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MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE

REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


Brasil. Ministrio das Cidades/ Agencia Espanhola de Cooperao Internacional - AECI
Manual de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais/ Coordenao Geral de Renato
Balbim Braslia: Ministrio das Cidades; Agencia Espanhola de Cooperao
Internacional AECI, 2008

198 p.

ISBN

1. Reabilitao. 2. Centros Urbanos. 3. Manual. 4. Patrimnio Histrico.


I. Ttulo. II. Ministrio das Cidades. III. Agencia Espanhola de Cooperao Internacional

CDU (035)711.432.001.14
MONUMENTA

A P R E S E N T A O

O Ministrio das Cidades foi criado, em 2003, com a misso de estruturar


nacionalmente as polticas de habitao, saneamento, mobilidade, transporte
e planejamento territorial urbano, por meio do incentivo implementao de
polticas locais de gesto do solo urbano baseadas nos preceitos colocados
pela Constituio de 1988 e pelo Estatuto da Cidade. Um dos nossos
objetivos criar bases sustentveis para reverter o quadro de excluso scio-
territorial que caracterizou o processo de urbanizao brasileiro.

Enfrentamos dficit habitacional de 7,9 milhes de moradias, enquanto,


existem 4,5 milhes de imveis urbanos vagos, com grande concentrao nos
centros das cidades. A Reabilitao de reas Centrais, com prioridade na
destinao de imveis vazios para programas de habitao de interesse social,
contribui tanto para a superao desse patamar de dficit quanto para a
transformao dos centros das cidades em locais de maior diversidade de uso
e ocupao.
Prtico Cais do Porto, Porto Alegre/RS.
PRESENTATION

The Ministry of Cities was created during


2003 with the objective of achieving the
structuring of national urban policies
directed at housing, sanitation, mobility,
transportation and planning through
O desafio de cada dia a implementao de poltica que amplia o acesso terra urbana bem localizada e incentives aimed at the implementation of
local urban management policies based on
infra-estruturada para a populao de baixa renda, rompendo com o processo de urbanizao perifrica the principles included in the 1988
Constitution and in the City Statutes. One of
our objectives is to create sustainable
das cidades. Isso se viabiliza com o direcionamento adequado de recursos financeiros, humanos e conditions within cities and thereby revert
socio-territorial exclusion, a problem that
tecnolgicos, reorganizando as aes do Estado e da sociedade voltadas para enfrentar inclusive a has permeated the Brazilian urbanization
process.
degradao ambiental, na misso de construir cidades para todos. We are currently facing a 7.9 million
housing deficit while there are 4.5 million
unoccupied urban buildings, mainly located
in the heart of the cities. The programs for
the Rehabilitation of Central Urban Areas
MARCIO FORTES DE ALMEIDA not only prioritize the allocation of vacant
buildings for social interest housing but it
also help to decrease the enormous
Ministro das Cidades housing deficit and to transform city centers
into areas with a broader range of residents
and purposes.
The challenge that we face on a daily basis
is to implement policies that will grant the
low income population greater access to
urbanized land, well located and with a
good infrastructure, and thereby break the
current trend of continued peripheral
urbanization. This can be achieved through
the allocation of adequate financial, human
and technological resources and through
the reorganization of State and social
projects and programs that can even lead to
solutions related to environmental
degradation. The mission is to build cities
for all Brazilians.

MARCIO FORTES DE ALMEIDA


Minister of Cities
RENATO BALBIM

A P R E S E N T A O

REABILITAR um centro urbano significa recompor, atravs de polticas pblicas e de incentivos s


iniciativas privadas, suas atividades e vocaes, habilitando novamente o espao para o exerccio das
mltiplas funes urbanas, historicamente localizadas naquela rea, que fizeram de sua centralidade uma
referncia para o desenvolvimento da cidade.

O centro a expresso de uma infinidade de funes de uma cidade e cada cidade tem um tipo de
centro, expressando prticas, maneiras de fazer, histrias e formas prprias daquele local, daquela
cultura e daquele conjunto de pessoas.

necessrio, portanto, a identificao de que habilidade cada centro perdeu, levando em considerao
as caractersticas que so particulares de cada cidade e, para tanto, deve ser trabalhado o territrio
urbano como um todo e no apenas as polticas e intervenes setoriais de maneira isolada. Para tanto,
preciso delimitar geograficamente a rea de interveno e, em seguida, realizar diversos estudos e
levantamentos a fim de possibilitar uma abordagem que envolva todas as questes relacionadas quele
determinado territrio, seus usos anteriores, atuais e suas possibilidades considerando questes locais e
globais, como os investimentos existentes, as polticas traadas em cada um dos nveis da federao e os
interesses privados que possam dinamizar ainda mais as intervenes.

O importante, ento, a coordenao dos recursos. Primeiro, devido ao carter intersetorial das
intervenes em reas centrais e segundo, porque os recursos oriundos dos governos federal, estadual
e municipal, ou ainda de fontes externas, tm de estar aplicados no mesmo territrio com um objetivos e
diretrizes que sejam convergentes.

A sistematizao das experincias de reabilitao nas cidades apoiadas pelo Programa, objeto deste livro
, portanto, um primeiro passo no sentido de compatibilizar as aes existentes e futuras a fim de
Imvel vazio no centro de Belo Horizonte/MG otimizar a utilizao dos recursos existentes e a busca de novas fontes de financiamento.
TO REHABILITATE an urban center is the
process of restoring the area to its original
purposes and activities through the
introduction of public policies and incentives
for the private sector, and thereby recover
the urban center for the varied urban
functions that were previously located in the
area and became a reference for the
development of the city.
A city center is the manifestation of an
A iniciativa desta publicao partiu de um convnio entre o Conselho de Obras Pblicas e Transportes da infinity of urban functions and each city has
its own type of center which is a reflection of
Junta de Andalucia (Espanha) e o Ministrio das Cidades do Brasil, que tem como uma de suas aes o the uses, ways, heritage and of the
characteristics of that particular location,
fortalecimento do Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais, alm do apoio a aes de culture and of that group of individuals.
It is therefore of utmost importance to
identify the characteristics that a city center
reabilitao nas cidades de Belo Horizonte e So Lus. has lost, while taking into consideration the
particularities of each city, to see the urban
territory as a whole and to avoid the
application of isolated sector policies. This
requires the geographical delimitation of the
O emprego de cooperaes internacionais no horizonte das polticas pblicas federais, estaduais e intervention area and followed by studies
and research that will allow for an approach
municipais revela-se um grande avano que possibilita a troca de experincias e a transferncia de based on all of the matters related to that
particular territory, its previous and current
conhecimentos. Na escala local, as cooperaes internacionais exitosas, como o caso com a uses and its future possibilities from both a
local and a global perspective, such as
existing investments, the policies laid out by
Cooperao com a Junta de Andalucia leva ao fortalecimento e capacitao da gesto municipal e ao each level of the federation and private
interests that can stimulate the intervention.
reconhecimento e a adequao de instrumentos pblicos e privados existentes no pas ou fora dele e It is also very important to coordinate the
available resources. First, due to the intra-
sector character of urban area interventions
que podem ser aplicados gesto e ao desenvolvimento urbano local. and second, due to the fact that resources
originating from the federal, state and
municipal governments must be used for the
area in question and the intervention must
BENNY SCHASBERG be implemented with converging objectives
and directives.
The object of this book is to systematize the
Secretrio Nacional de Programas Urbanos rehabilitation experiences collected in cities
that have been the object of Rehabilitation
Programs, is a first step towards the
aggregation of knowledge originating from
current and future interventions and towards
the optimization of existing resources and
the identification of new financial sources.
The initiative for this publication originated in
an agreement between the Andalusia Board
of Public Works and Transport (Spain) and
Brazil's Ministry of Cities, an agreement
directed at strengthening the Rehabilitation
Program for Central Urban Areas and to
lend support to rehabilitation interventions
for the cities of Belo Horizonte and So Lus.
The implementation of international
cooperation agreements in the field of
public, federal and municipal policies is a
very positive development that allows for the
exchange of know-how and knowledge
transfer. On a local level, such as the
cooperation agreement with the Andalusia
Board, international cooperation leads to
the strengthening and empowerment of the
municipal management and to the
acknowledgment and improvement of
public and private tools within Brazil or
abroad that can be used for urban
management and development.

BENNY SCHASBERG
National Secretary of Urban Programs
08 INTRODUO
INTRODUCTION

09 Morar no centro: opo que ressurge


To live in the city center: a revived option

11 O Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais


Program for the Rehabilitation of Central Urban Areas

PARTE 1
22 ELABORAO E IMPLEMENTAO DE PLANOS DE REABILITAO EM REAS
CENTRAIS
PART 1
THE CREATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CENTRAL URBAN AREA REHABILITATION PLANS

23 Primeira etapa: definies e diretrizes gerais


Stage one: definitions and general directives

29 Plano de Reabilitao: itens bsicos de composio


Rehabilitation Plan: Basic points

35 Aspectos para implementao


Implementation Points

Sumrio 52
PARTE 2
EXPERINCIAS DESENVOLVIDAS
Sumary PART 2
DEVELOPMENT PLANS

53 Preservao e novos usos para o patrimnio histrico


The preservation and recycling of the historical heritage
So Luis/MA Belm/PA Amparo/SP Olinda/PE Salvador/BA

85 Diversidade funcional, qualidade ambiental e melhor acesso aos centros


Functional diversity, environmental quality and facilitated access to city centers
Porto Alegre / RS Belo Horizonte/ MG Macei/ AL

105 Reabilitao de frentes d'gua, reforo das potencialidades econmicas


e garantia da incluso social
Rehabilitation of seafront locations, reinforcement of economic potentials and assertion of social inclusion
Recife e Olinda/PE Rio de Janeiro/ RJ Natal/ RN

TIRA DVIDAS
138 Questes sobre a Reabilitao de centros urbanos
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Questions on the Rehabilitation of urban centres

150 Manual de Rehabilitacin de reas Urbanas Centrales


RENATO BALBIM
I N T R O D U O

Casario, Belm/PA

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

8
I N T R O D U O

Morar no centro: opo que ressurge


Os centros das grandes cidades brasileiras apresentam uma
grande quantidade de imveis vazios: prdios residenciais ou
comerciais totalmente desocupados ou com utilizao apenas do
andar trreo. Isso contribui para o grande percentual de domiclios
vazios identificados pelo IBGE nas grandes cidades, chegando a
ultrapassar 18% em cidades como Recife, Rio de Janeiro e So
Paulo.

Muitas famlias de classe mdia optaram por sair do centro nas


ltimas dcadas porque preferiam morar em apartamentos ou
casas mais modernos, em bairros mais segregados, ou porque
consideravam as condies do centro deterioradas. Para as
famlias de menor renda, o acesso a essas unidades deixadas vazias
no centro economicamente impossvel, e as opes mais viveis
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS
Living Downtown a Resurrecting
Option
The downtown areas in large Brazilian cities
present a great number of uninhabited
properties: residential and commercial
buildings thoroughly unoccupied or
continuaram sendo os cortios, favelas e loteamentos precrios na periferia. No entanto, em algumas disclosing only ground floor occupancy. This
contributes to the significant percentage of
reas centrais, ainda moram muitas famlias para quem essa localizao importante em funo, vacant domiciles identified by the Brazilian
Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)
in large cities, which amounts to over 18% in
especialmente, da proximidade do trabalho. cities like Recife, Rio de Janeiro, and So
Paulo.
A great many middle class families have
opted to leave the downtown areas in the
Embora morar no centro possa ser uma opo para famlias de qualquer faixa de renda, a preocupao last decades as they preferred to live in
apartment buildings or in more up-to-date
houses in secluded neighborhoods, or
principal do Ministrio das Cidades viabilizar a permanncia e a vinda daquelas com renda inferior a because they reckon the downtown area as
a deteriorated spot to live. For the lower-
cinco salrios mnimos, que constituem a maior parte do dficit habitacional brasileiro. income families, the access to these
dwelling units left vacant in the city center is
economically unfeasible. The viable options
continue to be the slums, favelas, and
precarious portions of land in the outskirts.
Ao promover a reforma de parte desses imveis centrais e destin-los a estas pessoas, a poltica pblica However, many families still live in
downtown areas, owing to the fact that such
est tratando de incluir uma parcela da populao na cidade formal, permitindo-lhe habitar uma regio locations are important for them, especially
because of their proximity to their working
places.
consolidada, provida de toda infra-estrutura e mais prxima de locais de trabalho. Although living downtown may be an option
for families of any social classes, the
greatest concern on part of the Ministry of
Cities is to afford the permanence and the
coming of families who earn less than five
Para as famlias j moradoras no centro, que passam a ter uma moradia adequada e a viver num bairro minimum wages, as they stand for the
largest portion of the Brazilian deficit.
reabilitado, a melhoria da qualidade de vida ser sensvel. When promoting the renovation of part of
these downtown properties and making
them affordable by these people, the public
policy is aiming at including a part of the
population in the formal city, allowing these
Para as que vm dos bairros perifricos, a mudana tambm transformadora. Afinal, as famlias people to inhabit a consolidated region
supplied with a thorough infrastructure and
economizaro recursos no transporte, tero maior acesso a servios, tais como escolas, postos mdicos, keeping them next to their working places.
The families already living downtown also
start to have an appropriate place to live in a
creches, etc. E ganharo tempo para outras atividades, antes gasto nas longas viagens que associam o rehabilitated neighborhood and, therefore,
quality of life is highly improved.
transporte coletivo com os deslocamentos pedestres. For the ones coming from farther
neighborhoods, the change also means a
positive transformation. After all, these
families start to save money destined to
transportation; their access to services is
A promoo de habitao no centro para famlias de baixa renda certamente contribuir para reduzir a improved, including schools, medical
assistance, children care, etc. In addition,
presso pela expanso das fronteiras urbanas e o adensamento excessivo de bairros perifricos. Mas they save time for other activities once spent
in long trips associated with public
transportation.
espera-se tambm, ao dinamizar reas centrais j consolidadas, a reduo da segregao social e espacial Fomenting downtown dwelling for lower-
income families will certainly contribute to
e a melhoria das possibilidades de integrao de diversas parcelas da populao economia e vida reduce pressure derived from the expansion
of urban boundaries and the excessive
urbana. densification of peripheral neighborhoods.
When turning the already consolidated
downtown areas into more dynamic spots, it
is also expected to reduce social as well as
spatial segregation, and to improve the
possibilities of integrating several portions
of the population with economy and city life.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

10
I N T R O D U O

Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais


Na maior parte das grandes cidades brasileiras, a rea central
formada pela parte mais antiga da cidade, o centro histrico, e
por bairros lindeiros de uso misto (moradia, comrcio,
equipamentos), onde geralmente se concentram oportunidades
de trabalho nessas atividades e no setor informal.

Sobretudo nas maiores cidades e nas capitais de regies


metropolitanas, as reas centrais vm passando por processos de
mudanas das atividades e reduo da populao. Decorre desses
fenmenos o esvaziamento, principalmente dos prdios
residenciais, mas tambm daqueles que abrigavam empresas e
instituies pblicas e privadas, que vm se transferindo para
outras localizaes.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


The Downtown Area Rehabilitation
Program
In most large Brazilian cities, the downtown
area is comprised by the oldest core of the
city center, the so-called historic center, in
addition to surrounding neighborhoods
used in assorted ways (dwelling, trade
As causas de tal processo so mltiplas, assim como as caractersticas de cada cidade so diferentes. No dealings, equipment), where an ordinary
working opportunity concentration.
entanto, alguns fenmenos se repetem: a degradao do patrimnio histrico, a precariedade ambiental Mainly in the largest cities and in capital
cities encompassed by metropolitan
e habitacional, a concentrao de atividades informais, a mudana no perfil socioeconmico dos regions, the downtown areas have faced
changes in the activities with which they are
involved, not to mention the decrease in
moradores e dos usurios, a concentrao de grupos sociais vulnerveis. population. Such phenomena lead to
depopulation, an event that can be broadly
noticed either in apartment buildings or in
constructions where there formerly used to
be organizations as well as public or private-
Essa situao de esvaziamento resulta na subutilizao dos recursos disponveis nas reas centrais, como owned companies, which have now moved
into other locations.
infra-estrutura, sistema de transportes e estoque imobilirio, alm de contribuir para a expanso urbana e The reasons why such process has taken
place are multiple as each city also displays
para adensamento populacional em reas no servidas de infra-estrutura e distantes dos locais de their own different features. Meanwhile, a
few phenomena are recurrent: the historic
heritage degradation, the environmental
trabalho. Do ponto de vista dos recursos pblicos, alm de no utilizar o que j existe, exige novos and housing precariousness, the
concentration of informal economic
investimentos em reas antes no ocupadas. activities, the change in the social and
economic profile of both dwellers and users,
the concentration of vulnerable social
groups.
This depopulation framework leads to a
A prtica da construo nova como nica forma de proviso habitacional, seja pelo setor privado ou por defective use of the resources available in
the downtown urban areas, such as
programas pblicos de habitao, em detrimento da recuperao do estoque construdo, foi um fator infrastructure, transportation system and
real estate stock, in addition to contributing
to urban expansion and to populational
determinante nesse processo. Alm da expanso normal devida ao crescimento populacional, a mancha densification in areas without infrastructure
and distant from people's working places.
urbana continua se estendendo em direo s periferias, para o assentamento da populao de baixa As far as public resources are concerned, in
addition to not exploring the already existing
assets, it demands new investments in
renda, e em direo s novas reas de expanso imobiliria para abrigar os setores de alta renda. formerly empty areas.
The practice of only taking the new
constructions into consideration as a way to
provide dwelling places instead of
Para o Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais, o repovoamento das reas centrais e o recovering the constructed real estate was
a major factor in this process promoted by
both private sector and public housing
aproveitamento do estoque imobilirio existente podem ser fatores importantes, tanto para reabilitar programs. Additionally to the ordinary
expansion derived from the normal
essa parte da cidade, como para controlar a expanso da mancha urbanizada, garantindo um populational growth, the urban area
continues to expand to the outskirts of the
cities so that the lower-income population
desenvolvimento mais equilibrado. can find their dwelling places. This also
occurs towards the new real estate
expansion areas, where the higher-income
sectors look for their places to live.
A perda de dinmica urbana de certas reas e a subutilizao de equipamentos e infra-estruturas est na For the Downtown Area Rehabilitation
Program, the repopulation of downtown
areas and the reasonable use of the existing
origem, nos ltimos anos, de inmeras experincias de interveno nos centros urbanos de cidades da real estate stock can be figured out as
important factors both for the rehabilitation
Europa e dos Estados Unidos. Elas constituram no Brasil um roteiro no sistematizado de orientaes of this part of the city and for the control and
expansion of the urban area, thus granting a
more balanced development.
para as aes de governos locais e da iniciativa privada, a partir dos anos oitenta. In the last few years, the loss of urban
dynamics noticed in certain areas and the

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

12
bad use of equipment and infrastructure
lays in the origin of countless experiences
concerned with interventions in urban
areas of cities in Europe and in the United
States. In Brazil, they made up a non-
systematic set of guidelines for the actions
taken by local governments as well as by No Brasil, um dos efeitos dessas formas de interveno internacionais tem sido a expulso da
the free enterprise, from the 1980's on.
In Brazil, one of the effects resulting from populao pobre das reas centrais proporo que as novas intervenes urbansticas e investimentos
these international interventions is the
evacuation of the lower-income
population from the downtown areas as pblicos e privados promovem a revalorizao imobiliria, paralelamente atrao de moradores mais
fast as the new urban interventions, along
with both public and private investments ricos e atividades mais sofisticadas, processo conhecido como de gentrificao.
promoting property revaluation.
Simultaneously, an attempt to attract new,
wealthier inhabitants as well as more
sophisticated activities takes place in a
process known as "gentrification". Para evitar esse efeito perverso, uma das preocupaes fundamentais do Programa Nacional de
In order to avoid such wicked effect, one of
the most considerable concerns of the Reabilitao a manuteno ou promoo da diversidade de funes e da presena de pessoas de
Downtown Area Rehabilitation Program is
the maintenance or promotion of the
diversity of functions and of the presence of diferentes estratos sociais nas reas de interveno, mediante mecanismo efetivos, fundamentados no
people from different social classes within
the areas of intervention by implementing Estatuto da Cidade. Por esse motivo, a promoo de habitao social nas reas centrais constitui-se em
effective mechanisms based on the Statute
of the Cities. That is why the promotion of
social dwelling in downtown areas is one of um dos seus eixos principais de atuao.
the backbones of its scope of action.

Program Objectives and Principles


The Rehabilitation Program is supposed
and able to be a major instrument to
Objetivos e princpios do Programa
guarantee the use and the democratic,
sustainable occupation of urban downtown O Programa de Reabilitao deve e pode ser um instrumento para garantir o uso e a ocupao
areas, let alone the preservation of both
environmental and cultural heritage. It is
also supposed to stimulate functional
democrtica e sustentvel dos centros urbanos, assim como a preservao do patrimnio cultural e
diversity, retrieve economic activities and
search for the complementariness ambiental. Ele deve tambm estimular a diversidade funcional, recuperar atividades econmicas e buscar
involving the manifold uses.
The recovery of the unduly used real estate a complementaridade entre os diferentes usos.
stock allows providing or reinforcing the
residential use through the maintenance
and attraction of the population from
different walks of life, including lower-
income individuals. Therefore, the A recuperao do estoque imobilirio subutilizado permite propiciar ou reforar o uso residencial com a
regulatory intervention carried out by the
public authority in downtown areas by
means of the Statute of the Cities is of
permanncia e a atrao de populao de diversas classes sociais, incluindo as de baixa renda. Para isso, a
fundamental importance: as the recovery
steps start to be taken, the possibility to interveno regulatria do poder pblico nas reas centrais, mediante os instrumentos do Estatuto da
increase the search for properties is
enlarged, once they become extremely Cidade, fundamental, pois, medida que as aes de recuperao comeam a ser implementadas,
costly for the continuity of the housing
programs and for the traditional economic
activities. On the other hand, the Brazilian
cresce a possibilidade de aumentar a disputa pelos imveis, tornando-os demasiado caros para a
Government sets a value on making part of
its own idle real estate available for the continuidade dos programas habitacionais e para as atividades econmicas tradicionais. Por outro lado, o
feasibility of social interventions by using
such areas promptly in association with governo federal considera importante disponibilizar parte do seu prprio patrimnio imobilirio que est
market-aimed usage to generate
resources that can make the set of actions
effective. sem uso para viabilizar as intervenes de interesse social, atravs do uso direto destas reas, associado
The improvement of the available
infrastructure through housing com usos voltados ao mercado que gerem recursos para a efetivao do conjunto de aes.
enhancement reduces public investment
and promotes betterments in downtown

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


areas, which is a contribution to reverse
depopulation and degradation processes.
Furthermore, it magnifies population access
to the city, assuring that an even greater
number of people are able to enjoy better-
O incremento do uso da infra-estrutura urbana j disponvel por meio da ampliao da oferta de moradia equipped and structured areas.
These objectives and principles are a part of
reduz os investimentos pblicos e promove a melhoria das reas centrais, contribuindo para reverter os the National Urban Development Policy,
which is based upon the guidelines of the
Statute of the Cities.
processos de esvaziamento e degradao. E mais, amplia o acesso da populao cidade, garantindo que
Acting Strategies
uma parcela cada vez maior possa usufruir das reas mais bem equipadas e estruturadas. The creation of the Ministry of Cities in 2003
stemmed from the standpoint according to
which urban issues (infrastructure,
transportation, housing) are in close
connection to each other and the respective
Esses objetivos e princpios so partes integrantes da Poltica Nacional de Desenvolvimento Urbano, solutions depend on a thorough treatment
through the combination of investments.
baseada nas diretrizes do Estatuto da Cidade. The Downtown Area Rehabilitation Program
was devised by the Ministry of Cities as it
recognized the fact that downtown issues
result from the development pattern
followed by each city and that the solutions
Estratgias de atuao for these issues cannot be disconnected
from local urban policies. Consequently,
A criao do Ministrio das Cidades, em 2003, decorreu da viso segundo a qual os problemas urbanos downtown issues are a local and regional
government's responsibility and the
downtown area rehabilitation as a set of
(infra-estrutura, transporte, moradia) esto articulados e suas solues dependem de um tratamento de integrated actions is supposed to be a
policy coordinated by the local
conjunto, combinando investimentos. administrations or with which they are fully
compromised.
Therefore, the most important role played by
the Rehabilitation Program is its cooperation
with the local and regional governments to
O Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais foi criado pelo Ministrio das Cidades, o qual face the issues related to downtown areas.
Through technical promotion, financial
entendeu que os problemas do centro so decorrentes da forma como cada cidade se desenvolve, e que support, and divulgation of experiences, the
intent is to foment Local Downtown Area
Rehabilitation Plans in accordance with the
suas solues no podem ser desligadas da poltica urbana do municpio. Assim, as questes envolvidas Local Master Plans implemented in a
cooperative and intersectional way, and
nas reas centrais so principalmente da alada municipal, e a reabilitao dos centros, compreendida which are able to incorporate action tools to
guarantee social participation in its
elaboration and deployment processes.
como um conjunto de aes integradas, deve ser uma poltica coordenada pelos governos locais ou com Moreover, supporting the local government
is also a target in terms of carrying out an
o seu total envolvimento. effective planning that connects the local
offices involved. This support is expected to
overcome the sectorial actions and
programs and to articulate its actions with
both state and federal governments in a true
Desse modo, o principal papel do Programa de Reabilitao colaborar com os municpios no federative agreement.
The articulation with the state government
enfrentamento das questes do Centro. O que se pretende , atravs da promoo tcnica, do apoio has played a prominent role in the Recife-
Olinda Project, which was devised in an
agreement between the State of
financeiro e da divulgao de experincias, fomentar a realizao de Planos Locais de Reabilitao de Pernambuco, the City Halls of Recife and
Olinda, and four Federal Ministries. Another
Centros, em consonncia com os Planos Diretores Municipais que sejam implementados de forma case to be mentioned relates to the City of
Salvador, where the negotiations with the
cooperativa e intersetorial e que incorporem instrumentos de aes que assegurem a participao social State of Bahia allowed responding to the
claims of downtown dwellers to keep 103
popular housing units in an action against
em sua elaborao e implementao. Alm disso, procura-se apoiar o municpio, no sentido de fazer um the evacuation processes that preceded the
rehabilitation of a local historic heritage
planejamento articulado entre as secretarias envolvidas, que supere as aes e programas setoriais, e a known as Pelourinho.
As far as the actions that depend on the
articular suas aes s dos governos estadual e federal num efetivo pacto federativo.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

14
Federal Government are concerned, it is
extremely important to integrate the
different ministries that may either directly
or indirectly impact upon the problems or
solutions related to downtown areas.
Several ministries, offices and federal A articulao com o governo estadual tem sido especialmente importante no caso do Projeto Recife-
organizations are nowadays connected to
the Program. The aim is to coordinate the Olinda, elaborado de forma conjunta entre o governo do Estado de Pernambuco, as prefeituras do
support as well as federal actions within the
municipal governments, in an attempt to
rise above the sectorial standpoints related Recife e de Olinda e quatro ministrios do governo federal. H tambm o caso de Salvador, onde a
to the ordinary policies of housing, traffic,
transportation, mobility, sanitation, and negociao com o governo da Bahia permitiu responder luta dos moradores para permanncia das
deployment of urban equipment and
infrastructure, in addition to heritage
preservation and promotion of both social
103 moradias populares no centro, contrariamente aos processos de expulso ocorridos nas etapas
and cultural activities. It is also important to
connect the Program to other ministries and anteriores da reabilitao do Pelourinho.
federal departments and companies that
own idle real estate in downtown areas. The
target is to make its negotiation possible or
allow such properties to be used by
rehabilitation programs.
Do ponto de vista das aes que dependem do governo federal, fundamental integrar os programas
The Ministry of Cities comprises the
National Offices of Urban Programs, dos diferentes ministrios que interfiram direta ou indiretamente nos problemas ou nas solues para as
Housing, Sanitation, and of Urban Mobility
and Transportation, in addition to the Porto
Alegre Railroad Corporation (Trensurb)
reas centrais.
and the Brazilian Urban Railroad Company
(CBTU).
The Ministry of Culture acts through the
Institute for National Artistic and Historical Atualmente, esto envolvidos no Programa vrios ministrios, secretarias e empresas federais, com o
Heritage (IPHAN), which elaborates
historic site preservation plans and
coordinates the Monumenta Program. The
objetivo de coordenar o apoio e as aes federais nos municpios para alm das vises setoriais das
Ministry of Tourism acts through the
Tourism Development Program (Prodetur), polticas de habitao, trnsito, transporte, mobilidade, saneamento e de instalao de equipamentos e
which encourages activities to enhance
local and regional tourism potentials.
The Ministry of Planning acts through the
infra-estruturas urbanas, assim como da preservao do patrimnio e promoo de atividades sociais e
Public Heritage Office, which is responsible
for the management of areas belonging to culturais. importante tambm a articulao do Programa junto a outros Ministrios e empresas e
the National Patrimony. This ministry is also
responsible to supervise the winding-up of rgos federais detentores de patrimnio imobilirio ocioso em reas centrais, com o intuito de viabilizar
federal organizations such as the Federal
Railroad Company (RFFSA), which
possess large properties in downtown
o seu repasse ou o uso desses imveis para os programas de reabilitao.
areas.
The Federal Savings Bank (CEF)
participates in this process as a
financing/operating agent of the resources Do Ministrio das Cidades participam as secretarias nacionais de Programas Urbanos, de Habitao, de
for the Ministry of Cities and also through
the cooperation established with the
French Government to define the Saneamento e de Mobilidade Urbana e Transportes, alm da Empresa de Trens Urbanos de Porto
Integrated Intervention Boundaries as well
as technical consulting services. Alegre S.A. (TRENSURB) e da Companhia Brasileira de Trens Urbanos (CBTU).
By taking these strategic principles as a
starting point, a momentous improvement
was noticed in terms of federative
cooperation. Local actions were reinforced
through the consolidation of partnerships O Ministrio da Cultura atua atravs do Instituto do Patrimnio Histrico e Artstico Nacional (IPHAN),
formalized by means of agreements with
clear definition of roles and responsibilities que elabora os planos de preservao de stios histricos e a coordenao do Programa Monumenta. O
of all the federated organizations involved.

The availability of public real estate for Ministrio do Turismo intervm atravs do Prodetur, que estimula atividades para ampliar o potencial
rehabilitation programs
(Sensus IBGE,2000)One of the facts turstico das cidades.
shown by data on the Brazilian housing

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


deficit is the following paradox: while the
new housing deficit is calculated at 6.5
million units there are today almost 5 million
urban buildings that remain unused.
O Ministrio do Planejamento atua por meio da Secretaria de Patrimnio da Unio, responsvel pela Only in So Paulo there are 400.000 vacant
or underused urban residential units and a
gesto das reas pertencentes ao Patrimnio Federal. Esse ministrio tambm o responsvel pelo majority of the units is located in central
consolidated areas. There are more than
200 high rise buildings that are completely
acompanhamento do processo de liquidao das empresas federais, como a Rede Ferroviria Federal vacant and some are the property of
enterprises and public funds such as in the
(RFFSA), detentoras de grandes reas em zonas centrais. case of buildings belonging to the Social
Security Fund. In Rio de Janeiro and Recife
unoccupied buildings compose 18% of the
total of residences in the city urban areas.
Some of the buildings have been occupied
A Caixa Econmica Federal participa como agente operador e financeiro dos recursos do Ministrio das by social movements fighting for their right
to housing and in order to pressure the
Cidades e tambm atravs da cooperao estabelecida com o Governo Francs para a definio dos public sector to turn them into housing for
low income families. However, in most
cases the occupied buildings remain
Permetros de Interveno Integrados e consultorias tcnicas. empty for years and end up suffering from a
process of intense physical degradation that
can even lead to possible collapse and
become a risk factor for the surrounding
areas.
A partir desses princpios estratgicos houve um grande avano no campo da cooperao federativa, com Several buildings belonging to the Federal
Government in So Paulo Rio de Janeiro,
reforo das aes municipais atravs da consolidao de parcerias formalizadas em convnios e acordos Vitria and, among others Recife, fall into
the above mentioned category. The majority
com definio clara e pactuada de papis e responsabilidades dos entes federados envolvidos. of the buildings belong to the General Social
Security Fund (FGPS) that is part of the
National Social Security Institutes's (INSS),
the Federal Union Patrimony (SPU) and to
the now extinct Federal Railroad Network
A disponibilizao dos imveis pblicos para os programas de reabilitao (RFFSA) and were constructed in the
decades between 1940-60 and were part of
the socio-economic dynamics of the period
(Censo IBGE,2000). Os nmeros que compem o dficit habitacional brasileiro revelam, entre outros, o and lack any current function or value.
To achieve the renovation of buildings in
seguinte paradoxo: enquanto o dficit de novas moradias calculado em 6,5 milhes de novas unidades, central city areas is an extremely complex
undertaking due to the value of land, related
legislation, the involved logistics and above
existem hoje quase 5 milhes de imveis urbanos vagos. all the prejudices and attitudes of society
towards Social Interest Housing (HIS) in
areas with a high real estate value. The
implementation of renovation projects has,
S na cidade de So Paulo so 400.000 domiclios urbanos vagos, a maioria situada em reas consolidadas however, been achieved thanks to the
participation of social organized movements
and thanks to the work of professionals and
e centrais. Apenas no centro de So Paulo so mais de 200 os prdios inteiramente vagos, parte deles their work on viability research, basic
projects, engineering budgets and even the
pertencente a empresas e fundos pblicos, como o caso dos prdios do Fundo Previdencirio. Em Recife monitoring of and participation in the
construction process
However, and in general, the enormous
e no Rio de Janeiro, por exemplo, os imveis vagos chegam a 18% do total de domiclios da rea urbana. number of real estate buildings that exist in
the centers of Brazilian cities that have a
direct connection to the degradation of
public areas is enough to justify the
Alguns so ocupados pelos movimentos sociais de luta por moradia com o objetivo de pressionar o implementation of significant revitalization
plans through large scale appropriation and
demolition actions in partnership with
poder pblico a fim de que sejam destinados produo de moradia para famlias de baixa renda. capital from big real estate enterprises, the
policy known as demolish the
Entretanto, freqentemente esses imveis permanecem vazios por anos e acabam sofrendo intenso neighborhood.

Actions by the Federal Government


processo de degradao fsica, chegando inclusive, a apresentar riscos de desabamento para o seu directed at promoting the Social
Function of Property
entorno. The Ministry of Cities has signed several

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

16
agreements with the Federal Rail Network
(RFFSA) and the National Social Security
Institute (INSS) in order to achieve a
reduction of the housing deficit and to
implement the social function of urban land.
The Ministry is also working with the Federal Esse o caso de vrios imveis de prioridade do Governo Federal em grandes cidades como So Paulo,
Patrimony Secretariat and with the Ministry
of Transportation in order to allow for the
alienation of vacant and/or underused lots Rio de Janeiro, Vitria, Recife, entre outras. Em sua maioria, so imveis pertencentes ao Fundo Geral da
and buildings through property regulation
and social interest housing programs. The Previdncia Social (FGPS) do Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social (INSS), ao Patrimnio da Unio
main purpose is to make use of vacant
buildings that are an economic burden to the
public sector, degrade public spaces and do
(SPU) e extinta Rede Ferroviria Federal (RFFSA), construdos nas dcadas de 1940-60, inseridos na
not fulfill any social function.
The Rehabilitation Program for Central dinmica daquele perodo e que hoje se encontram sem funo e sem mercado.
Urban Areas has been charged with the
ongoing implementation of the provisions of
the signed Agreements with the support of
local governments, associations and
cooperatives and through proposals for an Entretanto, viabilizar a reforma de imveis em centros de cidades tarefa extremamente complexa,
improvement in urban legislation. These
initiatives have allowed for the creation of dado o valor da terra, as legislaes incidentes, a logstica envolvida e, sobretudo, os preconceitos e
viability assessments for projects that are
foreseen in the Municipal Rehabilitation
Plans through the use of investment and
disposies da sociedade em contrrio Habitao de Interesse Social (HIS) em rea tidas como
financing lines that will lead to the execution
of renovation work and consequently valorizadas. A implementao desses empreendimentos vem se tornando possvel graas organizao
change the use of the property.
The National Urban Programs Secretariat dos movimentos sociais e do trabalho das assessorias tcnicas, por meio da realizao dos estudos de
team has, since 2005, worked with several
partners with the objective of simplifying the
housing rehabilitation and/or property viabilidade, projetos bsicos, engenharia oramentria, monitoramento e at participao nas obras.
regularization processes related to non-
operational buildings that belong to the
Federal Union, the National Social Security
Institute (INSS) and the National Railroad
Network (RFFSA) .
No entanto, comumente, o enorme estoque imobilirio presente nos centros de cidades brasileiras,
President Lula sanctioned Law 11.481 on
May 31, 2007 in order to address the need associado deteriorao de reas pblicas, serve de justificativa para a implementao de grandes
for simplified regularization and
rehabilitation processes. The law is the planos de revitalizao, por meio de aes de desapropriao e demolies em massa associadas ao
result of efforts by the Brazilian Government
to adapt current norms to the urban legal
regulations instituted after the Federal grande capital imobilirio, a conhecida poltica do arrasa quarteiro.
Constitution of 1988 and the City Statutes
(law nr.10.257/2001) which safeguard the
constitutional right to housing for each and
every citizen.
The sanctioning of the above mentioned A ao do Governo Federal para a promoo da Funo Social da Propriedade
Law has implied the development of the
Brazilian legal system in relation to the
safeguarding of property and the
Na perspectiva de buscar reduzir dficit habitacional e cumprir a funo social da terra urbana, o
broadening of access to land as it has led to
a significant reform of the Federal Union Ministrio das Cidades assinou convnios com a RFFSA e o INSS e vem trabalhando conjuntamente com
patrimony, strengthened the tools for the
acknowledgment of the right to property for a Secretaria do Patrimnio da Unio e com o Ministrio dos Transportes para permitir a alienao de
the low income population, removed the
main legal obstacles and improved
legislation through the simplification of terrenos e imveis vazios e subutilizados para programas de regularizao fundiria e de proviso
processes for the concession of property
titles and created the tools for the alienation habitacional de interesse social. A idia dar destinao aos imveis que, vazios, oneram o setor pblico,
and transfer of vacant buildings.
The changes created by the implementation
of law 11.481/07 must be incorporated into
degradam o espao urbano e, portanto, no cumprem sua funo social.
local rehabilitation strategies and should
have an impact not only on the viability of
rehabilitation ventures but also regarding
the concession the right of access to land
and the safeguarding of property rights.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


LETCIA MIGUE
Nesse processo, o Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais teve como incumbncia
avanar nos dispositivos dos acordos firmados, atravs do apoio a governos locais, associaes e
cooperativas e, tambm, atravs da proposio do aprimoramento da legislao urbanstica. Essas
iniciativas permitiram viabilizar os empreendimentos previstos nos Planos Municipais de Reabilitao,
que associam linhas de investimento e financiamentos a fim de possibilitar a execuo de obras de
reforma e transformao de uso.
Pelourinho, Salvador /BA

Desde 2005, a equipe da Secretaria Nacional de Programas Urbanos, com diversos parceiros, trabalha

PM SO LUIS /MA
no sentido de simplificar a destinao dos imveis no operacionais, pertencentes Unio, ao INSS e a
RFFSA, a programas habitacionais ou de regularizao fundiria. Assim, em 31 de maio de 2007, foi
sancionada pelo Presidente Lula a Lei n 11.481. Essa lei resulta dos esforos do governo brasileiro em
promover a adequao dos normativos vigentes ordem jurdico-urbanistca instituda depois da
Constituio Federal de 1988 e Estatuto da Cidade (Lei n 10.257/2001), obedecendo ao desgnio
constitucional de garantir o direito moradia para todos os cidados.
Degradao do casario, So Luis /MA

A sano da lei significou um grande avano do ordenamento jurdico brasileiro relacionado segurana

PM SO LUIS /MA
da posse e ampliao do acesso a terra na medida que promove uma significativa reforma da legislao
de patrimnio da Unio, fortalece os instrumentos de reconhecimento do direito de posse da populao
de baixa renda e retira os principais entraves jurdicos e aperfeioando a legislao atravs da simplificao
dos processos de entrega de ttulos e da criao de instrumentos para a alienao e transferncia de
imveis ociosos.

As mudanas institudas com a Lei n 11.481/07 devem ser assimiladas nas estratgias locais de
reabilitao, o que provoca impacto tanto na viabilizao de empreendimentos, quanto no acesso a terra
e na segurana de posse.

Interveno para recuperao do


MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS Imvel, So Luis/MA
18
The main developments created by Law
nr. 11.481 of May 31, 2007:
Principais avanos da Lei n 11.481, de 31 de maio de 2007:
The possible use of property ownership
tools (Concession of the Real Right of Use, * A possibilidade de utilizao de instrumentos de regularizao fundiria (Concesso de Direito Real de
Free Fee Farm and the Concession of
Special Use Rights for Housing Purposes) Uso, Aforamento Gratuito e Concesso de Uso Especial para fins de Moradia) em imveis da Unio,
for property belonging to the Federal Union,
including land owned by the navy;
The acceptance and implementation of inclusive terrenos de marinha e acrescidos;
tools that led to the Housing Financing
System's acknowledgment of property
possession as a real guarantee for
construction or house improvement * Aceitao dos instrumentos de reconhecimento de posse pelo Sistema Financeiro da Habitao como
financing;
Free Notary fees for the first registration
that favors a beneficiary of a social property garantia real para a obteno de financiamento para a construo e melhorias habitacionais;
ownership regularization program (under 5
minimum salaries) and for the first
registration of residential construction of up
to 70 square meters;
The possibility to sell INSS and RFFSA * Gratuidade cartorial para o primeiro registro em favor de beneficirio de programas de regularizao
buildings directly to the beneficiaries of
property regularization programs or social fundiria social (abaixo de 5 salrios mnimos) e para a primeira averbao de construo residencial at
interest housing projects;
To foresee the public offering of INSS
buildings to public administration and
70m2.
thereby create the right of first option for
uses that are foreseen by the Law;
To safeguard the free of charge occupation
of land owned by the Federal Union for low * Possibilidade de venda direta dos imveis do INSS e da RFFSA aos beneficirios de programas de
income families as well as to implement
legislation that authorizes the donation of
buildings owned by the Federal Union for regularizao fundiria ou proviso habitacional de interesse social;
beneficiaries of housing rehabilitation and
social interest regularization programs;
To create simple and fast Notary and Real
Estate Registry proceedings for the * Previso de procedimento prvio de oferta pblica dos imveis do INSS administrao pblica,
demarcation and registration of areas
owned by the Federal Union;
The alterations of Laws 9.636/98, 9.760/46 criando um direito de preferncia para os usos previstos na lei;
and Executive Laws 2.398/87 and 1.876/81
and the respective adaptation of their
contents in relation to the registration and
inscription of Federal Union buildings, the
optimization of the SPU proceedings as well * Garantia da ocupao gratuita de terrenos da Unio para famlias de baixa renda, alm da aplicabilidade
as the exemption of taxes for regularization
projects and housing provisions for the low da legislao que autoriza a doao de imveis da Unio para beneficirios de programas habitacionais e
income population;
de regularizao de interesse social.

* Criao de um procedimento gil para a demarcao e registro de reas da Unio junto aos Cartrios
de Registro de Imveis;

* Alteraes nas Leis n 9.636/98, 9.760/46 e Decretos Leis n 2.398/87 e 1.876/81, adequando
contedos referentes ao cadastramento e inscrio de imveis da Unio, otimizao de procedimentos
da SPU e iseno de taxas para projetos de regularizao e proviso habitacional para populao de baixa
renda.
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS
Financial Support
By means of resources from the Federal
Budget, the Program supports the
elaboration of Rehabilitation Plans and
related actions to define the areas to be
rehabilitated, in addition to the set of
Apoio Financeiro actions, strategies and projects, integrated
intervention locations all the items
O Programa apia, com recursos do Oramento Geral da Unio (OGU), a elaborao de Planos de required for the requalification of the urban
space.
Reabilitao e as aes a ele relacionadas para definir as reas a serem reabilitadas, alm do conjunto de Furthermore, in an agreement with the
Brazilian National Congress, the Program
has been able to invest community support
aes, estratgias e projetos, locais de interveno integrada, todos os itens necessrios para a resources for the execution of public works
as stated by the rehabilitation plans. These
requalificao do espao urbano. investments are destined to infrastructure,
urban equipment, public space, heritage,
etc.
Also supported by the Federal Budget and
credit facilities, the Brazilian Government
Alm disso, em articulao com o Congresso Nacional, o Programa vem conseguindo investir recursos a supports housing production through
financing the renovation of badly used
fundo perdido para a execuo de obras previstas nos planos de reabilitao. So investimentos em infra- properties and vacant properties, in
addition to the execution of plans, projects,
and public works in transport, mobility, and
estrutura, equipamentos urbanos, espao pblico, patrimnio etc. environmental sanitation.
At present, the following cities have
elaborated their downtown rehabilitation
plans under the technical and financial
support of the Ministry of Cities: So Lus
Tambm por meio do OGU e das linhas de financiamento, o Governo Federal apia a produo (State of Maranho); Recife and Olinda
(Pernambuco) in an integrated project;
habitacional atravs do financiamento para reforma de imveis subutilizados ou vazios e a execuo de Camaragibe (Pernambuco); Porto Alegre
(Rio Grande do Sul); Salvador (Bahia); Belo
planos, projetos e obras de transporte, mobilidade e de saneamento ambiental. Horizonte (Minas Gerais); Natal (Rio
Grande do Norte); Fortaleza (Cear);
Vitria (Esprito Santo), in addition to
Amparo, Osasco, Santo Andr and
Piracicaba (State of So Paulo), Pelotas
Atualmente, as seguintes cidades elaboram seus planos de reabilitao de centros com o apoio tcnico e (Rio Grande do Sul), Belm (State of Para),
Macei (State of Alagoas) and Aracaju
(Sergipe). Among capital cities and other
financeiro do Ministrio das Cidades: So Lus (MA); Recife e Olinda (PE), em projeto integrado; towns located in metropolitan areas, the
following count on investments dedicated to
Camaragibe (PE), Belm (PA), Macei (AL), Porto Alegre (RS); Salvador (BA); Belo Horizonte (MG); public works: Macei (State of Alagoas),
Salvador (Bahia), Mau (So Paulo),
Natal (RN); Fortaleza (CE); Vitria (ES), alm de Amparo, Santo Andr, Osasco e Piracicaba (SP), Pelotas Viamo (Rio Grande do Sul), Valparaso de
Gois (Gois), Belm (Par), Moreno
(Pernambuco), Altos (Piau), Juazeiro
(RS), Aracaj (SE). Entre as capitais e municpios de RMs, as seguintes cidades contam com investimentos (Bahia), Suzano (So Paulo), Senador
Canedo (Gois), Itamarac (Pernambuco),
para obras: Macei (AL), Salvador (BA), Mau (SP), Viamo (RS), Valparaso de Gois (GO), Belm (PA), Niteri (Rio de Janeiro), Vinhedo (So
Paulo), Jaguarina (So Paulo), Monte Mor
(So Paulo), Lauro de Freitas (Bahia), and
Moreno (PE), Altos (PI), Juazeiro (BA), Suzano (SP), Senador Canedo (GO), Itamarac (PE), Niteri (RJ), Contagem (Minas Gerais).
The cities of Rio de Janeiro, Recife and
Vinhedo (SP), Jaguarina (SP), Monte Mor (SP), Lauro de Freitas (BA) e Contagem (MG). Olinda (State of Pernambuco), Porto Alegre
(Rio Grande do Sul), Natal (Rio Grande do
Norte) and Salvador (BA) are technically
supported by the Ministry of Cities,
especially in terms of elaboration and
Contam com apoio tcnico do Ministrio, atravs, sobretudo da elaborao, assinatura e efetivao de execution of Technical Cooperation
Agreements for the coordination of
Acordos de Cooperao Tcnica que coordenam investimentos e aes, as cidades do Rio de Janeiro investments and actions.

(RJ), Recife e Olinda (PE), Porto Alegre (RS), Natal (RN) e Salvador (BA).

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

20
PM SO LUIS /MA

Degradao do casario, So Luis /MA

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


RENATO BALBIM
P A R T E 1
E L A B O R A O E I M P L E M E N T A O D E P L A N O S
D E R E A B I L I T A O D E R E A S C E N T R A I S

Casario, Belm/PA
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

22
P A R T E 1
E L A B O R A O E I M P L E M E N T A O D E P L A N O S
D E R E A B I L I T A O D E R E A S C E N T R A I S

Primeira etapa: Definies e diretrizes gerais

Os territrios e os objetivos da interveno


Numa definio preliminar, as reas urbanas centrais
compreendem um bairro ou um conjunto de bairros
consolidados, articulados ou no em torno do ncleo original da
cidade, com forte poder de concentrao de atividades e pessoas,
dotados de infra-estrutura urbana, acervo edificado, servios e
equipamentos pblicos, servios de vizinhana e oportunidades
de trabalho.

Essas reas so reconhecidas como o centro por seus habitantes


e mantm um forte apelo simblico. So tambm reas onde se
concentram os edifcios e stios considerados como patrimnio
histrico.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


The Territories and the Objectives of
Intervention
In a preliminary view, the downtown areas
encompass a neighborhood or a group of
consolidated neighborhoods, which may be
Apresentam, porm, em geral, processos de evaso de populao e de perda ou substituio de articulated around an original city core,
exerting a significant power to concentrate
activities and individuals. They also count
atividades, assim como degradao ambiental, incluindo o patrimnio, os espaos pblicos e a infra- on urban infrastructure, a collection of
constructions, services and public
estrutura. So tambm reas onde diversos problemas sociais urbanos ficam mais expostos: menores equipment, neighborhood services and job
opportunities.
These areas are recognized as the city
abandonados, populao em situao de rua, consumo de drogas etc. center by their citizens and play an
important symbolic role for the population.
These areas also concentrate the set of
buildings and sites regarded as historic
Algumas causas do esvaziamento e decadncia das reas centrais nas ltimas dcadas so comuns a heritage.
However, these areas usually present
emigration processes and loss or
todas as grandes cidades, no obstante as grandes diferenas entre elas. Dentre elas, esto os novos substitution of activities, in addition to
environmental degradation, including
modelos residenciais e de consumo das classes mdias (conjuntos fechados e shopping centers); o heritage, public spaces and infrastructure.
Several social urban problems are more
visible in such areas as well: neglected
desenvolvimento de outros centros financeiros e de servios; o deslocamento de rgos da minors, downtroddenness, drug dealing,
etc.
administrao pblica. Estas causas interagem, correspondem lgica do capital imobilirio e so A few reasons for depopulation and
decadence in downtown areas in the last
reforadas, em muitos casos, por fortes investimentos pblicos em infra-estrutura nas novas decades are the same for all large cities, no
matter how different these cities may be.
Some of these reasons include the new
centralidades. Em algumas cidades, as transformaes nos processos produtivos provocam o middle-class residential and consumption
standards (closed structures and shopping
deslocamento ou a desativao de grandes instalaes industriais ou do sistema de transportes (reas de malls); the development of other financial
and service centers; the displacement of
public administration entities. These
portos, ptios ferrovirios etc) localizados junto aos centros. reasons interact, correspond to the real
estate capital logics, and are often
reinforced by expressive public
infrastructure investments in the new
No entanto, as reas centrais das grandes cidades brasileiras apresentam diferenas importantes, seja no centralities. The transformation of
production processes in some cities lead to
the displacement or the deactivation of
tipo e gravidade dos problemas a resolver, como nas potencialidades para seu processo de reabilitao. portentous industrial premises or of the
transportation system (docks, railroad
stations, etc.), which are situated next to the
downtown areas.
Meanwhile, the downtown areas in large
Para fazer um Plano de Reabilitao, cada cidade precisar definir qual a rea de abrangncia da Brazilian cities present remarkable
differences, either in terms of the intensity of
interveno, alm de fazer emergir, por meio de anlises tcnicas e dos anseios e conhecimentos the problems to be solved or in the potentials
for their rehabilitation processes.
cotidianos da populao envolvida, os problemas desse territrio e as questes que podero ser In order to make a Rehabilitation Plan
feasible, each city must define the scope of
intervention and, by means of technical
abordadas no prazo do plano e com os recursos disponveis. A definio dos planos dever tambm levar analyses and by getting to know the
expectations and the daily-life knowledge of
em conta todas as potencialidades do territrio delimitado e recursos de diferentes polticas setoriais, de the population involved, put into view the
problems of each territory and the issues
that should be approached within the plan
modo a definir um conjunto de aes integradas. deadline, according to resources available.
The plan definition should also take into
account all the potentials concerned with the
delimited territory and the resources coming
Em umas cidades, parte da necessidade da preservao do patrimnio vai ser resolvida com recursos from different policies, so that a set of
integrated actions can be defined.
In some cities, a part of the heritage
habitacionais, que resolvem tambm o problema da moradia. Em outras, so os grandes terrenos preservation requirements is going to be
solved through housing resources that can

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

24
also solve the dwelling problem. In other
cities, the large Government-owned
deactivated lots are expected to bring forth
the conditions for economic dynamics and
for the dwelling solutions in the downtown
area.
In some cities, the interventions to solve desativados pertencentes Unio que criaro as condies para a dinamizao econmica e para as
public heritage degradation problems, lack
of appropriate public lights, and destroyed solues habitacionais na rea central.
sidewalks, for instance, can contribute to
reduce violence.
Anyway, the problems and potentials
identified in downtown areas clearly
indicate that such areas currently present Em algumas cidades, as intervenes para resolver os problemas do patrimnio pblico degradado, da
the most favorable conditions for the
implementation of the principles and falta de iluminao adequada, das caladas destrudas, pode contribuir para reduzir as manifestaes de
instruments contained in the Statute of the
Cities mainly the ones referring to the
urban property social function and to the
violncia.
Right to the City.
The definition and the implementation of
the instruments of the Statute are essential
aspects for the feasibility and for the
consistency of the Rehabilitation Plans in
De qualquer modo, os problemas e potencialidades identificados nas reas centrais indicam, de forma
relation to the urban policy objectives.
muito clara, que essas reas renem, atualmente, as condies mais favorveis para a implementao dos
What is the meaning of rehabilitating?
A downtown recovery involves multiple princpios e instrumentos contidos no Estatuto das Cidades. Especialmente os que se referem funo
aspects linked to environment, economic
activities, social inclusion, accessibility,
quality of life, housing, leisure, culture, etc.
social da propriedade urbana e ao direito Cidade.
The use of the term rehabilitate means to
recompose activities, requalifying the
space through public policies and
incentives to private enterprise, so that the
multiple urban functions can be exerted,
A definio e implementao dos instrumento do Estatuto so aspectos essenciais para a viabilidade e
which are historically located in the same
area of a given city, and recognized by para a coerncia dos Planos de Reabilitao com os objetivos da poltica urbana.
everyone as a centrality and a urban
development reference. Meanwhile, this
does not naturally exclude the
implementation of new activities and
functions, which do not contradict the
O que significa reabilitar?
identity of the downtown area.
The rehabilitation process involves the A recuperao do centro envolve mltiplos aspectos ligados ao ambiente, s atividades econmicas,
management of integrated actions, of both
public and private nature, the recovery and
reuse of buildings in areas that have
incluso social, acessibilidade, qualidade de vida, moradia, ao lazer, cultura etc.
already been consolidated, which includes
the idle, vacant, abandoned, badly used,
unhealthy spaces and buildings. This
process also involves the improvement of O uso do termo REABILITAR significa recompor atividades, habilitando novamente o espao, atravs de
collective spaces, public services,
community equipment, and accessibility
equipment towards the repopulation and
polticas pblicas e de incentivos s iniciativas privadas, para o exerccio das mltiplas funes urbanas,
the use by different social classes.
This means dealing with the territory in an historicamente localizadas numa mesma rea da cidade, reconhecida por todos como uma centralidade e
integrated way and not by means of
isolated sectorial policies. It also means uma referncia do desenvolvimento urbano. No entanto, isso no exclui, naturalmente, a implementao
articulating different public segments and
breaking with "corporate" cultures found in
public administration. de atividades e funes novas, que no sejam contraditrias com a identidade do centro.
Furthermore, it should be reinforced that,
for the urban Brazilian policy, the
rehabilitation of urban areas has assumed
a sense that totally differs from the sense
and from the agenda that the
A reabilitao um processo de gesto de aes integradas, pblicas e privadas, de recuperao e
revitalization processes in downtown areas
presented in countries of the Northern reutilizao do acervo edificado em reas j consolidadas da cidade, que compreende os espaos e
Hemisphere.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


Those countries devised programs that
repositioned such areas in the global,
competitive ranking of the cities. The
programs comprised important elements
such as the reoccupation of downtown
edificaes ociosas, vazias, abandonadas, subutilizadas e insalubres; alm da melhoria dos espaos de uso areas to enlarge the public spaces that are
capable to offer quality to the population,
coletivo, dos servios pblicos, dos equipamentos comunitrios e da acessibilidade, na direo do the deployment of tourism projects based
on cultural equipment, leisure and
repovoamento e da utilizao pelas diferentes classes sociais. gastronomy. This reoccupation was also
devoted to attracting intelligent offices
concerned with global management.
Through estate valorization, the immediate
effect of such actions ennobled areas or
Isso significa trabalhar de forma integrada no territrio, e no com polticas setoriais isoladas. Significa gentrification surpassed public
investments made during the urban
requalification process. However, one of
tambm articular diferentes esferas pblicas e romper com as culturas corporativas existentes na the results in many cities was the
unfeasibility for lower-income classes to
administrao pblica. stay in the areas.
Rehabilitate downtown areas according to
the strategy of opening up the urban space
to everyone is an extremely complex
challenge as it leads to a paradigm shift
Alm disso, o que deve ser reforado que, para a poltica urbana brasileira, a reabilitao dos centros according to which the requalification of a
given area is the same as banishing any
tem um sentido totalmente diferente do sentido - e da agenda - que os processos de revitalizao de trace of lower-income populations unless
they appear as waiters, doorkeepers, or
street performers people who clearly live
reas centrais tiveram em cidades de pases do Norte. s o m e w h e r e f a r t h e r, i n f a v e l a s ,
shantytowns or any other precarious
neighborhood in the outskirts of the city.

L, a reconquista dos centros para a ampliao de espaos pblicos de qualidade, a implantao de Principles and Guidelines for
Rehabilitation
?To harmonize rehabilitation plans actions
projetos tursticos baseados no trinmio equipamentos culturais, entretenimento e gastronomia, assim and strategies with the Municipal Master
Plan or its revised equivalent and to comply
como para atrao de escritrios inteligentes vinculados gesto de negcios globalizados, constituram with environmental and cultural
preservation directives.
?Integrating the whole set of federal
programas que reposicionaram essas reas no ranking da competio global entre cidades. O efeito actions and programs either designed or
on course concerning the downtown
imediato dessas medidas - enobrecimento das reas ou gentrificao - superou, via valorizao areas.
?Promoting and supporting the integration
imobiliria, investimentos pblicos feitos no processo de requalificao urbanstica. No entanto, em of local and regional public actions through
rehabilitation management plans for the
downtown areas.
vrias dessas cidades, um dos efeitos foi a inviabilizao da permanncia dos setores mais pobres da ?Stimulating the formulation and the
participative management of the society in
populao. the rehabilitation plans.
?Promoting the conservation of the
constructed, cultural, and environmental
heritage in downtown areas to improve the
population's and users' quality of life.
Reabilitar os centros, de acordo com a estratgia de ampliar o espao de urbanidade para todos, um ?Encouraging the consolidation of an
urban rehabilitation culture as well as of the
desafio de enorme complexidade, pois significa romper o paradigma de que requalificar uma rea reuse of the existing buildings in downtown
areas as opposed to the tendencies of
increased horizontal expansion in Brazilian
sinnimo de excluir qualquer trao da presena dos mais pobres - a no ser como garons, porteiros ou cities.
?Contributing to reduce the habitational
artistas envolvidos em espetculos que compem o cenrio, pessoas que evidentemente vivero bem deficit through the occupation of vacant
lots and empty public buildings owned by
the Federal Government, preferably for
longe dali, em alguma favela ou periferia precria. residential use, though articulating such
use with other urban functions.

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26
Princpios e Diretrizes para a Reabilitao Urbana
* Compatibilizar os planos, estratgias e aes de reabilitao com o Plano Diretor Municipal ou
equivalente atualizado, atendendo as determinaes de preservao ambiental e cultural.

* Integrar a totalidade das aes e programas de mbito federal previstos e em execuo nas reas
centrais.

* Promover e apoiar a integrao das aes pblicas municipais atravs de planos de gesto para
reabilitao das reas centrais.

* Estimular a formulao e a gesto participativa da sociedade dos planos de reabilitao.

* Promover a conservao do patrimnio construdo, cultural e ambiental das reas centrais, de forma a
melhorar a qualidade de vida da populao e de seus usurios.

* Estimular a consolidao da cultura da reabilitao urbana e do reaproveitamento do parque construdo


das reas centrais em oposio s tendncias de exagerada expanso horizontal das cidades brasileiras.

* Contribuir para a reduo do dficit habitacional por meio da ocupao dos imveis vazios,
preferencialmente para o uso residencial, mas articulando esse uso a outras funes urbanas.

* Fomentar o desenvolvimento tecnolgico e a formao profissional para a reforma e reciclagem de


edifcios, tanto para viabilizar a preservao do patrimnio e garantir a destinao social desses bens,
como para impulsionar a atividade de reabilitao, setor da construo civil que pode ter papel importante
na gerao de empregos.

* Fortalecer os vnculos da populao com os bairros onde moram, como forma de aumentar a coeso
social.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


?Fomenting the technological
development as well as the professional
education towards the renovation and the
recycling of buildings, aiming at heritage
preservation and at granting a social
destination for such assets, in addition to
* Apoiar a permanncia e incluso social da populao de baixa renda que reside ou trabalha na regio, triggering the rehabilitation activity, namely
the home-building sector, which may play
por meio da gesto de aes de melhoria das condies de acesso moradia, ao trabalho e aos servios an important role in job stimulation.
?Strengthening the connections between
population and the neighborhoods where
pblicos. they live as a way to increase social
cohesion.
?Supporting the permanence and social
inclusion of the lower-income population
that either resides or works in the region
* Reforar as funes econmicas e os pequenos negcios, especialmente aquelas que criam mais through managing the improvement actions
concerned with housing conditions, job
empregos. opportunities, and public services.
?Reinforcing economical functions and
small businesses, mainly the ones that may
generate more workplaces.
?Encouraging the integrated action of the
* Estimular a atuao integrada do setor pblico e da iniciativa privada com vistas a articular os public services as well as of the private
enterprise to articulate investments aiming
investimentos para reaproveitamento do parque edificado, na conservao e melhoria da infra-estrutura, at the reuse of buildings, infrastructure
conservation and improvement, and public
equipment and services.
dos servios e dos equipamentos pblicos. ?Adapting the legislation regarding
urbanism, civil engineering, and public
administration so that the required recovery
actions and partnerships are made
* Adequar as legislaes urbansticas, construtivas e administrativas no sentido de permitir as aes de possible.
?Promoting urban legislation application to
guarantee the social management of urban
recuperao e as parcerias necessrias nas intervenes. ground valorization resulting from the
interventions and the security of vulnerable
assets and populations.
?Promoting a sense of integration and
urbanity in wide-open urban areas
* Promover a aplicao da legislao urbanstica no sentido de garantir a gesto social da valorizao do remaining from industries, railroads or
ports, which have not been appropriately
solo urbano decorrente das intervenes e a salvaguarda de bens e populaes vulnerveis. used and, therefore, have led to isolation.
This promotion should lead to new urban
infrastructure and equipment to allow
broadly accessible circulation and
transport; stimulation to the permanence of
* Promover a integrao e a urbanidade em grandes vazios urbanos remanescentes de reas industriais, productive activities compatible with new
uses; development of housing projects with
ferrovirias e ou porturias subutilizadas e causadoras de isolamento, garantindo o aporte de novas infra- mixed use and a diversity of social classes,
additionally to employment and income
stimulation in association with the
estruturas e equipamentos urbanos que possibilitem a circulao e o transporte universalmente acessvel; strategies of rehabilitation and
modernization of productive activities.
o estmulo permanncia de atividades produtivas compatveis com os novos usos; o desenvolvimento ?Promoting the development of a
homeless people care policy.
de projetos habitacionais com uso misto e diversidade de classes de renda e de gerao de emprego e
renda, associados s estratgias de reabilitao e modernizao das atividades produtivas.

* Promover o desenvolvimento de uma poltica de atendimento populao em situao de rua.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

28
P A R T E 1
E L A B O R A O E I M P L E M E N T A O D E P L A N O S
D E R E A B I L I T A O D E R E A S C E N T R A I S

Plano de Reabilitao: itens bsicos de composio

Definio estratgica
O objetivo das aes de requalificao urbana, de acordo com a
Poltica Nacional de Reabilitao desenvolvida pelo Ministrio das
Cidades, instituir instrumentos de planejamento territorial,
mecanismos de gesto participativa e projetos especficos de
interveno de acordo com Plano Diretor Municipal, elaborado
luz do Estatuto da Cidade (Lei n 10.257, de 10 de julho de 2001),
e com as demais legislaes vigentes.

MANUAL DE de
Manual REABILITAO
Reabilitao DE REASUrbanas
de reas URBANASCentrais
CENTRAIS
*1
Strategy definition
The objective of the actions directed at
urban revitalization, according to the
National Rehabilitation Policy launched by
A idia por trs de um processo de reabilitao a de estimular a ocupao diversificada dos centros, the Ministry of Cities, is to create tools for
territorial planning, participative
management and for specific intervention
sobretudo o uso habitacional, atravs da utilizao de imveis ociosos, da readequao dos espaos plans as stipulated by the Municipal Master
Plan, based and created by the City
pblicos, dos equipamentos, da infra-estrutura e da legislao urbana e do aproveitamento de grandes Statutes (Law nr.10.257, July 10, 2001)
and supported by other current legislation.
vazios urbanos remanescentes de reas industriais, ferrovirias e ou porturias, valorizando, em todos os The basic idea of a rehabilitation process is
to promote the diversified re-population of
city centers, particularly as a residential
casos, o patrimnio cultural e natural nas reas centrais. area, through the use of unoccupied real
estate, the renovation of public spaces,
facilities, infra-structure and urban
legislation as well as to create benefits from
existing empty urban industrial areas,
Para tanto, necessria a elaborao de um Plano de Reabilitao ou instrumento de planejamento similar railways and harbors and thereby increase
the value of the cultural and natural
que promova e apie a integrao das aes pblicas e dos investimentos necessrios reabilitao, patrimony in central urban areas.
It is therefore necessary to create a
sobretudo atravs da criao de ncleos gestores intersetoriais e federativos e do estmulo atuao Rehabilitation Plan, or a similar planning
tool that will promote and support the
integration of public actions with
integrada entre setor pblico, a iniciativa privada e a sociedade civil organizada. rehabilitation related investments, through
the creation of intra-sector and federal
management centers and the promotion of
integrated actions by the public sector,
private initiative and organized civil society.
Os Planos de Reabilitao definiro, em primeiro lugar, as reas a serem reabilitadas e o conjunto de aes, The Rehabilitation Plans will mainly define
the rehabilitation areas and the joint
estratgias, meios, custos, prazos e projetos de intervenes integradas nas reas centrais necessrios actions, strategies, means, costs,
deadlines and city center integrated project
requalificao dos espaos urbanos em questo, o que pode incluir, tambm, a elaborao de estruturas de interventions that are necessary for the
revitalization of the respective urban
spaces. The Plans may also include the
gesto, de legislao especfica e de programas necessrios para promover a reabilitao e fortalecer a creation of management structures,
specific legislation and other programs with
capacidade de gesto do municpio. the objective of promoting and
strengthening the municipal management
capacity.
After the conclusion of the planning stage it
is necessary to start the creation of basic
Aps a concluso da etapa de planejamento, necessria a elaborao de projetos bsicos e executivos de urban related rehabilitation executive
projects aimed at the improvement of
reabilitao urbana e edilcia a fim de melhorar as estruturas e equipamentos existentes e utilizar os imveis structures and existing facilities in order to
allow for the refurbishing of vacant
buildings into socially attractive housing,
urbanos ociosos para a produo de habitao de interesse social, uso pblico ou uso misto. Os projetos public facilities or both. Projects must be
compatible with regional, local, climatic
devero ser compatveis s caractersticas regionais, locais, climticas e culturais da rea, e as solues and cultural characteristics of the area and
professional interventions must eliminate
all urban and architectonic barriers in order
tcnicas adotadas devem eliminar barreiras arquitetnicas e urbansticas, visando garantir a acessibilidade to guarantee universal assess to the area.
And finally, it is very important to remember
universal. that the creation and implementation of a
planning process cannot only deal with the
prioritization urban intervention actions but
also include a strategy and methodology
for the spreading of information related to
Por fim, fundamental lembrar que a articulao e implementao de um processo de planejamento operational stages and control points that
will allow for social control of actions
devem prever, alm das aes e intervenes urbanas prioritrias, formas de publicizao e divulgao de initiated by the public sector.

seus contedos que visem o monitoramento e acompanhamento, a fim de permitir o controle social das
aes desenvolvidas pelo poder pblico.

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30
Methodology
Methodology will define the work stages
and assure compliance with principles
and directives, provide details of actions
within a temporal axis (chronogram) as
well as define the means and tools that will
be used in order to reach the respective
Metodologia
objectives. Methodology will guide the
project manager in the creation of the final A metodologia contempla a definio das etapas de trabalho assegurando os princpios e diretrizes, o
product.
Methodology will assimilate and analyze detalhamento das aes dentro de um horizonte temporal (cronograma), alm dos meios e
all available and future research, intended
actions, the tools used for the fact finding
actions (questionnaires, interviews etc.), instrumentos que sero utilizados para atingir os objetivos pretendidos. A metodologia guiar o agente
deadlines, teams and division of labor,
publicity strategies and any other planejador na elaborao do produto final.
measures used for the development and
realization of the final product.
Methodology, or the 1st stage of the
Rehabilitation Plan, must concentrate on
the execution of the following points: Entre outras informaes, na metodologia consideram-se as pesquisas que sero realizadas, as aes
a. Definition and delimitation of the
rehabilitation area including presentation pretendidas, o instrumental utilizado para o levantamento de dados (questionrio, entrevista etc), o
and justification;
b.Describe the Plan and/or Project's
strategic objective(s); tempo previsto, a equipe e da diviso do trabalho, as formas de tabulao e tratamento dos dados, as
c. Provide directives for the execution of
the Plan and/or Project according to local estratgias de divulgao, enfim, tudo aquilo que se utilizar na elaborao do produto final pretendido.
urban legislation;
d. Provide complete fact finding reports,
research reports and plans for projects
and interventions related to the
rehabilitation area(s) (accomplished, Para a elaborao de um Plano de Reabilitao entende-se que a Metodologia, ou 1 fase do Plano,
implemented, under creation or up-
coming); dever prever a execuo dos seguintes itens:
e. Provide a complete list of the main
public and private parties involved in the
rehabilitation of the area and/or the
project (organ, secretariat and other
institutions within the three branches of a. definio e delimitao do permetro de reabilitao, sua apresentao e justificativa;
the government private and organized
civil society entities); b. A descrio do objetivo estratgico do Plano e/ou do Projeto
f. Provide the main data and urban
indicators that will be used for the control
and follow-up systems, according to the c. As diretrizes para a execuo Plano e/ou do Projeto, em conformidade com a legislao
proposed objectives. Provide information
on the forms through which the urbanstica local.
information was gathered and
systematized.
g. Supply information on how the d. levantamento sumrio das pesquisas, planos, projetos e intervenes relevantes para a
Rehabilitation Plans and/or Projects
comply with the Master Plan, either reabilitao do permetro (realizados, implantados, em elaborao ou previstos).
through a specific law, reference to the
plan or project in the Master Plan or e. O levantamento sumrio dos principais agentes pblicos e privados envolvidos na
connection with the principles and
directives of the Master Plan.
reabilitao do permetro e/ou do projeto (rgo, secretaria e instituies das trs esferas de governo,
Contents and deployment
Rehabilitation Plans must address, agentes privados e entidades da sociedade civil organizada)
among other matters, the following points:
a. a detailed list of the organized groups
from civil society with whom the plan will f. As principais informaes e indicadores urbanos que comporo o sistema de
be discussed and created and a
participation agenda for each of the monitoramento e acompanhamento, em conformidade com o objeto proposto. As formas para
involved parties (NGOs, entrepreneurs,
tenant associations, labor unions, aquisio dessas informaes e sua sistematizao.
commercial associations, shop-owners

g. A manifestao de conformidade do Plano e/ou do Projeto de Reabilitao com o Plano

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


organizations);
b. collect data and professional information
related to positive and negative
aspects/effects (physic-environmental,
socio-economic, funding structure,
Diretor (PD), podendo ser atravs de lei especfica, citao da previso do plano ou do projeto no PD, ou transportation and mobility systems, urban
legislation, cultural heritage and patrimony
etc.);
apontamento da vinculao com os princpios e diretrizes do PD. c. collect data and, in particular, make a
complete survey of vacant or under-used
real estate and public buildings as well as
evaluate and foresee the nominal and legal
status of funds and fund purposes;
Composio e desenvolvimento d. to propose and foresee the application of
urbanism and taxation tools included in the
Os Planos de Reabilitao devero conter, entre outros, os seguintes itens: City Statutes and to present drafts of Law
Bills necessary for the adaptation and
harmonization of the Rehabilitation Plan
with the Master Plan.
a. Mapeamento detalhado dos grupos organizados da sociedade civil (ONGs, entidades de The contents of Plans may also include the
below mentioned points:
classe e empresariais, associao de moradores, sindicatos, associaes comerciais, clubes de lojistas) a. collecting of information on the socio-
economic situation of the inhabitants of the
rea to be rehabilitated as well as on the
com os quais o plano ser discutido e construdo e a instituio de uma agenda de participao potential inhabitants after the rehabilitation
interventions as well as on the public
envolvendo cada um dos agentes. aspirations to live in the city center(s);
b. collect, systematize actualize and/or
b. Levantamento de dados e informaes tcnicas relacionadas aos condicionantes e analyze all environmental, historical,
geographical, sociological, economic and
urban studies;
potencialidades (fsico-ambientais, sociais e econmicas, estrutura fundiria, ao sistema de transporte e c. physical survey of vacant urban spaces,
vacant buildings, under-used buildings,
mobilidade, legislao urbanstica, patrimnio cultural etc) land and on the state of conservation of
buildings and of urban spaces and the
current use of land; l
c. Levantamento e mapeamento dos imveis vazios e subutilizados, sobretudo pblicos, d. provide urban infra-structure evaluation
(water distribution, sewages, urban
avaliao da situao fundiria dominial e jurdica e previso de destinao. sanitation, public lighting, telephones and
optical cables) as well as to evaluate area
d. Proposio e previso de aplicao dos instrumentos urbansticos e tributrios do Estatuto accessibility and the urban real estate
market;
e. identify and evaluate areas capable of
da Cidade e o desenvolvimento das minutas de Projetos de Leis que forem necessrios para a adaptao attracting partnerships with public or
private entities, enterprises and urban
e compatibilizao do Plano de Reabilitao ao Plano Diretor. consortium projects;
f. evaluate local, state and federal urban
legislation in relation to the preservation of
the environment and of the public
patrimony as well as to, when applicable,
A composio dos Planos poder ainda prever outros itens, como os abaixo relacionados: point to possible conflicts; al education as
well as to seek solutions that have the
support the local population and that
revitalize the value of public spaces;
g. research the economic-financing viability
a. Levantamento da situao socioeconmica dos moradores da rea a ser reabilitada e dos of the plan/project, specify costs, financing
models and identify potential sources of
possveis habitantes aps a realizao das intervenes, bem como da inteno em morar no centro da financing and subsidies;
h. propose all possible urban and
architectonic interventions (refurbishment,
cidade. restoration, adaptation, conservation,
revitalization) and the respective degrees
b. Levantamentos, coleta, sistematizao, atualizao ou anlise de diagnsticos ambientais ou (partial, total, preventive, urgent) while
upholding the objective of creating social
estudos histricos, geogrficos, sociolgicos, econmicos, urbansticos; diversification and a social housing
benefits;
c. Levantamento fsico e mapeamento de vazios urbanos, imveis desocupados, terrenos e

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

32
i. propose projects to create citizen
awareness and heritage and increase
environmental education as well as to seek
solutions that have the support the local
population and that revitalize the value of
public spaces;
j. propose programs aimed at stimulating imveis subutilizados, estado de conservao dos imveis e dos espaos urbanos e uso do solo;
local economic growth and create jobs and
revenue through the inclusion of the local d. Avaliao da infra-estrutura urbana (redes de distribuio de gua, esgoto, drenagem
population in labor market, professional
empowerment projects, fiscal incentives
for rendered services as well as the urbana, iluminao pblica, telefonia e cabos ticos), da acessibilidade e do mobilirio urbano;
implementation of projects and urban
interventions for the revitalization of small e. Avaliao de reas de oportunidade para promover parcerias pblicas, pblico-privadas e
enterprises, ambulant commerce and,
among others,
handicrafts;
the commerce of operaes urbanas e consorciadas;
k. create, develop, improve and implement
information and control systems as well as f. Avaliao da legislao local, estadual e federal urbanstica, de preservao ambiental e do
to publish information that will allow for the
production of urban rehabilitation patrimnio, identificando pontos conflitantes, quando houver;
indicators, follow-up new projects, spread
information on new practices and discuss
and evaluate urban rehabilitation and
g. Estudo de viabilidade econmico-financeira, estabelecendo os custos, formas e
urban dynamics;
I. implement professional empowerment possibilidades de fontes de financiamento e de subsdios;
programs aimed at strengthening the
management's capacity to generate
rehabilitation plans and policies.
h. Proposio das intervenes urbanas e arquitetnicas em suas diferentes modalidades
(reforma, restaurao, adaptao, conservao, requalificao) e graus (parcial, total, preventiva,
emergencial) com diversificao social e de usos dos imveis;
i. Proposio de projetos de conscientizao da cidadania, educao patrimonial e ambiental,
buscando solues para a incluso da populao em situao de rua, valorizando e qualificando o espao
pblico.
j. Proposio de programas que visem dinamizao da economia local com gerao de
emprego e renda com a insero da populao no mercado de trabalho, por meio de projetos de
capacitao profissional, incentivos fiscais para atividades de prestao de servios e implantao de
projetos e intervenes urbanas para qualificao do pequeno comrcio, do comrcio ambulante e do
comrcio artesanal entre outros;
k. Elaborao, desenvolvimento, capacitao e implantao de sistemas de informao e
monitoramento e divulgao de informaes que permitam produzir indicadores urbanos de
reabilitao, acompanhar novos processos, divulgar novas prticas, alm de discutir e avaliar experincias
de reabilitao e a dinmica urbana.
l. Capacitao tcnica que vise o fortalecimento da gesto para elaborao de planos e
polticas de reabilitao.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


RENATO BALBIM
Belm/PA
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

34
P A R T E 1
E L A B O R A O E I M P L E M E N T A O D E P L A N O S
D E R E A B I L I T A O D E R E A S C E N T R A I S

Aspectos para implementao

1) Articulao federativa e setorial


Um dos desafios do Governo Federal para o fortalecimento do
poder local passa pela integrao de suas polticas pblicas, que
devem se refletir em seus programas e aes, superar a
programao setorial tpica das organizaes e considerar as
atribuies constitucionais de cada ente federado.

Aes de reabilitao de reas urbanas centrais, na medida em


que tm como princpio atuar de maneira territorializada,
necessitam de um tratamento integrado que envolve aspectos
determinantes das polticas de vrios setores do Governo em suas
trs esferas.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


Implementation Points

1) Federal and branch communication


On of the challenges facing the Federal
Government in its objectives to increase
Alm disso, necessrio ressaltar que o desafio da integrao, frequentemente, no se resolve apenas and strengthen the decentralization of
power is the integration of public policies in
plans and actions that work beyond typical
dentro das fronteiras do municpio. Questes de mbito intermunicipal ou metropolitano s se resolvem sectarian organizational lines while taking
into consideration the constitutional rights
com polticas baseadas em outras escalas territoriais (bacia hidrogrficas, micro-regies e regies of each member of the federation.
As urban rehabilitation actions are in the
metropolitanas), e necessitam, portanto, de cooperao entre municpios, estados e unio para serem national interest, they require an integrated
approach that involves policies originating
from various sectors of the three branches
discutidos e levados a termo. of Government.
Furthermore, it is necessary to point to the
fact that the challenge of integration is not
often and not only solved within local
municipalities. Questions of an intra-
O primeiro passo para o desenvolvimento de um processo de reabilitao a articulao intersetorial municipal or metropolitan character
(hydrographic basins, micro-regions and
dentro do prprio municpio, atravs do estabelecimento de um dilogo entre todos os atores metropolitan regions) can only be solved by
policies based in larger territorial scales
envolvidos no processo, includas as lideranas comunitrias. Algumas parcerias podem ser estratgicas and therefore need the cooperation
between municipalities, states and the
federation in order to be realized.
na hora da elaborao e implementao do Plano, como, por exemplo: The first step towards the development of a
rehabilitation process is the intra-sector
dialogue within the municipality in question
and the establishment of a dialogue
between all of the parties involved in the
* a Cmara de Vereadores a partir de sua analise e votao, o apoio da cmara municipal process, including community leaders.
Some partnerships have a strategic value
fundamental para garantir a aplicao, legitimao e efetividade os Projetos de Lei relacionados ao Plano as far as the creation and the
implementation of the plan are concerned:
de Reabilitao. Alm disso, os vereadores podem sugerir medidas de interesse pblico ao Poder the Board of Aldermen the support of the
municipal board, after evaluation and
voting, is fundamental for the application,
Executivo Municipal e, assim, estabelecer uma parceria na hora de articular os projetos prioritrios legitimization and effectiveness of Law Bills
related to the Rehabilitation Plan.
dentro da Prefeitura. Furthermore, aldermen can suggest public
interest measures to the Municipal
Executive Power and become an important
partner when projects are prioritized within
the City Hall.
* o Ministrio Pblico (Estadual ou Federal, quando a rea envolver a utilizao de reas da Unio) - the Public Ministry (State or Federal and
whenever the actions involve the use of
representado pelo promotor de justia designado para a rea de habitao e urbanismo, seu papel Federal land) represented by the justice
attorney appointed for the areas of housing
and urbanism and whose roll is to control
fiscalizar o cumprimento da lei e autuar processos administrativos para apurar irregularidades urbansticas that the law is followed and to act upon
administrative proceedings in order to
sempre que estas chegarem a seu conhecimento. Poder ser parceiro vital na soluo dos conflitos de evaluate any irregularities that have come
to his/her knowledge. The Ministry can be a
vital partner for solving interest conflicts
interesse surgidos durante a implementao das aes de reabilitao, sobretudo atravs da promoo during the implementation of the
rehabilitation actions and above all for the
de Termos de Ajustamento de Conduta que comprometam as partes envolvidas. creation of Conduit Agreements signed by
the involved parties.
non-governmental agencies, universities
and professional councils all are important
partners in relation to questions of
* as organizaes no governamentais, universidades e os conselhos profissionais - importantes empowerment, professional and legal
assistance, the creation of projects for the
parceiros, sobretudo nas questes relacionadas capacitao e prestao de assistncia tcnica e restoration of buildings, City Hall approval
as well as for legislation revision
proceedings and the use and occupation of
land.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

36
local tenant and commercial associations
commercial associations can assist in
questions related to informal commerce,
tax incentives and sanctions and in actions
related to the creation of jobs and revenue.
Local tenant associations are
indispensable for the process of problem jurdica, na elaborao de projetos de reforma de imveis e na sua aprovao pela prefeitura e nos
identification, definition of priorities for the
city centers and for the implementation of processos de reviso da legislao urbanstica e de uso e ocupao do solo.
population awareness and mobilization
programs on subjects related to
patrimony/heritage, the environment and
citizen participation.
councils organized by civil society and * as associaes comerciais e de moradores as associaes comerciais podem auxiliar nas questes
members of government municipal
councils can have the power to deliberate,
dictate norms as well as assume a
relacionadas ao comrcio informal, aos incentivos e sanes tributrias e s aes de gerao de
consultative and auditing roll with the power
to act in specific areas such as public health emprego e renda. J as associaes de moradores so indispensveis na identificao de problemas, na
and education. The rehabilitation of city
centers involves Housing, Cultural definio dos projetos prioritrios para a rea central e na implantao dos processos de mobilizao e
Heritage and Environmental Councils.
Councils approve directives, strategies and
action tools as well as setting priorities
conscientizao da populao nas reas de educao patrimonial, ambiental e para o exerccio da
related to the implementation of public
policies for each of the areas in question cidadania.
and its particular characteristics. Council
meetings also function as a place of debate
where questions are raised on the
strategies used for the implementation of
local rehabilitation policies. * os conselhos organizados pela sociedade civil e membros do governo conselhos municipais so
municipal public servants it is very
important to involve political and rgos que podem ter carter deliberativo, normativo, consultivo e fiscalizador, com competncia de
professional public servants within the City
Hall's cabinet as well the Secretariats of
Planning, Urbanism, Infra-structure,
atuar em reas especficas, como os Conselhos de Sade e de Educao. No caso da reabilitao de
Transportation, Housing, Environment,
Culture, Education, Social Security and centros se destaca a atuao dos Conselhos de Habitao, Patrimnio Histrico Cultural, Meio
Finance. Urban rehabilitation can only
happen when it is treated as a
governmental priority and when it involves
Ambiente. Cabe aos Conselhos a aprovao de diretrizes, estratgias e instrumentos de ao, bem
all of its organs.
como fixar as prioridades para a aplicao e desenvolvimento de polticas pblicas de cada rea de
The implementation of Management
Centers interesse de seu tema correlato. Como arenas de debate, as reunies dos Conselhos trazem tona
The creation of a specific and intra-sector
management structure, or a Management
Center, is an essential part in the
questionamentos sobre pontos estratgicos da implantao das polticas de reabilitao locais:
rehabilitation process of a city center area.
The Management Center is a collegiate
organ that directs the execution of the
actions foreseen by planning * os servidores pblicos municipais dos diversos rgos envolvidos essencial o envolvimento dos
professionals, and guarantees the
implementation of directives, policies,
programs, projects and other actions quadros tcnicos e polticos do gabinete do prefeito, das Secretarias de Planejamento, Urbanismo, Infra-
related to the local Rehabilitation Plan.
It is the Center's responsibility to define and estrutura, Transportes, Habitao, Meio-Ambiente, Cultura, Educao, Assistncia Social e Finanas.
approve the general directives related to
the public area's urbanism, tourism,
culture, economy, finances and social life;
Dadas as dificuldades, a reabilitao urbana acontece apenas se for tratada como uma poltica prioritria
to define and approve programs, projects
and urban operations in central city areas de governo que envolva todas as suas reas.
as well as to define the implementation
strategies; to follow-up and control actions
and interventions made by the
Rehabilitation Plan; to define the forums
and the agenda for debates with civil
society; to inform other organs of the
Federal Union, States and Municipalities,
as well as other related parties, regarding

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


the contents of the subjects and
technicalities in the Rehabilitation Plan
and, finally, to create directives and
strategies aimed at the spreading of
A implementao de Ncleos Gestores information on actions taken by the
Management Center.
A implementao de uma estrutura de gesto especfica e multisetorial, ou de um Ncleo Gestor, para a Forms and tools for cooperative action
Examples of possible forms for cooperative
rea central uma parte essencial do processo de reabilitao de um centro. O Ncleo Gestor um rehabilitation action that are under
implementation or in the project stage:
rgo colegiado que dirigir a execuo das atividades previstas pelos agentes planejadores visando Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)
Instituted through Law nr.11.079/2004,
implementao das polticas, diretrizes, programas, projetos e aes referentes ao Plano de Reabilitao public-private partnerships have allowed
the State to participate in projects even
local. when there is a lack of available public
funding or when it is not possible to fund the
project through charges imposed on users
of the respective public facilities.
A public-private partnership is a de facto
Identificam-se como atribuies do Ncleo a definio e aprovao das diretrizes gerais de natureza agreement signed between public
administration organs and private business
entities stating their common interest, and
urbanstica, turstica, cultural, econmica, financeira e social da rea de interesse comum; a definio e legal commitment, in the implementation or
management, in all or in part, of services,
aprovao dos programas, projetos e das operaes urbanas na rea central, assim como a definio ventures and other public interest activities.
The main advantage of PPPs lies in their
da(s) sua(s) estratgia(s) de implementao; o acompanhamento das aes e intervenes decorrentes capacity to aggregate new resources for
areas of interest to private capital without
costs to the Government, and to free
do Plano de Reabilitao; a definio dos fruns e do calendrio de discusso com a sociedade; a Government funds for social policy
implementation purposes.
articulao poltica com outros rgos da Unio, do Estado e do Municpio e outros atores afetos aos
Social Organizations and Public
Interest Civil Society Organizations
temas tcnicos definidos pelo Plano de Reabilitao e, finalmente, a elaborao de diretrizes e estratgias Both Social Organizations and Public
Interest Civil Society Organizations were
de divulgao das aes relacionadas ao centro. recognized as legal Brazilian entities
during the administrative State reform that
Formas e instrumentos de atuao cooperada resulted in constitutional amendment
nr.19/98.
These two types of organizations can now
be created in order to render public
services that do not fall under State
Formas e instrumentos de atuao cooperada exclusivity.
Social Organizations were created by
Federal Law nr.9.637/98 and considered
Entre outras formas de ao cooperada e organizada, esto citados alguns exemplos que esto em as legal private entities, created by private
individuals even if generally for public
implementao ou elaborao em diversas iniciativas de reabilitao: interest purposes, in order to perform social
services that are not exclusive State
services such as education, scientific
research, environmental protection,
cultural activities and, among others,
Parcerias Pblico-Privadas (PPPs) health insurance programs. The actions of
these Entities are mainly controlled and
Institudas pela Lei n 11.079/2004, as parcerias pblico-privadas permitem que o Estado atue em legislated through the private law system,
even if conditioned to public law.
Even though Social Organizations are not
situaes em que no dispe de recursos para investimento direto ou em que no possvel o completely submitted to the regulations
imposed by the Federal Competitive
financiamento feito exclusivamente pelos usurios das utilidades pblicas oferecidas. Bidding Law for the contracting of services,
construction, personnel, etc, they are still
submitted to the same principles of
competition liability as other Public
Administration organs and, due to their
A parceria pblico-privada (PPP) concebida como um acordo firmado entre a administrao pblica e non-profit character, their possible profits
must be used for the financing related
activities.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

38
Public Interest Civil Society Organizations
were created by Law nr.9.790/99. They are
created by private individuals and must
operate in at least one an area related to
social assistance, culture, education, entes privados, que estabelece vnculo jurdico entre eles, visando implantao ou gesto, no todo ou
health, environment and social and/or
economic development. Profits are, also
due to their non-profit character, used to
em parte, de servios, empreendimentos e atividades de interesse pblico.
further the production of services. As both
Social Organizations and Public Interest
Civil Society Organizations are
administrators of public funds they are A principal vantagens das PPPs est relacionada capacidade de levantar novos recursos em reas de
subjected to result oriented controls by the
Public Department and the Audit Court.
The creation of Public Interest Civil Society interesse do capital privado sem nus ao Estado, que salvaguarda sua capacidade de aplicao de
Organizations is conditioned to many
requirements that are, at each level of recursos em polticas sociais.
Government, supervised by the organs of
the Public Department and Political Policy
Councils that act within the corresponding
area of activity.
Organizaes Sociais (OSs) e Organizaes da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Pblico (OSCIPs)
Urban Consortium Operations
Urban Consortium Operations are As Organizaes Sociais (OSs) e as Organizaes da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Pblico (OSCIPs)
foreseen in art 32, 1 of the City Statutes
(Law nr.10.257/2001) and are defined as
the joint interventions and measures foram introduzidas no ordenamento jurdico brasileiro, no processo de reforma administrativa do
coordinated by the Municipal Public
Department and accomplished through the Estado, que culminou com a emenda constitucional n 19/98.
participation of owners, tenants,
permanent users and private investors with
the objective of structurally transforming an
urban area with resulting social and
environmental benefits. Esses dois tipos de Organizaes podem ser constitudos para a prestao de servios pblicos no
The City Statutes (art. 322, I and II) also
foresees requirements that are, among exclusivos do Estado
others, part of the specific Municipal Law
that regulates Urban Consortium
Operations, such as regulations on index
changes and installment models, the use
and occupation of land and sub-soil, the As Organizaes Sociais (OSs) foram institudas pela Lei Federal n 9.637/98 como pessoas jurdicas de
legalization of construction projects etc.

International Professional Cooperation


direito privado, criadas por particulares, ainda que, geralmente, por interesse de algum dos poderes
International Professional Cooperation is,
according to the Brazilian Cooperation pblicos, para desempenhar servios sociais no exclusivos do Estado, como ensino, pesquisa cientfica,
Agency, a temporary international
intervention aimed at promoting qualitative proteo ao meio ambiente, incentivo cultura, programas de sade, entre outros. Essas Entidades se
and/or structural changes within a given
socioeconomic context such as to repair or
minimize problems within a specific area or submetem ao regime jurdico predominantemente de direito privado, porm parcialmente derrogado
to explore opportunities and new forms of
development. por normas de direito pblico, no que diz respeito ao controle sobre seus atos.
During the last years Brazil has gathered
important experience in the area of urban
revitalization and on metropolitan
consortium operations through
International Professional Cooperation Ainda que no estejam submetidas integralmente s normas da Lei Federal de Licitaes, as
agreements. A special mention should be
made to cooperation with France and in Organizaes Sociais, na contratao de servios, execuo de obras, pessoal etc, esto submetidas aos
particular the Cooperation agreement with
Spain (Andaluzia Board) that has led to the
creation of work-shops turned to the mesmos princpios de exigibilidade de competio que os rgos da Administrao Pblica e, por serem
education of specialized workmanship
within the areas of maintenance and entidades sem fins lucrativos, o eventual excedente financeiro deve voltar para o fomento das aes
restoration of historical and cultural
heritage patrimony. relacionadas.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


As Organizaes da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Pblico (OSCIPs) foram institudas pela Lei n. 9.790/99.
As OSCIPs so criadas por particulares e condicionadas a ter pelo menos uma das finalidades relacionadas
assistncia social, cultura, educao, sade, meio ambiente, desenvolvimento econmico e social. Por
no terem fins lucrativos, o excedente lucrativo tambm deve voltar para o fomento de suas atividades e,
da mesma forma que as OSs, pelo fato de ambas administrarem bens de natureza pblica so sujeitas ao
controle de resultado pelo Poder Pblico e do Tribunal de Contas.

As OSCIPs, no entanto, se submetem a requisitos mais rgidos para a sua instituio e so supervisionadas
pelo rgo do Poder Pblico e pelos Conselhos de Polticas Pblicas da rea de atuao correspondente
atividade fomentada, em cada nvel de governo.

Operao Urbana Consorciada


A Operao Urbana Consorciada, prevista no art. 32, 1 do Estatuto da Cidade (Lei n 10.257/2001),
definida como "o conjunto de intervenes e medidas coordenadas pelo Poder Pblico Municipal, com a
participao dos proprietrios, moradores, usurios permanentes e investidores privados, com o
objetivo de alcanar em uma rea transformaes urbansticas estruturais, melhorias sociais e a
valorizao ambiental".

O Estatuto da Cidade (art. 322, I e II) prev tambm medidas que, entre outras, podero ser previstas
na Lei Municipal especfica da Operao Urbana Consorciada, tais como modificao de ndices e
caractersticas de parcelamento, uso e ocupao do solo e subsolo, regularizao de construes etc.

Cooperao Tcnica Internacional


Segundo a Agencia Brasileira de Cooperao (ABC), uma ao de Cooperao Tcnica Internacional
(CTI) pode ser caracterizada como uma interveno temporria destinada a promover mudanas

Imvel vazio no centro de Porto Alegre /RS


MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

40
2) Social Participation
Social participation is as essential during
the whole process of urban rehabilitation as
for any other interventions by a democratic
State. As the rehabilitation projects in
question give priority to actions that qualitativas e/ou estruturais em um dado contexto socioeconmico, seja para sanar ou minimizar
improve the right of access to the cities, and
in particular to those that are often and for
various reason excluded, it is important to problemas especficos identificados naquele mbito, seja para explorar oportunidades e novos
use social participation as a tool for the
identification of methods and mechanisms paradigmas de desenvolvimento.
that will allow the inclusion of the
population. It is in fact a planning model
based on professional studies and fact
findings (surveys of the city) in constant
interaction with ongoing everyday reality. Importantes experincias vm sendo desenvolvidas no mbito da requalificao urbana e do
Community participation can take the form
of municipal councils, general and consorciamento metropolitano nos ltimos anos no Brasil, com destaque para as Cooperaes Francesa
periodical assemblies or through specific
meetings with various sectors of organized
civil society. e Espanhola (Junta de Andalucia), esta ltima, sobretudo, pela implantao da prtica de Oficinas-Escola
It is therefore very important to inform
community organizations from the start and voltadas para a formao de mo-de-obra especializada para manuteno e recuperao do patrimnio
to provide incentives to create organs that
represent the population as well as to lend
support to the consolidation of existing
histrico e cultural.
groups that represent different segments of
the population. These actions should be
followed by the mobilization of social
groups, organized or not, and focus 2) Participao social
specifically on the subject of the city's
central area through the scheduling of
community meetings where knowledge and A participao social fundamental durante todo o processo de reabilitao urbana, bem como para
systematized information can be openly
discussed and collected. quaisquer outras intervenes do Estado democrtico. Visto que os processos de reabilitao aqui
defendidos tm como prioridade as aes que garantam os direitos de acesso cidade e urbanidade
GIDUR POA

queles comumente excludos, creditada participao social a identificao das formas de insero
desta populao e os mecanismos que a garantam. Efetivamente, prope-se superao de um modelo
de planejamento que toma como base os estudos e levantamentos tcnicos (leitura tcnica da cidade) e
os coteje, constantemente, leitura da realidade cotidiana.

A participao da comunidade poder acontecer por meio dos conselhos municipais, de assemblias
gerais e peridicas ou de reunies especficas com os vrios setores da sociedade civil organizada.

Assim, dever ser articulado, em primeiro lugar, o apoio prpria organizao comunitria via aes de
incentivo criao de organismos representativos da populao e consolidao dos grupos
representativos de segmentos da populao existentes. A partir da, possvel proceder mobilizao
dos atores sociais, organizados ou no, com foco especfico na questo do centro, com a realizao de
reunies comunitrias de discusso para reconhecimento e sistematizao de informaes.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


Office space and a management center
located in the city center are also important
factors when dealing with local leaders, is a
added benefit for general community and is
in itself an incentive for popular participation
in the project. It is a location that is used as a
point of reference for the ongoing project
process and for the spread of information,
A instalao de um escritrio ou ncleo gestor na rea central tambm tarefa essencial para que se d a the control process and for meetings of
representative commissions.
articulao com as lideranas locais, contribuindo para a organizao comunitria e incentivando a Professional Empowerment
Professional Empowerment is seen as the
participao da populao no projeto. um local de referncia para o acompanhamento de todo o process aimed at the organized inclusion of
social groups, or groups of professionals,
processo e deve ser utilizado para divulgao de informaes e realizao de reunies das comisses de through the consolidation of knowledge
related to reaching specific objectives. The
process also creates and strengthens the
representantes. democratic environment through popular
participation and contributes to guarantee
social inclusion as a part of all social
processes.
Capacitao Tcnica Empowerment is closely linked to the
acquisition of abilities and capabilities
related to everyday life and to the
Entende-se por capacitao os processos que visam insero instrumentalizada de grupos sociais ou maximization of the operational resources
through the use of information and
conjunto de profissionais nos espaos prprios de disputa para consolidao de seus objetivos, de resources that the group already possesses
and to empower it for action and
intervention. The process of empowerment
maneira a estabelecer um ambiente democrtico de participao, que construa e reforce can be seen as an exchange of knowledge,
tools, methods and realities.
permanentemente os processos sociais, visando incluso social. Empowerment measures must also include
the creation or improvement of spaces
where desirable knowledge and abilities
can be developed and acted upon.
Empowerment actions are, as far as urban
A capacitao est intimamente ligada aquisio de habilidades e capacidades de ao relacionadas policy is concerned, aimed at strengthening
the professional capacity of public and
realidade na qual se vive, devendo ser considerados e potencializados os recursos operacionais de que a social agents in order to formulate,
implement and follow-up on an integrated
urban policy, to partake in participative
pessoa e o grupo j dispem em seu cotidiano, reforando suas capacidades prprias de ao e decisions in the area of urban development
and to foment institutional development.
interveno. Neste sentido, o processo de capacitao se institui como uma troca de saberes, As the State has shown a larger capacity
and willingness to invest in initiatives related
instrumentos, mecanismos e realidades. to urban access and repopulation it is
essential to invest in the empowerment of
local agents, municipal managers,
professionals and lawmakers that are
responsible for the execution of public
A capacitao deve, ainda, considerar a criao ou reforo de espaos de ao nos quais possam se urban and housing policies, survey
available areas and evaluate enterprises,
and to safeguard the use and democratic
exercitar as habilidades que se deseja desenvolver. occupation of prime location urbanized
land.
The objective is to empower urban policy
makers (government professionals,
Na rea da poltica urbana, as aes de capacitao tm como objetivo fortalecer a capacidade tcnica e Lawmakers, organized civil society,
community leaders) to implement legal,
urban and taxation tools specified in the City
institucional de agentes pblicos e sociais para a formulao, implementao e acompanhamento de Statutes that will result in improved access
to urbanized land for all segments of the
polticas pblicas urbanas integradas e para a realizao de aes articuladas e participativas na rea de population through social participation and
control.
desenvolvimento urbano, alm de fomentar o desenvolvimento institucional. 3) Rehabilitation Tools

Even though existing urbanization planning


tools in Brazil were not specifically

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

42
developed for the purpose of, or within the
context of the rehabilitation of city centers, it
is still possible to combine traditional
taxation policies and preservation tools with
new tools that have been defined by the City
Statutes with improved results for planned
interventions.
The definition of which tools should be
adequately applied in order to reach results Para assegurar o acesso a terra urbanizada e bem localizada para todos, e garantir o uso e a ocupao
through an intervention requires the
possession of basic and specific studies democrtica das reas urbanas centrais num ambiente de aumento da capacidade e disposio do Estado
compatible with the scale of the operation,
the use and occupation of land, domains,
infra-structure, demographic tendencies, em investir em iniciativas de urbanizao e acesso habitao, faz-se essencial investir na capacitao dos
economic data, interest surveys etc.
Urban Planning Tools available for the agentes locais, includos os gestores e tcnicos municipais e os operadores do Direito, responsveis pela
rehabilitation of central city areas
Property division, construction or use of
compulsory measures + timeline execuo das polticas pblicas de urbanizao e habitao, de disponibilizao de reas e viabilizao de
progressive property tax + appropriation
paid through government bonds empreendimentos.
These are the joint available measures that
can be used to force a property or land
owner, or the owner of a vacant or under-
used building, to grant access to his/her
property and contribute to the welfare of A idia capacitar os atores da poltica urbana (tcnicos governamentais, operadores do Direito e a
society in general.
Compulsory Construction establishes a sociedade civil organizada, lideranas comunitrias) visando implementao de instrumentos jurdicos,
deadline for the proprietor to divide the land
and start construction. In case the proprietor
does not comply the property tax will be urbansticos e tributrios estabelecidos no Estatuto da Cidade que permitam o acesso a terra urbanizada
progressively increased and doubled every
year during a five year period. If the real para todos os segmentos sociais, a participao e o controle social.
estate is still not used at the end of the five
year period the public authorities can start
the process of appropriation and the
proprietor will be penalized through
compensation in the form of government 3) Instrumentos de Reabilitao
bonds.
This tool is very useful for areas of Apesar de os instrumentos de planejamento urbano existentes no Brasil no haverem sido pensados
intervention as it stimulates construction, the
use of buildings and land and as it affects the
real estate market through the creation of a especificamente para um contexto de reabilitao de centros, possvel combinar os instrumentos
larger supply base and the creation of
acquisition opportunities for the Public tradicionais da poltica tributria e da poltica de preservao com os novos instrumentos definidos no
Sector and other potential buyers.
It is paramount to clearly define objectives
when this tool is used in order to avoid
Estatuto da Cidade a fim de contribuir para melhor desempenho das intervenes pretendidas.
possible conflicts with the Rehabilitation's
Master Plan. Its use must be included in the
Master Plan and its application must be
regulated by a specific law. Para definir quais instrumentos podem ser aplicados adequadamente na viabilizao de uma interveno,
Heritage Registration (buildings,
condominiums and places) necessrio estar de posse de estudos bsicos adequados escala da operao, como o uso e ocupao do
Heritage registration is a group of joint
actions taken by public authorities with the solo, dominialidade, infra-estrutura, tendncias demogrficas, econmicas, mapeamento de interesses
objective of preserving, through specific
legislation, goods that possess an historical,
cultural, architectonical and/or
etc.
environmental value as well as affection
value for the population. Registration will
prevent demolition and alterations without
changing the status of the property's Instrumentos de Planejamento Urbano para a reabilitao de centros
ownership.
Heritage registration only produces effects
when taken together with other actions that Parcelamento, edificao ou utilizao compulsrios + IPTU progressivo no tempo + desapropriao
not only guarantee the preservation of the
property but also benefit society in general.
It is, however, necessary to improve the

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


com ttulos da dvida pblica.

o conjunto de instrumentos que serve para obrigar o proprietrio de um terreno ou imvel vazio ou
subutilizado a dar uso para sua propriedade, de acordo com a rea em que ela est, cumprindo a funo
social.

A regra da Edificao Compulsria estabelece um prazo para o proprietrio parcelar e construir. Caso
isso no acontea, o valor do IPTU do imvel em questo vai se tornando cada vez maior, dobrando a
cada ano, por um perodo de cinco anos. Se, ao fim deste perodo, o proprietrio ainda no houver dado
um bom uso quele imvel, o poder pblico pode proceder a sua desapropriao, penalizando, ainda, o
proprietrio com o pagamento em ttulos da dvida pblica.
Este instrumento til para estimular a construo, a reforma e o uso de edifcios e terrenos na rea de
interveno, alm de influenciar no mercado imobilirio por meio do estmulo oferta de imveis e da
criao de oportunidades para sua aquisio pelo Poder Pblico ou por outros agentes.

Para a aplicao desse instrumento importante definir com clareza os usos a privilegiar, para evitar
incoerncia com os objetivos e diretrizes do Plano de Reabilitao. Seu uso deve estar previsto no Plano
Diretor, e sua aplicao deve ser regulamentada por lei especfica.

Tombamento (de imveis, conjuntos e stios)


O Tombamento significa um conjunto de aes realizadas pelo poder pblico com o objetivo de
preservar, atravs da aplicao de legislao especfica, bens de valor histrico, cultural, arquitetnico,
ambiental e tambm de valor afetivo para a populao, impedindo que venham a ser destrudos ou
descaracterizados, sem entretanto, alterar sua propriedade. O tombamento s eficaz se,
concomitantemente, forem buscados usos que garantam, alm de sua conservao, a fruio desses
bens pela sociedade. Verifica-se, no entanto, a necessidade de haver uma melhor articulao do
tombamento com as linhas de financiamentos habitacionais e com as polticas econmicas, culturais, de
qualificao profissional e educacional que assegure que o tombamento no signifique o congelamento
de uma rea.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

44
interaction between heritage registration
and housing financing models and with
economic and cultural professional
empowerment policies in order to
guarantee that Heritage Registration does
not lead to the freezing of an area. .
Special Public Interest Zones
Special public interest zones are areas
Instituio de zonas especiais de interesse social - ZEIS
defined by the Master Plan and destined for
a public interest project, such as popular ZEIS so reas da cidade definidas no Plano Diretor para abrigar projeto de interesse social,
housing. This is a way to provide the
poorest with well located land and good freqentemente de moradia popular. uma maneira de assegurar terras bem localizadas e providas de
infra-structure and thereby create a kind of
social market reserve.
Special public interest zones in central city infra-estrutura para o uso dos mais pobres, criando uma espcie de reserva de mercado o uso social.
areas have been used in order to reserve
land or empty buildings for low cost popular
housing and to facilitate the regularization
of occupied areas and the improvement
tenement houses.
As ZEIS em reas centrais tm servido para reservar terrenos ou prdios vazios para moradia popular e
Special public interest zones can include
be placed under regulations related to the facilitar a regularizao de reas ocupadas e de cortios.
use of the land that can be combined with
other incentivation and coercion tools in
order to assure the objective of promoting
HIS availability. This requires the Master
Plan's delimitation of the perimeter and
Em sua definio, as ZEIS podem incluir regras de uso do solo e combinar-se com outros instrumentos
approval of tools.
The implementation of Special Public incitativos e coercitivos que assegurem o objetivo de manter e promover oferta de HIS, sendo
Interest Zones also requires a
management shared between the Public
Sector and local private actors, be
necessrio, para tanto, a delimitao de permetro e dos instrumentos aplicveis no Plano Diretor.
controlled by the public sector and include
the mobilization of proprietors and
entrepreneurs within the construction area.
The City Hall must also possess the A implementao de ZEIS requer uma gesto compartilhada do territrio entre o Poder Pblico e os
appropriate funds for the implementation of
a management structure, the creation of an
infra-structure and facilities and to
atores locais, com acompanhamento social e mobilizao dos proprietrios e empresrios do setor da
establish a local reserve fund differentiated
from existing housing financing lines and construo. A prefeitura precisa possuir recursos disponveis para implementao de uma estrutura de
according to the provisions for the creation
of Special Public Interest Zones. gesto, para a implantao de infra-estrutura e equipamentos e para estabelecer uma reserva fundiria no
Surface Rights
This tool separates the plot's property local, alm de dispor de linhas de financiamento habitacional adequadas s regras da ZEIS.
rights and the right to use it. It establishes
that the right to construct on the surface, a
plot's airspace or subsoil, can be granted or
sold independently from the plot's property
rights. It can have a price or free of cost,
Direito de Superfcie
temporary or permanent.
This tool can be used to regulate Este instrumento separa a propriedade do lote do direito de utiliz-lo. Estabelece que o direito de
consolidated occupations in cities. If the
area is publicly owned, authorities can
grant the surface rights for habitat
construir na superfcie, espao areo ou subsolo de um lote pode ser concedido, comprado ou vendido
purposes. If the area is privately owned, the
surface rights can be granted for public independentemente da propriedade do lote. Pode ser oneroso ou gratuito, temporrio ou permanente.
interest urbanization and regularization
purposes and the posterior concession of
Surface Rights to the occupying
population.
Este instrumento pode ser usado para fins de regularizao fundiria em ocupaes consolidadas dentro
Option Rights
Option rights grant public entities the first da malha urbana. No caso de a rea pertencer ao Poder Pblico, este pode conceder populao o
option right for the acquisition of a particular
plot whenever it is placed for sale by the
real estate market. This tool can be very

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


RENATO BALBIM
direito de superfcie para fins de moradia. Se a rea pertencer a particulares, pode-se conceder o direito
de superfcie ao Poder Pblico para que este promova a urbanizao e regularizao da rea e,
posteriormente, conceda o direito para a populao ocupante.

Direito de Preempo
O Direito de Preempo garante que a prefeitura tenha prioridade na compra de um determinado
terreno, no momento em que este for oferecido venda no mercado. Pode ser til para adquirir imveis
postos venda em reas estratgicas e para acompanhar o mercado imobilirio em permetros Cais do porto, Belm/PA

determinados.

RENATO BALBIM
Para sua aplicao so necessrios uma estrutura operacional e um setor de avaliao eficientes e uma
equipe municipal preparada para verificar possveis impedimentos e contradies com a Lei de
Licitaes, alm de recursos disponveis para adquirir os terrenos nos prazos legais.

Outorga Onerosa do Direito de Construir e da alterao de uso Solo Criado


O Solo Criado um instrumento que permite ao poder pblico recuperar parte dos investimentos que Trapiches - Rua Chile, Natal /RN

so feitos na infra-estrutura da cidade e que resultam em valorizao dos terrenos privados. A prefeitura
estabelece no Plano Diretor o coeficiente bsico de utilizao dos lotes, e os que quiserem edificar alm

PM BELO HORIZONTE /MG


desse limite devero pagar ao poder pblico por esse direito. A prefeitura estabelece tambm um valor
para a venda desse potencial construtivo, alm de determinar onde estes recursos sero aplicados. Os
recursos obtidos podem, por exemplo, financiar projetos de regularizao fundiria, habitao de
interesse social, implantao de equipamentos comunitrios e reas verdes ou preservao do
patrimnio histrico.

A rea de utilizao do solo criado deve estar gravada no Plano Diretor, e sua aplicao depende de uma
Viaduto Sila Lobo, Belo Horizonte /MG
Planta de Valores atualizada, caso o critrio de cobrana seja o acrscimo de metros quadrados.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

46
useful for the acquisition of strategically
placed real estate and in order to control on
the real estate market within certain areas.
The application of this tool requires efficient Operaes urbanas consorciadas
operational structures and evaluation and a
municipal team that has been trained to O instrumento viabiliza transformaes estruturais de setores da cidade, por meio de um projeto urbano
evaluate possible legal impediments and
conflicts with the Bidding legislation, apart
from the funds that are necessary for the implantado em parceria com proprietrios, poder pblico e investidores privados. A operao urbana
acquisition of the land within the legally
available period. define um permetro dentro do qual valem regras especficas de utilizao do solo (diferentes das regras
Lawful Onerous Construction and
change of use Created Land
gerais da zona onde o projeto est inserido), podendo gerar, por exemplo, potenciais adicionais de
Created Land is a tool that allows the public
sector to recuperate part of the investments aproveitamento dos terrenos que so vendidos aos parceiros. Os recursos desta venda custeiam os
made in the infrastructure of a city and the
consequent valorisation of privately owned investimentos previstos em outros projetos da prpria operao.
land. The City Hall's Master Plan has the
right to establish a basic coefficient for the
utilization of the land and those that wish to
construct beyond these limitations must
pay for that right. The City Hall also Normalmente as operaes urbanas consorciadas so utilizadas para obter recursos para obras. Esse
establishes the sale value of the potential
construction and decides where resources
should be placed. Available resources can,
instrumento tem uma gesto complexa e necessita, portanto, de um forte controle social dos resultados,
for instance, be used for land regularization
plans, social interest housing projects, and o que garante a manuteno dos objetivos.
implementation of community facilities,
construction of green areas or for the
preservation of historical heritage
patrimony.
The available Created Land area must be Transferncia do direito de construir
registered in the Master Plan and its
implementation of this tool is conditioned to A Transferncia do Direito de Construir permite que o proprietrio venda ou passe para outra
the presentation of an actualized Value
Survey if the price is based on an increase
of the area in square meters.
propriedade o direito de construo que no pode mais exercer no terreno original. Pode ser usada com
Urban Consortium Operations o objetivo de preservar imveis com valores histricos, paisagsticos ou reas frgeis do ponto de vista
This tool allows for the transformation of
structures within city sectors brought by a ambiental.
project implemented through a partnership
between public and private investors. The
urban operation project defines the
perimeter of the area where specific
demands are applied for the use of land H municpios que utilizam esse potencial construtivo para fomentar a recuperao do patrimnio
(different from the general demands
imposed within the specific project are).
This tool can generate added potential to
arquitetnico de particulares tombados, permitindo que seus proprietrios negociem a venda do
the land that can be sold to consortium
partners. The resources originating from potencial construtivo do imvel a outros empreendedores, que, de acordo com regulamentao
these sales cover the cots of other
consortium operations. especfica, poderiam extrapolar o limite de edificao permitido para a rea onde pretendem erguer
Urban consortium operations are usually
used in order to acquire funds for
construction projects. The public sector novo empreendimento.
must maintain a strong control over the
projected results due to the complex
management model and in order to
safeguard the objectives of the
consortium.
Consrcio Imobilirio
Transfer of Construction Rights um mecanismo que viabiliza parcerias entre os proprietrios de imveis e o poder pblico, segundo o
The transfer of construction rights allows a
proprietor to sell or transfer expired qual o proprietrio passa o imvel ao poder pblico, que faz as obras e, em troca, o antigo proprietrio
construction rights from one property to
another. It can be used for the preservation
an environmentally fragile area or real recebe lotes, casas ou apartamentos no mesmo valor que o terreno tinha antes das obras.
estate of historic and/or leisure value.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


Some municipalities have used this
construction potential to foment the
recuperation of run-down objects of
interest to the architectonic patrimony, and
have allowed proprietors to negotiate the
sale of the building's construction potential
to other entrepreneurs that, according to
current specific regulations, are permitted
Pode ser um importante mecanismo de parceria na construo de empreendimentos de habitao social to extrapolate the construction limits
imposed within the area where they intend
e na urbanizao de reas carentes de infra-estrutura, mas, alm da necessidade de previso e to construct.

regulamentao no Plano Diretor, o municpio deve dispor de estrutura operacional e equipe preparada Real Estate Consortiums
This is a tool that makes possible
partnerships between real estate
tcnica e juridicamente, um setor de avaliao imobiliria eficiente e recursos disponveis para executar as proprietors and the public sector. The
proprietor transfers the real estate to the
obras no terreno objeto do consrcio, se for o caso. public sector for construction purposes
and in exchange receives plots of land,
real estate or apartments in the value
corresponding to the value the land had
before public construction was initiated.
Concesso do Direito Real de Uso (CDRU) This can be an important tool for the
creation of partnerships for housing
A CDRU um instituto anterior publicao do Estatuto da Cidade, instituda pelo Decreto-lei 271/67. construction and for the urbanization of
areas with a poor infrastructure. However,
apart from inclusion in the Master Plan's
Pode ser definida como um direito real, resolvel, aplicvel a terrenos pblicos e particulares, de carter previsions, the respective municipality
must possess an operational team and
gratuito ou oneroso, para fins de urbanizao, industrializao, edificao, cultivo da terra ou outra structure that is adequate and
professionally prepared to deal efficiently
with all aspects of related legislation and
utilizao de interesse social. O Estatuto da Cidade admite a modalidade da CDRU coletivo nos casos de the real estate market evaluation and they
must, if applicable, also possess the
programas e projetos habitacionais de interesse social desenvolvidos pela administrao pblica. Poder required resources for the projected
construction that is the object for the
ser outorgada para uma associao comunitria ou uma cooperativa habitacional. consortium.

Concession of the Right of Use


The Right of Use was created under the
provisions of Law Bill 271/67 and well
Concesso de Uso Especial para Fins de Moradia (CUEM) before the publication of the City Statutes.
It can be defined as the real and resolutely
right that is applicable to public and private
Permite a regularizao das moradias em terrenos pblicos. Aquele que possuir uma rea de at 250m, land, free of cost or not, for the purpose of
urbanization, industrialization,
para fins de moradia, que no tenha outra propriedade rural ou urbana, tem o direito de receber do construction or any other purpose in the
common social interest. The City Statutes
poder pblico a concesso do imvel. Pode ser individual ou coletiva, quando vrias famlias recebem a also foresees the use of collective Right of
Use in cases related to individual or
collective social housing projects. The
posse coletiva em nome de um condomnio. right of use can be granted to a community
association or a housing cooperative.

Special Concession for Residential


Purposes
Com a sano da Lei n 11.481, de 31 de maio de 2007, estes instrumentos de reconhecimento de posse It allows for the regularization of houses
built on public land. An individual that owns
passaram a ser aceitos pelo Sistema Financeiro da Habitao como garantia real para a obteno de an area of up to 250 sq. meters for
residential purposes and does not own any
financiamento para a construo e melhorias habitacionais. other urban or rural property can be
granted the concession rights for real
estate property by the public authorities.
The concession can be individual or
collective as when several families are
Benefcios fiscais e tributrios granted a collective condominium
concession.
The Special Concession for Residential
Os tributos sobre imveis urbanos, assim como as tarifas relativas a servios pblicos urbanos, devero Purposes is today, through the passing of

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

48
Law nr.11.481 of May 31, 2007,
recognized by the Housing Financing
System as a real collateral guarantee for
the financing of construction and housing
improvements.

Fiscal benefits and tax Incentives ser diferenciados em funo do interesse social. Dessa forma, possvel estabelecer uma poltica de
Taxation of urban real estate should be
differentiated according to social function subsdios para as tarifas dos servios de energia eltrica e fornecimento de gua e tratamento de esgoto
and interest, as with taxation for public
services in urban areas. Differentiated
taxation allows for the implementation of a para reas e imveis urbanos onde morem pessoas de baixa renda.
subsidy policy for areas and buildings
where low income families live and the
respective supply of electrical energy,
water and sewage treatment.
The implementation of fiscal incentives
A aplicao de incentivos fiscais e isenes tributrias (IPTU, ISS etc) necessita de regulamentao por
and taxation exemptions (IPTU, ISS ect.)
is conditioned by specific Legislation. meio de Leis especficas. Esses instrumentos podem ser usados a fim de valorizar uma rea atravs da
These tools can be used to valorize an
area through the introduction of certain instalao de determinadas atividades, que podem funcionar tanto como incentivo atividade turstica
activities that can either be directed
towards achieving an increase in tourism,
creation of jobs and revenue or yet to quanto servir a uma poltica de gerao de emprego e renda ou estar voltado a uma estratgia de
create a strategy directed at the
preservation of Cultural Heritage. preservao do Patrimnio Cultural.
Incentive policies must be carefully
implemented and studied as they can lead
to increased benefits for the richest social
groups and result in increased social
segregation. It is therefore very important Uma poltica de incentivos deve ser estuda e implantada com bastante cuidado, pois pode acabar
for the City Hall to possess an adequate
operational structure and a team that is beneficiando os setores mais abastados da sociedade e reforar a lgica segregacionista. Para que isso
capable of evaluating the cost/benefits of
the use of any kind of incentives.
no acontea, a prefeitura deve contar com uma estrutura operacional eficiente e uma equipe preparada
Warnings related to the definition and
implementation of tools para avaliar o custo/ benefcio dessas operaes.
Some tools can, when used individually or
collectively, lead to effects that are in direct
conflict with the objectives of the
rehabilitation of the area or its
surroundings. It is therefore very important Cuidados necessrios na definio e implementao dos instrumentos
that the tools created/used by different
policy implementation actions (heritage, Alguns instrumentos, isoladamente ou combinados com outros, podem trazer efeitos conflitantes com
urbanism, housing) are well defined and
that they are used to maximize benefits
and to avoid possible conflicts of interest. os objetivos da reabilitao no mesmo permetro ou nas reas de influncia. Ento, importante que os
Some tools can become worthless if there
is a lack of resources for their instrumentos das diferentes polticas (patrimnio, urbanismo, habitao) estejam articulados para
implementation. The most blatant
examples are not only related to Heritage
Registration but also to the implementation
potencializar seus benefcios e controlar possveis conflitos.
of Special Public Interest Zones that can
lead to the freezing of construction on land
properties. On the other hand, the
availability of resources for HIS can lead Outros instrumentos podem tornar-se incuos se no houver disponibilidade de recursos. Aqui, o
property owners to invest in other
compatible and associated areas.
Most tools are rendered ineffective when exemplo mais claro o do tombamento, mas tambm nas ZEIS preciso haver este cuidado para evitar
they lack the active participation of
municipal organs will suffer both from the que o instrumento tenha como efeito apenas o congelamento dos terrenos. Por outro lado, a oferta de
absence of stimulus and weakened
implementation control. Some tools are
difficult to manage and should only be
recursos para HIS pode estimular proprietrios e empresrios a investir em outros usos compatveis e
introduced if the municipality has the
operational capacity to implement them. associados.
As an example, when there is no proper
management of the real estate value

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


survey there are no benefits from the
effects of a progressive taxation policy.
Furthermore, many examples have shown
the need to adapt current norms or to crate
specific norms for the restoration or
transformation of buildings as well as for
changes that are made to public spaces.
Consideration must be given to the fact that
A maior parte dos instrumentos no tem eficcia sem um papel ativo do municpio, tanto para estimular there are often conflicts of interest between
preservation norms and the adaptation of
como para controlar sua aplicao. Alguns instrumentos so de difcil gesto e s vale a pena institu-lo se o buildings for residential or any other use,
often subjected to other demands
municpio tiver capacidade operacional para aplic-lo. Por exemplo, se no houver uma boa gesto da regarding comfort or security standards by
other municipal laws (zoning laws,
construction codes, etc.).
"planta de valores imobilirios" no se poder contar muito com os efeitos da tributao progressiva. The implementation and application of tools
must be made with care and moderation, be
based on detailed studies and surveys and
carried out through carefully structured
planning. The implementation of the
Alm disso, algumas aes idealizadas para gerar recursos ou recuperar mais-valias podem ser incuas ou Rehabilitation Plan is therefore conditioned
to a well articulated and founded line of
ter efeitos perversos. O caso mais comum o da outorga onerosa, que s funcionar onde o mercado action that will ensure compliance with the
directives and uphold the desired
tiver interesse em construir acima do coeficiente bsico. Onde o mercado pressiona por uso comercial, objectives. It is therefore indispensable to
have a professional and well prepared team
and to consolidate popular public
pode ser interessante obrigar a construo mista de HIS (andares superiores, por exemplo). participation and social control through
monitoring tools as well as the systematic
evaluation and to control of all actions
foreseen in the Master Plan.
Finalmente, em muitos casos h necessidade de adequar as normas vigentes ou criar normas especficas
para reforma e mudanas de uso nos edifcios, assim como para as transformaes no espao pblico.
Deve-se, para tanto, levar em considerao a possibilidade de gerao de conflito entre as normas de
preservao e a adaptao de edifcios para usos residenciais ou outros, com exigncias de conforto ou de
segurana estabelecidas em outras normas municipais (leis de zoneamento, cdigos de edificao etc.).

A aplicao dos instrumentos deve ser feita com cuidado e parcimnia, baseada em estudos e diagnsticos
detalhados e em um planejamento bem estruturado. A implementao do Plano de Reabilitao
depende, dessa maneira, de uma ao articulada e pactuada a fim de que suas aes cumpram as
determinaes colocadas nas diretrizes e atinjam os objetivos esperados. Nesse processo, indispensvel
contar com uma equipe tcnica bem preparada e ter consolidados os mecanismos de participao
popular e controle social por meio de mecanismos de monitoramento e acompanhamento sistemtico de
todas as aes previstas no Plano de Reabilitao.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

50
RENATO BALBIM

Cais do porto, Belm/PA

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


RENATO BALBIM
P A R T E 2

E X P E R I N C I A S
D E S E N V O L V I D A S
Mercado municipal, Belm /PA

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52
P A R T E 2
E X P E R I N C I A S D E S E N V O L V I D A S

Preservao e novos usos para o patrimnio histrico


As iniciativas de reabilitao urbana seguiram, em um primeiro
momento, os preceitos contidos nas cartas patrimoniais, com
alcance restrito aos stios histricos, ou parcelas deles, estimuladas
por polticas de preservao desenvolvidas ainda na dcada de 80.
Atualmente, com o apoio do Ministrio das Cidades e do
Ministrio da Cultura vrias cidades desenvolvem projetos de
interveno em permetros centrais que concentram o seu
patrimnio, mas busca-se articular essa questo com outras
necessidades da rea do projeto e da cidade.

Nessas intervenes se entende que preservar o patrimnio


histrico valorizar a memria de uma comunidade e fortalecer
os laos de identidade entre as suas vrias geraes. Alm disso,

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53
Historic Heritage Preservation and
New Uses
At a first glance, urban rehabilitation
initiatives followed the principles stated in
heritage writs, which were restricted to
historic sites or just a part of them. Such
dessa identidade tambm fazem parte os moradores e as atividades tradicionalmente desenvolvidas nas initiatives were stimulated by preservation
policies developed in the 80's. At present,
reas tombadas. Esse entendimento incompatvel com a transformao dos stios reabilitados em supported by the Ministry of Cities and by
the Ministry of Culture, many cities have
developed intervention programs in
cenrios para turistas ou com a idia de que todos os imveis restaurados devam tornar-se museus ou downtown areas where this heritage is
concentrated. However, the articulation of
atelis. this issue with other requirements of the
project and of the city in question must be
taken into account.
When interventions take place, it is
understood that heritage preservation
Quando alm das questes culturais existe a proposta de melhorar a qualidade da habitao ou enriches community memory and
strengthens the identity between manifold
repovoar os centros, assim como desenvolver programas de incluso social, os imveis tombados generations. Besides, this identity is
formed by either inhabitants or the
activities that are traditionally developed
podem ser restaurados para continuar tendo seus usos originais ou ter seus usos alterados, conforme as within the preserved areas. This
understanding is not compatible with the
necessidades da interveno. Por outro lado, esses novos usos podem trazer diferentes tipos de transformation of rehabilitated sites into
theme scenarios for tourism exploitation
or with the idea that restored buildings
recursos para a conservao dos imveis. should become museums or ateliers.
When beyond cultural issues a
proposal to improve housing quality or to
repopulate downtown areas is made
Dente as cidades apoiadas pelo Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais, trs esto inscritas additionally to the development of social
inclusion programs, the preserved real
estate can be restored so that the original
pela UNESCO como Patrimnio Cultural da Humanidade. Em Salvador, um dos papis do governo use is also preserved. Similarly, uses can
be changed, according to the needs of
federal tem sido garantir a permanncia dos moradores originais de baixa renda nos imveis restaurados. intervention. On the other hand, new uses
may lead to different types of resources for
real estate conservation.
Em So Lus, casares esto sendo reabilitados para moradia e para oficinas de capacitao profissional. Three cities among the ones supported by
the Downtown Area Rehabilitation
Em Olinda, trata-se de viabilizar a conteno das encostas para garantir a conservao do patrimnio em Program are listed by Unesco as World
Cultural Heritage. In the City of Salvador,
risco, formado pelo casario hoje ocupado por famlias de poucos recursos. one of the roles played by the Federal
Government is to grant homeless people
their remaining in restored properties. In
So Lus, old mansions have been
rehabilitated either for residential
Em outras duas cidades, Amparo, no interior do estado de So Paulo, e Belm do Par, os planos de purposes or to shelter professional
qualification workshops. In Olinda, it is a
matter of protecting hillsides against
reabilitao dos centros histricos articulam o restauro dos imveis com programas habitacionais, collapsing or sliding to guarantee the
conservation of the heritage at risk, which
dinamizao das atividades culturais e econmicas, assim como melhorias da acessibilidade. is formed by a row of houses occupied by
lower-income families.
In two other cities Amparo (State of So
Paulo), and Belm (State of Par) , the
historic site rehabilitation plans deal with
Em todas as cidades, o governo federal busca articular o apoio elaborao de planos integrados de estate restoration through housing
programs, dynamization of both economic
reabilitao com a atribuio de recursos para moradia, por meio dos vrios programas da Secretaria and cultural activities, and accessibility
improvements.
In all the cities, the Brazilian Government
Nacional de Habitao (SNH) do Ministrio das Cidades e operacionalizados atravs da Caixa, como o tries to support the elaboration of
integrated rehabilitation plans in
Programa de Arrendamento Residencial (PAR), Crdito Associativo, Crdito Solidrio, Carta de Crdito, articulation with the assignment of
housing resources through the manifold
programs managed by the Federal

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

54
Housing Office (SNH), linked to the
Ministry of Cities. These resources are
made operational through the Federal
Savings Bank, including the Residential
Leasing Program (PAR), the Associate
Credit Program, the Solidary Credit
Program, Letter of Credit Program, and Programa de Subsdio Habitao de Interesse Social (PSH) e outros. Em alguns casos, os recursos da lei
the Social Housing Support Program
(PSH), among others. In some cases,
resources from the Federal Statute for the federal de Incentivo Cultura Lei Rouanet, via renncia fiscal, so utilizados para complementar os
Support of Culture (the so-called Rouanet
Law) are used, through tax waiver, to custos da recuperao de imveis histricos que ultrapassam os tetos de financiamento estabelecidos
supplement rehabilitation costs as they
exceed the financing limits established by
PAR.
pelo PAR.
A close cooperation with the initiatives
coordinated by the Monumenta Program
is also to be noticed. The Monumenta
Program is financed by the Interamerican Existe tambm uma cooperao estreita com as iniciativas coordenadas pelo programa Monumenta.
Development Bank (IADB), the Brazilian
Government, and local counterparts. It is
aimed not only at restoring properties at
Esse programa, financiado com recursos do BID, do Governo Federal e contrapartidas locais, busca no
historic sites listed by IPHAN, but at
providing institutional strengthening apenas restaurar imveis integrantes de stios histricos tombados pelo Iphan, como tambm propiciar
actions such as special team training,
urban legislation and heritage education
update, restoration-driven labor
aes de fortalecimento institucional, como treinamento de equipes e atualizao de legislao urbana e
education, and improvement of economic
activities. educao patrimonial, formao de mo-de-obra para restauro e fomento de atividades econmicas.
The Spanish cooperation is also present
through an agreement involving the Junta
de Andaluzia, the Brazilian Ministry of
Cities and the respective municipalities.
Its presence is significant in So Lus,
Entre as cidades apresentadas neste Bloco, a cooperao espanhola, mediante um convnio da Junta de
where the Spanish cooperation finances
the Oficina de Restauro (Restoration Andaluzia com o Ministrio das Cidades e as respectivas municipalidades, tem uma presena importante
Workshop) at the local neighborhood of
Desterro and, in a joint effort with
resources from the Ministry of Cities, it
em So Lus, onde financia a Oficina de Restauro do bairro do Desterro e, junto com recursos do
leads the rehabilitation of properties
related to social housing. Ministrio das Cidades, viabiliza a recuperao de imveis para habitao de interesse social.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

55
RENATO BALBIM
Vista do Pelourinho, Salvador/BA
Patrimnio Mundial

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

56
SO LUS MARANHO

A funo social do patrimnio histrico, arquitetnico e cultural


The Social function of historic, cultural and architectonic heritage

SALVADOR BAHIA
Patrimnio histrico e manuteno da diversidade social
Historical heritage and social diversity

BELM PAR
Preservao do patrimnio e reforo do uso residencial
The preservation of heritage and increasing available housing

AMPARO SO PAULO
Estatuto da Cidade e proteo do patrimnio histrico e cultural
Statute of the Cities and Historic Cultural Heritage

OLINDA PERNANBUCO
Patrimnio da humanidade ameaado pelo risco de deslizamento
World Heritage at Risk of Sliding

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

57
N

PM SO LUIS /MA
66
9901

S O L U S
Desterro
Comrcio de Artesanato

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

58
M A R A N H O
SO LUS
A funo social do patrimnio histrico, arquitetnico e cultural
So Lus rene o maior conjunto arquitetnico histrico da Amrica Latina. So cerca 5.607 imveis
dentro da rea de tombamento. Desse total, cerca de 1.200 esto dentro da rea de preservao
considerada Patrimnio da Humanidade, sob a proteo do IPHAN.

Nas dcadas de 80 e 90, no mbito do Programa de Preservao do Centro Histrico de So Lus, alguns
logradouros e edifcios pblicos foram reabilitados pelo governo estadual. No entanto, a expanso
econmica de So Lus, ligada a importantes investimentos pblicos, h vrias dcadas se faz em direo
ao norte da cidade, deixando o centro esquecido. Em razo disso, a rea tombada corre forte risco de
degradao por conta dos problemas ambientais e sociais que enfrenta.

Na reabilitao h uma questo ambiental a enfrentar, pois o rio foi transformado em laguna de

194
estabilizao de esgotos, e 50 mil pessoas vivem em reas alagadas no centro. Esse problema interfere
na paisagem urbana, uma vez que se criam reas com rebaixamento de nveis d'gua e aterros. Os
tcnicos locais lembram que, alm dos projetos a serem desenvolvidos no mbito da reabilitao,
necessrio tambm dar respostas gesto urbana e cotidiana. necessrio integrar os grandes projetos
com as questes histricas e da identidade local como, por exemplo, a pesca e o artesanato.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

59
NCLEO GESTOR DO CENTRO HISTRICO
Desde 2003, existe um Ncleo Gestor do Centro, de mbito municipal, que procura enfrentar o
conjunto das questes que envolvem a regio. Esse ncleo foi implantado por sugesto do IPHAN, e sua Igreja do Desterro

maior importncia foi o reconhecimento e a aproximao de outras entidades (federais, estaduais,

PM SO LUIS /MA
privadas) e atores que desenvolvem trabalhos relacionados com a questo do Centro Histrico. O
Programa de Revitalizao do Centro Histrico, apoiado pelo Ministrio das Cidades, inclui os planos de
Habitao, de Promoo de Atividades Econmicas e de Dinamizao Cultural e Educao Patrimonial.

Atualmente, ocorre uma atuao concertada entre a Prefeitura, o Ministrio das Cidades e a Caixa,
pretendendo promover habitao social nos prprios edifcios tombados, como forma de manter a
Bares; Travessa do Portinho
populao residente na rea, onde esto tambm seus meios de sobrevivncia, alm de financiar a

PM SO LUIS /MA
recuperao desses edifcios. Alguns desses imveis, que tinham risco de arruinamento, foram
estabilizados com recursos do IPHAN e, em seguida, receberam investimentos para a reforma com
destinao de habitao de interesse social.

A questo da viabilidade econmica para transformar um edifcio tombado em habitao social no de


fcil soluo, pois envolve custos de produo e de manuteno. Para isso, esto sendo feitos estudos
articulando vrias fontes de recursos para habitao (PAR, Crdito Solidrio, recursos do Oramento
Geral da Unio) com fundos diretamente voltados ao restauro de edifcios (Lei Rouanet, por exemplo).
O apoio de especialistas espanhis (cooperao da Junta de Andaluzia com o municpio de So Lus) e
franceses (convnio de cooperao do governo francs com a Caixa) tem sido muito importante.

Casario; Bairro do Desterro


Parte dos imveis que necessitam investimentos para conservao pertencem aos rgos pblicos

NCLEO GESTOR DO CENTRO HISTRICO


federais. Um deles, localizado na Rua Humberto de Campos, 107, propriedade do Patrimnio da
Unio, j foi transferido Prefeitura de So Lus. As obras de reabilitao para construo de moradias
populares esto sendo iniciadas e contam com recursos do Oramento Geral da Unio, da Junta de
Andalucia (Cooperao entre a Espanha e o Ministrio das Cidades) e da Prefeitura de So Lus. A
proposta de utilizao do edifcio para habitao de interesse social partiu da Associao de Moradores
do Centro Histrico e tem apoio tcnico da Junta de Andalucia e do Ministrio das Cidades.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

60 Bairro do Desterro
So Luis do Maranho State

The Social function of historic, cultural


and architectonic heritage
Sao Luis possesses the richest historical
architectonic heritage in South America. A total
of 5.067 buildings have been registered within
the city area and 1.200 sites are considered
part of the World Heritage Patrimony and fall
under the protection of the National Institute for importante ressaltar o papel que a Junta de Andalucia vem tendo no processo de reabilitao de So Lus
the Preservation of Historical Heritage
(IPHAN).
Some of the public places and buildings were
e, especialmente, no bairro do Desterro, seja na forma de apoio tcnico ou como financiadora de
rehabilitated during the 80's and 90's by the
state sponsored Preservation Plan for the iniciativas essenciais para a recuperao sustentvel do bairro, como o caso tambm da Oficina-Escola
Historical Center of So Lus. However, the
expansion of the city and a corresponding high de Restauro.
share of public funding has been focused on
the development of the northern side of the city
and has neglected the central city areas. This
has caused the hasty degradation of the area
due to growing social and environmental Alm da questo dos recursos financeiros, a preservao do patrimnio arquitetnico e cultural e os
problems.
The rehabilitation process has also created an
environmental problem as the river that runs
programas habitacionais dependem, para ser sustentveis, de mecanismos urbansticos e tributrios,
through town has been transformed into a
sewage stabilization station and 50 thousand previstos no Estatuto da Cidade. Eles podero garantir ou facilitar a utilizao dos imveis privados vazios
people now live in flooded central areas. The
urban landscape has also been changed due ou subutilizados, as parcerias com o setor privado para a recuperao dos espaos pblicos e edifcios e a
to areas with very low levels of water and the
creation of sanitation dumps. Local
professionals have also warned that answers
produo e manuteno da populao de menor renda nas reas reabilitadas. Desse modo, a definio
must be found for questions related to daily
urban life and not only to the rehabilitation no Plano Diretor e a implementao de instrumentos, como as Zonas Especiais de Interesse Social e
plans that have been developed. It is
necessary to integrate the big projects with outros que garantam a "funo social da propriedade urbana, so essenciais.
historical reality and the local identity, such as
fishing and handicrafts.
A municipal City Center Management Group
was formed during 2003 in order to address
the many questions that face the region. The Para responder a esse conjunto de questes e fortalecer as iniciativas em curso, o Ministrio das Cidades
group was created through a proposal
presented by the National Institute for the
Preservation of Historical Heritage (IPHAN)
vem apoiando, desde 2004, a elaborao e implementao de planos e projetos de reabilitao
and its biggest achievement was the
acknowledgement of and dialogue with other integrados para o centro de So Lus.
entities (federal, state, private) and actors
involved in different types of work related to the
Historic City Center. The Program for the
Revitalization of the Historic City Center,
supported by the Ministry of Cities, includes Plano Municipal de Gesto do Centro Histrico
Housing, Development of Economic Projects,
Cultural Revitalization and Heritage O Plano Municipal de Gesto do Centro Histrico de So Lus, em elaborao com apoio do Ministrio
Education.
The City Council, the Ministry of Cities and
Caixa are currently involved in a joint action to das Cidades a partir de 2005, pretende contribuir para o desenvolvimento e reabilitao da rea, de
promote social interest housing in heritage
registered buildings as a way to keep the reconhecido potencial econmico-cultural e turstico, e propiciar maior legitimidade e sustentabilidade ao
resident population in the area, where they
also have their means of subsistence, and to processo atravs da integrao dos agentes de preservao.
finance the recuperation of the named
buildings. Some of the buildings that risked
becoming ruins were recuperated with
resources from the National Institute for the
Preservation of Historical Heritage (IPHAN) O projeto se desdobra em quatro etapas sucessivas. A primeira corresponde ao diagnstico da rea de
and were fully renovated at a later stage and
turned into social interest housing.
There are no easy answers regarding the interveno. Na segunda, o sistema de gesto atual foi avaliado para identificar seus avanos e obstculos
economic viability of a project aimed at
transforming a heritage registered building into significativos. Na fase seguinte, ser realizada a montagem dos cenrios futuros da gesto para o Centro
social interest housing as such projects
involve both production as well as Histrico. Na quarta e ltima etapa do trabalho, ser apresentada proposta de gesto baseada nos
maintenance costs. Some studies are
currently under way in order to find more
sources of resources for housing purposes princpios de Desenvolvimento e Conservao Urbana Integradas.
(PAR, Crdito Solidrio, resources from the
Federal Budget) and resources directed at the
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

61
restoration of buildings (Lei Rouanet, for
example). It has also been very important to
receive the support of Spanish (cooperation
between the Andaluzia Board and the
municipality of So Lus) and French
specialists (agreement between French
government and Caixa).
Para atingir essas metas foi necessrio definir polticas de orientao que proporcionem o debate e a Some of the buildings in need of investments
for preservation measures belong to the
mobilizao social e a criao de mecanismos e instrumentos de planejamento que dem subsdios s federal public organs. One of these buildings,
located at 107, Humberto de Campos Street,
and a property of the Federal Patrimony have
decises no processo de gerenciamento. O Plano de Gesto criou canais para a participao social, already been transferred to the City of So
Lus. Construction work aimed at the
estimulando o debate em torno das polticas de conservao e das suas estratgias de implementao, rehabilitation of the buildings and their
transformation into popular housing has
already started with resources from the
alm de mecanismos de incentivo s parcerias para a captao de recursos, buscando o equilbrio entre os Federal Budget, the Andaluzia Board
(cooperation between Spain and the Ministry of
investimentos pblicos e privados na rea. Foi necessrio, ainda, resguardar as especificidades do Centro Cities) and the City of So Lus. The proposal
for the transformation of the building into social
Histrico, valorizando e explorando as suas potencialidades e as da populao local. interest housing was presented by the
Historical Center's Tennant Association and
has received the support of both the Andaluzia
Board and the Ministry of Cities.
It is of importance to make a special mention to
Est prevista no Plano uma etapa de monitoramento e controle dos projetos implementados que oriente the role that the Andaluzia Board has played
during the So Lus rehabilitation process, and
in particular for the Desterro neighbourhood,
os futuros debates e propostas. Foi criada a possibilidade para o estabelecimento de um sistema conjunto both as a professional partner and as the
financing agent for important initiatives for the
de avaliao e fiscalizao, com equipe administrativa e operacional para o centro histrico, escritrio sustainable recuperation of the named
neighborhood and for the Rastauro Workshop.
tcnico do patrimnio e legislao municipal especfica para o Centro Histrico. The preservation of the architectonical and
cultural heritage and housing projects can only
be sustainable if, apart from financial
resources, they are provided with the urban
and taxation tools included in the City Statutes.
O Plano de Reabilitao do Bairro do Desterro These tools can guarantee or facilitate the use
of privately owned vacant or under-used
buildings, partnerships with the private sector
No processo de discusso da elaborao da reabilitao do centro histrico de So Lus, a rea conhecida for the recuperation of public spaces and
buildings and sustenance and products for the
como Desterro, cujos principais problemas so a carncia de espaos pblicos e a desestabilizao do low income population within the rehabilitated
areas. Therefore, inclusion in the Master Plan
patrimnio edificado, foi definida, pela Prefeitura e Ministrio das Cidades, como rea prioritria de and the implementation of tools that recognize
the social function of urban property such as
Special Social Interest Zones, are essential for
interveno. Esse plano foi realizado com recursos do Oramento Geral da Unio (OGU-2004) e j est rehabilitation.
In order to address the above mentioned
em execuo. questions and to strengthen current projects,
the Ministry of Cities has since 2004 supported
the creation and implementation of integrated
plans and rehabilitation projects for the
downtown So Lus.
O Bairro do Desterro localiza-se numa circunscrio geogrfica, bem acima do nvel do mar, que foi
Municipal Management Plan for the Historic
desenhada acompanhando o desenvolvimento urbano de So Lus. O bairro composto de ruas City Center
Created and started with the support of the
Ministry of Cities during 2005, the Municipal
estreitas e, por vrios sculos, abrigou um porto com funes comerciais. Management Plan for the Historic City Center
of So Lus has the objective of developing and
rehabilitating the area, with a recognized socio-
economic and tourism potential, and to lend
legitimacy and sustainability to the process
A partir de meados do sculo XX, com a expanso da cidade para a periferia, paralelo ao fim do porto, o through the integration of preservation
professionals.
bairro passou a vivenciar um processo de isolamento, sendo estigmatizado como reduto da The project has been divided into four
successive stages. The first corresponds to a
marginalidade. Os antigos casares viraram penses, cortios ou residncias coletivas para pessoas com complete survey of the area. The second
corresponds to the evaluation of the current
management system, its achievements and
pouca ou nenhuma renda. Tambm permaneceram no bairro famlias que habitam a rea h geraes. challenges. The third stage will create a
structure for the future management of the
Historic City Center. The fourth and last stage
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62
PM SO LUIS /MA
Degradao do casario
Bairro do Desterro
will present a management proposal based on
the principles of Integrated Urban
Development and Preservation.
The achievement of the above objectives
required the definition of policies that
fomented debate, public participation and the
creation of planning models and tools that can Elaborado com recursos do Programa Nacional de Reabilitao, o plano tem
help the management in the decision making
process. The Management Plan created
communication channels that fomented public como objetivo gerar um conjunto de aes tcnicas, institucionais e financeiras
participation and stimulated debate on
preservation policies and preservation para a reabilitao especfica do Bairro de Desterro e seu entorno, integrando-
implementation strategies as well as on
incentive tools for resource partnerships that
create equilibrium between public and private o s exigncias contemporneas de novos usos, funes e atividades, em um
investments. It was also necessary to
safeguard the particularities of the Historic City horizonte de cinco anos.
Center and to re-evaluate and explore its
potentials as well as the potential of the local
population.
The Plan also foresees a follow-up and control
stage of implemented projects that will serve Os Projetos Estruturadores
as a base for future debate and proposals. It is
now possible to create a joint evaluation and
inspection system, composed of an
a) Intervenes em imveis obras de reabilitao em diversos
operational and administrative City Center
team, a professional heritage bureau and imveis, no perodo de 2004 a 2009, com recursos de parcerias firmadas entre Ministrio das
specific municipal legislation for the Historic
City Center. Cidades, Caixa, Lei Rouanet, Governo Espanhol, Prefeitura de So Lus, IPHAN e Ministrio da
The Desterro Neighborhood Rehabilitation
Plan Cultura.
The area known as Desterro, an area known
for its lack of public spaces and instable b) Trecho de melhorias fsicas melhorias de estrutura, cobertura, fachada e instalaes para 63
historic buildings, was identified during the
process of discussion and creation of the
rehabilitation plans for historic central areas of
casas situadas nas ruas Palma e Afonso Pena, destinadas a habitaes para famlias de baixa renda
So Lus as a priority intervention by the City
Council and the Ministry of Cities. This com recursos do FGTS.
intervention is funded by the Federal Budget
(OGU-2004) and is already under way. c) Universo para novos estudos delimitado universo para possveis estudos de viabilidade em
The Desterro Neigborhood is located within a
geographical circumscription well above sea
level that was outlined for the urban prdios nos quais j foi aplicado recurso pblico, por meio de projetos ou obras de estabilizao
development of the city of So Lus. The
neighborhood is composed of a network of realizadas pelo IPHAN.
narrow streets and was also, during several
centuries, the location for a commercial
harbor.
d) Obras de Infra-estrutura Urbana restauro do Mercado Central; drenagem e urbanizao
When the city expanded outwards during the
middle of the 20th century and the harbor was do Canal do Oscar Frota.
closed, the neighborhood became an isolated
location and was stigmatized by marginality
and all its negative implications. The old
mansions turned into boarding houses,
sleeping pads or collective residences for Alm dessas definies, o Plano detalhou com a participao da comunidade aes e intervenes de
individuals with low or no income. However,
some of the families that lived in the Desterro melhoria dos equipamentos urbanos, promoo de atividades econmicas, formao de mo-de-obra,
neighborhood for generations also stayed
behind.
The plan was funded through resources
dinamizao cultural e educao patrimonial.
originating from the National Rehabilitation
Plan and has the objective to create joint
professional, institutional and financing
actions for a specific 5 year rehabilitation plan Baseadas em reunies com os diversos setores da comunidade, foram identificadas as demandas de
for the Desterro neighborhood and its
surroundings as well at to achieve its
integration with modern city life, functions and
equipamentos urbanos necessrios ao bairro. Foram destacados a Casa do Bairro, sede da Unio dos
activities.
Moradores do Centro Histrico e local para oficinas de educao e capacitao patrimonial, e o Centro
Structural Project
a) Refurbishing of buildings comprises
rehabilitation work on several buildings
de Sade do Desterro, com as funes de Posto de Sade local e servios ambulatoriais.
between 2004 and 2009 funded through
partnerships signed between the Ministry of
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

63
Cities, Caixa, Lei Rouanet, the Spanish
Government, So Lus City Hall, IPHAN and
the Ministry of Culture.
b) Physical Improvements to improve the
O Fortalecimento e a promoo de atividades econmicas structures, ceilings, facades and installations
of 63 houses situated between Palma and
Afonso Pena streets and reserved for low
Entre as formas especficas de promoo das atividades econmicas, o plano definiu o fortalecimento da income and unemployed families.
c) A Universe for new studies possible
Associao Comercial do Desterro e Portinho, que pretende fortalecer os comerciantes da rea e servir de viability studies and surveys in buildings that
have already been the object of public
mediadora frente s instituies pblicas e privadas, configurando-se como o primeiro passo para a resource funds, either through different
projects or through stabilization measures by
IPHAN.
fundao de uma Agncia de Empregos do Desterro-Portinho. d) Urban Infrastructure Construction
restoration of the Central Market, drainage and
urbanization of the Oscar Frota Canal area.
The Plan has also, with the participation of the
community and apart from the above
Alm desta ao, h a instalao do Entreposto Pesqueiro, que pretende fortalecer a atividade pesqueira, mentioned, provided detailed information on
improvement actions and interventions for
mediante o cadastramento de pecadores e trabalhadores porturios, capacitao da comunidade, urban facilities, potential economic activities,
workmanship education, cultural revitalization
identificao do mercado de trabalho e insero de produtos da atividade pesqueira neste mercado. O and heritage education.
Meetings with diverse sectors of the
community led to the identification of the
projeto do Entreposto est atualmente sendo negociado como Programa Monumenta do Ministrio da neighborhood's urban facility requirements.
We point in particular to the Casa do Bairro
Cultura. (neighborhood's house) that is home to the
Historic City Center's tenants association and
the location for educational workshops and on
public heritage, and the Desterro Health
Center that both serves as a local heath clinic
A Capacitao e formao de mo-de-obra and provides ambulance services.

A capacitao e formao de mo-de-obra dos moradores so um importante fator de desenvolvimento To promote and strengthen economic
activities
The Plan has, among many available forms to
scio-econmico. O Plano desenvolver suas aes em conjunto com o Programa Nossa Vez de gerao promote economic activities, chosen to focus
its resources for the strengthening of the
de oportunidades de emprego e renda , capacitando pessoas na rea de artesanato, gastronomia, turismo Desterro and Portinho Commercial
Association that has the objective of assisting
local businessmen and to mediate with public
e em outras sugeridas pela comunidade, trabalhando em parceria com o SEBRAE, que j um parceiro and private institutions. The Commercial
Association is also in the first stages towards
bastante atuante no bairro. creating the Desterro-Portinho Employment
Agency.
A Fisherman's Bureau will also be created with
the objective of fomenting commercial fishing
activities through the registration and
Outro projeto fundamental na rea de capacitao a Oficina-Escola, que surge como a oportunidade de empowerment of the community of fishermen
and harbor workers, markets surveys and
sanar duas grandes demandas: a qualificao de mo-de-obra especializada e a insero social dos jovens, market insertion of products from fishing
activities. The Bureau project is currently being
negotiated within the Culture Ministry's
gerando uma oportunidade de trabalho. A primeira etapa da Oficina-Escola foi implantada em janeiro de Monumenta Program.

2005: a Escola de Azulejaria de So Lus, que contempla a formao no restauro de azulejos antigos e Empowerment and education of the work
force
manufatura de peas de reposio. The empowerment and education of the work
force amongst tenants is an important socio-
economic factor. The Plan will develop joint
actions with the Nossa Vez (It's Our Turn)
Program- created to stimulate revenue and
Em 2006 a Oficina Escola passou a ter sede prpria em imvel do patrimnio histrico localizado na Av. employment opportunities and empower
individuals in the areas of handicrafts,
gastronomy, tourism and other areas
Beira Mar, no antigo Cais de Santo ngelo. O imvel est sendo recuperado com recursos do Convnio suggested by the community, and in
partnership with SEBRAE, an organization
entre o Governo Espanhol (AECI), IPHAN e Prefeitura de So Lus e a primeira etapa das obras ser with a long record of participation in
neighborhood activities.
inaugurada em junho 2008.Nessa sede, alm da Escola de Azulejaria, j funcionam tambm escolas de The project proposal for the creation of the
Workshop-School is also fundamental for the
improvement of education and as an
carpintaria, marcenaria e alvenaria. opportunity to address two large requirements:
the education of specialized workmanship and
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

64
the social inclusion of young people through
the creation of employment opportunities. The
first stage of the Workshop was initiated in
January 2005 with the Tile School of So Lus
that specializes in the restoration of antique
tiles and the manufacture of replacement tiles.
In 2006 the Workshop-School had tis own Dinamizao cultural, educao e cidadania
headquarters into a Historical Heritage's
building located at Av. Beira Mar, in the former Todo o projeto de dinamizao cultural do Bairro do Desterro ser realizado com o incentivo,
Santo Angelos Dock. The Building is being
recovered with resources originating from an
Agreement between the Spanish Government
fortalecimento e divulgao das manifestaes culturais e religiosas j existentes. Est sendo desenvolvido
(AECI), the National Institute for the
Preservation of Historical Heritage (IPHAN) amplo trabalho de resgate e registro da memria do bairro, material que ficar abrigado no Museu da
and the City Hall of So Luis. The first stage of
the recovery work will be finished by July 2008. Memria do Desterro, funcionando no prdio sede da Unio de Moradores do Centro Histrico.
In the building, besides the Tile School, also
operate carpentry, masonry and woodwork
schools. Outras propostas, como o calendrio oficial de manifestaes religiosas, o Museu do Azulejo, a Escola
Cultural revitalization, education and social Municipal de Msica e o Museu da Cidade, esto previstas.
participation
Each of the cultural revitalization projects for
the Desterro neighborhood will have the
objective to strengthen and spread existing
cultural and religious manifestations. Work is As aes de Educao Patrimonial tm por perspectiva estimular a valorizao do Desterro na condio
under development to ensure the gathering of
documentation on the past of the de uma rea que congrega bens culturais de sumria importncia. Essa ao educativa ser desenvolvida
neighborhood and create a Desterro Memory
Museum that will be located in the
headquarters of the Historic Center Tenants em conjunto com entidades representativas da comunidade, dando prioridade s seguintes atividades:
Association. There are also other proposals for
future projects, such as the creation of a
religious manifestations calendar, the Tile
Museum, the Municipal School of Music and * oficinas de educao patrimonial para crianas do bairro, de acordo com o projeto piloto Viver
the City Museum.
Heritage Education activities are directly
aimed at increasing the value of the Desterro o Desterro;
neighborhood as an area that contains an
important cultural patrimony and heritage. * oficinas de educao patrimonial para os alunos e professores da rede pblica agentes
This educational activity will be developed
jointly by community representative entities
and prioritize the following areas: modificadores;
heritage workshops for children living in the
Desterro neighborhood and according to the * capacitar agentes da comunidade guardies da memria;
outlines of the Live in Desterro pilot project;
heritage workshops for students and teachers * recuperar e registrar fotografias pertencentes aos moradores do bairro;
within the public school system agents for
change;
to educate community members guardians * levantamento da memria informal dos moradores edio caderno do Bairro;
of memories;
to recuperate and register photos belonging * Caminho da Memria guia do pedestre aos marcos importantes do patrimnio cultural e
to people living in Desterro;
to survey the informal memories of the people
living in Desterro to publish the ambiental do bairro.
Neighborhood's Journal;
Memory Walk a pedestrian guide to places
of importance for the cultural and social
heritage of Desterro. O Programa Nacional de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais apoiou diretamente o Programa de
The National Program for the Rehabilitation of
Central Urban Areas has given its direct
support to the So Lus Rehabilitation Program Reabilitao de So Lus, em 2004 e 2005, para a elaborao do Plano de Gesto e do Plano do
in 2004 and 2005 as well as for the creation of
the Management Plan and the Desterro Plan in Desterro, associados s aes e parcerias com outros rgos do Governo Federal e Cooperaes
the form of actions and partnerships with other
Federal Government Organs and International
Cooperation Agencies. During 2006 the Internacionais. Esses planos permitiram que, em 2006, o Programa Nacional apoiasse tambm a
National Program has also given its support to
the creation of a variety of executive elaborao de diversos projetos executivos de obras no centro histrico de So Lus e no bairro do
construction projects within the historic city
center of So Lus and the Desterro Desterro. Algumas dessas obras esto sendo iniciadas e devem contar com outras tantas parcerias que
neighborhood. Some of the construction
projects are in the process of being initiated
with partners that can help reach the intended ajudem a viabilizar sua execuo, sendo a maior destas parcerias aquela feita com a comunidade que vive
objectives but the most important factor for the
projects success remains the partnership with na rea e com a cidade como um todo.
the community living in the area and the city as
a whole. MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

65
CORPO
DE
BOMBEIROS TERMINAL DA
C

MUSEU
IGREJA DE BARROQUINHA
DA CIDADE 50
NOSSA SENHORA
DO ROSRIO SENAC

C
DOS PRETOS
C

45
C

65
IGREJA
C

C
C

DOS
C

TERREIRO
C

IGREJA DA S.PEDRO DE JESUS

66
C

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


ORDEM 3 DO CLRICOS
C

CARMO
C

65
POUSADA IGREJA
GINSIO
DO CARMO CONVENTO
DO SO BENTO
FUNDAO
60

ANTIGA
55

CARMO
C
C
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FACULDADE POLITCNICA
60
50

DE
45

MEDICINA
C
C

C
C

55 55
C

35

50
50
40

COLGIO
45

C
SO SALVADOR
40

IGREJA MOSTEIRO E
C
NOSSA SENHORA MUSEU LARGO SO
35

IGREJA DE SO
C ETNOGRFICO BENTO
30

DO PASSO DE BENTO
ESTCIO DE LIMA
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45
C

55
CATEDRAL CAIXA
50 FEDERAL
45 BASLICA ECONOMICA
60
40
35
30 50
C

25 25
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20
C

20 65
15 CINE
15 EXCELSIOR 60
10 PALCIO 55 IG. N.S. DA
IGREJA DA
55

C
10 60 ARQUIEPISCOPAL AJUDA BARROQUINHA
C

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CMARA 60

C
5 55
MUNICIPAL
50
45 IG.N.SRA.
DA
MISERICRDIA 55
5 40
35 EDIFICIO
MINISTRIO 30
HOTEL CINE-TEATRO SULACAP
DA FAZENDA PREFEITURA TARDE
25 PALACE GLAUBER ROCHA
A
C

20
EDIFICIO
DA BAHIA
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IGREJA
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MERCADO PALCIO CINE


ELEVADOR RIO BRANCO BAHIA
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LACERDA
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50
LARGO
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CAIS DO OURO PALCIO


DOS
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MUSEU
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COM.DE
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35

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50

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45

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BRAHMA INSS
5
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5
JD

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BANCO DO BRASIL DO ESTADO


DA BAHIA
DE BANEB
MERCADO MODELO
SALVADOR TERMINAL DA FRANCA
JD

CAPITANIA
CORREIOS DOS PORTOS
JD SUPERMERCADO
JD

ESTALEIRO
JD

PORTO
JD

SALVADOR
DE
BAA
DE
TODO
S OS PORTO
SANT
OS
COMPANHIA
DE NAVEGACAO
BAIANA
Ruas do Pelourinho no Centro Histrico de Salvador
Runas do Pilar
R O D A V L A S
L
SU
-MAR
RA
EB
QU
FORTE DE SO MARCELO

EMBRATUR

EMBRATUR
IAB
QUEBRA - MAR
SUL
S A L V A DO R
NORTE

QUEBRA - MAR

B A H I A

Patrimnio histrico e manuteno da diversidade social


Salvador uma capital metropolitana de grande vitalidade cultural e vem h vrios anos estruturando
aes de reabilitao nas reas de interesse histrico e cultural da cidade.

O patrimnio histrico de Salvador, primeira capital do Brasil, constitui-se num dos mais ricos legados de
PORTO

sua trajetria secular e rene casares, prdios, sobrados, capelas, igrejas, baslicas, palcios, palacetes,
SALVAD DE
OR

parques, terreiros de candombl e solares, alm do refinamento da azulejaria portuguesa e relquias em


metais preciosos que adornam estes lugares.

Entretanto, as aes de reabilitao em Salvador se concentram, nos ltimos anos, no permetro de


SANTOS
tombamento do IPHAN e da Unesco, assumido tambm para definir a lgica de interveno do Programa
OS
TODOS DE
BAA

Monumenta do Ministrio da Cultura. Atualmente, defende-se um alargamento da rea de ao de planos


PORTO e projetos, compreendendo varias reas no entorno deste permetro. No momento esto sendo
Q.E
.

identificadas trs outras reas de interveno, alm da do Pelourinho, que foi objeto de interveno em
P.A.M.
MENINOS
GUA DE
PERIF RICO

DA

sete etapas, sendo que a ltima ainda est em curso. As trs reas de interveno so: Pilar e a rea do
M
SALVADOR
MOINHO
CT
CT
JD

COMANDO
2 CORPO NAVAIS
NAVAL
DISTRITO DE FUZILEIROS
CT
CT

Comrcio; rea do elevador Lacerda; Ladeira da Preguia.


POST
CA
MP
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A interveno no Pelourinho: a garantia dos direitos da populao na Stima Etapa


FU
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.
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Nos projetos em que participa diretamente, um dos esforos do governo federal garantir que a
DE MENINOS
D.N.E.R. LARGO AGUA
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DO PILAR
C

TUNEL
DE SANTA LUZIA
IGREJA SANTISSIMA
5
C

TRINDADE

identidade cultural e manuteno da populao pobre residente sejam asseguradas nos projetos de
DA
IGREJA

POPULAR
MERCADO
20
25
30
35
10
15

40

reabilitao.
45
50

55

60
BOQUEIREO

DO
IGREJA
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ANTONIO ALM
SANTO ANTONIO
LARGO ST
DE
FORTE

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


60

ANTONIO
SANTO

67
C

DE
IGREJA
CONDER
Salvador/ Bahia State

Historical heritage and social diversity


Pilar Taboo Salvador is a culturally vital metropolitan
capital that has, during many years, carried
out rehabilitation initiatives in city areas with
an historical or cultural value.
The historical heritage of Salvador, the first
Em Salvador, as intervenes realizadas a partir dos anos 90 com recursos do governo da Bahia e capital of Brazil, comprises some of the richest
historical legacies in the country. Mansions,
financiamentos internacionais, em seis etapas, resultaram na reabilitao de mais de 500 imveis, mas buildings, chapels, houses, churches,
basilicas, palaces, small palaces, candombl
terraces and the refined Portuguese tiles and
tambm na sada da maior parte dos moradores pobres da rea do Pelourinho e na substituio de muitas precious metal relics that decorate them.
Recent rehabilitation measures in Salvador
atividades tradicionais por um comrcio voltado ao turismo, com resultados criticados por muitos have converged on the perimeter surveyed by
UNESCO and IPHAN and the definition of the
pesquisadores e urbanistas. area of intervention by the Ministry of Culture's
Monumenta Program. There is currently a
strong support for the enlargement of the area
marked for intervention projects and actions
and to add several areas outside of the current
Quando as aes de recuperao da stima etapa comearam, em 2000, a Companhia de perimeter. Apart from Pelourinho, the object
of a seven stage intervention with the last
stage still under way, three other areas have
Desenvolvimento Urbano da Bahia (CONDER) deu incio a um processo de remoo das famlias da rea, been identified as areas of intervention. The
three intervention areas are: Pilar and the
que oferece aos moradores duas alternativas. Eles poderiam receber um auxlio relocao (valor que variava Commerce area; the area surrounding the
Lacerda elevator; Ladeira de Preguica.
entre R$ 1.500 e R$ 3 mil) ou poderiam ser reassentados em um conjunto habitacional localizado na The Pelourinho intervention: the seventh
stage and the safeguarding of the rights of
periferia da cidade. the population
All the projects with direct participation by The
Federal Government must have the objective
to safeguard the cultural identity and
sustenance of the low-income population
A maioria das pessoas que vivem na rea - ambulantes, lavadeiras e camels - ganhavam a vida no prprio living in areas that are the object of
rehabilitation.
local e, ainda assim, dada a baixa renda, muitas delas aceitaram a proposta do Governo do Estado. The interventions that started in Salvador in
the nineties with resources from the
government of Bahia and international
financers have not only resulted in the
rehabilitation of more than 500 buildings, but
Um grupo de 103 famlias, no entanto, decidiu optar pela permanncia e lutar por seus direitos na Justia. A also in the exodus of most of the local and poor
Pelourinho population and in the substitution
partir de uma Ao Civil movida por moradores contra as remoes anteriores e para garantir os direitos de of many traditional activities with tourism
related activities, results that has been heavily
criticized by many researchers and urbanism
moradores em prdios a serem reabilitados na nova rea de interveno, o governo estadual foi acionado professionals.
During the start period of the seventh stage of
pelo Ministrio Pblico por meio de um Termo de Ajustamento de Conduta (TAC), um acordo que define rehabilitation, the Bahia Urban Development
Company (CONDER) started the process of
regras bsicas s quais o Governo do Estado deve atender. removal of the local families from the
Pelourinho area and offered them one of two
alternatives. They could be eligible to a
relocation compensation (that varied between
Brazil Real 1.500 and 3.000) or they could be
Para colaborar com a resposta a essas definies do Ministrio Pblico, que corresponde s diretrizes do relocated to a condominium located in the
city's periphery.
Most of the people that lived in the area
Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais, o Ministrio da Cultura, representado pelo Programa launderers and ambulant and stationary street
sellers earned their livelihood within the area
Monumenta e o Ministrio das Cidades, por meio das Secretarias Nacionais de Programas Urbanos (SNPU) still accepted the compensation offered by
from the State Government due to their low
e de Habitao (SNH), juntaram esforos para formular uma alternativa financeira a fim de viabilizar o income situation.
A total of 130 families have, however, opted to
stay and fight for their rights in Court. The Civil
projeto habitacional. Suit action initiated by the tenants against
previous removals and for the safeguarding of
tenants in buildings yet to be rehabilitated
within the area of intervention, led the Public
Ministry to force the state's government,
A soluo encontrada foi combinar recursos do Ministrio das Cidades com os do Governo do Estado da through new Practice Adjustment Terms, to
sign an agreement that defines the basic
Bahia para subsidiar a habitao de interesse social, recuperando os imveis que atendero a essas famlias, provisions that the government must to
comply with.
In order to comply with the definitions imposed
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

68
by the Public Ministry and the corresponding
directives in the Rehabilitation Program for
Central Urban Areas, the Ministry of Culture,
represented by the Monumnta Program, the
Ministry of Cities and the Secretariat for
National Urban and Housing Programs (SNPU residentes do Centro Histrico h mais de 20 anos. Os demais casares localizados na stima etapa sero
and SNH), decided to join forces and find
alternative forms to finance the housing project.
The Ministry of Cities and the Bahia State financiados pelo Programa Monumenta do Ministrio da Cultura associado aos recursos do Ministrio das
Government have decided to combine their
resources in order to subsidize social interest Cidades.
housing for the families that have resided in the
Historic Centre for more than 20 years. The
rehabilitation of mansions, on stage seven of
the intervention, will be financed by the Ministry
of Culture's Monumenta Program and Os representantes do governo federal interferiram tambm no processo de construo do Termo de
associated resources provided by the Ministry
of Cities. Ajustamento de Conduta (TAC) e so testemunhas desse documento, que estabelece o conjunto de
Representatives of the federal government
have also been part of the development process
of the Practice Adjustment Terms and are responsabilidades do governo do Estado da Bahia, em 17 itens, para atender s exigncias da Ao Civil
witnesses to the document that in 17 points
establishes the responsibilities that the Bahia Pblica, acatadas pelo Ministrio Pblico. Por iniciativa dos representantes federais e dos movimentos
Federal Government has in face of demands
placed by the Public Civil Suit and the support sociais, e tambm conforme diretrizes do Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais, o TAC
the suit received from the Public Ministry. The
Practice Adjustment Terms have, at the initiative
of the federal representatives and social instituiu um Comit Gestor com representao da populao e instalou a sede definitiva da Associao de
associations and in conformity with the
directives in the Program for the Rehabilitation Moradores e Amigos do Centro Histrico (AMACH) no Pelourinho.
of Central Urban Areas, instituted a
Management Committee that includes
representatives from the population as well as
placing the permanent headquarters of the
Historic Centre Tenants and Friends O Comit Gestor responsvel por acompanhar a implantao de todo o programa da Stima Etapa da
Association in Pelourinho itself.
The Management Committee has the recuperao do centro histrico de Salvador. Representando o governo estadual da Bahia, participam a
responsibility to control the implementation of
the Seventh Stage program for the recuperation
of Salvador's historic centre. The Bahia state CONDER, a Secretaria de Combate Pobreza e a Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Humano, alm do
government is represented by representatives
from CONDER, the Secretariat for the Combat Centro de Estudos Sociais, da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana e da Cooperao para o
against Poverty and the Human Development
Secretariat as well as the Center for Social
Studies, the Feira de Santana State University Desenvolvimento da Morada Humana, essa diversidade de atores revela a multiplicidade de aes previstas
and the Human Housing Development
Cooperation. The diversity is in direct relation to no TAC e no Plano de Reabilitao para a rea histrica de Salvador.
the various actions that are foreseen by the
Practice Adjustment Terms and in the
Rehabilitation Plan for Salvador's historic area.
The parties that signed the Practice Adjustment
Terms have also agreed to guarantee that the Centro de Estudos Sociais, da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana e da Cooperao para o
conditions for the relocation of other families
must occur within the time limits of the Seventh Desenvolvimento da Morada Humana, essa diversidade de atores revela a multiplicidade de aes previstas
Stage as well as guarantee the implementation
of a center for the rehabilitation of drug users
and the development of initiatives to foment no TAC e no Plano de Reabilitao para a rea histrica de Salvador.
education and the growth of income revenue
related activities
The Ministry of Cities has made available Brazil
Real 1.7 million in November 2005 to cover the Foram definidas ainda algumas condies para a assinatura do TAC, como a garantia de que o
demands by the 103 families, through the Social
Interest Housing Program. The value of
subsidies for each housing unit is Brazil Real 17 remanejamento de outras famlias ocorra dentro dos limites da Stima Etapa, a implantao do centro de
thousand. An equal value will be invested by the
Bahia State Government in order to be able to recuperao de dependentes qumicos no Centro Histrico, e o desenvolvimento de iniciativas para
fulfill the construction of the housing units.
The Seventh Stage also contains projects in
development within the Residence Program for capacitao e gerao de renda.
a total of 213 units.

Empowerment and education of the work


force O Ministrio das Cidades, por meio do Programa de Habitao de Interesse Social, liberou, em novembro
The Spanish Agreement maintains in Salvador
a Workshop-School targeting improvement
young people's education and specialized de 2005, R$ 1,7 milho para atender demanda das 103 famlias. O valor do subsdio por unidade
restoration and civil construction
workmanship's training. Created 12 years ago
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

69
by Spanish International Cooperation Agency, in
partnership with the Federal University of Bahia,
the workshop was responsible for the recovery
habitacional de R$ 17 mil. Igual valor dever ser investido pelo Governo do Estado da Bahia para viabilizar of the Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia, in
Terreiro de Jesus, Brazil's first Medical School
a execuo dessas unidades habitacionais. Na Stima Etapa, existem tambm projetos do Programa de founded in 1808 by the Portugal's Prince-regent
Dom Joo VI and destroyed in a fire in 1905.
Nowadays, the Workshop-School had the
Arrendamento Residencial em desenvolvimento, num total de 213 unidades. support of the Bahia's State Government and
Federal Government through an agreement
signed with the Institute for the Preservation of
Artistic and Cultural Heritage of Bahia (IPAC)
and the National Institute for the Preservation of
A Capacitao e formao de mo-de-obra Historical and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN).
In 2008 the school will be transferred to new
A Cooperao Espanhola mantm em Salvador uma Oficina Escola visando a qualificao de jovens e a headquarters, located at Seventh Stage of
Pelourinho, where students and former students
formao de mo-de-obra especializada para a restaurao de edifcios e para a construo civil. Criada pela will work together in the recovery of the old
centre of Salvador.
Agencia Espanhola de Cooperao Internacional, em parceria com a Universidade Federal da Bahia, a Directives and tools for the safeguarding of
rehabilitation continuity
oficina existe h 12 anos e foi responsvel pela recuperao da Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia, no Terreiro The upholding of functional and social diversity
is an essential requirement for the federal
government. The subject was reiterated during
de Jesus, a primeira Faculdade de Medicina do Brasil criada em 1808, pelo prncipe-regente de Portugal discussions with the City Hall regarding the need
to include the tools of the City Statutes in Master
Dom Joo VI e destruda em um incndio 1905. Plan's revision process as well as the need for
the development of a housing plan for the central
area that takes into consideration the specific
local economic and cultural realities.
Some tools are already being used for the
Hoje, a Oficina Escola conta com o apoio dos Governos Estadual e Federal atravs de um convnio assinado rehabilitation of the central areas, such as:
Fiscal and Finance Incentives that give
com o Instituto do Patrimnio Artstico e Cultura da Bahia (IPAC) e com o Instituto do Patrimnio Histrico e subsidies for the implementation of cultural
activities and tourism related commerce; the
Special Grant for Housing Purposes that has the
Artstico Nacional (IPHAN). Em 2008 a Escola ser transferida para nova sede, localizada na Stima Etapa do objective of promoting the continued
permanence of the local population; Surface
Pelourinho, onde alunos e ex alunos trabalharo juntos na recuperao do centro antigo de Salvador. Rights that are applied through the contra entry
law as long as approved by the IPHAC and
IPHAN.
The revision process of the Master plan
foresees that the main instruments for the
Diretrizes e instrumentos para a continuidade da reabilitao rehabilitation of central urban areas are:
appropriation through the use of government
Para o governo federal, a manuteno da diversidade funcional e social das reas reabilitadas um requisito bonds in land that is owned by the Federal Union
and appropriation is also being proposed for
cases of abandoned buildings or buildings that
essencial. Esse aspecto foi ressaltado nas discusses com a Prefeitura sobre a necessidade de incluir os are precariously occupied by the homeless and
hinder the rehabilitation process; the right of
instrumentos do Estatuto da Cidade no processo de reviso do Plano Diretor, assim como desenvolver um preemption that facilitates the acquisition of
strategic relocation buildings in the area itself or
plano habitacional para a rea central, que considere tambm as especificidades fundirias e culturais desse its vicinity; the renovation subsidy that aims to
recuperate invested resources due to the fact
that many proprietors keep empty buildings and
territrio. wait for market valorization.

A global plan for the whole central area


During 2007 the efforts to achieve partnerships
between the different organs of the federation
Instrumentos como Incentivos Fiscais e Financeiros, que subsidiam a implantao de empreendimentos have started to result in full agreements and
cooperation agreements.
culturais e de servios vinculados ao turismo; a Concesso Especial para Fins de Moradia, que pretende The Ministry of Transportation, already a project
partner of the Ministry of Cities in other harbor
promover a permanncia da populao local; o Direito de Superfcie, aplicado atravs da lei da cities, decided to restart work on its Program for
the Revitalization of Harbor Areas. The Working
Group for the Revitalization of Salvador's
contrapartida, desde que haja autorizao do IPHAC e IPHAN, j esto sendo utilizados na rea central. Harbor Area was created through an order by
the Minister of Transportation, a group the
Vista do Pelourinho involves not only the two Ministries but also the
Bahia State Government, The City Hall of
Patrimnio Mundial Salvador and the Bahia Dock Company
CHRISTIAN KNEPPER

(CODEBA).
The group's objective is the integration of the
harbor area with the rest of the city, according to
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS the directives made by the Ministry of Cities

70
program for the Rehabilitation of Central
Urban Areas, and to create a diversity of
environments and potential purposes.
The Ministry of Cities has also formulated and
proposed a Professional Cooperation
agreement, in partnership with the local
governments and other Ministries, that has the Na reviso do Plano Diretor, os principais instrumentos previstos para reabilitao de reas centrais so: a
objective of safeguarding social participation
as well as the participation of other involved
organs, and will present the first integrated desapropriao com ttulos da dvida pblica de benfeitorias em terrenos da Unio, que est sendo
plan for the whole central area of Salvador,
including the harbor area. proposta para imveis abandonados e ocupados precariamente por cortios, prevendo sua reabilitao; o
The Ministry of Cities is also financing, either
through direct investments or in partnership
with the state government, the creation of direito de preempo, para facilitar a aquisio de imveis estratgicos para os processos de
studies and surveys, the implementation of a
management bureau and studies on social reassentamento na prpria rea ou nas suas imediaes; e a contribuio de melhoria, que pretende
project participation.
recuperar recursos investidos, especialmente porque existem muitos proprietrios que detm imveis
vazios espera da valorizao.
LETCIA MIGUEL

Um plano global para todo o centro


A partir de 2007 os esforos de constituio de parcerias entre os entes da federao passaram a se
traduzir em efetivos acordos e cooperaes. O Ministrio dos Transportes, que j vinha trabalhando em
parceria com o Ministrio das Cidades em outras cidades porturias, decidiu retomar os trabalhos de seu
Programa de Revitalizao de reas Porturia e, a partir da designao do Ministro dos Transportes, foi
criado o Grupo de Trabalho de Revitalizao da rea Porturia de Salvador, envolvendo, alm dos dois
Ministrios, o Governo do Estado da Bahia, a Prefeitura Municipal de Salvador e a Companhia das Docas
do Estado da Bahia (CODEBA).
Pelourinho

As atividades previstas para o trabalho, em conformidade com as diretrizes do programa de Reabilitao


de reas Urbanas Centrais do Ministrio das Cidades, visam integrar o porto cidade, criando ambientes e
usos diversificados.
CONDER

Com o objetivo de garantir a participao da sociedade e dos demais rgos envolvidos com a reabilitao

GIDUR
do centro de Salvador, o Ministrio das Cidades props e formulou, em parceria com os governos locais e
outros Ministrios um acordo de Cooperao Tcnica que prev a elaborao do primeiro plano
integrado para todo o centro da cidade, incluindo sua rea porturia.

O Ministrio das Cidades tambm est assegurando, com investimentos diretos em parceria com o
Bairro do comrcio
Governo do Estado, a elaborao dos estudos e levantamentos necessrios, a implementao de um

Pelourinho escritrio de gesto das atividades e a elaborao das formas de participao da sociedade no projeto.
Stima etapa da revitalizao
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

71
UMARIZAL

RENATO BALBIM

RENATO BALBIM

AR
AJ
GU
DO
IA
BA

rea porturia- mercado de ferro ver-o-peso Vista do mercado de ferro


ver-o-peso

RENATO BALBIM
Vestao das docas
complexo turstico de gastronomia

RENATO BALBIM
Centro Histrico

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS RENATO BALBIM

72 rea porturia
P A R
BELM
The preservation of heritage and increasing
available housing Preservao do patrimnio e reforo do uso residencial
The area of the Historical Centre of Belm
corresponds to the old area of the Cidade Velha (Old
City) neighborhood and the whole of the Campina A rea que corresponde ao Centro Histrico de Belm corresponde rea antiga do bairro da Cidade
neighborhood. The area has a population of about
nine thousand people and a population density of Velha e todo o bairro da Campina, concentrando uma populao de aproximadamente 9 mil pessoas,
51,5 inhabitants per hectare. More than half of the
land plots contain buildings with an historic value.
During the last years this central area also
com uma densidade de 51,5 habitantes por hectare. Mais da metade dos lotes abriga imveis com valor
experienced, as have other Brazilian cities, changes
in commercial activities as commerce is today histrico.
predominantly based on more informal forms of
commerce. This change is mainly due to the fact that
consumers with more money to spend prefer to shop
in shopping -centers.
The main problem in the area is, however, the
Nesta rea central, como em outras cidades brasileiras, vem ocorrendo, nos ltimos anos, um processo
exodus of the population. Buildings that once had a
variety of purposes (family housing and commerce) de substituio das atividades comerciais tradicionais, predominando hoje o comrcio mais informal.
are now only used for commercial purposes. This
has led to the emptying of the area after commerce
hours and has increased the sense of insecurity that
Essa transformao devida principalmente preferncia dos consumidores de maior renda pelos
many people feel, according to opinion polls
All of these factors have led to the degradation of the shopping centers.
buildings that compose the valuable architectonic
heritage area, an area that is nationally recognized
as an area that must be preserved for posterity.
Some of the central neighborhoods have serious
infrastructural problems and some have been the
A rea central sofre, sobretudo, com a evaso da populao, de modo que edificaes que
object of disorderly occupations and have no
compatible infrastructure whatsoever, such as the originalmente eram de uso misto (residncia unifamiliar e comrcio) hoje abrigam apenas comrcio, o
area along the river in the Cidade Velha
neighborhood. Campina is an area where
dominated by commerce and popular services and
que leva a um esvaziamento da rea fora do horrio comercial e nos finais de semana, contribuindo para
suffers from a degradation of the environmental
conditions with increased air and visual pollution, a sensao de insegurana que muitos freqentadores apontam em pesquisas de opinio.
chaotic traffic jams and other serious social and
infrastructural problems.
On the positive side, the area is very dynamic as far
as popular commerce and tourism are concerned
and has a great potential for rehabilitation and to
Esses fenmenos se refletem na degradao das edificaes que compem o valioso acervo
play an important cultural, economic and social roll
for the city of Belm. arquitetnico, a maior parte integrante de rea reconhecida como de interesse de preservao em
The State of Par has invested heavily in some
projects developed during the last years, focusing esfera nacional. Algumas reas lindeiras ao centro apresentam graves problemas de infra-estrutura,
mainly on national heritage preservation and
tourism attraction, directed at the rehabilitation of
central Belm. These investments have led to destacando-se alguns processos de ocupao desordenada, sem nenhuma infra-estrutura compatvel,
improved environmental conditions for some parts
of the area, but there is still a lot to be done.
Decision makers currently acknowledge that there is
a need for an increase in integrated actions that will
jointly address economic, social, and cultural and MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

73
como no caso da orla do rio, ao longo do bairro da Cidade Velha. No bairro da Campina,
predominantemente de comrcio e servios populares, observa-se a degradao ambiental com a
poluio visual e sonora, a desordem no trnsito e outros graves problemas sociais e de infra-estrutura.
No entanto, trata-se de uma rea com grande dinamismo comercial e turstico, de caractersticas
populares, alm de contar com enorme potencial para ser reabilitada e cumprir um papel cultural,
econmico e social muito importante para a cidade de Belm.

Alguns projetos voltados reabilitao da rea central de Belm foram desenvolvidos nos ltimos anos,
focando o patrimnio e a atrao de turistas, com presena forte de investimentos do Estado do Par.
Essas aes contriburam para a melhoria ambiental de alguns setores pontuais, mas resta muito a fazer.
Considera-se que hoje so necessrias aes mais integradas e de cunho econmico, social, cultural e
turstico. E, principalmente, medidas que favoream o retorno habitacional, visando a uma atuao
duradoura e compatvel com esse espao urbano multifuncional e socialmente diversificado.

Foi muito importante para a transformao das diretrizes da reabilitao de Belm o processo de reviso
do Plano Diretor, que assumiu a questo das diretrizes e instrumentos do Estatuto da Cidade para o
centro como um aspecto fundamental da poltica urbana de Belm. De fato, o Plano Diretor de 1994 j
continha praticamente todos os instrumentos atualmente considerados importantes para assegurar a
funo social da propriedade ou obter recursos da atividade imobiliria para melhorar o padro de
urbanizao da cidade, inclusive a outorga onerosa do direito de construir.

J esto regulamentados e em aplicao, especificamente no permetro da interveno no centro,


instrumentos como o tombamento de imveis isolados e conjuntos de valor histrico, iseno e alquotas
especiais de IPTU a fim de incentivar a preservao, alm do parcelamento e/ou edificao compulsria,
IPTU progressivo no tempo e desapropriao com ttulos da dvida pblica.

No entanto, alguns instrumentos definidos no Plano Diretor parecem ter sido incuos diante das presses
dos setores da construo civil interessados no aproveitamento intensivo do uso dos lotes (verticalizao),
que afetou bastante a paisagem da rea central.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

74
tourism related matters. Especially measures that
will bring the residential population back in order to
achieve long lasting effects and the creation of a
compatible multifunctional and socially diversified
area.
The revision process of the Master Plan has been
very important for the change of directives related
to the rehabilitation of Belm as they now
incorporate the directives and tools provided by the Dado o histrico de intervenes direcionadas recuperao do centro visando principalmente s
City Statutes as a fundamental aspect of Belm's
urban policy. In fact, the Master Plan of 1994 atividades econmicas e de turismo, muitas delas capitaneadas pelo Governo do Estado, e visto que
already contained most of the tools that are
currently considered important for the safeguarding
of the social function of property or on how obtain foram criadas pela Prefeitura as condies locais para a instalao de processos mais amplos de
resources from the real estate sector in order to
improve the city's urbanization standards, including reabilitao, o Ministrio das Cidades decidiu apoiar a Prefeitura de Belm com o financiamento de um
the onerous granting of construction rights
(Created Land). Plano de Reabilitao, no qual possam constar todos os elementos necessrios de diagnstico e de
The perimeter of the central area of intervention is
already today the object of regulation and tool
implementation: survey of isolated buildings and instrumentos para que a diversidade de aes necessrias reabilitao do centro de Belm sejam viveis.
groups of buildings with historical value; exemption
and differentiated housing tax (IPTU) as an
incentive for preservation as well as compulsory
construction; time progressive housing tax (ITPU)
and; appropriation through the use of public bonds. O objetivo acordado para o Plano a reverso do quadro de degradao ambiental do centro histrico
However, some of the tools defined in the Master
Plan have proved to be worthless when placed
under pressure by the civil construction sector, a de Belm e seu entorno, ao mesmo tempo em que reconhece as populaes usurias e residentes nesse
sector that is mainly interested in making full use of
the land (vertical construction) and has already processo, que deve ser democrtico, participativo e construdo com os atores pblicos e sociais,
negatively affected the landscape of the central
area of the city. respeitando a diversidade cultural, social e econmica, o contingente construdo de significncia local,
In face of the data collected from interventions
directed at the recuperation of the city center area
and mostly aimed at economic activities and regional e nacional, bem como do enorme acervo de valores imateriais agregados.
tourism and managed by the State Government,
and in face of the fact that the City Hall has created
local conditions for the implementation of broader
rehabilitation plans, the Ministry of Cities has
decided to lend support to Belm's City Hall and O apoio do Ministrio das Cidades aponta para a aplicao de instrumentos que viabilizem a melhoria das
finance a rehabilitation plan that contains all the
research elements and tools needed to turn the condies de moradia da populao pobre que permanece na rea central, assim como a produo de
various actions into a viable option for Belm's city
center. unidades na perspectiva do repovoamento. Entre esses esto as Zonas Especiais de Interesse Social, que
The Plan's objective is the reversion of
environmental degradation in the Belm's historic
center and its surroundings and at the same time podem combinar exigncias relativas a percentagens mnimas de habitao social com instrumentos
take into consideration the part that must be played
by the resident population. The process must be indutores da utilizao dos imveis vazios ou subutilizados, todos previstos no Estatuto da Cidade.
democratic, participative and created together with
local public and social actors, must respect social,
cultural and economic diversity and have a local,
regional and national significance as well as
become a large source of aggregated knowledge of A questo da gesto integrada das intervenes tambm um ponto-chave, de modo a otimizar as
immaterial value.
The support of the Ministry of Cities allows for the intervenes municipais, estaduais e federais. Para tanto, o Ministrio das Cidades vem apoiando
application of tools that will improve the life
conditions of the poor population that has remained
in the city center area as well as the construction of tecnicamente a prefeitura na constituio de um Ncleo Gestor que envolva os parceiros federais
housing units for the future repopulation of the area.
We point in particular to the Special Social Interest (Ministrio da Cultura, via IPHAN e Programa Monumenta, o Ministrio do Planejamento, o Ministrio
Zones that combine the minimum percentage
requirement of social housing units with tools that
foment the use of vacant or under-used buildings, dos Transportes e Ministrio do Turismo), alm de secretarias estaduais e municipais diretamente ligadas
according to the City Statutes.
The question of integrated Pelourinho
intervention s questes e intervenes de maior significado na rea central.
management is also of key importance for the
Stima etapa
optimization of municipal, state and federal
interventions. The Ministry of Cities has lent its
support to the City Hall for the creation of a
Management Center that will be composed by the
federal partners (the Ministry of Culture through
IPHAN and the Monumenta Program, the Ministry
of Planning, the Ministry of Transportation and the
Ministry of Tourism) and by the state and municipal
secretariats that are directly connected to the most
significant city center area interventions.
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

75
PM AMPARO
RIO CAMANDOCAIA

RIO

CA
MAN
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CA
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Arq
Arq

RIO
CF

Projeto de reabilitao do centro histrico - adaptao de vias


C

C
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OCA

C C
AND
CAM

PM AMPARO
corredeira

T T

O
RI

C
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P
CAN
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QE

P
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Igreja So Benedito P

C
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MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

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76
P

P
S O P A U L O
AMPARO
Estatuto da Cidade e proteo do patrimnio histrico e cultural

A cidade de Amparo, estncia hidromineral no interior de So Paulo, possui um relevante acervo


patrimonial e cultural que precisa ser valorizado e reconhecido no seu conjunto e nas suas
particularidades. A cidade um precioso exemplo do desenvolvimento urbano do interior paulista, no
sculo XIX, impulsionado, principalmente, pelo ciclo cafeeiro.

O maior bem de preservao de Amparo so as marcas de seu crescimento e de sua evoluo urbana,
de modo que se tornou necessria a construo de uma poltica de preservao do meio ambiente
urbano, natural e construdo, valorizando o patrimnio cultural e a paisagem urbana.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

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PM AMPARO
Estudos contratados pela Prefeitura Municipal, com o apoio financeiro do Ministrio das Cidades,
tiveram sua ateno voltada para a chamada rea do centro expandido, regio bem provida de infra-
estrutura, equipamentos pblicos e servios urbanos, gravada no Plano Diretor como permetro central
da cidade. O municpio conta tambm com estruturas de gesto regulamentadas com atuao direta
nessa rea: o CONDEPHAAT Conselho de Defesa do Patrimnio Histrico, Arqueolgico, Artstico e
Museu Histrico e Pedaggico Bernardino
Turstico do Estado de So Paulo e o CODEPACUA Conselho de Defesa do Patrimnio Cultural de de Campos

Amparo.

A elaborao do Plano de Reabilitao do Centro Histrico de Amparo, apoiada pelo Ministrio das
Cidades, em 2004, teve como meta principal a garantia de mecanismos eficazes de preservao e a
valorizao do seu patrimnio cultural (material e imaterial), incluindo bens e conjuntos edificados, o

PM AMPARO
mobilirio, os equipamentos urbanos, bem como as caractersticas da paisagem e do traado urbano.

O plano busca incentivar novas e melhores condies de acesso moradia, principalmente da


populao de baixa renda, estabelecendo mecanismos legais eficazes que contemplem a habitao
social no centro, dando prioridade ao aluguel social dos imveis de interesse histrico e que no
cumprem a sua funo social. Para isso, prope a utilizao dos instrumentos urbansticos previstos no Mercado Municipal
Estatuto das Cidades, preferencialmente a utilizao compulsria, o IPTU progressivo, o direito de
preempo e incentivos fiscais para possveis empreendedores que invistam na recuperao de imveis
indicados. Alguns instrumentos, como a "contribuio de melhoria", o tombamento e a instituio de
Zonas Especiais de Proteo Cultural, j esto regulamentados dentro do permetro central delimitado.

PM AMPARO
Alm da utilizao dos imveis existentes, foi prevista a construo de conjuntos habitacionais de
interesse social em reas identificadas como vazios urbanos na rea central. Numa dessas reas
propese , ainda, a construo de um cine-auditrio.

Outro aspecto importante a reestruturao do sistema virio e do transporte por meio de


ordenamento de trfego de veculos, pedestres e das demais formas de transporte. Escola Tcnica Estadual Joo Belarmino
Antigo Liceu de Artes

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

78
Statute of the Cities and Historic Cultural
Heritage
The City of Amparo is a spa resort in the
countryside of the State of So Paulo. It presents
a relevant cultural heritage that demands
recognition in its entirety as well as for its
singularities. The city is a precious example of
countryside urban development occurred in So
O Plano, elaborado por uma parceria entre a Prefeitura Municipal da Estncia Hidromineral de Amparo e
Paulo in the XIX Century, which was mainly
influenced by the coffee culture. a equipe tcnica da Casa de Arquitetura, foi finalizado em dezembro de 2005.
The most important preservation asset in
Amparo is the legacy bequeathed by its growth
and urban evolution so that the elaboration of an
urban preservation policy was made necessary,
including both natural and constructed A implementao das aes discriminadas no Plano est prevista para acontecer dentro de um perodo
environment to add value to the cultural heritage
and urban landscape. de quatro anos, iniciado no primeiro semestre de 2006, com a definio do corpo tcnico responsvel, e
As demanded by the local City Hall and
financially supported by the Ministry of Cities,
studies focused on Amparo's Centro Expandido
que ser finalizado no segundo semestre de 2009, com o monitoramento e avaliao do programa.
(expanded downtown area) were made. This
region is provided with adequate infrastructure,
public equipment and urban services and
recorded in the Master Plan as being the city's
downtown area. Amparo also counts on
regulated management structures focusing this
area: The Archeological, Artistic and Touristic
Heritage of the State of So Paulo
(CONDEPHAAT) and the Amparo Cultural
Heritage Committee (Codepacua).
The elaboration of the Amparo Historic Center
Rehabilitation Plan was supported by the
Ministry of Cities in 2004. Its main objective was
granting efficient preservation mechanisms as
well as the preservation and the valorization of its
cultural heritage (both material or non-material),
including buildings, urban chattel, urban
equipment, and features of landscape and urban
plan.
The plan stimulates new, improved housing
access conditions, mainly directed to lower-
income populations by establishing efficient
legal instruments to envisage downtown social
housing, focusing on the social rent of real
estate bearing historic value, though not fulfiling
a current social function. Therefore, the use of
urbanistic instruments established by the Statute
of the Cities is proposed, preferably in terms of

PM AMPARO
mandatory use, the thoughtful payment of
property taxes, the right of first refusal, and tax
incentives for possible entrepreneurs investing
on the recovery of the indicated property. Legal
instruments like improvement tax, the official
recording of property as historic sites, and the
establishment of Special Zones of Cultural
Protection have already been regulated within
the delimited downtown area.
Additionally to the existing properties, the
building of new habitational clusters bearing
social interest is a project concerned with areas
identified as empty spaces in the downtown
area. The building of a movie-auditorium is
proposed for one of those areas.
Another remarkable aspect is traffic and
transport restructuring through vehicle and
pedestrian management.
The Plan was elaborated by the City Hall of
Amparo and the technical team of Casa de
Arquitetura. Concluded in December 2005.
The implementation of the set of actions
Sociedade Italiana de
previewed by the Plan is supposed to happen Mtua Assistncia
within four years, starting in the first semester Atual sede da Prefeitura
2006 with the definition of the technical board in
charge. Its conclusion is expected to end in late
2009 with program supervision and evaluation.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

79
PRODETUR

CHRISTIAN KNEPPER
Azulejos e Fachada de Igreja Barroca

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

80
P E R N A M B U C O OLINDA
Patrimnio da humanidade ameaado pelo risco de deslizamento

Olinda, cidade histrica e patrimnio da humanidade, fundada pelos portugueses em 1535, possui um
Polgono de Preservao com rea de 10,4 km, dentro do qual encontra-se o chamado "polgono de
tombamento", com cerca de 1,2 km , no qual a preservao rigorosa. No entanto, os riscos para esse
patrimnio so iminentes, devido, sobretudo, s possibilidades de escorregamentos e deslizes de
encostas.

H vrios sculos desde o tempo da colonizao portuguesa - o patrimnio histrico e arquitetnico


de Olinda vem sendo ameaado pelos movimentos lentos das encostas que afetam as fundaes e
provocam trincas variadas e tendenciosas nas construes prximas s encostas. A intensificao da
urbanizao da cidade ao longo do tempo alterou o relevo original, assim como as condies de
equilbrio iniciais, influenciando a ocorrncia de movimentos nas encostas. Nos ltimos anos, a elevao
do nvel d'gua no solo, aliada ao precrio ou inexistente sistema de drenagem de guas pluviais e de
coleta de esgotos, remoo da vegetao e execuo de cortes e aterros instveis para construo de
moradias, vm contribuindo para o desencadeamento de processos de instabilizao. Atualmente,
algumas edificaes encontram-se interditadas por risco de desabamento, pois apresentam vrias
trincas.

O fenmeno da movimentao das encostas em Olinda comeou a ser analisado na dcada de 1970.
No entanto, aes de maior impacto e de carter institucional apareceram somente a partir de meados
da dcada de 1990, atingiram especialmente os assentamentos precrios, as favelas.

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

81
World Heritage at Risk of Sliding
Olinda is a world historic site founded by the
Portuguese in 1535, where a Preservation
Polygon of 10.4 km is located. Within this
polygon there is the so-called preservation
polygon, amounting to 1.2 km, where
Pela primeira vez, ser desenvolvido um trabalho multidisciplinar e integrado que rene profissionais, da preservation follows rigid rules. Meanwhile,
imminent risks threaten this historic site,
Prefeitura e da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco com experincia em deslizamentos de encostas e mainly due to hillside sliding possibilities.
For centuries since the Portuguese
colonization times the historic and
processos correlatos, e tcnicos e especialistas envolvidos com a questo do patrimnio histrico. architectural heritage of Olinda has been
menaced by slow hillside movements that
Coerente com as diretrizes do Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais, o Ministrio das affect foundations and cause serious cracks
on the walls of the constructions placed
Cidades decidiu ser parceiro e financiar essas atividades. along the hills. As the town has faced
increasing urbanization, its original relief
changed. The initial balance conditions also
changed with time, which led to the
occurrence of hill sliding. In the last few
O objetivo do projeto desenvolver solues estruturadoras para problemas de deslizamentos e years, ground water levels increased. There
is no efficient drainage system for rainwater
and sewage collection is also precarious. All
consolidao do patrimnio histrico construdo, baseadas em estudos e projetos de engenharia this, in addition to vegetation removal and
the appearance of unstable landfills for the
relacionados conteno das encostas, recuperao estrutural, drenagem e rede coletora de esgotos, construction of residential units, have led to
an increasing process of ground
bem como o detalhamento de projeto estrutural das reas mais atingidas atualmente interditadas nas unstableness. Some buildings are currently
interdicted due to sliding risk, as they
present several wall cracks.
encostas dos morros do Stio Histrico (Zona Especial de Proteo Cultural-1). The hillside movement in Olinda started to
be analyzed in the 1970's. However, actions
of greater impact and of institutional
character took place only from the mid-
1990's on, affecting mainly precarious
O trabalho ser estruturado em trs grandes eixos: areas like the favelas.
For the first time, a multidisciplinary and
1. Projetos de sistema de esgoto sanitrio e de drenagem das guas superficiais visando eliminao total integrated set of actions will be developed,
involving professionals from the Town Hall
de fossas e sumidouros, assim como complementao da rede coletora de esgotos na rea de projeto. and the Federal University of the State of
Pernambuco, with expertise in hillside
sliding and related processes, in addition to
2. Projetos de monitoramento da estabilidade das encostas e de edifcios aps a implantao das obras de technicians and experts connected with
historic heritage issues. The Ministry of
conteno, bem como da operao dos sistemas de esgotamento sanitrio e de drenagem de guas Cities decided to be a partner and finance
such activities, as it is consistent with the
guidelines established by the National
pluviais. Downtown Area Rehabilitation Program.
The project aims to develop structuring
3. Projetos de recuperao e reforo estrutural, que envolvero as edificaes pblicas e particulares que solutions for sliding problems and
consolidate the constructed historic
apresentem danos decorrentes das movimentaes das encostas. heritage, based on studies and engineering
projects concerned with hillside protection,
structure recovery, drainage and sewage
system, and to develop a detailed project for
the most critical areas currently isolated
A rea de estudo corresponde Zona Especial de Proteo Cultural (ZEPC-I), localizada no Stio in the slopes of hills at the Historic Site of
Olinda (Special Zone of Cultural Protection
1).
Histrico de Olinda, que inclui os bairros do Varadouro, Carmo, Amparo, parte de Guadalupe, The work will take place in three major
steps:
Bonsucesso e Amaro Branco, e onde est situada a maioria dos edifcios de expressivo valor arquitetnico 1. Sewage system and rainwater drainage
projects focused on fully eliminating
e cultural: monumentos, igrejas, museus, alm dos atelis dos principais artistas, constituindo a parte da cesspools and gutters, and on
supplementing the system of sewers within
the area managed by the Project.
cidade mais visitada pelos turistas. 2. Projects to supervise hillside/building

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

82
stableness as well as sewerage and
rainwater after protection measures are
taken.
3. Structural reinforcement/recovery
projects involving public and private
buildings presenting damages caused by Os recursos para viabilizar todos os estudos e atividades totalizam R$ 350 mil e provm do Ministrio das
hillside movement.
The area under study corresponds to the Cidades, por meio do Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais. Com base no produto final
Special Zone of Cultural Protection (ZEPC-
I)where the most significant historic do projeto que podero ser captados os recursos para intervenes de engenharia.
buildings are situated: landmarks,
churches, museums, art ateliers, which
constitute the most regularly visited area in
town.
The resources to fund such studies and
activities amount to R$ 350 thousand and
Apoio a projetos de fortalecimento institucional e de planejamento urbano
are provisioned by the Ministry of Cities
through the Downtown Area Rehabilitation Junto com outras iniciativas de preservao do patrimnio, o fortalecimento institucional dos municpios
Program.
Resources for engineering interventions para lidar com o conjunto das questes ambientais e sociais que envolvem a sustentabilidade dessas
can only be set based on the final product
obtained by the project.
aes uma preocupao do Ministrio das Cidades. Para isso, se busca articular as aes do Programa
Support to Institutional Strengthening
and Urban Planning Projects de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais com outros programas federais, especialmente aqueles do
Together with other heritage preservation
initiatives, the institutional municipal
strengthening to deal with a set of
mbito do prprio ministrio.
environmental and social issues involving
the sustainability of these actions is a major
concern for the Ministry of Cities. Therefore,
it attempts to articulate the National O Ministrio das Cidades tambm desenvolve uma ao especfica para a questo de deslizamentos de
Downtown Area Rehabilitation Program
with other federal programs, mainly the
ones within the scope of the ministry itself.
encostas e inundao em assentamentos precrios, fornecendo apoio tcnico e financeiro para
The Ministry of Cities also develops a
specific set of actions towards hillside capacitao de equipes municipais, elaborao de planos de reduo de riscos e projetos de estabilizao
sliding and flood issues by offering technical
and financial support to qualify local teams,
elaborate risk reduction plans and hillside
de encostas. Nessa modalidade, a Prefeitura de Olinda foi contemplada com investimento total de R$
stability projects. The Town Hall of Olinda
received a total investment of R$ 340 340 mil. Desse apoio, devem resultar tcnicos mais capacitados, um plano de reduo de riscos
thousand to deal with such modalities.
This support is supposed to generate concludo e projetos de estabilizao de encostas em assentamentos precrios.
better-qualified technicians, a concluded
risk reduction plan, and hillside stability
projects in poor areas.
The institutional strengthening and the
elaboration of specific projects and studies O fortalecimento institucional e a elaborao de projetos e estudos especficos de conteno da colina
for the protection of Olinda's historic hillside
is expected to allow the town to leverage
new revenues for the works of stableness to
histrica de Olinda devem permitir ao municpio alavancar novos recursos necessrios para as obras de
keep and even reinforce the uses of the
town's historic area, thus granting its estabilizao que permitiram a permanncias e at reforo dos usos da rea histrica a cidade, garantindo
rehabilitation and the preservation of the
world historic heritage. sua reabilitao e a preservao do patrimnio da humanidade.

CHRISTIAN KNEPPER
Fachadas

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

83
P A R T E 2
P A R T E 2
E X P E R I N C I A S D E S E N V O L V I D A S

Diversidade funcional, qualidade ambiental e melhor acesso aos centros


Em algumas cidades, a soluo dos problemas ambientais e
urbansticos que afetam seus centros essencial para melhorar a
qualidade de vida ou atrair novos moradores, atividades e
freqentadores.

Functional Diversity, Environmental


Quality and Improved Access to O processo de elaborao dos planos de reabilitao, com recursos
Downtown Areas
The solution for both environmental and do Programa de Reabilitao de reas Urbanas Centrais em Aracaju,
urbanistic issues affecting downtown areas
in some cities is essential either to enhance Belo Horizonte, Macei, Porto Alegre e Vitria, permite identificar
quality of life or attract new inhabitants,
activities, and regular visitors.
Elaborating rehabilitation plans through the esses problemas e propor solues integradas, assim como articular
resources arising from the National
Downtown Area Rehabilitation Program in investimentos nas reas de acessibilidade, infra-estrutura, mobilirio
cities like Aracaju, Belo Horizonte, Macei,
Porto Alegre, and Vitria allows identifying
such problems as well as proposing urbano e paisagem. A definio de legislaes urbansticas especficas
integrated solutions, in addition to
articulating investments in accessibility, para novas construes e para aproveitamento dos edifcios
infrastructure, urban chattels, and
landscape. Defining specific urban desocupados nas reas centrais, alm de instrumentos para induzir o
legislation for new construction sites and
rehabilitation of empty buildings in
downtown areas is not only a matter of uso dos imveis, especialmente em programas de natureza social,
instruments that lead to property use,
especially in programs of social nature. tambm tem o papel de viabilizar as metas dos planos de reabilitao
Moreover, this definition plays the role of
making rehabilitation plans feasible
actually applying their guidelines. e garantir suas diretrizes.
In Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Vitria,
the use of public real estate for social
housing purposes is a significant
component for downtown area Em Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre e Vitria, a utilizao de imveis
rehabilitation.
pblicos para habitao social um componente importante da
reabilitao do centro.
MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS
PM PORTO ALEGRE
Imvel vazio

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS

86
PORTO ALEGRE RIO GRANDE DO SUL
Espao pblico e estmulo a convivncia no centro
Public Space and Incentive to Downtown Social Life

MACEI ALAGOAS
Plano de requalificao e investimentos em infra-estrutura
Urbanistic Legislation and Social Housing Promotion

BELO HORIZONTE MINAS GERAIS


Legislao urbanstica e promoo de habitao social.
Requalification and Infrastructure Investment Plan

MANUAL DE REABILITAO DE REAS URBANAS CENTRAIS


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