You are on page 1of 90

Ultra-High Performance

Concrete (UHPC)
Zach Haber, Ph.D.
Bridge Engineering Researcher
Genex Systems / FHWA TFHRC
202-493-3330
zachary.haber.ctr@dot.gov
Efficiency through technology and collaboration

2016 FDOT Design Training Expo


Daytona Beach, FL, June 13-15, 2016
Foot Bridge of Peace Seoul, South Korea

www.vsl-ip.com
Jean Bouin Stadium Faade Paris, France

www.tekla.com
Hawkeye UHPC Bridge Buchanan County, IA
Pulaski Skyway Newark, New Jersey

5
North American Bridges Using UHPC

In-Service
- Prior to 2011
- 2011
- 2012
- 2013
- 2014
- 2015

6
What is UHPC?

Efficiency through technology and collaboration


What is Ultra-High Performance Concrete?
Portland Cement-Based
Castable

Self-Consolidating

Precast.org

8
What is Ultra-High Performance Concrete?
Fiber Reinforcement Superplasticizers

Supplementary
Cementitious Materials

Particle
Packing
Theory

American Coal Ash Association


Nist.gov

9
What is Ultra-High Performance Concrete?

Advanced Cement-Based Composite


Highly Durable, Strain-Hardening Concrete

State-of-the-Art Concrete

Numerous Potential Applications

10
Typical Composition of UHPC

Constituent Amount % by Weight


Portland Cement 1200 lb/yd3 28.5
Silica Fume 390 lb/yd3 9.3
Fine Sand 1720 lb/yd3 41.0
Ground Quartz 355 lb/yd3 8.5
Superplasticizer 51 lb/yd3 1.2
Water 218 lb/yd3 5.2
Steel Fibers 263 lb/yd3 6.3

11
Steel Fibers

12
Compression Behavior

25

20
Axial Stress (ksi)

15

10

0
0 0.0025 0.005 0.0075 0.01
Axial Strain (in/in)

13
Tensile Behavior

Specimen: 2 x 2 x 17

14
Tensile Behavior

2
1.8
Average Axial Stress (ksi)

1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
Average Axial Strain (in/in)

15
UHPC Properties: Some Ballpark Values

Compressive Strength 18 to 35 ksi


Modulus of Elasticity 6000 to 8000 ksi
Sustained Tensile Capacity 0.75 to 1.5 ksi
Rapid Chloride Test 20 to 360 Coulombs
Freeze/Thaw Resistance RDM > 95%
Permeability - 2 x 10-13 m2/s (Chloride Ion Diffusion Coefficient)

16
UHPC Mixing
Pre-Bagged Powder
Constituents

Superplasticizer

Fibers
17
UHPC Mixing

18
UHPC Mixing

19
UHPC Casting (Video)

20
UHPC Casting (Video)

21
Availability of UHPC-Class Materials
Proprietary Versions Non-Proprietary Versions

FHWA-HRT-13-100:
Dr. Kay Willie at UCONN 22
UHPC:
Applications in the Highway Sector

Efficiency through technology and collaboration


UHPC for Bridge Deck Rehabilitation

Section View

UHPC Overlay

Existing
Superstructure

Chillon Viaduct near Lausanne, Switzerland


24
UHPC for Bridge Deck Rehabilitation

Chillon Viaduct near Lausanne, Switzerland


25
Casting for Bridge Deck Rehabilitation

Chillon Viaduct near Lausanne, Switzerland


26
UHPC for Bridge Deck Rehabilitation

Chillon Viaduct near Lausanne, Switzerland


27
UHPC for Bridge Deck Rehabilitation

[ Video of a UHPC with and without thickening agent ]

28
UHPC for Bridge Girders

Mars Hill Bridge


Wapello County, Iowa

Jakway Bridge
Buchanan County, Iowa

Cat Point Creek Bridge


Richmond County, Virginia

29
Mars Hill Bridge

UHPC prestressed girder superstructure


110 span with 9.6 girder spacing
Opened to traffic in early 2006

30
Mars Hill Bridge
2'-10" 2'-10" 2'-8" 2'-8"

313 213
16"
2
313
16" 16"

1" 1"
42
1" 1"
62 42
62 3'-6" 3'-6"
3'-9"

1"
52
1" 1"
72
72

Iowa 45 Bulb Tee Modified Bulb Tee


SW 0.7 kip/ft SW 0.56 kip/ft
31
UHPC for Bridge Decks
24 in.
2.5 in. 1
8 ft.
5.5 in. 0.5 in.
prestressing 1
strands
3 in.
Detail 1-1 Plan
Cross Section
38 ft.

grout filled pocket 1 UHPC deck panel


8 in.

5 girders @ 8 ft. spacing

32
UHPC for Bridge Decks

Dahlonega Road Bridge in Wapello County, Iowa


33
UHPC for Steel Girder Rehabilitation

Concrete Deck

UHPC

34
Tested by Zmetra, 2015 at UCONN Steel Girder Studs UHPC
UHPC for Pile Foundations

0.5" Dia. Strand


10 in 2 in
13 in
116

Without Taper With Taper


Minimize Driving
Stresses

Vande Voort et al. 2008, Iowa State University


35
UHPC for Pile Foundation Rehabilitation

Existing Pile
Nace.org

UHPC Bent Cap

36
UHPC for PBE Connections

Ultra-High Performance Concrete


Prefabricated Bridge Elements
Bridge Construction

37
Conventional vs UHPC Connections

Conventional Detail UHPC Detail

38
Design and Construction of
UHPC Field-Cast Connections

FHWA-HRT-14-084
What is UHPC?
Example Connections
Structural Design
Construction
Quality Assurance
Deployments

39
Design Guidance: Embedment Length
Cover >_ 3db
ld >_ 8db
Rebar Lap Splice
Elevation

Precast ls >_ 0.75 ld


Concrete Splice Length

Cover >_ 3db Clear _


2db >_ >l
Spacing s

Plan

_ 75 ksi
fy < fc' >_ 14 ksi
No. 4 - No. 9 Bars Rebar UHPC
2% Steel Fibers
Uncoated or Epoxy Coated (By Vol.)
40
Deck-to-Deck Connections

41
Deck-to-Girder Connections

42
Connections for Deck-Barrier Units

43
Pier Column to Cap Connection
(14) #9 Dowel Bars
Extending from Cap 3" Dia. UHPC Placement Tube

1'-0" Vent Tube

Existing 42" Dia. UHPC Connetion


Pier Column Grout
Existing (28)
#9 Bars
Hooper Road over Route 17C
Union, New York
44
Pier Column to Cap Connection

Hooper Road over Route 17C


Union, New York
So, What Does a UHPC
Connections Project Look
Like?

Efficiency through technology and collaboration


Example Project Casting Prep UHPC Placement
Placement Open to Traffic
UHPC Mixing Finishing ++ Curing
Finishing Curing
New York State DOT
I-87 SB at Exit 4, Albany, NY Field Testing Form Removal + Profiling
FHWA UHPC Web Resources

Web Search: FHWA UHPC


https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/resources/uhpc/

48
Ultra-High Performance
Concrete (UHPC)
Zach Haber, Ph.D.
Bridge Engineering Researcher
Genex Systems / FHWA TFHRC
202-493-3330
zachary.haber.ctr@dot.gov
Efficiency through technology and collaboration

2016 FDOT Design Training Expo


Daytona Beach, FL, June 13-15, 2016
1st Intl. Interactive Symposium on UHPC

July 18-20, 2016


Des Moines, Iowa

ABC
Structural Design
Material Design
Repair & Retrofit
Bridge Site Visits

50
Cost of PBE Grouts including UHPC
Products on the Market
Grout Type Approximate Cost per yd3
Portland Cement Grouts $1000 to $2000
Repair Mortars $1500 to $3000
Epoxy Grouts $5000
UHPCs $2500 to $3500

Non-Proprietary Versions
At least $800 for UHPC raw constituents

51
UHPC for Steel Girder Rehabilitation

From: Zmetra, 2015

52
UHPC Connections for Shear Interfaces

Steel Girder Connection Concrete Girder Connection


53
Session 5:
UHPC Connections:
Construction, Monitoring & Testing

Efficiency through technology and collaboration


PBE Installation

55
PBE Installation

56
PBE Installation

57
PBE Installation

58
Connection Formwork

59
Connection Formwork

60
Connection Formwork

61
Preparing to Cast (Video)

62
Pre-Wetting Connection Interfaces

63
UHPC Mixing

64
UHPC Mixing
Pre-Bagged Powder
Constituents

Superplasticizer

Fibers
65
UHPC Mixing

66
UHPC Mixing

67
UHPC Casting

68
UHPC Casting

69
Connection Overfilling and Top Forming

70
Connection Overfilling and Top Forming

71
Connection Overfilling and Top Forming

72
Connection Overfilling and Top Forming

73
Forms Removed Full Bridge View

74
Forms Removed Close Up View

75
Riding Surface Preparation Grinding

76
Construction Engineer Inspection

Familiarity with specs and special provisions


Worker safety equipment and procedures.
Prior coordination of construction activities.
Constituent materialslot, date, storage.
Mixing processweighing, timing, discharge.
Formwork
Connection interface surface preparation.
Pour locations and volume per pour.

77
Construction Engineer Inspection

Placement procedure.
Form closure including overpressure.
Curing requirements.
Surface preparation of hardened UHPC.
Field testing for fresh properties.
Lab testing for hardened properties.

78
Constituent Measurement

79
Flow Testing

80
Flow Testing

81
Flow Testing (Video)

82
Compression Testing

83
Cylinder Preparation for Compression Testing

84
Pre-Wetting Connection Interfaces
Connection Precast
Material Concrete

No Moisture Reduced Bond


85
Bondable Interface to Reduce Leakage

HIGH

MEDIUM MEDIUM HIGH

LOW
NONE LOW

86
Bondable Interface Grout
topping
Load
A

1000 A
14-d GROUT Interface Bond
Concrete
900 14-d UHPC Interface Bond base slab
6
Non-Shrink Grout UHPC ASTM C1583
800 Load Saw cut
Grout Age - 14 Days
(psi)(psi)

Pull-off disc Precast


5
700 Grout Material Concrete

Tensile Stress (Mpa)


Failure

Grout-to-
600 UHPC
4
Concrete
at Stress

Interface
500
Tensile

3 Section A-A
400
Tensile Stress

Non-Shrink Grout
300 2
200
1
100

0 0
None
NONE Low
LOW Medium
MEDIUM High
LARGE

87
Tensile Behavior
2.0 13.8
2% Steel Fiber Reinforcement

Average Axial Stress (MPa)


13 ksi fc 16 ksi
Average Axial Stress (ksi)

1.6 11.0

1.2 D 8.3
E
B
0.8 A 5.5
C
0.4 2.8

0.0 0.0
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010
Average Axial Strain

88
Tensile Behavior
2.0 13.8
D (4%)

Average Axial Stress (MPa)


Average Axial Stress (ksi)

1.6 E (3.25%)
11.0
B (3.25%)
1.2 D (3%) 8.3
A (3%)
0.8 5.5
C (4.5%)
0.4 2.8
13 ksi fc 19 ksi
0.0 0.0
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010
Average Axial Strain

89
Compression Behavior

25 172.4

20 137.9

Compressive Strength (MPa)


Compressive Strength (ksi)

15 103.4

10 68.9

Curing Regime
5 105F (40C) 34.5
73F (23C)
50F (10C)
0 0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 13 14 1527 28 2955 56 57
Days after Mix Initiation

90