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Automotive Science and Mathematics

Answers

Answers. Exercises. Chapter 1.


Ans.Exer. 1.1 . 0.50 mm.
Ans. Exer. 1.2. 15.12 mm.
Ans.Exer 1.3. Total gap = 0.35 mm. This is to be reduced to 0.15 mm. Total space to be
taken up = 0.20 mm. Each thrust washer must be 0.10 mm thicker)
Ans. 1.4. Offset = 2 mm.
Ans. 1.5. X = 0.9 mm.
Ans.1.6. X = 4.2mm
Ans. Exercise 1.7. Overall gear ratio = 1.531 x 4.3 = 6.58 :1.
Ans. Exer 1.8. (a) 3 , (b) 2 , (c) 144 , (d) 78.55.
Ans.Exer. 1.9. 16.15 km/l.
Ans. Exer 1.10.
Swept volume = CSA x L x number of cylinders
Swept volume = 55.6 x 9 x 4 cm3
= 2000.00 cm3 = 2.00 litres
Ans. Exer 1.11. (a)6.00 (b) 14.12 (c) 0.69
Ans. Exer 1.12. (a) 37.87 , (b) 48.70 , (c) 39 487 000 , (d) 0.0077.
Ans. Exer 1.13. 9.92p.
Ans. Exer 1.14. Total cost of labour before VAT = 6.33 x 42 = 265.86
Total cost before VAT = 265.86 + 102.58 = 368.44.
Ans. Exer 1.15.
Fuel used = 186 10.36 = 17.95 litres, correct to 2 decimal places.
Ans. Exer 1.16. Weight of fuel = 220 x 0.83 = 182.6 kg.
Total weight of tank and fuel = 30 + 182.6 = 212.60 kg.
Ans.1.17.(a) a6 , (b) x , (c)56 , (d) t6 , (e) 10.
Ans. 1.18. (a) 3 , (b) 9, (c) 81, (d) 5.
Ans.1.19. (a) 0.125 , (b) 0.125 , (c) 2, (d) 0.200
Ans. Exer 1.20. (a) 3 , (b) 9 , (c) 19 , (d) 8
Ans. Exer 1.21. (a) 13 , (b) 18 , (c) 7.

Ans Exer 1.22.1/3 + + 5/8 + + 3/8 = 8 + 12 + 15 + 6 + 9 = 50 = 2 1/12 litres


24 24

The lowest common denominator 2 , 3 , 4 , 8 = 24

Ans. Exer. 1.23. (4 + 3 + 1) + ( + + ) = 8 + 4 + 6 + 7 = 8 + 2 = 10


8
Ans. Exer.1.24. (a) 3/10 , (b) 1/8 , (c) 3/8 , (d) 5/8.
Ans. Exer 1.25. (a) 15 + 10 + 24 - 5 = 44 = 1 14
30 30 30

Ans. Exer 1.25. (b) 2 - 1 + = 7/3 - 5/4 + 5/8 = 56 - 30 + 15 = 41 = 1 17/24


24 24

Ans. Exer 1.25. (c)) - + + 9 = 9 + 1 - 2 + 12 = 9 11/32


32

Ans. Exer 1.26. (a) ,


Ans. Exer 1.26. (b) x x = 4 x 5 x 8 x 8 = 4 x 8 = 32
5x8x7x9 7x9 63
Ans. Exer 1.26. (c) 1
64

Answer Exer. 1.27. (a) ( ) - = 4 - 1 = 8 - 1 = 7 = 1


3 6 6 6

Answer Exer 1.27 (b) ( + ) x = 10 x 12 = 30


81 4 81
Answer Exer 1.27 (c) ( ) + + = 8 + + = 8 13/32

Ans Exer 1.28.


Largest first; 0.21 0.201 0.2001 0.2 0.021

Ans Exer 1.29. Smallest first ;

Ans. Exer.1.30. 1101112

Ans. Exer.1.31. (10 x 162) + ( 2 x 161 ) + (15 x 160) = 2560+ 32 +15 =2607.

Answers. Exercises. Chapter 2.

Answer.(2.1a) Arithmetic mean = 6.22 , median = 6.

Ans. (2.1.b) Mode = 9.

Ans.(2.1c) 4 and 7.

Ans.(2.1d) Median = 9 + 11 = 10.


2
Ans. (2.1e) 55 marks.
Ans. 2.3. Angle of pie chart for CO = 155.2o
Angle of pie chart for HC + NOx = 170.7o
Angle of pie chart for SO2 = 34.1o.

Ans. 2.4 Angle of pie chart for Lack of fuel = 98.9 degrees
Angle of pie chart for electrical problems = 142.1 degrees
Angle of pie chart for tyre problems = 86.5 degrees
Angle of pie chart for fuel system faults = 32.5 degrees.

Ans. 2.5. Profit = 45 - 39.50 = 6.50 per hour.


Angles on pie chart.
Technicians pay = 76 degrees
Heating of premises = 56 degrees
Admin and other overheads = 184 degrees
Profit = 52 degrees.

2.10. Number of people working less than 30 hours = 26.

Answers. Exercises 3.

Exercises - section 3.3. Answers.


1. 320.
2. 2
3. 523.8
4. 2800
5. 11
6. 1437.3
7. 19.8
8. 4.22 x 107
9. 47100
10. 40

Exercises. Section 3.4. Answers.


1. Ans 3ab + 12ac + 6ab - 9ac - 5bc = 9ab + 3ac - 5bc.

2.Ans a) 18ab - 8ac , b) 14x + 21y , c) 6x + 21.

3.Ans. 5x - 3x + 30 + 8 - 2x = 38.

Exercises. Section 3.5. Answer.

Ans (a) 6 + 2x + 3y + xy , (b) x2 + 5x + 6 , (c) x2 + x - 6 , (d) x2 - 6x + 8

Exercises . Section 3.6. Answer.


Ans (a) 2x(x - 2) , (b) (a + 2b)(x + 2) , (c) ax (x + 1)

Exercises. Section 3.7.Solving equations. Answers.

1. . Ans. x = 4.

2. Ans. y = 3.
3. Ans. d = 30.
4. Ans. x = 5.
5. Ans. x = 4.
6. Ans. x = 16.

7. Ans. x = 1/3.

8. Ans. x = -9.

Exercises. Section 3.8.Answers


1. Ans. x = y - c
m
2. Ans. L = ( T / 4 M n2)

3. Ans. d = C

4. Ans. I = V
R
5. Ans. L = 4 V
d2

Exercises 3.10. Answers.


3.10.1. Graph
3.10.2. Graph
3.10.3. Graph
3.10.4. From the graph , piston velocity at 90o = 8.4 m/s.
3.10.5. The law is P = 1.5W + 1.2.

Answers. Exercises. 4.

Ans.4.1. 720

Ans.4.2. 3000 x 2 = 314.2 rad/s


60
Ans.4.3. 36 24'.

Ans.4.4. Largest acceptable angle 31 10'+ 55' = 32 5'


Smallest acceptable angle = 31 10' - 55' = 30 15'

Ans.4.5. 33 55' - 31 10' = 2 45'.

Ans.4.6. 180 + 10 + 45 = 235.

Ans.4.7. 15 + 20= 35.

Ans.4.8. 31.

Ans.4.9. (c)

Ans.4.10. 65.

Ans.4.11. 135.

Ans.4.12. 12.

Ans.4.13. 45.

Ans.4.14. y = (1402 - 552) = (19600 - 3025) = 16 575 = 128.74mm.


Original distance from centre of gudgeon pin to centre of crank = 140 + 55 = 195mm.
Distance x = 195 - y = 195 - 128.74 = 66.26mm.

Ans.4.15. d = ( 252 - 202 )


= (625 - 400) = 225 = 15. d = 2 x 15 = 30mm.

Ans.4.16. x = ( 2002 + 1002 ) = 50 000 = 223.6mm.

Ans.4.17. d = (27.52 - 13.752 ) = (756.25 - 189.06) = 567.19 = 23.82


d = 2 x 23.82 = 47.64mm.

Ans. 4.18. Distance moved during one revolution of the wheel and tyre = 2 r = 2 x
3.142 x 0.25 = 1.571m.
Distance moved when wheel makes 1000 revolutions = 1.571 x 1000 = 1571m =
1.571km.

Ans. 4.19.Effective area of valve opening = x diameter of valve x valve lift


= 3.142 x 35 x 12 = 1319.6mm2

Ans. 4.20.Distance travelled by vehicle per minute = rev/min of wheel x rolling


circumference.
= 600 x x 0.3 x 2 = 1131.1 m/min
Speed of vehicle in km/h = 60 x 1131.1 = 67.87km/h.
1000

Ans. 4.21.Original area of valve opening = x 30 x 14 = 1320mm2 .


Area after opening up ports and increasing valve lift = x 30.5 x 15 = 1437.5mm2 .

Increase in area = 1437.5 - 1320 = 117.5mm2 .

Percentage increase = increase in area of valve opening = 117.5 x 100 = 8.9%.


original area of valve opening 1320

Ans.4.22. Length of arc = x circumference = 25 x 3.142 x 400mm = 87.3mm.


360 360

Ans. 4.23. (a) 0.6691, (b)0.9976 , (c)0.4848, (d)0.2588, (e)0.3947,(e)0.5000.

Ans.4.25. 23.57 m/s.

Ans.4.26. (a) 17.04 (b) 14 (c) 5

Ans.4.28. (a) x = 4.66m , (b) x = 138.93 mm , (c) x = = 90.57 mm.

Ans.4.29. (a) = 53.13o , (b) 28.07o , (c) 22.62o


Ans.4.30. (a) 26.6o , (b)36.87o , (c) 28.07o , (d) 53.06o.

Ans.4.31. (a) x = 7.98cm. (b) x = 7.46 cm. (c) x = 156.25 mm.

Ans.4.32. = 73.3o , x = 208.8mm


Distance that piston has moved from TDC = 260-208.8 = 51.2 mm.

Answers. Exercises chapter 5.


Ans. 5.1. 2250N

Ans.5.2. 3N/mm

Ans. 5.3. (a)

Ans. Exer. 5.4. Resultant 135N at 2140 12 to A. The equilibrant is equal in magnitude
but opposite in direction.

Ans. Exer. 5.5. 98.8N. Direction towards O at angle of 41o 41 to force A.

Ans. Exer.5.6. (a) 7mm, (b) 200N.

Ans. 5.6. Horizontal component = 5 x cos 400 = 5 x 0.766 = 3.83kN.

Ans. Exer. 5.8 (a) Jib = 5.25T , Tie = 3.05T.

Ans. Exer. 5.9. Side thrust F = 1180N

Ans. Exer. 5.10. Force A = 13N, force B = 48N.

Ans. Exer. 5.11. Force Q = 1080N, force P = 1340N.

Ans. Exer.5.12. Pressure on piston crown = 25bar.

Ans. Exer. 5.13. (c)

Ans. Exer. 5.14. (b).

Answers. Exercises 6.

Ans.6.1. 0.00221mm.

Ans.6.2. (b) 3.33 MN/m2 , (c) 0.007 mm.

Ans.6.3. 49.02 MN/m2

Ans. 6.4. Angle of twist = 0.012 degrees


Ans.6.5. (a)28.4 MN/2 (b) 26.7 MN/m2

Ans.6.6. 24.54 MN/m2

Ans.6.7. fs = 595 Mpa

Ans. 6.8. Maximum permissible torque = 157.2 Nm

Ans. 6.9. Tensile force = 10.6kN

Ans. 6.10. 164.7 GN/m2

Ans.6.11. 19.22 MN/m2.

Ans.6.12. (a) 1500 N, (b)19.1 MN/m2

Ans.6.13. 88 kW.

Answers 7.
7.1 (b) 33.3N.
7.2. Rr = 0.955 tonne ,1.8 - 0.955 = 0.845 tonne
7.3. x = 1.527m
7.4.R2 = 3.8T , R1 = 7 - 3.8 = 3.2 T
7.5.R2 = 37.5/10 = 3.75 T,R1 = 7.5 - 3.75 = 3.75T
7.6. F = 2667 N
7.7.T = 108 Nm
7.8. (a) 2.8 , (b) 448Nm.
7.9. 40 N.
7.10.Rf = 0.96 T , Rr = 1.8 - 0.96 = 0 84 T.

Answers Exercises 8

8.1 200 kJ

8.2 7.88 kJ.


Note. The answers will vary depending on the accuracy of the diagram.

8.3 (a) Work done per revolution of crank = 2514 J


(b) Power = 50.28 kW.

8.4 (a) Engine power = 56.6 kW.

(b)Gearbox output torque = 204.7 Nm

8.5 (a) KE 4442.5 J.

(b) Work done = 4442.5 J


Power = 2.96 kW

8.6 (a) 300 rev/min


(b) Crown wheel torque = 2.394 kNm
8.7 F = 88.9 kN
8.8 (a) MR = 160
(b) Effort = 16.7N.
8.9 MR = 26.8
8.10 Effort = 667 N
8.11 MA = 100
MR = 133.3
Efficiency = 0.75 = 75%
8.12 3200 kJ = 3.2 MJ
8.13 Power = 2400 watts = 2.4 kW
8.14 Input power = 3 kW

Answers. Exercises 9.

9.1. = 0.48.
9.2. 1 Nm.

9.4. = 0.57.

9.5. 4.772 kN.

9.6. T = 122 Nm.

9.7. (a) The axial force W = 119.5 kN. (b)The axial force W = 86.5 kN
( c ) Examine a workshop manual to assess the probable effect of the reduction in the
axial force.

9.8. 2.98 kN.

9.9. 0.124kW.

9.10. (a) 440 Nm, (b) 135.4 kN.

9.11. 59%.

Answers. Exercise 10

10.1. 2.78m/s , 27.8m/s , 15.56 m/s , 28.44m/s.

10.2 v = 17m/s

10.3 a = - 4.5 x 105 m/s2 . The minus sign indicates retardation.

10.4 s = 53.26 m

10.5 u = 12.96 m/s

10.6 ( a) 13.33 m/s. (b) 25 m/s.( c ) 56.9 m/s.

10.7 Average velocity = 37.5 m/s. Time 36.4 second Acceleration = 0.41 m/s2

10.8 Distance covered in final 30 seconds = 150 - 110 = 40m.

10.9 Distance covered in final 30 seconds = 40m. Time taken to reduce speed 1.2 s.

Distance covered during the deceleration use s = 9.5 m.

10.10 The distance covered = velocity x time = 20 x 16.5 = 330m.


10.11 v = 80 m/s
10.12 = 377 rad/s

10.13 = 523.6 rad/s2

10.14 Angular velocity = 50.1 rad/s

10.15 Force = 75.9 N.

10.16 Force acting on the driver = 766 N.

Answers. Exercise 11
11.1 Power = 58.34 kW
11.2 (a) 108 kW , (b) 0.17 m/s2
11.3 2.44 kN
11.4 max speed = 73 km/h , max power for acceleration = 28 kW at 40 km/h
11.5 (a) 3.88 m/s2 , (b) 6.208 kN
11.6 Tractive resistance = 800N
11.7 (a) 1589 N , (b) 18.89 kW
11.8 Overturning velocity = 30.2 m/s = 109 km/h
11.9 = 16.72
11.10 Max acceleration = 4.23 m/s2
11.11 Dynamic load on front axle = static load + load transfer
= 6752 + 1108
= 7860 N

Dynamic load on rear axle = static load - load transfer


= 6001 - 1108
= 4893 N

11.12 125.6 kN

Answers. Exercise 12.


Ans. 12.1. 444N.
Ans. 12.2. 79N.
Ans.12.3. (a) 421.5N, (b) 1.708kg.
Ans. 12.6. 720 N.
Ans. 12.7. Each balance mass = 0.90 = 0.45 kg
2

Ans.12.8. Periodic time t = 1.1s, frequency f = 0.91Hz = 54.6 vib/min.


Ans.12.9.acceleration = 4936m/s2, Force = 3.445kN.
Ans. 12.11.(a) Acceleration = 1974m/s2, (b) Force = 355N.
Answers13.
13.1 P2 = 12 bar + 1 bar = 13 bar
T2 = 463.4K = 190.4C.

13.2 Fuel required mf = 0.55/14.7 = 0.037 g

13.3. 8.802 bar.


13.4. 68%
13.5. 25.87 - 1.016 = 24.85 bar gauge , with the 11:1 compression ratio.
With the 9.5 : 1 compression ratio p2 = 1.016 x 9.5 1.35 = 1.016 x 20.9 = 21.22 bar abs
and 21.22 - 1.016 = 20.2 bar gauge.
13.6 . At end of compression T2 = 2.83 x 343 = 971 K = 698 C.
13.7. (a) 83.3 cm 3 , (b) 5.531 kJ.
13.8 0.78mm.
13.9 242o C.
13.10 1890 kJ
13.11 T2 = 200o C
13.12 T2 = 417 - 273 = 144oC
13.13 T2 = 646K

Answers - exercises 14.


14.1 - 31.2 kW
14.2 - 134kW , 89.6%
14.3 - bp= 95kW , ip = 118.8kW.
14.4 - 38.4kg/h
14.5 - 6.7%
14.6 - 91mm
14.7 - 28%
14.8 - I.p = 33kW. M.E = 76%
14.9 - 5.08m3/h
14.10 - B.T.E = 25.6% , 28.2% , 30% , 29.2% , 27.3%

Answers 15.
15.1 (a) 9.2:1 , (b) 0.598 = 59.8%
15.2 64.8%
15.3 0. 652 = 65.2%
15.4 100.6kW
15.6 (a) 28% (b) ASE = 0.57 = 57% (c) Relative efficiency = 0.49 = 49%
15.7 (a) 0.594 or 59.4% , (b) 0.471 or 47.1%.
15.8. (a) 177.7 cm3, (b)

Answers. Chapter 17. Exercises.

Ans.17.1. (b) 6

Ans.17.2. (c) 2A
Ans.17.3. (a) 8V

Ans.17.4. (c) 1.5

Ans.17.5. (c) 8A

Ans.17.6. (b) 6A

Ans.17.7. (d)4

Ans.17.8. (b) 3A

Ans.17.9. (c) 7.2V

Ans.17.10. (c) 250 F.

Ans.17.11. (a)

Ans.17.12. (b).

Ans.17.13. (b)

Ans.17.14.(c) Ohms.

Ans. 17.15. (b).

Ans. 17.16. (c) 240W.

Ans. 17.17.(a)

Ans.17.18. (a).

17.19 Ans. (c) 100 seconds.

Answers. Chapter 18 exercises.


Ans. 18.1. (c).
Ans.18.2. (b)

18.3.Ans. (b)

18.4. Ans. (a)

Ans.18.6. (c).

Ans. 18.7. (d).

Ans. 18.8. (a).

Ans. 18.9. (b).

Ans. 18.10. (b)

Ans. 18.11. (b).

Ans. 18.12. (c)

Allan Bonnick, 2008