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# Automotive Science and Mathematics

Ans.Exer. 1.1 . 0.50 mm.
Ans. Exer. 1.2. 15.12 mm.
Ans.Exer 1.3. Total gap = 0.35 mm. This is to be reduced to 0.15 mm. Total space to be
taken up = 0.20 mm. Each thrust washer must be 0.10 mm thicker)
Ans. 1.4. Offset = 2 mm.
Ans. 1.5. X = 0.9 mm.
Ans.1.6. X = 4.2mm
Ans. Exercise 1.7. Overall gear ratio = 1.531 x 4.3 = 6.58 :1.
Ans. Exer 1.8. (a) 3 , (b) 2 , (c) 144 , (d) 78.55.
Ans.Exer. 1.9. 16.15 km/l.
Ans. Exer 1.10.
Swept volume = CSA x L x number of cylinders
Swept volume = 55.6 x 9 x 4 cm3
= 2000.00 cm3 = 2.00 litres
Ans. Exer 1.11. (a)6.00 (b) 14.12 (c) 0.69
Ans. Exer 1.12. (a) 37.87 , (b) 48.70 , (c) 39 487 000 , (d) 0.0077.
Ans. Exer 1.13. 9.92p.
Ans. Exer 1.14. Total cost of labour before VAT = 6.33 x 42 = 265.86
Total cost before VAT = 265.86 + 102.58 = 368.44.
Ans. Exer 1.15.
Fuel used = 186 10.36 = 17.95 litres, correct to 2 decimal places.
Ans. Exer 1.16. Weight of fuel = 220 x 0.83 = 182.6 kg.
Total weight of tank and fuel = 30 + 182.6 = 212.60 kg.
Ans.1.17.(a) a6 , (b) x , (c)56 , (d) t6 , (e) 10.
Ans. 1.18. (a) 3 , (b) 9, (c) 81, (d) 5.
Ans.1.19. (a) 0.125 , (b) 0.125 , (c) 2, (d) 0.200
Ans. Exer 1.20. (a) 3 , (b) 9 , (c) 19 , (d) 8
Ans. Exer 1.21. (a) 13 , (b) 18 , (c) 7.

24 24

## Ans. Exer. 1.23. (4 + 3 + 1) + ( + + ) = 8 + 4 + 6 + 7 = 8 + 2 = 10

8
Ans. Exer.1.24. (a) 3/10 , (b) 1/8 , (c) 3/8 , (d) 5/8.
Ans. Exer 1.25. (a) 15 + 10 + 24 - 5 = 44 = 1 14
30 30 30

24 24

32

## Ans. Exer 1.26. (a) ,

Ans. Exer 1.26. (b) x x = 4 x 5 x 8 x 8 = 4 x 8 = 32
5x8x7x9 7x9 63
Ans. Exer 1.26. (c) 1
64

3 6 6 6

## Answer Exer 1.27 (b) ( + ) x = 10 x 12 = 30

81 4 81
Answer Exer 1.27 (c) ( ) + + = 8 + + = 8 13/32

## Ans Exer 1.28.

Largest first; 0.21 0.201 0.2001 0.2 0.021

## Ans. Exer.1.30. 1101112

Ans. Exer.1.31. (10 x 162) + ( 2 x 161 ) + (15 x 160) = 2560+ 32 +15 =2607.

## Ans. (2.1.b) Mode = 9.

Ans.(2.1c) 4 and 7.

## Ans.(2.1d) Median = 9 + 11 = 10.

2
Ans. (2.1e) 55 marks.
Ans. 2.3. Angle of pie chart for CO = 155.2o
Angle of pie chart for HC + NOx = 170.7o
Angle of pie chart for SO2 = 34.1o.

Ans. 2.4 Angle of pie chart for Lack of fuel = 98.9 degrees
Angle of pie chart for electrical problems = 142.1 degrees
Angle of pie chart for tyre problems = 86.5 degrees
Angle of pie chart for fuel system faults = 32.5 degrees.

## Ans. 2.5. Profit = 45 - 39.50 = 6.50 per hour.

Angles on pie chart.
Technicians pay = 76 degrees
Heating of premises = 56 degrees
Profit = 52 degrees.

## Exercises - section 3.3. Answers.

1. 320.
2. 2
3. 523.8
4. 2800
5. 11
6. 1437.3
7. 19.8
8. 4.22 x 107
9. 47100
10. 40

1. Ans 3ab + 12ac + 6ab - 9ac - 5bc = 9ab + 3ac - 5bc.

## 2.Ans a) 18ab - 8ac , b) 14x + 21y , c) 6x + 21.

3.Ans. 5x - 3x + 30 + 8 - 2x = 38.

## Exercises . Section 3.6. Answer.

Ans (a) 2x(x - 2) , (b) (a + 2b)(x + 2) , (c) ax (x + 1)

## Exercises. Section 3.7.Solving equations. Answers.

1. . Ans. x = 4.

2. Ans. y = 3.
3. Ans. d = 30.
4. Ans. x = 5.
5. Ans. x = 4.
6. Ans. x = 16.

7. Ans. x = 1/3.

8. Ans. x = -9.

1. Ans. x = y - c
m
2. Ans. L = ( T / 4 M n2)

3. Ans. d = C

4. Ans. I = V
R
5. Ans. L = 4 V
d2

3.10.1. Graph
3.10.2. Graph
3.10.3. Graph
3.10.4. From the graph , piston velocity at 90o = 8.4 m/s.
3.10.5. The law is P = 1.5W + 1.2.

Ans.4.1. 720

60
Ans.4.3. 36 24'.

## Ans.4.4. Largest acceptable angle 31 10'+ 55' = 32 5'

Smallest acceptable angle = 31 10' - 55' = 30 15'

Ans.4.8. 31.

Ans.4.9. (c)

Ans.4.10. 65.

Ans.4.11. 135.

Ans.4.12. 12.

Ans.4.13. 45.

## Ans.4.14. y = (1402 - 552) = (19600 - 3025) = 16 575 = 128.74mm.

Original distance from centre of gudgeon pin to centre of crank = 140 + 55 = 195mm.
Distance x = 195 - y = 195 - 128.74 = 66.26mm.

## Ans.4.15. d = ( 252 - 202 )

= (625 - 400) = 225 = 15. d = 2 x 15 = 30mm.

## Ans.4.17. d = (27.52 - 13.752 ) = (756.25 - 189.06) = 567.19 = 23.82

d = 2 x 23.82 = 47.64mm.

Ans. 4.18. Distance moved during one revolution of the wheel and tyre = 2 r = 2 x
3.142 x 0.25 = 1.571m.
Distance moved when wheel makes 1000 revolutions = 1.571 x 1000 = 1571m =
1.571km.

## Ans. 4.19.Effective area of valve opening = x diameter of valve x valve lift

= 3.142 x 35 x 12 = 1319.6mm2

## Ans. 4.20.Distance travelled by vehicle per minute = rev/min of wheel x rolling

circumference.
= 600 x x 0.3 x 2 = 1131.1 m/min
Speed of vehicle in km/h = 60 x 1131.1 = 67.87km/h.
1000

## Ans. 4.21.Original area of valve opening = x 30 x 14 = 1320mm2 .

Area after opening up ports and increasing valve lift = x 30.5 x 15 = 1437.5mm2 .

## Percentage increase = increase in area of valve opening = 117.5 x 100 = 8.9%.

original area of valve opening 1320

360 360

## Ans.4.29. (a) = 53.13o , (b) 28.07o , (c) 22.62o

Ans.4.30. (a) 26.6o , (b)36.87o , (c) 28.07o , (d) 53.06o.

## Ans.4.32. = 73.3o , x = 208.8mm

Distance that piston has moved from TDC = 260-208.8 = 51.2 mm.

Ans. 5.1. 2250N

Ans.5.2. 3N/mm

## Ans. 5.3. (a)

Ans. Exer. 5.4. Resultant 135N at 2140 12 to A. The equilibrant is equal in magnitude
but opposite in direction.

## Ans. Exer. 5.14. (b).

Ans.6.1. 0.00221mm.

## Ans. 6.4. Angle of twist = 0.012 degrees

Ans.6.5. (a)28.4 MN/2 (b) 26.7 MN/m2

## Ans.6.12. (a) 1500 N, (b)19.1 MN/m2

Ans.6.13. 88 kW.

7.1 (b) 33.3N.
7.2. Rr = 0.955 tonne ,1.8 - 0.955 = 0.845 tonne
7.3. x = 1.527m
7.4.R2 = 3.8T , R1 = 7 - 3.8 = 3.2 T
7.5.R2 = 37.5/10 = 3.75 T,R1 = 7.5 - 3.75 = 3.75T
7.6. F = 2667 N
7.7.T = 108 Nm
7.8. (a) 2.8 , (b) 448Nm.
7.9. 40 N.
7.10.Rf = 0.96 T , Rr = 1.8 - 0.96 = 0 84 T.

8.1 200 kJ

## 8.2 7.88 kJ.

Note. The answers will vary depending on the accuracy of the diagram.

## 8.3 (a) Work done per revolution of crank = 2514 J

(b) Power = 50.28 kW.

Power = 2.96 kW

## 8.6 (a) 300 rev/min

(b) Crown wheel torque = 2.394 kNm
8.7 F = 88.9 kN
8.8 (a) MR = 160
(b) Effort = 16.7N.
8.9 MR = 26.8
8.10 Effort = 667 N
8.11 MA = 100
MR = 133.3
Efficiency = 0.75 = 75%
8.12 3200 kJ = 3.2 MJ
8.13 Power = 2400 watts = 2.4 kW
8.14 Input power = 3 kW

9.1. = 0.48.
9.2. 1 Nm.

9.4. = 0.57.

## 9.6. T = 122 Nm.

9.7. (a) The axial force W = 119.5 kN. (b)The axial force W = 86.5 kN
( c ) Examine a workshop manual to assess the probable effect of the reduction in the
axial force.

9.9. 0.124kW.

9.11. 59%.

10.2 v = 17m/s

10.4 s = 53.26 m

## 10.6 ( a) 13.33 m/s. (b) 25 m/s.( c ) 56.9 m/s.

10.7 Average velocity = 37.5 m/s. Time 36.4 second Acceleration = 0.41 m/s2

## 10.8 Distance covered in final 30 seconds = 150 - 110 = 40m.

10.9 Distance covered in final 30 seconds = 40m. Time taken to reduce speed 1.2 s.

10.11 v = 80 m/s

## 10.16 Force acting on the driver = 766 N.

11.1 Power = 58.34 kW
11.2 (a) 108 kW , (b) 0.17 m/s2
11.3 2.44 kN
11.4 max speed = 73 km/h , max power for acceleration = 28 kW at 40 km/h
11.5 (a) 3.88 m/s2 , (b) 6.208 kN
11.6 Tractive resistance = 800N
11.7 (a) 1589 N , (b) 18.89 kW
11.8 Overturning velocity = 30.2 m/s = 109 km/h
11.9 = 16.72
11.10 Max acceleration = 4.23 m/s2
= 6752 + 1108
= 7860 N

= 6001 - 1108
= 4893 N

11.12 125.6 kN

Ans. 12.1. 444N.
Ans. 12.2. 79N.
Ans.12.3. (a) 421.5N, (b) 1.708kg.
Ans. 12.6. 720 N.
Ans. 12.7. Each balance mass = 0.90 = 0.45 kg
2

## Ans.12.8. Periodic time t = 1.1s, frequency f = 0.91Hz = 54.6 vib/min.

Ans.12.9.acceleration = 4936m/s2, Force = 3.445kN.
Ans. 12.11.(a) Acceleration = 1974m/s2, (b) Force = 355N.
13.1 P2 = 12 bar + 1 bar = 13 bar
T2 = 463.4K = 190.4C.

## 13.3. 8.802 bar.

13.4. 68%
13.5. 25.87 - 1.016 = 24.85 bar gauge , with the 11:1 compression ratio.
With the 9.5 : 1 compression ratio p2 = 1.016 x 9.5 1.35 = 1.016 x 20.9 = 21.22 bar abs
and 21.22 - 1.016 = 20.2 bar gauge.
13.6 . At end of compression T2 = 2.83 x 343 = 971 K = 698 C.
13.7. (a) 83.3 cm 3 , (b) 5.531 kJ.
13.8 0.78mm.
13.9 242o C.
13.10 1890 kJ
13.11 T2 = 200o C
13.12 T2 = 417 - 273 = 144oC
13.13 T2 = 646K

14.1 - 31.2 kW
14.2 - 134kW , 89.6%
14.3 - bp= 95kW , ip = 118.8kW.
14.4 - 38.4kg/h
14.5 - 6.7%
14.6 - 91mm
14.7 - 28%
14.8 - I.p = 33kW. M.E = 76%
14.9 - 5.08m3/h
14.10 - B.T.E = 25.6% , 28.2% , 30% , 29.2% , 27.3%

15.1 (a) 9.2:1 , (b) 0.598 = 59.8%
15.2 64.8%
15.3 0. 652 = 65.2%
15.4 100.6kW
15.6 (a) 28% (b) ASE = 0.57 = 57% (c) Relative efficiency = 0.49 = 49%
15.7 (a) 0.594 or 59.4% , (b) 0.471 or 47.1%.
15.8. (a) 177.7 cm3, (b)

Ans.17.1. (b) 6

Ans.17.2. (c) 2A
Ans.17.3. (a) 8V

Ans.17.5. (c) 8A

Ans.17.6. (b) 6A

Ans.17.7. (d)4

Ans.17.8. (b) 3A

## Ans.17.10. (c) 250 F.

Ans.17.11. (a)

Ans.17.12. (b).

Ans.17.13. (b)

Ans.17.14.(c) Ohms.

Ans. 17.17.(a)

Ans.17.18. (a).

Ans. 18.1. (c).
Ans.18.2. (b)

18.3.Ans. (b)

Ans.18.6. (c).