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Abstract

In a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic, portable point-of-care


coagulation devices may facilitate patient monitoring by providing rapid INR
measurement. Few studies, however, have validated this type of device.

Objective: To evaluate the reliability, validity and ease of use of the CoaguChek
S, a new portable coagulation device.

Methods: A total of 100 patients followed at a pharmacist-managed


anticoagulation clinic attended two study visits. INRs were measured using the
CoaguChek S and the standard laboratory technique.

Results: Reliability: The test-retest reliability (precision) of the CoaguChek S,


estimated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a 95% confidence
interval (95% CI), was high (0.98 (0.980.99)) and comparable to the standard
laboratory technique (0.99 (0.980.99)). Interrater reliability was also high (0.97
(0.950.98)). Reliability coefficients did not vary with the test-strip lot number
nor the CoaguChek S operator.

Validity: When compared with standard laboratory procedure, the ICC (95%
CI) was equal to 0.93 (0.910.95). The mean difference (95% CI) between INR
measured by the laboratory and the CoaguChek S was equal to 0.02 units
(0.060.03). The mean absolute and relative absolute differences (95% CI)
were equal to 0.24 units (0.210.27) and 9% (8%10%), respectively.
Differences tended to increase for INRs greater than 3 units as seen by a mean
difference (95% CI) of 0.17 units (0.350.02). This represented a mean
absolute difference (95% CI) of 0.44 units (0.330.55) and a mean relative
absolute difference of 12% (9%15%). Concordance between therapeutic
decisions based on CoaguChek S and laboratory results was high (Kappa =
0.68). In 34 cases (18%), the therapeutic decision would have been different.
However, in 15 of these discordant observations, the difference between the
CoaguCheck S and laboratory INR was 0.25 units.

Ease of use: In 3% of cases, no INR could be measured by the CoaguChek S.


The percentage of extra finger pricks and extra test-strips were equal to 25.8%
and 23.7%, respectively.

Conclusion: When used by health professionals in a pharmacist-managed


anticoagulation clinic, the CoaguChek S is reliable, valid and easy to use.
However, its validity tends to decrease as the INR increases, possibly due to the
low sensitivity of the thromboplastin. If the CoaguChek S INR is
supratherapeutic, we would therefore recommend confirming the results with a
standard laboratory measurement.
reliabilityvalidityCoaguChek Sportable coagulation device

References

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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of


glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by
most green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in
human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as potatoes,
wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava.

Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold
water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical
amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch
generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight.[3]
Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of
amylopectin.

amilum adalah karbohidrat polimer yang terdiri dari sejumlah besar unit glukosa
bergabung dengan ikatan glikosidik. polisakarida ini diproduksi oleh tanaman
yang paling hijau sebagai toko energi. Ini adalah karbohidrat yang paling umum
dalam diet manusia dan terkandung dalam jumlah besar di makanan pokok
seperti kentang, gandum, jagung (jagung), beras, dan ubi kayu.
pati murni adalah bubuk putih, hambar dan tidak berbau yang tidak larut dalam
air dingin atau alkohol. Ini terdiri dari dua jenis molekul: linear dan amilosa
heliks dan amilopektin bercabang. Tergantung pada tanaman, pati umumnya
mengandung 20 sampai 25% amilosa dan 75 sampai 80% amilopektin berat. [3]
Glikogen, toko glukosa hewan, adalah versi yang lebih bercabang amilopektin.

In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting, and


fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer, whisky and biofuel. It
is processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods. Dissolving
starch in warm water gives wheatpaste, which can be used as a thickening,
stiffening or gluing agent. The biggest industrial non-food use of starch is as an
adhesive in the papermaking process. Starch can be applied to parts of some
garments before ironing, to stiffen them. Dalam industri, pati diubah menjadi
gula, misalnya dengan malting, dan difermentasi untuk menghasilkan etanol
dalam pembuatan bir, wiski dan biofuel. Diproses untuk menghasilkan banyak
gula yang digunakan dalam makanan olahan. Melarutkan pati dalam air hangat
memberikan wheatpaste, yang dapat digunakan sebagai suatu penebalan,
kaku atau perekatan agen. Penggunaan non-makanan terbesar industri pati
adalah sebagai perekat dalam proses pembuatan kertas. Pati dapat diterapkan
untuk bagian dari beberapa pakaian sebelum menyetrika, menjadi kaku
mereka.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
3 Energy store of plants
o 3.1 Biosynthesis
o 3.2 Degradation
4 Properties
o 4.1 Structure
o 4.2 Hydrolysis
o 4.3 Dextrinization
o 4.4 Chemical tests
5 Food
o 5.1 Starch industry
5.1.1 Starch sugars
5.1.2 Modified starches
5.1.3 Use as food additive
5.1.4 Use in pharmaceutical industry
5.1.5 Resistant starch
6 Industrial applications
o 6.1 Papermaking
o 6.2 Corrugated board adhesives
o 6.3 Clothing starch
o 6.4 Other
o 6.5 Occupational safety and health
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

Etymology

The word "starch" is from a Germanic root with the meanings "strong, stiff,
strengthen, stiffen".[4] Modern German Strke (starch) is related.

"Amylum" for starch is from the Greek , "amylon" which means "not
ground at a Kata "pati" adalah dari akar Jermanik dengan makna "yang kuat,
kaku, memperkuat, kaku". [4] Jerman modern Starke (pati) adalah terkait.
"Amilum" untuk pati dari Yunani, "amylon" yang berarti "tidak tanah di
sebuah pabrik". Akar amil digunakan dalam biokimia untuk beberapa senyawa
yang terkait dengan pati.mill". The root amyl is used in biochemistry for
several compounds related to starch.

History

Starch grains from the rhizomes of Typha (cattails, bullrushes) as flour have
been identified from grinding stones in Europe dating back to 30,000 years
ago.[5] Starch grains from sorghum were found on grind stones in caves in
Ngalue, Mozambique dating up to 100,000 years ago.[6]

Pure extracted wheat starch paste was used in Ancient Egypt possibly to glue
papyrus.[7] The extraction of starch is first described in the Natural History of
Pliny the Elder around AD 7779.[8] Romans used it also in cosmetic creams, to
powder the hair and to thicken sauces. Persians and Indians used it to make
dishes similar to gothumai wheat halva. Rice starch as surface treatment of
paper has been used in paper production in China, from 700 AD onwards.[9]

In addition to starchy plants consumed directly, 66 million tonnes of starch were


being produced per year world-wide by 2008. In the EU this was around 8.5
million tonnes, with around 40% being used for industrial applications and 60%
for food uses,[10] most of the latter as glucose syrups.[11] butir pati dari rimpang
dari Typha (cattails, bullrushes) tepung telah diidentifikasi dari penggilingan
batu di Eropa dating kembali ke 30.000 tahun yang lalu. [5] butir pati dari
sorgum yang ditemukan pada batu menggiling di gua-gua di Ngalue, Mozambik
kencan sampai 100.000 tahun yang lalu. [6]
Pure diekstrak pasta tepung gandum digunakan di Mesir Kuno mungkin untuk
lem papirus. [7] Ekstraksi pati pertama kali dijelaskan di Natural History of
Pliny the Elder sekitar tahun 77-79. [8] Roma menggunakannya juga dalam
krim kosmetik, bubuk rambut dan menebal saus. Persia dan India
menggunakannya untuk membuat masakan yang mirip dengan gothumai halva
gandum. pati beras sebagai pengobatan permukaan kertas telah digunakan
dalam produksi kertas di Cina, dari 700 AD dan seterusnya. [9]
Selain tanaman tepung dikonsumsi langsung, 66 juta ton pati yang diproduksi
per tahun di seluruh dunia pada tahun 2008. Di Uni Eropa ini adalah sekitar 8,5
juta ton, dengan sekitar 40% digunakan untuk aplikasi industri dan 60% untuk
keperluan makanan, [10] sebagian yang terakhir

Energy store of plants

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Most green plants use starch as their energy store. An exception is the family
Asteraceae (asters, daisies and sunflowers), where starch is replaced by the
fructan inulin.

In photosynthesis, plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon


dioxide. The glucose is used to make cellulose fibers, the structural component
of the plant, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts. Toward
the end of the growing season, starch accumulates in twigs of trees near the
buds. Fruit, seeds, rhizomes, and tubers store starch to prepare for the next
growing season.

Glucose is soluble in water, hydrophilic, binds with water and then takes up
much space and is osmotically active; glucose in the form of starch, on the other
hand, is not soluble, therefore osmotically inactive and can be stored much more
compactly.

Glucose molecules are bound in starch by the easily hydrolyzed alpha bonds.
The same type of bond is found in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen.
This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin, cellulose
and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta bonds and are much more resistant
to hydrolysis.[12]
Biosynthesis

Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose


using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. This step requires
energy in the form of ATP. The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-
glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues,
liberating ADP and creating amylose. Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-
alpha glycosidic bonds between these chains, creating the branched
amylopectin. The starch debranching enzyme isoamylase removes some of
these branches. Several isoforms of these enzymes exist, leading to a highly
complex synthesis process.[13]

Glycogen and amylopectin have similar structure, but the former has about one
branch point per ten 1,4-alpha bonds, compared to about one branch point per
thirty 1,4-alpha bonds in amylopectin.[14] Amylopectin is synthesized from
ADP-glucose while mammals and fungi synthesize glycogen from UDP-
glucose; for most cases, bacteria synthesize glycogen from ADP-glucose
(analogous to starch).[15]

In addition to starch synthesis in plants, starch can be synthesized from non-


food starch mediated by an enzyme cocktail.[16] In this cell-free biosystem, beta-
1,4-glycosidic bond-linked cellulose is partially hydrolyzed to cellobiose.
Cellobiose phosphorylase cleaves to glucose 1-phosphate and glucose; the other
enzymepotato alpha-glucan phosphorylase can add a glucose unit from
glucose 1-phosphorylase to the non-reducing ends of starch. In it, phosphate is
internally recycled. The other product, glucose, can be assimilated by a yeast.
This cell-free bioprocessing does not need any costly chemical and energy
input, can be conducted in aqueous solution, and does not have sugar
losses.[17][18][19]

Degradation

Starch is synthesized in plant leaves during the day, in order to serve as an


energy source at night. Starch is stored as granules. The insoluble, highly
branched starch chains have to be phosphorylated in order to be accessible for
degrading enzymes. The enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD) phosphorylates
at the C-6 position of a glucose molecule, close to the chains 1,6-alpha
branching bonds. A second enzyme, phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD)
phosphorylates the glucose molecule at the C-3 position. A loss of these
enzymes, for example a loss of the GWD, leads to a starch excess (sex)
phenotype,[20] and because starch cannot be phosphorylated, it accumulates in
the plastids.
After the phosphorylation, the first degrading enzyme, beta-amylase (BAM) can
attack the glucose chain at its non-reducing end. Maltose is released as the main
product of starch degradation. If the glucose chain consists of three or fewer
molecules, BAM cannot release maltose. A second enzyme, disproportionating
enzyme-1 (DPE1), combines two maltotriose molecules. From this chain, a
glucose molecule is released. Now, BAM can release another maltose molecule
from the remaining chain. This cycle repeats until starch is degraded
completely. If BAM comes close to the phosphorylated branching point of the
glucose chain, it can no longer release maltose. In order for the phosphorylated
chain to be degraded, the enzyme isoamylase (ISA) is required.[21]

The products of starch degradation are predominantly maltose[22] and smaller


amounts of glucose. These molecules are exported from the plastid to the
cytosol, maltose via the maltose transporter, which if mutated (MEX1-mutant)
results in maltose accumulation in the plastid.[23] Glucose is exported via the
plastidic glucose translocator (pGlcT).[24] These two sugars act as a precursor
for sucrose synthesis. Sucrose can then be used in the oxidative pentose
phosphate pathway in the mitochondria, to generate ATP at night.[21]

Properties

Structure

Starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light, showing characteristic extinction


cross

Rice starch seen on light microscope. Characteristic for the rice starch is that
starch granules have an angular outline and some of them are attached to each
other and form larger granules
While amylose was traditionally thought to be completely unbranched, it is now
known that some of its molecules contain a few branch points.[25] Although in
absolute mass only about one quarter of the starch granules in plants consist of
amylose, there are about 150 times more amylose molecules than amylopectin
molecules. Amylose is a much smaller molecule than amylopectin.

Starch molecules arrange themselves in the plant in semi-crystalline granules.


Each plant species has a unique starch granular size: rice starch is relatively
small (about 2m) while potato starches have larger granules (up to 100m).

Starch becomes soluble in water when heated. The granules swell and burst, the
semi-crystalline structure is lost and the smaller amylose molecules start
leaching out of the granule, forming a network that holds water and increasing
the mixture's viscosity. This process is called starch gelatinization. During
cooking, the starch becomes a paste and increases further in viscosity. During
cooling or prolonged storage of the paste, the semi-crystalline structure partially
recovers and the starch paste thickens, expelling water. This is mainly caused by
retrogradation of the amylose. This process is responsible for the hardening of
bread or staling, and for the water layer on top of a starch gel (syneresis).

Some cultivated plant varieties have pure amylopectin starch without amylose,
known as waxy starches. The most used is waxy maize, others are glutinous rice
and waxy potato starch. Waxy starches have less retrogradation, resulting in a
more stable paste. High amylose starch, amylomaize, is cultivated for the use of
its gel strength and for use as a resistant starch (a starch that resists digestion) in
food products.

Synthetic amylose made from cellulose has a well-controlled degree of


polymerization. Therefore, it can be used as a potential drug deliver carrier.[16]

Certain starches, when mixed with water, will produce a non-newtonian fluid
sometimes nicknamed "oobleck".

Hydrolysis

The enzymes that break down or hydrolyze starch into the constituent sugars are
known as amylases.

Alpha-amylases are found in plants and in animals. Human saliva is rich in


amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme. Individuals from
populations with a high-starch diet tend to have more amylase genes than those
with low-starch diets;[26]
Beta-amylase cuts starch into maltose units. This process is important in the
digestion of starch and is also used in brewing, where amylase from the skin of
seed grains is responsible for converting starch to maltose (Malting,
Mashing).[27][28]

Dextrinization

If starch is subjected to dry heat, it breaks down to form dextrins, also called
"pyrodextrins" in this context. This break down process is known as
dextrinization. (Pyro)dextrins are mainly yellow to brown in color and
dextrinization is partially responsible for the browning of toasted bread.[citation
needed]

Chemical tests

Main article: Iodine test

Granules of wheat starch, stained with iodine, photographed through a light


microscope

A triiodide (I3) solution formed by mixing iodine and iodide (usually from
potassium iodide) is used to test for starch; a dark blue color indicates the
presence of starch. The details of this reaction are not yet fully known, but it is
thought that the iodine (I3 and I5 ions) fit inside the coils of amylose, the
charge transfers between the iodine and the starch, and the energy level
spacings in the resulting complex correspond to the absorption spectrum in the
visible light region. The strength of the resulting blue color depends on the
amount of amylose present. Waxy starches with little or no amylose present will
color red.

Starch indicator solution consisting of water, starch and iodide is often used in
redox titrations: in the presence of an oxidizing agent the solution turns blue, in
the presence of reducing agent the blue color disappears because triiodide (I3)
ions break up into three iodide ions, disassembling the starch-iodine complex. A
0.3% w/w solution is the standard concentration for a starch indicator. It is
made by adding 3 grams of soluble starch to 1 liter of heated water; the solution
is cooled before use (starch-iodine complex becomes unstable at temperatures
above 35 C).

Each species of plant has a unique type of starch granules in granular size,
shape and crystallization pattern. Under the microscope, starch grains stained
with iodine illuminated from behind with polarized light show a distinctive
Maltese cross effect (also known as extinction cross and birefringence). Butiran
pati gandum, diwarnai dengan iodine, difoto melalui mikroskop cahaya
Sebuah triiodida (I3-) solusi dibentuk dengan mencampur yodium dan iodida
(biasanya dari kalium iodida) digunakan untuk menguji pati; warna biru gelap
menunjukkan kehadiran pati. Rincian reaksi ini belum sepenuhnya diketahui,
tetapi diduga bahwa yodium (I3- dan I5- ion) fit dalam gulungan amilosa,
transfer biaya antara yodium dan pati, dan jarak tingkat energi di dihasilkan
kompleks sesuai dengan spektrum penyerapan di kawasan cahaya tampak.
Kekuatan warna biru yang dihasilkan tergantung pada jumlah yang hadir
amilosa. pati lilin dengan sedikit atau tanpa amilosa ini akan mewarnai merah.
larutan indikator kanji yang terdiri dari air, tepung dan iodida sering digunakan
dalam titrasi redoks: di hadapan agen pengoksidasi solusi berubah biru,
dengan adanya zat pereduksi warna biru menghilang karena triiodida (I3-) ion
memecah menjadi tiga ion iodida, pembongkaran kompleks pati-yodium. 0,3%
b / b solusi adalah konsentrasi standar untuk indikator pati. Hal ini dibuat
dengan menambahkan 3 gram tepung larut untuk 1 liter air panas; larutan
didinginkan sebelum digunakan (kompleks pati-yodium menjadi tidak stabil
pada suhu di atas 35 C).
Setiap jenis tanaman memiliki jenis yang unik dari granula pati dalam ukuran
butiran, bentuk dan pola kristalisasi. Di bawah mikroskop, butir pati diwarnai
dengan yodium diterangi dari belakang dengan cahaya terpolarisasi
menunjukkan khas efek silang Maltese (juga dikenal sebagai kepunahan lintas
dan birefringence).

Food

Starch is the most common carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in
many staple foods. The major sources of starch intake worldwide are the cereals
(rice, wheat, and maize) and the root vegetables (potatoes and cassava).[29]
Many other starchy foods are grown, some only in specific climates, including
acorns, arrowroot, arracacha, bananas, barley, breadfruit, buckwheat, canna,
colacasia, katakuri, kudzu, malanga, millet, oats, oca, polynesian arrowroot,
sago, sorghum, sweet potatoes, rye, taro, chestnuts, water chestnuts and yams,
and many kinds of beans, such as favas, lentils, mung beans, peas, and
chickpeas.
Widely used prepared foods containing starch are bread, pancakes, cereals,
noodles, pasta, porridge and tortilla.

Digestive enzymes have problems digesting crystalline structures. Raw starch


will digest poorly in the duodenum and small intestine, while bacterial
degradation will take place mainly in the colon. When starch is cooked, the
digestibility is increased.

Starch gelatinization during cake baking can be impaired by sugar competing


for water, preventing gelatinization and improving texture.

Historically, people consumed large amounts of uncooked and unprocessed


starch-containing plants, which contained high amounts of resistant starch.
Microbes within the large intestine fermented the starch, produced short-chain
fatty acids, which were used as energy as well as maintenance and growth of the
microbes. As foods became more processed, they were more easily digested and
released more glucose in the small intestine - less starch reached the large
intestine and more energy was absorbed by the human body. This shift in
energy delivery may be one of the contributing factors to the development of
metabolic disorders of modern life, including obesity and diabetes.[30]

Starch industry

The starch industry extracts and refines starches from seeds, roots and tubers, by
wet grinding, washing, sieving and drying. Today, the main commercial refined
starches are cornstarch, tapioca, wheat, rice and potato starch. To a lesser extent,
sources include rice, sweet potato, sago and mung bean. Historically, Florida
arrowroot was also commercialized. To this day, starch is extracted from more
than 50 types of plants.

Untreated starch requires heat to thicken or gelatinize. When a starch is pre-


cooked, it can then be used to thicken instantly in cold water. This is referred to
as a pregelatinized starch.

Starch sugars

Starch can be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates by acids, various enzymes,


or a combination of the two. The resulting fragments are known as dextrins. The
extent of conversion is typically quantified by dextrose equivalent (DE), which
is roughly the fraction of the glycosidic bonds in starch that have been broken.

These starch sugars are by far the most common starch based food ingredient
and are used as sweetener in many drinks and foods. They include:
Maltodextrin, a lightly hydrolyzed (DE 1020) starch product used as a
bland-tasting filler and thickener.
Various glucose syrups (DE 3070), also called corn syrups in the US,
viscous solutions used as sweeteners and thickeners in many kinds of
processed foods.
Dextrose (DE 100), commercial glucose, prepared by the complete
hydrolysis of starch.
High fructose syrup, made by treating dextrose solutions with the enzyme
glucose isomerase, until a substantial fraction of the glucose has been
converted to fructose. In the United States sugar prices are two to three
times higher than in the rest of the world,[31] which makes high fructose
corn syrup significantly cheaper, so that it is the principal sweetener used
in processed foods and beverages.[32] Fructose also has better
microbiological stability. One kind of high fructose corn syrup, HFCS-55,
is sweeter than sucrose because it is made with more fructose, while the
sweetness of HFCS-42 is on par with sucrose.[33][34]
Sugar alcohols, such as maltitol, erythritol, sorbitol, mannitol and
hydrogenated starch hydrolysate, are sweeteners made by reducing
sugars.

Modified starches

A modified starch is a starch that has been chemically modified to allow the
starch to function properly under conditions frequently encountered during
processing or storage, such as high heat, high shear, low pH, freeze/thaw and
cooling.

The modified food starches are E coded according to the International


Numbering System for Food Additives (INS):[35]

1400 Dextrin
1401 Acid-treated starch
1402 Alkaline-treated starch
1403 Bleached starch
1404 Oxidized starch
1405 Starches, enzyme-treated
1410 Monostarch phosphate
1412 Distarch phosphate
1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate
1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate
1420 Starch acetate
1422 Acetylated distarch adipate
1440 Hydroxypropyl starch
1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate
1443 Hydroxypropyl distarch glycerol
1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate
1451 Acetylated oxidized starch

INS 1400, 1401, 1402, 1403 and 1405 are in the EU food ingredients without an
E-number. Typical modified starches for technical applications are cationic
starches, hydroxyethyl starch and carboxymethylated starches.

Use as food additive

As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as


thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces,
gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas.
Function as thickeners, extenders, emulsion stabilizers and are exceptional
binders in processed meats.

Gummed sweets such as jelly beans and wine gums are not manufactured using
a mold in the conventional sense. A tray is filled with native starch and leveled.
A positive mold is then pressed into the starch leaving an impression of 1,000 or
so jelly beans. The jelly mix is then poured into the impressions and put into a
stove to set. This method greatly reduces the number of molds that must be
manufactured.

Use in pharmaceutical industry

In the pharmaceutical industry, starch is also used as an excipient, as tablet


disintegrant or as binder.

Resistant starch

Main article: Resistant starch

Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy
individuals. High amylose starch from corn has a higher gelatinization
temperature than other types of starch and retains its resistant starch content
through baking, mild extrusion and other food processing techniques. It is used
as an insoluble dietary fiber in processed foods such as bread, pasta, cookies,
crackers, pretzels and other low moisture foods. It is also utilized as a dietary
supplement for its health benefits. Published studies have shown that resistant
starch helps to improve insulin sensitivity,[36] increases satiety[37] and improves
markers of colonic function.[38] It has been suggested that resistant starch
contributes to the health benefits of intact whole grains.[39]
Industrial applications

Starch adhesive

Papermaking

Papermaking is the largest non-food application for starches globally,


consuming millions of metric tons annually.[10] In a typical sheet of copy paper
for instance, the starch content may be as high as 8%. Both chemically modified
and unmodified starches are used in papermaking. In the wet part of the
papermaking process, generally called the "wet-end", the starches used are
cationic and have a positive charge bound to the starch polymer. These starch
derivatives associate with the anionic or negatively charged paper fibers /
cellulose and inorganic fillers. Cationic starches together with other retention
and internal sizing agents help to give the necessary strength properties to the
paper web formed in the papermaking process (wet strength), and to provide
strength to the final paper sheet (dry strength).

In the dry end of the papermaking process, the paper web is rewetted with a
starch based solution. The process is called surface sizing. Starches used have
been chemically, or enzymatically depolymerized at the paper mill or by the
starch industry (oxidized starch). The size/starch solutions are applied to the
paper web by means of various mechanical presses (size presses). Together with
surface sizing agents the surface starches impart additional strength to the paper
web and additionally provide water hold out or "size" for superior printing
properties. Starch is also used in paper coatings as one of the binders for the
coating formulations which include a mixture of pigments, binders and
thickeners. Coated paper has improved smoothness, hardness, whiteness and
gloss and thus improves printing characteristics.

Corrugated board adhesives

Corrugated board adhesives are the next largest application of non-food starches
globally. Starch glues are mostly based on unmodified native starches, plus
some additive such as borax and caustic soda. Part of the starch is gelatinized to
carry the slurry of uncooked starches and prevent sedimentation. This opaque
glue is called a SteinHall adhesive. The glue is applied on tips of the fluting.
The fluted paper is pressed to paper called liner. This is then dried under high
heat, which causes the rest of the uncooked starch in glue to swell/gelatinize.
This gelatinizing makes the glue a fast and strong adhesive for corrugated board
production.

Clothing starch

Clothing or laundry starch is a liquid that is prepared by mixing a vegetable


starch in water (earlier preparations also had to be boiled), and is used in the
laundering of clothes. Starch was widely used in Europe in the 16th and 17th
centuries to stiffen the wide collars and ruffs of fine linen which surrounded the
necks of the well-to-do. During the 19th century and early 20th century, it was
stylish to stiffen the collars and sleeves of men's shirts and the ruffles of girls'
petticoats by applying starch to them as the clean clothes were being ironed.
Aside from the smooth, crisp edges it gave to clothing, it served practical
purposes as well. Dirt and sweat from a person's neck and wrists would stick to
the starch rather than to the fibers of the clothing, and would easily wash away
along with the starch. After each laundering, the starch would be reapplied.
Today, the product is sold in aerosol cans for home use.

Other

Another large non-food starch application is in the construction industry, where


starch is used in the gypsum wall board manufacturing process. Chemically
modified or unmodified starches are added to the stucco containing primarily
gypsum. Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to the
formulation, and the process is allowed to heat and cure to form the eventual
rigid wall board. The starches act as a glue for the cured gypsum rock with the
paper covering, and also provide rigidity to the board.

Starch is used in the manufacture of various adhesives or glues[40] for book-


binding, wallpaper adhesives, paper sack production, tube winding, gummed
paper, envelope adhesives, school glues and bottle labeling. Starch derivatives,
such as yellow dextrins, can be modified by addition of some chemicals to form
a hard glue for paper work; some of those forms use borax or soda ash, which
are mixed with the starch solution at 5070 C (122158 F) to create a very
good adhesive. Sodium silicate can be added to reinforce these formula.

Textile chemicals from starch: warp sizing agents are used to reduce
breaking of yarns during weaving. Starch is mainly used to size cotton
based yarns. Modified starch is also used as textile printing thickener.
In oil exploration, starch is used to adjust the viscosity of drilling fluid,
which is used to lubricate the drill head and suspend the grinding residue
in petroleum extraction.
Starch is also used to make some packing peanuts, and some drop ceiling
tiles.
In the printing industry, food grade starch[41] is used in the manufacture of
anti-set-off spray powder used to separate printed sheets of paper to avoid
wet ink being set off.
For body powder, powdered corn starch is used as a substitute for talcum
powder, and similarly in other health and beauty products.
Starch is used to produce various bioplastics, synthetic polymers that are
biodegradable. An example is polylactic acid based on glucose from
starch.
Glucose from starch can be further fermented to biofuel corn ethanol
using the so-called wet milling process. Today most bioethanol
production plants use the dry milling process to ferment corn or other
feedstock directly to ethanol.[42]
Hydrogen production could use glucose form starch as the raw material,
using enzymes.[43]

Occupational safety and health

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal
limit (Permissible exposure limit) for starch exposure in the workplace as
15 mg/m3 total exposure and 5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour
workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
has set a Recommended exposure limit (REL) of 10 mg/m3 total exposure and
5 mg/m3 respiratory exposure over an 8-hour workday.[44]

See also

Acrylamide, which is present in fried and baked foods


Starch production
Starch analysis

References

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2. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0567". National Institute
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21.Smith, Alison M.; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Smith, Steven M. (2005).
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22.Weise, SE; Weber, AP; Sharkey, TD (2004). "Maltose is the major form
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23.Purdy, SJ; Bussell, JD; Nunn, CP; Smith, SM (2013). "Leaves of the
Arabidopsis maltose exporter1 mutant exhibit a metabolic profile with
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doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079412. PMC 3818174 . PMID 24223944.
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25.David R. Lineback, "Starch", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill.
26.Perry, George H; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Claw, Katrina G; Lee, Arthur S;
Fiegler, Heike; Redon, Richard; Werner, John; Villanea, Fernando A; et
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27."Scope and Mechanism of Carbohydrase Action". The Journal of
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28.Marc, A.; Engasser, J. M.; Moll, M.; Flayeux, R. (1983-02-01). "A kinetic
model of starch hydrolysis by - and -amylase during mashing".
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 25 (2): 481496.
doi:10.1002/bit.260250214. ISSN 1097-0290.
29.Anne-Charlotte Eliasson (2004). Starch in food: Structure, function and
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30.Walter, Jens; Ley, Ruth (October 2011). "The Human Gut Microbiome:
Ecology and Recent Evolutionary Changes". Annual Review of
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102830. PMID 21682646.
31.Forbes: HFCS Versus Sugar: A Modest Proposal for a Solution, 21
March 2012
32.Beverage daily: 'Sugar is much, much bigger': Rocketing HFCS prices
don't spook Coke CEO
33.Ophardt, Charles. "Sweetners - Introduction". Elmhurst College.
34.White, John S. (December 2, 2008). "HFCS: How Sweet It Is".
35.Modified Starches. CODEX ALIMENTARIUS published in FNP 52 Add
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A. L.; Schild, A. L.; Rains, T. M. (2012). "Resistant Starch from High-
Amylose Maize Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese
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40."Stuck on Starch: A new wood adhesive". US Department of Agriculture.
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41."Spray Powder". Russell-Webb. Archived from the original on 2007-08-
09. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
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www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
2.
3. tetes, botol semprot, kaki tiga, kawat kasa, filler, termos kalorimeter,
termometer. Adapun metode penggunaan alat-alat tersebut adalah
sebagai berikut. Gelas Kimia, cara menggunakannya yaitu dibersihkan,
dikalibrasi, lalu dikeringkan dengan lap. Simpan larutan didalamnya. Gelas Ukur,
cara menggunakannya yaitu larutan dimasukkan kedalam gelas ukur. Sesuaikan
dengan volume yang diperlukan. Baca ketepatan volume dengan melihat
meniscus ke bawah. Labu Erlenmeyer, cara menggunakannya yaitu
dibersihkan, dikalibrasi, lalu dikeringkan dengan lap. Kemudian suatu larutan
dimasukkan lalu dititrasi, kemudian digoyangkan memutar labu
erlenmeyernya. Pipet, cara menggunakannya yaitu dibersihkan,
dikalibrasi, lalu dibersihkan dengan kertas isap. Lalu celupkan ke dalam
larutan. Tekan pilernya lalu longgarkan. Buret, cara menggunakannya yaitu
dibersihkan, dikalibrasi, lalu dikeringkan dengan batang pengaduk yang
ditutupi dengan kertas isap. Periksa keadaan kerannya dan tetesannya
apakah bocor atau tidak. Lalu dikalibrasi dengan larutan yang akan
dimasukkan ke dalam buret, periksa apakah ada gelembung atau tidak.
Buka keran perlahan untuk mengeluarkan larutannya. Tabung Reaksi, cara
menggunakannya yaitu dibersihkan terlebih dahulu lalu dikalibrasi dengan
aqua DM setelah itu lap dengan lap atau kertas isap. Kemudian sampel yang
akan direaksikan dimasukkan ke dalam tabung reaksi. Kaca Arloji, cara
menggunakannya yaitu dibersihkan terlebih dahulu dengan tissue atau
lap, kemudian letakkan di atas gelas kimia jika akan digunakan sebagai
tutup gelas kimia, atau letakkan bahan kimia yang akan ditimbang di atas kaca
arloji tersebut. Corong, Letakkan corong di atas mulut Erlenmeyer atau buret,
masukkan perlahan lahan ke dalam mulut corong.
4. Mortar
5. dan
6. Pastle,
7. cara menggunakannya yaitu masukkan bahan kimia berupa padatan ke dalam
lumpang (
8. mortar
9. ) dan gerus hingga halus menggunakan alu (
10. pastle
11.). Spatula, cara mengggunakannya ambil bahan atau zat yang berupa padatan
dengan spatula, kemudian letakkan di tempat menyimpan bahan seperti
kaca arloji. Batang pengaduk, cara mengggunakannya aduk larutan yang ada
di dalam gelas kimia dengan batang pengaduk, lalu amati. Kawat Kasa, cara
mengggunakannya letakkan kawat kasa di atas Bunsen dengan disangga kaki
tiga. Lalu diletakkan alat gelas yang terdapat larutan yang akan dipanaskan.
Kaki Tiga, cara menggunakannya yaitu diletakkan di antara Bunsen dan kawat kasa.
Labu Ukur, cara menggunakannya yaitu dibersihkan, dikalibrasi, lalu dibersihkan
dengan kain lap. Kemudian dimasukkan larutan yang akan diencerkan atau
masukkan zat dengan bantuan kertas isap, agar zat tidak menempel pada dinding
diatas batas atas. Lalu dimasukkan aquadest untuk melarutkannya. Lalu paskan
dengan batas bawah. Tutup lalu homogenkan. Termometer, cara
menggunakannya yaitu termometer dimasukkan ke dalam suatu larutan
lalu perhatikan suhu larutan atau perubahan suhu yang terjadi. Tabung
Senrifuse, cara menggunkannya yaitu larutan yang akan disentrifuga dimasukkan
ke dalam tabung sentrifuse. Lalu dimasukkan ke alat sentifugase. Penjepit
Cawan /Tangkrus, cara menggunakannya yaitu bagian dinding cawan krus
dijepit oleh penjepit cawan. Pipa U, cara menggunakannya yaitu tabung yang berisi
larutan yang akan dianalisis adanya gas dihubungkan melalui mulut tabungnya
memakai pipa U. Pipa Kapiler, cara menggunakan pipa kapiler adalah pipa
kapiler disanggah dengan klem dan statif. Lalu larutan atau senyawa yang
akan ditentukan titik lelehnya dimasukkan ke dalam pipa kapiler. Lalu
thermometer dicelupkan ke dalam larutan atau senyawa tersebut. Bunsen
diarahkan di bagian bawah pipa kapiler. Disediakan juga
12.stopwatch
13. untuk menghitung waktu saat senyawa meleleh. Catat hasilnya. Plat
Tetes, cara menggunakannya yaitu dibersihkan terlebih dahulu plat tetes
dengan tissue. Kemudian teteskan sampel objek kedalam plat tetes. Cawan,
cara mengggunakannya masukkan bahan atau larutan yang akan diuapkan di atas
cawan. Setelah itu panaskan atau uapkan ke dalam oven.Rak Tabung Reaksi, cara
menggunakannya yaitu letakkan tabung reaksi kedalam lubang
14.
15. lubang yang ada dalam rak tabung reaksi.
16.
17.Hasil dan Pembahasan
18. Dari hasil praktek di laboratorium alat yang sering digunakan diantaranya
Gelas Kimia, Gelas Ukur, Labu Erlenmeyer, Pipet, Buret, Tabung Reaksi,
Kaca Arloji, Corong, Mortar dan pastle, Spatula, Batang pengaduk,
Kawat Kasa, Kaki tiga, Labu Ukur, Termometer,Tabung Sentrifuse,
Penjepit cawan Krus, Pipa U,Pipa Kapiler, Plat Tetes,Cawan, Rak
Tabung Reaksi. Tabel 1.Hasil Pengamatan Nama Alat Gambar 1.
19.
20.Gelas Ukur 2.
21.
22.Gelas Kimia 3.
23.
24.Labu Erlenmeyer 4.
25.
26.Pipet 5.
27.
28.Buret 6.
29.
30.Tabung Reaksi 7.
31.
32.Botol Semprot 8.
33.
34.Corong 9.
35.
36.Mortar dan Pastel 10.
37.
38.Spatula 11.
39.
40.Batang Pengaduk 12.
41.
42.Kawat Kasa 13.
43.
44.Kaki Tiga 14.
45.
46.Labu Ukur 15.
47.
48.Termometer 16.
49.
50.Tabung Sentifuse 17.
51.
52.Penjepit Cawan/Tangkrus 18.
53.
54.Pipa U 19.
55.
56.Pipa Kapiler 20.
57.
58.Rak Tabung Reaksi (Sumber: Melia Nop Dwi Witri,133020349, Meja 10,
Kelompok N, 2013) Berikut adalah fungsi dari alat-alat tersebut, Fngsi
Gelas Ukur yaitu sebagai tempat untuk mengukur volume larutan. Fungsi
Gelas Kimia yaitu sebagai tempat untuk menampung zat kimia, sebagai
pengukur volume larutan, dan untuk media pemanasan cairan.Fungsi
Labu Erlenmeyer yaitu sebagai media untuk menampuk titran (larutan
yang di titrasi) pada proses titrasi. Fungsi Pipet Untuk mengambil cairan
dalam jumlah tertentu. Fungsi Buret yaitu sebagai tempat untuk
mengeluarkan larutan dengan volume tertentu.Biasanya untuk titrasi.
Fungsi Tabung Reaksi yaitu sebagai tempat untuk mereaksikan bahan kimia.
Fungsi Botol Semprot yaitu Sebagai tempat untuk menyimpan aquadest.
Fungsi Corong yaitu sebagai pengalir larutan dari satu tempat ke tempat
lain agar tidak tumpah dan untuk menyaring campuran kimia dengan
bantuan kertas saring. Fungsi Mortar dan pastle yaitu sebagai tempat
untuk menghancurkan dan mencampurkan padatan. Fungsi Spatula yaitu
untuk mengambil bahan kimia yang berbentuk padatan. Dipakai untuk
mengaduk larutan. Fungsi Batang Pengaduk yaitu untuk mengaduk cairan
didalam gelas kimia. Fungsi Kawat Kasa yaitu untuk alas penyebaran
pemanasan dari suatu pembakaran. Fungsi Kaki Tiga yaitu untuk penyangga
kawat kasa dalam proses pembakaran. Fungsi Labu Ukur sebagai tempat
untuk membuat larutan dengan konsentrasi tertentu dan untuk mengencerkan
larutan. Fungsi Termometer untuk mengukur suhu larutan berdasarkan
suhu suatu zat. Fungsi Tabung Sentrifuse yaitu sebagai tempat/wadah
sampel yang akan di putar dalam alat pemusing/centrifuge. Fungsi
Penjepit Cawan /Tangkrus untuk menjepit cawan pada saat
pemanasan.Pipa U untuk menghubungkan tabung-tabung reaksi dan
mengetahui adanya gas atau tidak pada bahan kimia. Fungsi Pipa Kapiler untuk
menentukan titik leleh pada suatu zat kimia. Fungsi Rak
59.
60.
61.Tabung Reaksi yaitu sebagai tempat untuk menyimpan tabung reaksi.
62.Kesimpulan
63.Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan, semua alat di laboratorium memiliki
nama,fungsi dan cara kerja masing-masing sehingga dalam pengerjaanya
pun akan berbeda-beda sesuai dengan cara kerjanya .Kesalahan dalam
penggunaan alat bisa mempengaruhi konsentrasi larutankarena alat
memiliki tingkat ketelitian yang berbeda-beda.
64.Daftar Pustaka
65.CECA. 2009 Teknik Labaratorium.Pengenalan Alat-Alat Laboratorium
http:///www.onelaboratorytechniq.blogspot.com/2012/09/alat-alat-
lab.html (8 Oktober 2013) Mia Saskia. Pengenalan Alat-Alat
Laboratorium
Kimia.http://www.scribd.com/doc/29012378/PENGENALAN-ALAT---
ALAT-LABORATORIUM-
66. Pati Jagung Pati Singkong
67. Berupa butir bersegi banyak, Berupa butir tunggal,butir agak bulat atau
bersudut, atau butir bulat, bersegi banyak butir kecil, ada butir
kemudian terdapat butir pati dan pati,dan juga hilus yang berupa garis dan
hilus yang berupa rongga atau titik, ada juga lamella tapi tidak
celah dan terdapat lamela. jelas,yang berupa butir majemuk sedikit.

4.2 Pembahasan