-permitted colors, aluminium foil, permitted colour
more than prescribed limit
9 Coffee Chicory powder, date or tamarind seeds,artificial color
10 Tea Iron filings, foreign leaves, exhausted leaves
11 Pulses and their products Foreign pulses like khesari, foreign starch, extraneous
like besan matter
12 Cereals and their products Fungal infestation, pesticide residues, sand, dirt,marble
like atta, maida, suji chips, foreign starch, powdered chalk, iron filings
13 Black pepper Papaya seeds

Prevention measures

ii. Detection/ testing/checking before purchase


During purchases, if any food items are suspected of adulteration they can be detected
by consumers using a variety of simple techniques.
Adulteration of papaya seed with Black Pepper may be detected by way of visual
examination as also by way of smelling. Papaya seeds do not have any smell and are
relatively smaller in size.
These adulterants like sand, grit, etc in rice and other cereals may be detected visually
and removed by way of sorting, picking, and washing.

iii. Consumer awareness


Consumer awareness and sensitization can be an important way to prevent
adulteration. Consumers can be made aware of their rights and dangers of consuming
adulterated food.
Further, awareness campaigns can be conducted to educate the consumers to get
samples of suspected items tested at recognized laboratories for further action or to
make complaints if they are of any adulteration in their surroundings.

iv. Regulatory measures

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Any person/ entity responsible for adulteration may be liable to penalties and
punishments as specified in the food act and regulations.
The existing laws should be made fool proof and be implemented mercilessly.

v. Food inspections and monitoring


The authorities, especially food technology and quality control department should
take severe action against those who are adulterating food.
Surprise raids and frequent checks should be conducted. Food inspectors should visit
hotels and consumer stores to find the wrongdoers who are misusing the license given
to them.

6.3 Discuss food adulteration and public health issue

There are many adulterants which might prove to be a hazard to our health especially if
consumed over a long period of time. Following are some of the impacts of adulterants on
public health:
Mustard oil is often adulterated with oil of prickly poppy (Argemone Mexicana)/ This
argemone oil has toxins that can cause epidemic dropsy. Some of the symptoms of
epidemic dropsy are swelling of the body, acute nausea, vomiting and loose motions.
Many adulterants are carcinogenic. For example metanil yellow and malachite green
are textile dyes which are used immorally as food coloring agents. Accordingly, they
constitute a serious public health hazard and are sufficient environmental concern.
They both have carcinogenic effects.
Khesari dal is often used a scommon adulterant of Bengal gram dal. Khesari dal
contains neurotoxins that cause lathyrism which is a kind of paralysis.
Lead chromate powder used in turmeric causes brain damage and stiffness of limbs.
Auramine which is a food color affects the liver and kidney.
Tamarind and date seed powder mixed with coffee powder can cause diarrhea.
Adulteration on bakery items and dairy products may have tremendous effects on a
childs health. Such as cream-filled foods, cereal, cream sauces causes increased
salivation, abdominal cramp, vomiting, prostration etc.
Chalk-powder mixed in sugar may cause stomach disorder.

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UNIT 7: FOOD SANITATION AND HYGIENE

7.1 Discuss the water and its sources of contamination


Pure Water: Pure water may be defined as water that is free of extraneous substances.

Safe Water: Safe water is water that is not likely to cause undesirable or adverse effects
although it may contain various contaminants. Safe means that although the purified
water may contain some contaminants, the risks imposed by those contaminants are of an
acceptable nature.

7.2 Discuss treatment of water


Contaminated/ impure water can be treated/ purified by either of the following methods
i. Natural Method:
impounding or storage
oxidation and settlement
ii. Artificial method
Physical: distillation, boiling
Chemical: precipitation, disinfection or sterilization
Filtration: slow sand filtration, rapid sand filtration, domestic filtration

Water can be treated at two levels: large scale treatment and small-scale treatment.
i. Large scale treatment/purification of water
a. Storage and sedimentation: Water is impounded/stored in artificial or natural
reservoirs
Ninety percent of suspended impurities settle down in 24 hours thus making
the water clearer.
The amount of free ammonia is reduced and that of nitrated increases because
aerobic bacteria oxidize the organic matter.
There is approximately 90% reduction in bacterial count in the first five to
seven days. Optimum period is 10-14 days. If water is stored for longer
duration there is chance of algal growth giving rise to foul smell and color
change of water.
Rate of sedimentation may be enhanced by the use of alum (Phitkiri-
ammonium sulphate).

b. Coagulation and filtration: This is done through sand filter beds: > 98-99 percent
bacteria and other impurities are removed.
Sand filters are of two types: Slow sand or biological filters and repid sand or
mechanical filters

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Slow sand or biological filters:


Filter beds are watertight rectangular tanks or reservoirs ordinarily kept open.
They are 2.7 to 3.6 m deep and have a constant head of water above the sand
bed.
The sand bed has two layers of bricks placed one over the other on their edges
and arranged in the form of drains for the passage of filtered water.
The next layer consists of gravel, broken stones or pebbles 15-30 cm high,
followed by a 15-30 cm layer of coarse sand.
Above this a 90 cm layer of fine sand and a waterhead of 90 cm from the
settling tank.
The action of the slow sand filter is three fold.
o Mechanical straining of suspended impurities by the upper layer of filter
o Chemical action as organic matter is oxidized by presence of air and
nitrifying micro-organisms in the sand.
o Biological action in the vital layer: The vital layer is formed after a few
days of use of the filter. It is a slimy gelatinous layer consisting of algae,
plankton and bacteria which remove organic matter; oxidize ammoniacal
nitrogen to nitrates and help in yielding bacteria-free water. As this layer
retains all the bacterial of the water, it should not be disturbed.
Percolation takes two hours or more and for efficient filtration, the rate of
flow should not exceed 0.1 to 0.4 m3/hr/m2 surface area.
By this filtration, total bacterial count is reduced by 99.9 to 99.99 % and E.
coli is reduced to 99 to 99.9%.

SlowSandFilter

43

Rapid Sand or Mechanical Filters:


The filters are small and fixed inside a covered shed. The wooden, iron or
concrete cylinders are 2m deep and have a 1.2 to 1.5 m thick filtering media.
They filter water at a very high rate. The steps involved are:
o Coagulation: raw water is treated with a chemical coagulant, for example,
alum.
o Rapid mixing: this allows quick and thorough mixing and distribution of alum
throughout water
o Flocculation: this is a slow and gentle stirring for 30 mins which results in a
flocculant precipitate of aluminuim hydroxide.
o Sedimentation: water is kept for two to six hours to allow the floculant
precipitate impurities and bacteria to settle down. At least 95% of the bacteria
need to be removed before the water enters the rapid sand filters.
o Filtration: the size of sand grains is between 0.6-2 mm. Rate of filtration is 5-
15 m3/ hr/m2 area. The alum flocculant, which is held back, forms a slimy
layer which absorbs bacteria and also causes oxidation of ammonia. The
suspended impurities may clog the filters which are then subjected to a
washing process called back washing, i.e. reversing the water flow.
o By this filtration. 98-99 percent bacteria are removed.

Stepsinrapidsandfiltration

c. Chlorination: In water treatment or purification practice, the term disinfection is


synonymous with chlorination. Disinfection of water is therefore, usually carried out by
the use of chlorine who fulfils all the criterias of good disinfectant. This supplements
sand filtration. Chlorine kills pathogenic bacteria but has no effect on spores and certain
viruses except in high doses. It also oxidizes iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide,

44

helps in coagulation, controls the growth of slime producing organisms and algae and it
destroys constituents which contribute to odour and taste. The recommended
concentration of chlorine is 0. 5 mg/L for one hour. A minimum level of 0.2 ppm to 0.5
ppm residual chlorine is recommended for drinking water.

ii. Small scale treatment/purification of water


a. Boiling: It is highly efficacious method, killing human pathogens even in turbid
water and at high altitude Water must be boiled vigorously for five to ten
minutes. This kills all spores, cysts and ovas and yields relatively sterilized
water. It also removes temporary hardness of water.

b. Chemical disinfection: Chemical disinfection of water can be done by following


disinfectants:
Bleaching powder: contains 33 percent available chlorine when fresh. It is
unstable but retains its strength when mixed with excess of lime.
Five percent solution of chlorine.
Perchloron or HTH (High Test Hypochlorite)
Chlorine tablets: one tablet of 0.5 gm is sufficient to disinfect 20 litres of
water.
Iodine: two drops of 2% ethanol solution of iodine is sufficient for on elitre
water. A contact period of 20-30 minutes is required.
Potassium permanganate: It kills the cholera vibrio but is not effective
against other organisms. It changes color, smell and taste of water.

c. Filtration: Water is filtered through ceramic filters that consist of a candle that
holds back bacteria but not viruses. The candle may be made of unglazed
porcelain or coated with a sliver catalyst. The candles needs to be cleaned by
scrubbing with a brush under running water and should be boiled at least once a
week. Pores may increase in size after repeated use and brushing and make the
filter ineffective.
d. Solar Disinfection (SODIS):
Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) is a simple, environmentally sustainable,
low-cost solution for drinking water treatment at household level for people
consuming microbiologically contaminated raw water.
SODIS uses solar energy to destroy pathogenic microorganisms causing water
borne diseases and therewith it improves the quality of drinking water.
Pathogenic microorganisms are vulnerable to two effects of the sunlight:
radiation in the spectrum of UV-A light (wavelength 320-400nm) and heat
(increased water temperature).

45

Contaminated water is filled into transparent plastic bottles and exposed to


full sunlight for six hours. During the exposure to the sun the pathogens are
destroyed.
If cloudiness is greater than 50%, the plastic bottles need to be exposed for 2
consecutive days in order to produce water safe for consumption.

7.3 Discuss the food and its handling process


Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne
illnesses. In every step of food handling, following five key rules should be followed:

i. Keep Clean
Hands should be washed thoroughly before handling food and often during food
preparation
Hands should be washed after going to the toilet.
All the surfaces and equipments used for food preparation should be washed and
sanitized.
Kitchen areas and food should be protected from insects, pests and other animals.

ii. Separate raw and cooked food


Raw meat and poultry should be separated from other foods.
Separate equipment and utensils such as knives and cutting boards can be used for
handling raw foods.
Foods should be stored in containers to avoid contact between raw and prepared
foods.

iii. Cook thoroughly


Food should be cooked thoroughly, especially meant, eggs and poultry.
Foods like soups should be brought to boiling to make sure that they have reached
700C. For meat and poultry, it should be ensured that juices are clear, not pink.
Cooked food should be reheated thoroughly.

iv. Keep food at safe temperatures


Cooked food should not be left at room temperature for more than 2 hours.
All cooked and perishable food should be refrigerated promptly (preferably below
5 0C.
Cooked food should be kept piping hot (more than 60 0C) prior to serving.
Food should not be stored too long even in the temperature.
Frozen food should not be thawed at room temperature.

v. Use safe water and raw materials

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Safe water should be used or should be treated to make it safe.


Fresh and wholesome foods should be selected and purchased.
Foods processed for safety such as pasteurized milk should be chosen.
Fruits and vegetables should be washed well, especially if eaten raw.
Food should not be purchased and used beyond its expiry.

7.4 Discuss personal hygiene



Personal hygiene is a measure taken at individual level to promote personal cleanliness so
that transmission of diseases from source to susceptible hosts is prevented. An important
way to prevent food contamination is to maintain a high standard of personal hygiene and
cleanliness.
Some of the common personal hygiene measures to be followed in food processing and
handling are as follows:
Wearing a hat/hairnet that completely covers the hair. Not combing hair in a
processing room or storeroom.
Covering all cuts, burns, sores and abrasions with a clean, waterproof dressing.
Not smoking or eating in any room where there is open food because bacteria can be
transferred from the mouth to the food.
Not spit, coughing or sneezing in a processing room or storeroom.
Washing hands and wrists thoroughly with soap after using the toilet, eating,
smoking, coughing, blowing nose, combing hair, handling waste food, rubbish or
cleaning chemicals. Drying hands on a clean towel before handling food again.
Keeping finger nails cut short.
Not wearing perfume or nail varnish as these can contaminate products.
Not handling any food if one has sores, boils, septic spots, a bad cold, chest infection,
sore throat or a stomach upset.

7.5 Discuss hygiene in the kitchen

Some of the important hygiene measure to be followed in the kitchen includes:

i. Keeping kitchen equipments clean


- Microorganisms can easily breed in dirty equipments, but if the machines and
equipments are properly cleaned, the germs have nothing to feed on and cannot grow.
- Therefore machines and kitchen equipments should be cleaned with hot water and
detergent immediately after use.

ii. Regularly cleaning kitchen between tasks using clean-preferably disposable cloths
- Kitchen should be thoroughly cleaned after each work step.

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- Dirty cloths that have been reused often contain a high number of micro-organisms
that are transferred to kitchen surfaces or equipment during cleaning. Therefore fresh
cloths or disposable cloths should be used every day.

iii. Storing detergents and disinfectants outside the kitchen


- Cleaning agents, disinfectants and pesticides can contaminate food. So they must not
come in contact with food and must therefore be stored outside the kitchen.

iv. Not touching prepared meals and the interior surfaces of crockery with bare hands
- Microorganisms are always present on our hands and can be transferred to food or
crockery/ cutlery if touched with bare hands.
- Therefore, clean gloves should be used when portioning or mixing food that will not
be subsequently heated.
- The interior surfaces of crockery should not be touched with bare hands.

v. Covering meals
- Food should always be covered before storage to ensure that it is protected from
microorganisms in the air.
- Suitable ways covering food include lids, clean crockey or food-safe film or foil.

vi.Tasting food in the proper manner


- When tasting food, care should be taken to ensure that saliva does not come into with
the food being prepared.
- A clean spoon should be use to take a small sample of the food and then tipped into a
small bowl or directly onto another spoon intended to use for tasting. This ensures
that the food itself remains untainted.

7.6 Explain cleaning & sanitizing, method of washing, rinse


Cleaning is a process which will remove soil and prevent accumulation of food residues
which may decompose or support the growth of disease causing organisms or the
production of toxins.

The main purpose of cleaning and sanitizing dishes is to remove visible surface dirt and
reduce the level of bacteria to a safe level so as to
Reduce health hazard by avoiding contamination
Prevent spoilage of food
Control odor
Create a pleasing appearance

Cleaning agents include the following:


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Cleaning Advantages Disadvantages


agent
Soap Good cleanser Poor rinsing quality; lot of
Good for hand-washing water is required for rinsing
May form insoluble
precipitate with hard water
Not recommended for
dishwashing
Synthetic Remove dirt, grease and food soil Ineffective against rust and
detergents Effective in hard water firmly attached food deposits
Useful for manual and machine
dishwashing and cleaning food
contact surfaces
No undesirable action on hands
Acid Remove salt deposits in sinks and Harsh on the hands
cleaners machines Should be used with caution
Remove water spots as they can damage the
Used for removing rust stains surface being cleaned
Removes tarnish from copper and
brings back the glow
Abrasive Remove soil which acidic and May roughen the surface and
cleaners alkaline cleaners cannot, e.g firmly increase chances of future dirt
attached scorched, baked-on accumulation
deposits Not advised for normal
Can clean rusty cleaning
Cleans badly soiled floors

Steps of cleaning

i. Pre-wash: The removal of gross food particles before applying the cleaning solution.
This may be accomplished by flushing the equipment surface with cold or warm
water under moderate pressure.
ii. Washing: the application of the cleaning agent. There are many methods of subjecting
the surface of equipment to cleaning agent and solutions.
Soaking: Immersion in a cleaning solution. The cleaning solution should be hot
and the equipment permitted to soak for 15-30 minutes before manually or
mechanically scrubbed
Spray method: spraying cleaning solution on the surface. This method uses a
fixed or portable spraying unit with either hot water or steam.

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Foaming: utilizes a concentrated blend or surfactant developed to be added to


highly concentration solution of either alkaline or acid cleaners. It produces
stable, copious foam when applied with a foam generator. The foam clings to the
surface to be cleaned, which increases contact time of the liquid with the food,
and prevents rapid drying and runoff of the liquid cleaner, thereby improving
cleaning.
Jelling: utilizes a concentrated powdered-jelling agent which is dissolved in hot
water to form a viscous gel. The desired cleaning product is dissolved in hot gel
and the resulting jelled acid or alkaline detergent is sprayed on the surface to be
cleaned. The jelled cleaner will hold a thin film on the surface for 10 minutes or
longer to attack the soil. Soil and gel are removed with a pressure warm water
rinse.
Abrasive type powders and pastes are used for removing difficult soil. Scouring
pads should not be used on food-contact surfaces because small metal pieces from
the pads may serve as focal points for corrosion and may be picked up in the food.
iii. Rinse: the removal of all traces of the cleaning solution with clean potable water.
iv. Sanitization
Sanitizing is a reduction in the number of disease causing bacteria to safe levels. This is
achieved through the use of heat or the application of chemical compounds.

All food contact surfaces must be cleaned first and then sanitized as any kind of dirt
interferes with the action of chemical sanitizers. Sanitizing is achieved by using chemical
sanitizers or hot water.

Guidelines for optimum sanitization


Choose hot water or heat for sanitization wherever possible
Use a chemical disinfectant only when the application of health is impossible.
Clean equipment and surfaces well before sanitization by health or chemical solution.
Choose a chemical disinfectant which is effective against a wide range of bacteria
Sanitize either by immersing the object in the correct concentration of sanitizer for one
minute, or rinse, swab or spray double the recommended concentration of sanitizer on
the surface to be sanitized and let the surface dry.

50

Various methods to wash, rinse and sanitizee

Methodo
ofcleaningandsanitizingfoodccontactsurfacess

51

UNIT 8: FOOD ACCEPTANCE AND PURCHASING

8.1 Factors affecting the acceptance of food

FactorsAffectingFoodChoiceandAcceptance

8.2 Discuss purchasing of safe foods


Following considerations should be made for purchasing of safe and wholesome foods:
Only pasteurized milk and well-inspected meat and poultry should be purchased.
Expiry and best before dates should be checked and purchase food accordingly.
Canned goods in tins that are dented, rusted, bulging, or cracked should not be
purchased as contents may be contaminated.
Food should not be purchased from unrefrigerated displays that should be in a
cooler.
Eggs that are cracked or not refrigerated should not be purchased.
Cold and hot food should be purchased last when shopping, so it will have the least
amount of time to change temperature before getting it home/hotel.
Raw meat products should be kept separate from other products in the shopping
cart. These products should be placed in plastic bags at checkout, to prevent juices
from leaking or contaminating other foods.

52

8.3 Discuss receiving of safe foods


The goals of receiving safe food are
i. To make sure foods are fresh and safe when they enter the hotel/facility
ii. To transfer them to proper storage as quickly as possible.

There are several important guidelines to keep in mind and tasks to complete as the
person/facility is ready to receive food:
It should be ensure that the receiving area is equipped with sanitary carts for
transporting goods.
It should be planned ahead for deliveries to ensure sufficient refrigerator and freezer
space.
All the items for storage should be marked with the date of arrival or the use by
date.
The receiving area should be kept well lit and clean to discourage pests.

When the food delivery arrives, it should be ensured that the food looks and smells clean
and is equipped with the proper food storage equipment. Then, following inspection of
food should be done:
Checking expiry dates of milk, eggs and other perishable goods.
Making sure shelf-life dates have not expired.
Making sure frozen foods are in airtight, moisture-proof wrappings.
Rejecting foods that have been thawed and refrozen. Looking for signs and thawing
and refreezing such as large crystals, solid areas of ice or excessive ice in containers.
Rejecting cans, that have any of the following: swollen sides or ends; flawed seals or
seams; dents or rust. Also cans with any foamy or bad smelling contents should be
rejected.
Checking temperature of refrigerated and frozen foods, especially eggs and dairy
products, fresh meat, and fish and poultry products.
Looking for content damage and insect infestations.
Rejecting dairy, bakery and other foods delivered in flats or crates that are dirty.
Making sure that the packages of food products are not leaking and intact.

53

UNIT 9: FOOD AND PUBLIC HEALTH

9.1 Discuss food hazards


Food Hazard means a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with
the potential to cause an adverse health effect.
Hazards may be introduced into the food supply any time during harvesting, formulation
and processing, packaging and labeling, transportation, storage, preparation, and serving.

i. Biological Hazards
Biological hazards occur when hazardous or pathogenic organisms are introduced
to food and thus pose a food safety concern to consumers.
Biological hazards include bacteria, viruses and parasites of public health
significance.
Ingesting food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and/or their toxic
by-products can lead to food-borne illness. These illnesses can take the form of
infection or intoxication, or both.

ii. Chemical hazards


Chemical hazards occur when chemicals are present in foods at levels that can be
hazardous to humans.
In the food system, there are various types of chemical hazards, some notable
ones include:
o Mycotoxins
o Natural Toxins
o Marine Toxins
o Environmental Contaminants
o Food Additives
o Processing-induced chemicals
o Pesticides/Agricultural Products and
o Veterinary Drug Residues

iii. Physical hazards:


Physical hazards cover all materials (excluding bacteria and their by-products
(toxins), viruses and parasites) which may be found in a food that are foreign to
that particular food.
These materials are usually non-toxic but are associated with unsanitary
conditions of production, processing, handling, storage and distribution of food.
Some examples of extraneous physical materials that may be found in food are
insects, hair, metal fragments, pieces of plastic, wood chips and glass.

54

Extraneous material can be considered hazardous due to its hardness, sharpness,


size or shape. It may cause lacerations, perforations and wounds or may become a
choking hazard.

9.2 Explain food borne disease


Food borne disease is often referred to generally as food poisoning.
A Food borne disease has been defined by WHO as any disease of an infectious or toxic
nature caused by or thought to be caused by the consumption of food or water.

Food borne diseases can be classified into two broad categories:


i. Food Borne Infection:
A food borne infection is caused by ingestion of food contaminated by viruses,
bacteria or parasites, and occurs in one of two ways:
o Viruses, bacteria or parasites in ingested food invade and multiply in the intestinal
mucosa and/or other tissues.
o Bacteria in ingested food invade and multiply in the intestinal tract and then release
a toxin or toxins that damage surrounding tissues or interfere with normal organ or
tissue function.
Symptoms of infection usually include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal
cramps. Fever is often associated with infection.
Some of the major food borne infections are listed in the table below:
SN Category Infections
1 Bacterial Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever
Other Salmonella infections
Clostridium perfringes illness caused by enterotoxin
released by Clostridium perfringes
Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis caused by enterotoxin
released by Bacillus cereus
Diptheria
Bacillary dysentery(shigellosis)
Streptococcal sore throat
Anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis
2 Viral and Infectious hepatitis
rickettsial Q Fever
3 Protozoal Amoebic dysentery
4 Zooparasitical Taeniasis, ascariasis, etc.

ii. Food Borne Intoxication:


A food borne intoxication is caused by ingestion of food already contaminated by
a toxin. Sources of toxin are:
o Certain bacteria,

55

o Poisonous chemicals (e.g., heavy metals like copper), or


o Toxins found naturally or formed in animals, plants or fungi (e.g., certain fish and
shellfish, certain wild mushrooms).
Food borne intoxications most often result from bacteria that release toxins into
food during growth in the food. Viruses and parasites are unable to cause
The most common or sometimes only symptom of intoxication is vomiting. Other
symptoms can range from nausea and diarrhea to interference with sensory and
motor functions (e.g., taste, touch, muscle movements). These include: double
vision, weakness, respiratory failure, numbness, tingling of the face and
disorientation.
Fever is rarely present with intoxication
Some of the major food borne intoxications are listed in the table below:
SN Category Infections
1 Bacterial origin Botulism caused by toxin produced by Clostridium
botulinum
Staphylococcal enterotoxin food poisoning caused by
toxin produced by S. aureus
2 Food borne Intoxications caused by fish and plant toxins
intoxications due to Intoxications caused by inorganic and organic
chemical poisons compounds in food
3 Fungal Mycotoxicosis

9.3 Discuss symptoms of food poisoning


Symptoms from the most common types of food poisoning will often start within 2 - 6
hours of eating the food. That time may be longer or shorter, depending on the cause of
the food poisoning.
Possible symptoms include:
Abdominal cramps
Diarrhea (may be bloody)
Fever and chills
Headache
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness (may be serious)

Some of the major symptoms of food poisoning based on causative agents are as follows:
SN Agents Main Symptoms
1 Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin Vomiting
2 Clostridium perfringes enterotoxins Abdominal pain and to a lesser extent
watery diarrhoea
3 B cereus enterotoxins Watery diarrhea and to a lesser extent
abdominal pain

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4 Non-typhoidal Salmonella; Febrile watery diarrhea


Compylobacter; Vibrio
5 Clostridium botulinum Neurological (ptosis, diplopia, poor
accommodation, dysphagia, dyspnoea,
constipation and paralysis of facial,
intercostal and skeletal muscles

9.4 Discuss Natural toxicants in food, toxic metals and chemicals

SN Category Diseases Toxicants Foods commonly involved


1 Natural Neurolathyrism Beta-oxalyl amino-alanine Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal)
toxins in (BOAA)
food Mushroom Phalloidine and alkaloids Poisonous mushrooms such as
poisoning found in some poisonous species of Amanita phalloides and
mushrooms Amanita muscaria
Epidemic dropsy Sanguinarine Argemone Mexicana (Dhaturo)
Solanine Solanine Potato, tomatoes, peppers
Poisoning
2 Fungal Ergotism A toxin (ergot) produced by Rye, wheat, sorghum, barley
toxins a group of fungi called
Claviceps purpurea

Aflatoxin food Aflatoxin produced by Cereal grains, groundnuts, peanuts,


poisoning some groups of fungus cottonseed, sorghum
(e.g. Aspergillus flavus,
Aspergillus parasiticus)
3 Chemical Lead, mercury, lead, mercury, cadmium Fish, canned food Foods
and heavy cadmium contaminated by utensils or coated
metals poisoning with heavy metals
Arsenic, Fluoride Arsenic, Fluoride Any foods accidently contaminated
Poisoning
Chemical Pesticides and insecticides Residues on crops, vegetables,
Poisoning fruits
Accidental poisoning where some
chemicals may be mistaken for
food ingredients
When contaminated containers are
used to hold stored foods

Persistent Organic Any foods accidently


Pollutants (POPs) such as contaminated
Dioxins and PCBs

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9.5 Explain factors associated with food borne illnesses


Some of the major factors associated with food borne illness outbreaks are:
Improper hot/cold holding temperatures of potentially hazardous food
Improper cooking temperatures of food
Dirty and/or contaminated utensils and equipment
Poor employee health and hygiene
Food from unsafe sources

When food is being prepared by either the public in their home, or by a food facility
operator, the presence of one or more of these risk factors dramatically increases the risk
of a food borne illness outbreak.

i. Improper hot and cold holding temperatures of potentially hazardous foods


The purpose of holding potentially hazardous foods at proper temperatures is to
minimize the growth of any pathogenic bacteria that may be present in the food.
The number of bacteria that a person ingests with their food has a direct impact on
a possible illness.
Holding potentially hazardous foods at improper temperatures may allow
pathogenic bacteria to reproduce rapidly and progressively to great numbers, thus
putting someone who eats that food at great risk for food borne illness.

ii. Improper Cooking Temperatures of Foods


Cooking food to the proper temperatures is extremely important because many
raw meats have pathogenic bacteria on them naturally, such as salmonella on raw
chicken.
Cooking is the only food preparation step that will actually kill bacteria.
Proper holding temperatures slow down reproduction, freezing food makes
bacteria go dormant, but proper cooking temperatures will kill bacteria that are in
the food.

iii. Dirty or Contaminated Utensils and Equipment


When utensils or equipment become dirty or contaminated, they can transfer that
contamination to the food causing a food borne illness.
This may occur in a number of different ways. If utensils or equipment are not
cleaned frequently, and old food residue is allowed to build up at room
temperature, bacteria in the residue may multiply rapidly and contaminate any
food that comes into contact with it.
A specific kind of contamination can occur when ready-to-eat foods come into
contact with raw animal products or their juices. This is called cross-
contamination.

58

Utensils, equipment, and food contact surfaces may also be contaminated by other
means. If they come into contact with dirty mop water, garbage, pesticides,
sewage, or anything else that could potentially cause illness.

iv. Poor Employee Health and Hygiene


A food worker that has been diagnosed with an acute gastrointestinal illness, or is
showing symptoms such as diarrhea, or vomiting in conjunction with diarrhea,
could potentially contaminate food and cause food borne illness.
It is possible for a food worker to transfer their illness to customers via the food.
Even there is the potential for employees working with large batches of food to
spread the illness to numerous people causing an outbreak

v. Food from Unsafe Sources


Majority of the biological and toxic agents that cause food borne illnesses
originate from sources early in the food handling chain, before the food enters the
kitchen.
Foods from unregulated sources pose the greatest risk of contamination with
biological, chemical and physical agents.

9.6 Explain control and eradication of microorganisms, flies, cockroaches and rodents
Control of microorganisms:
Methods used to control the microorganisms and their transmission of infectious disease
involves stopping their growth for a period of time, reducing the number of
microorganisms to a safe level or destroying the microorganisms.

i. Heat methods: Health is the most common, inexpensive, simplest but effective
method used to destroy microorganisms. Health denaturates the proteins and enzymes
of microorganisms. The heat used in sterilization is either moist or dry.
a. Boiling: Bacteria, fungi and many viruses are destroyed by boiling at 100 for 10
to 30 minutes. Some viruses and endospores may require boiling for up to 20
hours.

b. Steam under pressure: The most common device used is an autoclave. At a


pressure of 15 pound/ sq. inch, and a temperature of 121 0C for 15 to 20 minutes it
will destroy microorganisms and endospores.

c. Pasteurization: It is mainly used in the food and dairy industries and it involves
raising the temperature high enough to destroy pathogens or inhibit their growth
without affecting the quality of product.

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iii. Cooling: The effect of low temperature on microorganisms depends on the type of
microorganisms and the intensity of cold application. Temperature in a refrigerator
ranges from 0-80C and has a bacteriostatic effect which reduces the metabolic rate of
most organisms. Freezing at -200C kills most bacteria, but some may survive in a
frozen state.

iv. Drying or dessication: To grow and multiply, microorganisms require water. The
removal of water by evaporation or freeze-drying inhibits growth and reproduction of
microorganisms by inhibiting enzymes. They may be viable for years so when water
is made available, they resume growth and reproduction

v. Application of UV and ionizing radiation: Both types of radiation damage the DNA
of microorganisms and denaturates their proteins

vi. Use of chemical agents: Chemical agents are used to control the growth of
microorganisms on food. Most chemical agents reduce the number of microorganisms
but do not achieve sterility. Some of the common disinfectants used in food are
Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA), Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), Propyl
Gallate, Natural/Synthetic Tocopherols (Vitamin E), Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C),
Lecithin, Lactic acid, etc.

Control of flies
Control methods of files can be divided into three categories

i. Physical and mechanical control


Flies can be prevented from entering building by screening windows and other
opening.
Mesh size of 3-4 strands per cm will exclude houseflies from buildings.
Air currents, such as air barriers found in entrances of some shops, and fans
mounted over doorways may reduce the number of flies entering premises.
Placing curtains of vertical, often colored, strips of plastic or beading in doorways
also help keep out flies.
Restaurants, food stores often mount ultraviolet light traps on walls to attract flies,
which are then killed by an electric grid.
Commercially available sticky tapes (fly-papers) incorporating sugar as an
attractant can be relatively effective.
Food should be covered well.

ii. Environmental sanitation


Environmental sanitation aims at reducing housefly populations by minimizing
their breeding places. For e.g, domestic refuse and garbage should be placed
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either in strong plastic bags with the openings tightly closed or in dustbins with
tight fitting lids.
Households refuse should be burnt or buried.

iii. Insecticidal control


Larvicides can be directed against larvae by spraying the insides of dustbin and
refuse and garbage heaps, manure piles and other breeding sites.
Commerical aerosol spray cans or hand sprayers can be used indoors to spray
insecticides to give an immediate kill of adult flies.
Flies may also be controlled by spraying indoor walls, ceilings, doors, etc with
malathion, propoxur, cypermethrin or permethrin or deltamethrin.
Baits can sometimes quiclkly reduce fly populations. Toxic baits (consisting of
sugar mixed with bran and treated with insecticides) can be scattered on floors or
placed intrays.

Prevention and control of cockroach


Heavy infestations of cockroaches can be dealt with by chemical control measures,
followed by environmental management to deprive the insects of food and shelter. Low
numbers can be effectively controlled by baits or traps.

i. Environmental management
a. Cleanliness and hygiene
Food should be stored in tightly covered containers in screened cabinets or
refrigerators.
All areas have to be kept clean so that no fragments of food or organic matter
remain.
Rubbish bins should be securely covered and emptied frequently, preferably
daily.
Basements and areas underneath buildings should be kept dry and free of
accessible food and water.

b. Reduction of accessibility
Groceries, laundry, dirty clothing, egg crates and furniture should be checked
before being taken into a building.
In some instances, accessibility to buildings can be reduced by closing gaps in
floors and door frames. Openings for drain water and sewer pipes, drinking-
water and electricity cables should also be closed.
ii. Chemical control
Cockroaches are difficult to control with insecticides for several reasons, one of
which is that they may become resistant to commonly used compounds.
Moreover, many insecticides are repellent to them and are therefore avoided
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Insecticides are applied to the resting and hiding places as residual sprays and
insecticidal dusts. Such applications are effective for periods ranging from several
days to months, depending on the insecticide and the substrate on which it is
deposited.
Insecticides can also be combined with attractants as toxic baits.

Control of rodents
The prevention and control of rodents are achieved by following methods
i. Eliminating the hiding and nesting sites:
Keeping surroundings clean and free from debris to prevent rodents entry and
breeding in the premises.
Good housekeeping will prevent hiding and nesting places to rodents.
Make all openings to construction rodent proof through engineering methods.

ii. Eliminating food sources


Spillage should be cleaned daily
Garbage should not be stored outside in plastic bags as plastic bags are not rodent-
proof, instead metal bins or heavy duty plastic bins with tight-fitting lids should
be used.
Pet food dishes and leftovers should be promptly removed after breeding.
Food grains or other food materials should be stored in rodent proof containers
wherever feasible.

iii. Trapping
Trapping can be effective method of controlling rodents, but it requires more skill
and labor than other methods.
For successful trapping, it is advisable that baited traps should be placed.
The traps either trap live rodents or kill the rodents. The commonly available traps
are cage traps, Sherman traps, trigger or snap traps, break back traps.

iv. Baiting
The process of baiting utilizes special chemicals called rodenticides for killing the
rodents.
The use of rodenticides (zinc phospide, barium carbonate, etc.) or the process of
baiting should be undertaken by trained individuals and require utmost care as
they pose threat to non target organisms, as well as hazards of accidental
poisoning.

v. Fumigation

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Fumigation is the choice method for killing rodents in burrows, enclosed


structures/places.
It is usually carried out by trained professionals due to the risk posed by the
noxious gases released during the process.
The fumigants commonly used are Aluminium phosphide and calcium cyanide.
Sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and methyl bromide are used especially in
godowns, granaries, etc.

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UNIT 10: KITCHEN SAFETY

10.1 Why accidents should be prevented


Accidents should be prevented because they have a direct or indirect effect on individuals
and the establishment.
Direct effect of accidents
i. Injury: Accidents result in injury which can cause much pain and absenteeism from
work. Unattended wounds may become a source of infection.
ii. Expenditure: Accidents are expensive. Frequent accidents will result in additional to
the management.

Indirect effects of accidents


i. Damaged or broken material
ii. Reduced efficiency: if an area is accident-prone, workers try to avoid accidents
and work slowly; other staff will be engaged in attending to the inkured, cleaning
up the mess, doctor visits and investigations
iii. Work schedule and routine is upset: work is completed in a hurry and hygienic
aspects tends to get overlooked in an attempt to just complete the job
iv. Injured workers may have to stay away from work and need to be replaced,
resulting in training of new employees or being under staffed
v. Accidents can result in fines or imprisonment: under the labor law, accidents in
food service operation may face legal action.

10.2 Explain how accidents take place


There are two major factors how accidents takes place
i. The Human Factor (Careless, negligent and slack food handler)
- In most of the cases, it has been noticed that people are responsible for most of
the accidents as they are the ones who create unsafe conditions.
- The may be careless, for example.
Pick up broken glass with bare hands
Ignore operating instructions on equipments
Lift very heavy loads alone
Do not use safety devices on grinders and slicers
- They may be inattentive, for example,
Bump into other people
Drop heavy items or spill hot liquids on their own feet
Close doors and drawers on their own fingers and squash them
Rush with arms full and minds elsewhere on wet greasy follors

ii. Unsafe workplace


- The layout may be badly planned or conditions in the kitchen may be conducive
to unnecessary accidents.
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- Unsafe surroundings are results of the following:


Steep, marrow, dark stairways
Unnecessary steps
Clogged floor drains
Ladders too short to reach uppermost shelves so boxes are used instead
Unprotected meat slicer blades
Doors opening into corridors
Knives left lying around
Handles of pots and pans protruding outwards

In summary, accidents take place due to the following reasons:


Carelessness, lack of concentration or being distracted by something when carrying
out a task.
Work areas are sometimes small and cramped with poor lighting increasing risks of
accidents
Operations of faulty equipment and machinery can also cause accidents.
Poor storage of supplies and obstructions in walkways creating a difficult access
Spills and slippery floors also can result in accidents.
Incorrect lifting of heavy objects
Faulty or frayed electrical appliances.

10.3 Explain the types of accidents


Falls and collisions
- Workers may slip and fall on floors made of slippery material- floors may be
slippery because of grease, fruit and vegetable peels and water on the floor or
workers footwear may have slippery soles
- Workers may fall from a height while trying to reach for things- they climb on
unsafe boxes, chairs, shelves and rickety ladders
- Workers may collide with other people, equipment, furniture, etc. damaging it as
well as hurting themselves or
- Workers may trip and fall by getting stuck in physical objects.

Cuts
- Cuts and lacerations can be caused in the kitchen due to following reasons:
Careless handling of knives, food slicers, choppers, mixers, broken glass,
etc by untrained employees during the rush hour
By sharp edges of badly designed equipment and
By following incorrect practices such as catching knives as they fall,
leaving them in a dishwater in sinks or washing then in dishwashing
machine or using blunt knives which need a lot of pressure to cut with.

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Burns and scales


- Burns and scalds are the second most common accidents in the kitchen. They
result in injury of varying degrees of severity.
- They are caused by contact with
Hot surfaces of grills, ovens, griddles, burners, etc.
Hot water or steam from boilers and steamers
Spillage or splashes from hot food or drink
Hot fat from frying pans, deep fat fryers and
By using defective equipment like loose handles on utensils, faulty tongs,
etc.

Other types of accidents include,


Fires
Electrical shocks
Bites and stings
Poisoning
Inhalation of foreign bodies

10.4 Explain how to prevent cuts


The food service workers need to be careful not to get cut. In order to prevent cut,
following precautions are required:

Appropriate tools (not bare hands) should be used to pick up and dispose of broken
glass. Broken glass should immediately be placed into a separate, clearly marked
garbage container.
Care should be taken when cutting rolls of kitchen wrap with the cutter.
Care should be taken with can openers and the edges of open cans. Knife should not
be used to open can or to pry items loose.
Pusher should be used to feed food into a grinder.
Slicers and grinders should be turned off and unplugged when removing food and
cleaning.
Guards or grinders and slicers should be used.
Equipment blades should be replaced as soon as they are cleaned.
Broken glassware should be handled with care

Additionally,
Knives should be kept sharp. Dull blades are harder to work with and cause more cuts
than sharp ones.
Knives or equipments should not be left in the bottom of the sink.

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Knives should be carried by the handle with the tip pointed away. It should never be
tried to catch a falling knife.

When storing or cleaning equipment, it is necessary to ensure that


Knives and other sharp tools are stored in special places when not in use.
Dishes and glasses are washed separately to help prevent them from being crushed by
heavier objects and breaking in the dishwasher or sink.
Glasses or cups should not be stacked inside on another.
Nails, staples and protruding sharp edges should be watched out while unpacking
boxes and crates.

10.5 Explain how to prevent burns


There are many ways person can get burned in a food service environment. Burns can
result from contact with hot surfaces as grills, ovens, burners, fryers and other heating
equipment. Burns can also be caused by escaping steam or hot food or drinks that are
splattered, splashed or spilled

Following measures can be taken to prevent burns:

Thick, dry potholders or mitts should be used and food should be stirred with long
handled spoons or paddles.
Hot water faucets (taps, mixtures) should be turned on cautiously.
Insulated rubber glove should be wore for water that is more than 75 0C.
Instructions should be followed for the use of cooking equipment-particularly steam
equipment.
It should be ensured that all steam is expelled from steamers before opening the lids.
Cooking lids and similar equipment should be lifted away to avoid burns from steam.
To avoid splattering and splashing, kettles should not be filled full. Also food should
not be allowed to boil over.
Cooking surfaces should not be crowded with hot pans.
Cooked foods should be removed from cooking surfaces immediately.
Oil should be allowed to cool and extreme caution should be used when cleaning
fryers.
Caution should be used when removing hot pans from the oven. Insulated gloves or
mitts should be worn.
Clothing that may drape onto a hot spot and catch a fire should not be worn.
All employees should be trained on use of fire-extinguisher, through fire drills.

10.6 Explain how to prevent falls

In order to prevent slips and falls, following precautions should be used:


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Wet spots and spills, particularly on the floors should be cleaned immediately.
People should be cautioned when floors are wet. Spills should be mopped. Shoes that
have no-slip soles should be used.
Boxes or other objects should not be stacked too high; they can fall and cause people
to trip.
Items such as boxes, ladders, step stools and carts should be kept out of the paths of
foot traffic.
Floors, flooring and stairs should be well maintained. Torn carpets, loose tiles, broken
floors, loose steps, loose electrical wires, or other obstruction should be attended at
once.
Stepladder of sufficient height should be used to reach objects at high location.
Adequate lighting is also essential.
Traffic lines should be kept clean, dry and free from obstructions.

1. What do you mean by poisoning


By poisoning, we mean injury or death due to swallowing, inhaling, touching or injecting various
drugs, chemicals, venoms or gases.

Food poisoning is defined as an illness caused by the consumption of food or water contaminated
with bacteria and/or their toxins, or with parasites, viruses, or chemicals. However the term
food poisoning is often restricted to acute gastroenteritis due to bacterial contamination of food
or drink. Most cases of food poisoning are due to common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or
Escherichia coli (E. coli).

2. Differences between food science and hygiene


SN Food Science Food Hygiene

1 Concept Involves the study of physical, Involves all conditions and measures
chemical, and biochemical nature necessary to ensure the safety and
of foods and the principles of food suitability of food at all stages of the
processing food chain.
2 Purpose Study and understand physio- Avoid food contamination & spoilage
chemical and micro-biological and ensure the safety of food.
properties of food and its
applications.
3 Application Improve quality of food products Prevent food borne diseases/illness
4 Disciplines Biology, chemical engineering Environmental science and public
involved and biochemistry, biotechnology health
5 Activities Development of new food Overall environmental and personal

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products, design of processes to hygiene measures from slaughtering


produce these foods, choice of or harvesting to processing, storage,
packaging materials, shelf-life distribution, transportation and
studies, as well as microbiological preparation of food
and chemical testing
6

3. Differences between adulteration and additives


SN Additives Adulterants/ Adulteration

1 What is it? Chemical substances added to Purposeful addition of inferior quality


processed foods to improve its substances/ replacement of valuable
appearance, flavor, texture or food constituents with cheap & low
storage properties quality ingredients/ removal of
valuable food constituents from food.
2 Purpose of Enhance/retain quality attributes Accidental / profit making
addition in of food, prevent food spoilage and
food increase shelf-life
3 Effects on Additives in permitted levels do Can cause mild to serious food
health not cause any health hazards hazards depending upon the nature of
adulterants involved.
4 Limits in food Additives are added to food in If additives exceeds the approved
specified/approved limits limits in food, they become
significant adulterants and can cause
serious health hazards
5 Legal They are legally allowed to be They are not allowed to be added to
Approval added to the food within limits the food and considered as a
specified by authorities malpractice under law and are subject
to punishments or penalties
6 Examples Addition of colors in food Addition of water to milk
Use of preservatives in pickles Mixing saw dust with chilli powder
7

4. Define kitchen safety

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By safety we mean a condition of being safe by ensuring all the measures and behavior that
prevents any risks of harm or injury.
Kitchen safety is defined as the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety of
food handlers or any persons involved in the kitchen from any potential accidents, injuries or
dangers resulting from accidental or incidental causes.

There are three basic rules for kitchen safety.


i. Being cautious of potential hazards; they are always present.
ii. Using safe work procedures: Kitchen accidents can be prevented by doing things the right
way and not taking short cuts.
iii. Using protective equipment when needed: This will also help to prevent accidents.

Sources:
Safe Food Handling: A training guide for managers of food service establishments; WHO
Geneva M. Jacob, 1989.
Encyclopedia of Restaurant Training- A complete ready to use training program for all
positions in the food service industry; Lara Arduser & Douglas Robert Brown 2005
Atlantic Publishing Group.Inc
Food Science Text Series Essentials of Food Hygiene-Third Edition; Vaclavik V. A.,
Christian E.W.;Springer, 2008
The Hospitality Industry Handbook on Hygiene and Safety; Lisa Gordon-Davis,South
Africa, 2008

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