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AP Chemistry Laboratory Final Exam

Adam Leshok

29 March 2016

6th Hour

Set: 54

Purpose:
To identify 12 unknown substances with 3 confirming tests on each substance.

Flowchart:
Set:54
Vile A = KI (solid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

White solid, sticks to the side of the vile and itself, little grains

Test performed Result of Test


Dissolve in distilled water Dissolves
pH test pH of 5
Mix solution with HCl Turns faint yellow after time
Mix solution with Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution Bright yellow precipitate forms
Mix solution with AgNO3 solution White precipitate forms

Net Ionic Equations:


2I- + Pb+2 PbI2 (s)
I- + Ag+ AgI (s)
2I- + O2 + 4H+ I2 (s) + H2O

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution is mixed with KI solution the Pb+2 ion replaces the K+ ion
creating PbI2 which is a solid that is bright yellow, causing a bright yellow precipitate to
form.
When AgNO3 is mixed with KI solution, the Ag + ion replaces the K+ ion creating AgI
which is a solid, causing a precipitate to form in the solution
When HCl is mixed with the KI solution, the solution turns a pale yellow color after a few
minutes because the oxygen in the air reacts with the solution causing pure I 2 to form
and pure I2 dissolved in liquid becomes a faint yellow color.

Set:54
Vile B = HCl (liquid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

Colorless, odorless liquid, pH of 1

Test performed Result of Test


pH test pH of 1
Mixed with NaHCO3 solution Gas bubbles form
Mixed with CaCO3 Gas bubbles form
Mixed with AgNO3 White precipitate forms
Smell test No smell

Net Ionic Equations:


Cl- + Ag+ AgCl (s)
CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)
CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When AgNO3 is added to HCl the Ag+ ion replaces the H+ ion creating AgCl which is a
solid, causing a precipitate to form in the solution.
When CaCO3 is added to HCl the H+ replaces the Ca2+ this creates H2CO3 which is really
broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2 created is a gas which then
creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.
When NaHCO3 is added to HCl the H+ replaces the Na+ this creates H2CO3 which is
really broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2 created is a gas which
then creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.

Set:54
Vile C = CaCO3 (solid)
Description of the substance from your observations:

Sugar like white solid that clumps up

Test performed Result of Test


Dissolve in distilled water Does not fully dissolve, becomes a
milky white solution
pH test pH of 8
Mix solution with HCl Gas bubbles form
Mix solution with NaOH Precipitate forms
Mix solution with CH3COOH Gas bubbles form

Net Ionic Equations:


Ca+2 + 2OH- Ca(OH)2 (s)
CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)
CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When NaOH is added to CaCO3 the Ca+2 replaces the Na+ creating Ca(OH)2 which is a
solid, causing a precipitate to form in the solution.
When CaCO3 is added to HCl the H+ replaces the Ca2+ this creates H2CO3 which is really
broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2 created is a gas which then
creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.
When CaCO3 is added to CH3COOH, the H+ ion replaces the Ca2+ ion, this creates
H2CO3 which is really broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2
created is a gas which then creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.

Set:54
Vile D = CH3COOH (liquid)
Description of the substance from your observations:

Colorless liquid, smells like vinegar, pH of 3.5

Test performed Result of Test


Smell test Smells like vinegar
pH test pH of 3.5
Mixed with CaCO3 solution Gas bubbles form
Mixed with NaHCO3 solution Gas bubbles form

Net Ionic Equations:


CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)
CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


The smell of the liquid smells like vinegar and it is the only vile I have that smells like
vinegar. Also on the list of possible substances that we can receive for the lab, the only
liquid that smells like vinegar is acetic acid or CH 3COOH
When CaCO3 is added to CH3COOH the H+ replaces the Ca2+ this creates H2CO3 which
is really broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2 created is a gas
which then creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.
When NaHCO3 is added to CH3COOH the H+ replaces the Na+ this creates H2CO3 which
is really broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2 created is a gas
which then creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.

Set:54
Vile E = Pb(C2H3O2)2 (solid)

Description of the substance from your observations:


White grains like small crystals

Test performed Result of Test


Dissolve in distilled water Difficult to dissolve, seems to group
together when first added to water
pH test pH of 6
Solution mixed with HCl Solid white precipitate forms
Solution mixed with NaOH Precipitate forms
Solution mixed with KI solution Bright yellow precipitate forms

Net Ionic Equations:


Pb+2 + 2Cl- PbCl2 (s)
Pb+2 + 2OH- Pb(OH)2 (s)
Pb+2 + 2I- PbI2 (s)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When HCl is mixed with Pb(C2H3O2)2 the Cl- ion replaces the C2H3O2- ion, creating solid
PbCl2, which causes a precipitate to form in the solution.
When NaOH is mixed with Pb(C2H3O2)2 the OH- ion replaces the C2H3O2- ion, creating
solid Pb(OH)2, which causes a precipitate to form in the solution.
When KI is mixed with Pb(C2H3O2)2 the I- ion replaces the C2H3O2- ion, creating solid
PbI2, which causes a precipitate to form in the solution.

Set:54
Vile F = NaOH (liquid)

Description of the substance from your observations:


Colorless odorless liquid, pH of 12

Test performed Result of Test


pH test pH of 12
Mix with CaCO3 solution Precipitate forms
Dissolve NaHCO3 in solution Dissolves NaHCO3
Mix with AgNO3 Brown precipitate forms
Mix with Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution White precipitate

Net Ionic Equations:


OH- + Ag+ AgOH (s)
2OH- + Pb+2 Pb(OH)2 (s)
2OH- + Ca+2 Ca(OH)2 (s)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When AgNO3 is mixed with NaOH, the Ag+ ion replaces the Na+ ion creating AgOH
which is a solid, causing a precipitate to form.
When CaCO3 is added to NaOH, the Ca+2 ion replaces the Na+ ion creating Ca(OH)2
which is a solid, causing a precipitate to form.
When Pb(C2H3O2)2 is added to NaOH, the Pb+2 ion replaced the Na+ ion creating
Pb(OH)2 which is a solid, causing a precipitate to form.

Set:54
Vile G = NaCl (solid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

White solid of little grains like salt


Test performed Result of Test
Dissolve in distilled water Dissolves
pH test pH of 6
Mix solution with HCl No reaction occurs
Mix solution with AgNO3 Milky white precipitate forms
Mix solution with Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution White precipitate forms
Dissolve in Hexane Does not dissolve in hexane

Net Ionic Equations:


Ag+ + Cl- AgCl (s)
Pb+2 + 2Cl- PbCl2 (s)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When AgNO3 is added to NaCl solution the Ag+ ion replaces the Na+ ion creating AgCl
which is a solid, causing a precipitate to form in the solution.
When Pb(C2H3O2)2 is added to NaCl solution, the Pb+2 ion replaces the Na+ ion creating
PbCl2 which is a solid, causing a precipitate to form in the solution.
When added to hexane, NaCl does not dissolve even with mixing, this is because NaCl
is polar and Hexane is nonpolar, and since like dissolves like (polar dissolves polar,
nonpolar dissolves nonpolar) and NaCl and Hexane are not alike, NaCl cannot be
dissolved in Hexane.

Set:54
Vile H = BaCl2 (solid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

White solid with shiny flakes


Test performed Result of Test
Dissolve in distilled water Dissolves
pH test pH of 7
Mix solution with Na2SO4 solution White precipitate forms
Mix solution with Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution White precipitate forms
Mix solution with solution White precipitate forms
Mix solution with HCl No reaction occurs

Net Ionic Equations:


Ba+2 + SO4-2 BaSO4 (s)
Pb2+ + 2Cl- PbCl2 (s)
Ba+2 + CO3-2 BaCO3 (s)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When Na2SO4 solution is added to BaCl2 solution, the Ba+2 ion replaces the Na+ ion
causing BaSO4 to form, creating a precipitate in the solution.
When NaHCO3 solution is added to BaCl2 solution, the Ba+2 ion replaces the NaH+2 ion
causing BaCO3 to form, creating a precipitate in the solution.
When Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution is added to BaCl2 solution, the Pb+2 ion replaces the Ba2+
ion causing PbCl2 to form, creating a precipitate in the solution.

Set:54
Vile I = Na2SO4 (solid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

White solid of very small grains like table salt


Test performed Result of Test
Dissolve in distilled water Dissolves
pH test pH of 6
Mix with AgNO3 Faint blue precipitate forms
Mix with BaCl2 solution White precipitate forms
Mix with Pb(C2H3O2)2 solution White precipitate forms
Mix with NaOH No reaction occurs

Net Ionic Equations:


2Ag+ + SO4-2 Ag2SO4 (s)
Ba+2 + SO4-2 BaSO4 (s)
Pb+2 + SO4-2 PbSO4 (s)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When AgNO3 was added to the Na2SO4 solution, the Ag+ ion replaced the NaH+2 ion
causing Ag2SO4 to form which is a solid, creating a precipitate in the solution.
When BaCl2 was added to the Na2SO4 solution, the Ba+2 ion replaced the NaH+2 ion
causing BaSO4 to form which is a solid, creating a precipitate in the solution.
When Pb(C2H3O2)2 was added to the Na2SO4 solution, the Pb+2 ion replaced the NaH+2
ion causing PbSO4 to form which is a solid, creating a precipitate in the solution.

Set:54
Vile J = NaHCO3 (solid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

White solid, chalk looking substance

Test performed Result of Test


Dissolve in distilled water Dissolves
Mix solution with HCl Gas bubbles form
pH test pH of 8
Mix solution with CH3COOH Gas bubbles form
Mix solution with BaCl2 solution White precipitate forms

Net Ionic Equations:


Ba+2 + CO3-2 BaCO3 (s)
CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)
CO32- + 2H+ H2O + CO2 (g)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When BaCl2 is added to NaHCO3, the Ba+2 ion replaces the NaH+2 ion creating BaCO3
which is a solid, causing a precipitate to form in the solution.
When NaHCO3 is added to HCl the H+ replaces the Na+ this creates H2CO3 which is
really broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2 created is a gas which
then creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.
When NaHCO3 is added to CH3COOH, the H+ ion replaces the Na+ ion, this creates
H2CO3 which is really broken down into 2 compounds, H2O and CO2 and the CO2
created is a gas which then creates bubbles as the gas is released from the solution.

Set:54
Vile K = H2O (liquid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

Colorless, odorless liquid, pH of 7

Test performed Result of Test


pH test pH of 7
Swipe test with distilled water Same evaporation time as distilled
water
Mix with Hexane Miscible with Hexane, layers form
Mix with other unknowns to cause No reaction occurs with any other
reaction substance
Dissolve CaCO3 in solution Doesnt dissolve CaCO3

Net Ionic Equations:


No Chemical Reactions occurred

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When performing the swipe test, getting some of the unknown solution on a cotton swab
and some distilled water on a cotton swab and swiping them next to each other, the
results showed that the distilled water and the unknown both evaporated at the same
rate which was very slow. Because the 2 substances evaporated at the same rate, it
can be concluded that the 2 substances are the same, showing that this substance K is
also distilled water
When mixing the solution with hexane, that I got as my 1 other chemical of choice, a
faint layer formed where you could see that the hexane and the water, vile K, were
separated showing that the 2 liquids were immiscible. This would be because one
solution is polar and the other is nonpolar. Hexane is known to be nonpolar so the other
solution would have to be polar like water, showing again that the substance in vile K is
water.
I did not have ethanol that I could also use with the water to see if it was miscible or
immiscible but I mixed the substance in vile K with all other substances that I had and
no reaction occurred with any of the other substances, showing that vile K had to be
water since no other substance would react with nothing in any way.

Set:54
Vile L = AgNO3 (liquid)

Description of the substance from your observations:

Colorless, odorless liquid, pH of 6

Test performed Result of Test


pH test pH of 6
Mix with NaOH Brown precipitate forms
Mix with HCl White precipitate forms
Mix with NaHCO3 solution White precipitate forms

Net Ionic Equations:


Ag+ + OH- AgOH (s)
Ag+ + Cl- AgCl (s)
2Ag+ + CO32- Ag2CO3 (s)

Reasons for Verification: list and explain (minimum of 3)


When NaOH is added to AgNO3, the Ag+ ion replaces the Na+ ion causing AgOH to form
which is a brown solid, this causes a brown precipitate in the solution.
When HCl is added to AgNO3, the Ag+ ion replaces the H+ ion causing AgCl to form
which is a solid, this causes a precipitate in the solution.
When NaHCO3 is added to AgNO3, the Ag+ ion replaces the NaH+2 ion causing Ag2CO3
to form which is a solid, this causes a precipitate in the solution.