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Overview of Parts & Units Register der Abschnitte & Module

Part 1 Basic Medical & Health Terms

Unit 1 Diet & Dieting, Unit 2 Food & Drink, Unit 3 Craniofacial Trauma,
Unit 4 States of Consciousness, Unit 5 Drugs & Remedies,
Unit 6 At the Dentists, Unit 7 Dental Operatory Equipment

Part 2 Body Structures & Functions Relevant to Dentistry

Unit 8 Head & Neck, Unit 9 The Teeth, Unit 10 Dentition & Mastication,
Unit 11 Human Sounds & Speech, Unit 12 Nutrition

Part 3 Medical Science

Unit 13 Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Unit 14 Medical Statistics,


Unit 15 Medical Studies & Research

Part 4 Clinical Terms

Unit 16 Orofacial Pain, Unit 17 Craniofacial Fractures, Unit 18 Therapeutic Intervention,


Unit 19 Pharmacologic Treatment, Unit 20 Pharmacologic Agents, Unit 21 Surgical Treat-
ment, Unit 22 Basic Operative Techniques, Unit 23 The Surgical Suite, Unit 24 Surgical
Instruments, Unit 25 Perioperative Management, Unit 26 Sutures & Suture Material,
Unit 27 Dental & Surgical Asepsis, Unit 28 Wound Healing, Unit 29 Fracture Management

Part 5 Dentistry

Unit 30 Basic Dental Materials, Unit 31 Dental Lab Procedures & Equipment,
Unit 32 Dental Instruments, Unit 33 Dental Imaging Techniques, Unit 34 Oral Hygiene &
Preventive Dentistry, Unit 35 Periodontics, Unit 36 Orthodontic Dentistry, Unit 37 Ortho-
dontic Appliances, Unit 38 Temporomandibular Disorders, Unit 39 Cosmetic Dentistry,
Unit 40 Restorative Dentistry, Unit 41 Endodontics, Unit 42 Prosthodontics, Unit 43 Dental
Implantology, Unit 44 Oral Surgery, Unit 45 Maxillofacial Surgery

Part 6 Related Medical Specialties

Unit 46 Basic Radiologic Terms, Unit 47 Basic Terms in Anesthesiology, Unit 48 Types of
Anesthesia & Anesthetics, Unit 49 Basic Terms in Plastic Surgery, Unit 50 Grafts & Flaps,
Unit 51 General Oncology, Unit 52 Head & Neck Tumors

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Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen III

KWiC - Web
Key Words in Context

Fachwortschatz
Zahnmedizin
Englisch Deutsch
Sprachtrainer &
Fachwrterbuch in einem

Ingrid & Michael Friedbichler

3., vollstndig berarbeitete und


erweiterte Auflage
42 Abbildungen

Georg Thieme Verlag


Stuttgart New York

Dieses Dokument ist nur fr den persnlichen Gebrauch bestimmt und darf in keiner Form an Dritte weitergegeben werden!
Aus Friedbichler, I., M. Friedbichler: Fachwortschatz Zahnmedizin Englisch (ISBN 9783131249432) 2008 Georg Thieme Verlag KG, Stuttgart
IV Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen

Dipl. bers. Mag. Ingrid Friedbichler Wichtiger Hinweis: Wie jede Wissenschaft ist die Medizin
Mag. Michael Friedbichler, M. A. stndigen Entwicklungen unterworfen. Forschung und kli-
Institut fr Translationswissenschaft nische Erfahrung erweitern unsere Erkenntnisse, insbeson-
dere was Behandlung und medikamentse Therapie anbe-
Universitt Innsbruck
langt. Soweit in diesem Werk eine Dosierung oder eine
Herzog-Siegmund-Ufer 15
Applikation erwhnt wird, darf der Leser zwar darauf ver-
A 6020 Innsbruck trauen, dass Autoren, Herausgeber und Verlag groe Sorg-
falt darauf verwandt haben, dass diese Angabe dem Wis-
sensstand bei Fertigstellung des Werkes entspricht.
Fr Angaben ber Dosierungsanweisungen und Applika-
tionsformen kann vom Verlag jedoch keine Gewhr ber-
Bibliografische Information nommen werden. Jeder Benutzer ist angehalten, durch
der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek sorgfltige Prfung der Beipackzettel der verwendeten Pr-
parate und gegebenenfalls nach Konsultation eines Spezia-
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese
listen festzustellen, ob die dort gegebene Empfehlung fr
Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; Dosierung oder die Beachtung von Kontraindikationen ge-
detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet ber genber der Angabe in diesem Buch abweicht. Eine solche
http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar. Prfung ist besonders wichtig bei selten verwendeten Pr-
paraten oder solchen, die neu auf den Markt gebracht wor-
den sind. Jede Dosierung oder Applikation erfolgt auf
1. Auflage 2001 eigene Gefahr des Benutzers. Autoren und Verlag appellie-
2. Auflage 2005 ren an jeden Benutzer, ihm etwa auffallende Ungenauigkei-
ten dem Verlag mitzuteilen.

2008 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Geschtzte Warennamen werden nicht besonders kennt-
Rdigerstrae 14 lich gemacht. Aus dem Fehlen eines solchen Hinweises
70469 Stuttgart kann also nicht geschlossen werden, dass es sich um
Deutschland einen freien Warennamen handle.
Telefon: +49/(0)711/8931-0 Das Werk, einschlielich aller seiner Teile, ist urheber-
Unsere Homepage: www.thieme.de rechtlich geschtzt. Jede Verwertung auerhalb der engen
Grenzen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist ohne Zustimmung
Printed in Germany des Verlages unzulssig und strafbar. Das gilt insbesondere
fr Vervielfltigungen, bersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen
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ISBN 978-3-13-124943-2 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen V

Geleitworte
So mehrdeutig und kreativ wie der fr dieses Buch ge- Keiner wird heute ernsthaft bezweifeln, dass die Spra-
whlte Untertitel KWiC (Key Words in Context), so che der Wissenschaft inzwischen das Englische ist.
vielschichtig und facettenreich ist auch dieses Fach- Man mag dies bedauern oder nicht, aber nahezu alle
buch, welches schon in dem von seinen Autoren ver- relevanten Informationen in der Zahnmedizin, seien
fassten Vorwort vllig zu Recht einen hohen Anspruch sie klinischer Natur oder eher den Grundlagenwissen-
deutlich macht. Dies ist bei Weitem nicht ein Fachwr- schaften unseren Faches zuzuordnen, werden interna-
terbuch der blichen Art, sondern es erweckt den Ein- tional publiziert, damit also in englischsprachigen Zeit-
druck einer Mischung aus soliden Fachwortkenntnissen schriften. Nur so wird gewhrleistet, dass wissenschaft-
einerseits und fast schon philologischen Zgen ande- liche Erkenntnisse deutscher Autoren auch global zur
rerseits. Die heute in allen Kpfen umhergehende Idee Kenntnis genommen werden.
der Globalisierung wird tglich sowohl in der Industrie Ich selbst kann mich noch gut daran erinnern, dass
wie auch im Dienstleistungsbereich und nicht zuletzt ich als junger Wissenschaftler groe Probleme hatte,
in der Zahnmedizin zu einem unbersehbaren Faktum. zahnmedizinische Fachausdrcke korrekt ins Englische
Die hierbei allseits bekannte ffnung nach Osten sollte zu bersetzen. Damals, in den 70er und 80er Jahren des
uns weniger veranlassen, das kyrillische Alphabet oder letzten Jahrhunderts, gab es lediglich medizinische
asiatische Schriftzeichen zu erlernen, sondern es muss Wrterbcher, die kaum zahnmedizinische Fachaus-
gerade auf Druck von diesen eben genannten Seiten drcke enthielten. Diese Lcke wurde durch die erste
her uns noch mehr motivieren, die englische Sprache Auflage des Werkes KWiC-Web Fachwortschatz
im Allgemeinen und in unserem Fachbereich im Beson- ZAHNMEDIZIN Englisch im Jahr 2001 geschlossen. Ba-
deren zu erlernen und zu praktizieren. Gerade aber auf sierend auf den damit gemachten Erfahrungen und
Grund der zuletzt genannten Zusammenhnge ergibt neuen Erfordernissen haben die Herausgeber in Koope-
sich die Notwendigkeit, sich in englischer Sprache nicht ration mit zahlreichen kompetenten Mitautoren nun
nur mehr oder weniger holprig, sondern kompetitiv mit eine 3. Auflage fertiggestellt, die um 2 wichtige Kapitel
einem hohen Qualittsanspruch zu verstndigen. zur Terminologie in der Onkologie und den Tumoren im
Zu dem bisher Gesagten bildet dieses Buch eine si- Kopf-Hals-Bereich erweitert wurde. Hervorzuheben ist
cherlich einzigartige Grundlage. Nimmt man die Kurz- auch die naheliegende Bercksichtigung der Termino-
form des englischen Untertitels KWiC in vereinfach- logie verwandter medizinischer Fachgebiete, zum Bei-
ter Form als Lautschrift an, so ist hiermit das in der spiel der Radiologie. Die 3. Auflage eines Wrterbu-
bersetzung deutsche Wort schnell gemeint: und die- ches innerhalb von 8 Jahren beweist, dass die Heraus-
ses Buch ermglicht beim Nachschlagen von Fachwr- geber sich intensiv mit den sich wandelnden Erforder-
tern und deren Zusammenhngen eine Schnelligkeit, nissen und den stndigen Vernderungen in der fach-
wie sie mit einem Wrterbuch der blichen Art sicher- spezifischen Terminologie auseinandersetzen und
lich nicht zu erzielen ist. Dies wird unter anderem ge- einen hohen Aktualitts- und Qualittsanspruch haben.
rade durch die Wiedergabe von Begriffen im Kontext Ich bin berzeugt, dass dieses Wrterbuch allen
erzielt, wobei die Art der hierbei gewhlten Darstellung deutschsprachigen Wissenschaftlern, insbesondere
die beiden schon eingangs gemachten Feststellungen auch unserem Nachwuchs, wertvolle Dienste leisten
erfllt: Der Leser erhlt an vielen Stellen eine prakti- und sehr dazu beitragen wird, mit der englischen Ter-
sche philologische Kurzanleitung und eine fachliche minologie in allen Gebieten der Zahnmedizin vertraut
Unterweisung. Dieses Buch, das trotz der hohen An- zu werden. Dies wird zur Folge haben, dass die Ergeb-
sprche keinen auf Vollstndigkeit erhebt und nisse unserer klinischen und wissenschaftlichen Arbeit
wegen des Umfanges und der Entwicklung der einzel- in gebhrendem Mae international in Zukunft noch
nen Fachgebiete auch nicht kann ist sicherlich so- mehr beachtet werden. Den Herausgebern und Autoren
wohl fr die Studierenden, die sich verstndlicherweise mchte ich fr ihre Leistung und ihr Engagement
zunehmend mit englischsprachiger Literatur beschfti- meine Hochachtung aussprechen, dem Fachwort-
gen mssen, als auch fr junge Wissenschaftler ein un- schatz ZAHNMEDIZIN wnsche ich eine weite Verbrei-
entbehrliches Werkzeug. So kann man sich als erfahre- tung.
ner Fachmann nur wnschen, dass dieses Buch im
Sinne der Globalisierung im deutschsprachigen Raum Hannover, im Mai 2008
eine groe Verbreitung finden mge und es auf Grund Prof. Dr. Werner GEURTSEN
seiner Ansprche und Zielsetzungen stets weiter Direktor und Chefarzt
wchst und durch neue Auflagen ergnzt werden wird. Klinik fr Zahnerhaltung, Parodontologie und
Prventive Zahnheilkunde
Tbingen, im Mai 2008 Prof. Dr. Heiner WEBER Medizinische Hochschule Hannover
rztlicher Direktor sowie
Poliklinik fr Zahnrztliche Prothetik Affiliate Professor of Restorative
Universittsklinikum Tbingen Dentistry & Oral Biology
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

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VI Vorwort

Vorwort
Als dieses Werk kurz vor der Jahrtausendwende kon- Bei der Zuordnung der Termini zu den Fachgebieten
zipiert wurde, handelte es sich um ein terminologi- war es unser Ziel, eher einschlieend als puristisch und
sches und sprachdidaktisches Pionierprojekt, das auf rigoros vorzugehen. Damit sollte der Graubereich, der
der Prmisse basiert, dass Zahnmedizinerinnen und bei einer modularen Struktur zwischen den Fachgebie-
Zahnmediziner heutzutage die Fachterminologie nicht ten zwangslufig entsteht, mglichst gering gehalten
nur in ihrer Muttersprache, sondern auch auf Englisch, und assoziatives Lernen ermglicht werden. Weiters
der Lingua franca der Wissenschaft, beherrschen ms- wurde die didaktisch stimmige Reihenfolge der Stich-
sen. Der zahnmedizinische Band war damals ein Ver- wrter innerhalb der Module ein groes Anliegen
suchsballon, ein Aufbruch zu neuen Ufern, der sich erst unserer Fachbeirte nach Mglichkeit verbessert.
bewhren musste. Der Index wurde grndlich berarbeitet, vor allem
Im Jahr 2000 war die zweisprachige Lexikografie in der englische Teil wurde von ca. 3000 auf knapp 7000
der Zahnmedizin im Wesentlichen auf Wrterbcher Eintrge erweitert, sodass nun nicht nur die Haupt-
beschrnkt, in denen die Termini alphabetisch ohne stichwrter, sondern auch alle bersetzten Termini
jeden Kontext mit ihren bersetzungen aufgelistet wer- ber den Index nachgeschlagen werden knnen.
den. Basierend auf unserer mittlerweile 30-jhrigen Er- Bei all diesen Verbesserungen ist es nicht mglich,
fahrung bei der Vermittlung von medizinischem Fach- eine klare terminologische Trennlinie zwischen Zahn-
englisch haben wir mit diesem Projekt eine neue Mg- medizin und Allgemeinmedizin zu ziehen. So knnte
lichkeit fr Fachleute entwickelt, sich die ntigen man berechtigt fragen: Warum fehlt die Notfallmedizin
Sprachkenntnisse in den verschiedenen Fachbereichen oder weshalb gibt es kein Kapitel zur Anamnese? Die
anzueignen. Heute wird das Konzept bereits von meh- Liste liee sich beliebig fortsetzen. Hier mssen wir den
reren Lndern in Europa und auch darber hinaus ber- an diesen terminologischen Grenzbereichen interes-
nommen. sierten Benutzer auf den KWiC-Web Fachwortschatz
Die ermutigenden Rezensionen zur 1. und vor allem MEDIZIN (142 Units) verweisen, der bei Thieme in
zur 2. Auflage des zahnmedizinischen Bandes sowie die Buchform und als CD erschienen ist.
zunehmende Beachtung von Seiten deutschsprachiger Da die Fachterminologie einem stndigen Wandel
Zahnmedizinerinnen und Zahnmediziner haben uns unterworfen ist, waren wir auch mit der Frage konfron-
veranlasst, nochmals die rmel hochzukrempeln und tiert, wie mit obsoleten Fachwrtern verfahren werden
untersttzt von mehr als einem Dutzend hervor- soll. Nachdem bei vielen Recherchen auch auf die ltere
ragender Fachleute aus Deutschland, der Schweiz und Literatur zurckgegriffen werden muss, haben wir uns
sterreich die vllige Neubearbeitung der 3. Auflage dazu entschlossen, die veralteten Fachausdrcke zu be-
in Angriff zu nehmen. lassen, sie aber jeweils mit dem -Symbol zu kenn-
Es wurden alle Module berarbeitet, das Haupt- zeichnen. Zudem wurden die gngigen aktuellen eng-
augenmerk bei der berarbeitung lag aber auf den zahn- lischen Schlsselbegriffe eigens hervorgehoben, indem
medizinischen Kerngebieten (Part 5, U30-U45), die sig- jene Fachtermini, die in der National Library of Medi-
nifikant erweitert, aktualisiert und przisiert wurden. cine als Medical Subject Heading gefhrt werden, mit
Zwei neue Kapitel Onkologie und Tumoren im MeSH gekennzeichnet wurden. Nachdem die englische
Hals-Kopf-Bereich (U51 und U52) wurden hinzuge- Sprache Latein als internationale Wissenschaftssprache
fgt. Darber hinaus wurde in den mit der Zahnmedi- weitgehend abgelst hat, haben wir darber hinaus die
zin eng verwandten Fachgebieten, wie Radiologie, An- englischen Bezeichnungen, die der internationalen
sthesie und Chirurgie der zahnmedizinische Kontext anatomischen Nomenklatur der FCAT (Federative
erweitert. Ebenso wurden in den grundlegenden Kapi- Committee on Anatomical Terminology) entsprechend
teln wie Pathologie und Biostatistik die allgemeinmedi- (Terminologia Anatomica/ Internatl Anatomical Termi-
zinischen Wortverbindungen und Beispielstze durch nology, Thieme 1998) mit IAT gekennzeichnet. Bei den
solche aus der zahnmedizinischen Literatur ersetzt. deutschen bersetzungen wurde auerdem die Kenn-
Des Weiteren wurden die Fachbereiche ber die Quer- zeichnung von umgangssprachlichen Ausdrcken (ugs)
verweise noch strker vernetzt. und Benennungen, die fr die Schweiz (schw.) bzw. fr
Als Fachwrterbuch und Sprachtrainer in einem un- sterreich (st.) spezifisch sind, neu eingefhrt. Die
terscheidet sich KWiC-Web Fachwortschatz ZAHN- deutsche Rechtschreibung wurde entsprechend der
MEDIZIN vom lexikografischen Ansatz in herkmm- neuesten Rechschreibreform angepasst.
lichen Glossaren und Fachwrterbchern vor allem So hoffen wir, dass dieses Werk nun noch einschl-
durch den modulartigen Aufbau nach Fachgebieten giger und ntzlicher fr alle deutschsprachigen Benut-
sowie durch die eingehende Kontextualisierung der zer sein wird und ihnen eine solide Basis fr die Fach-
Fachtermini und die Verknpfung sinnverwandter kommunikation auf internationaler Ebene bietet.
Fachbegriffe. Trotzdem ist und bleibt KWiC-Web ein
fachsprachliches Lehr- und Nachschlagewerk und ist Innsbruck, im Juli 2008
nicht als zahnmedizinisches Fachbuch zu sehen. Ingrid & Michael Friedbichler

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Aus Friedbichler, I., M. Friedbichler: Fachwortschatz Zahnmedizin Englisch (ISBN 9783131249432) 2008 Georg Thieme Verlag KG, Stuttgart
Vorwort VII

Vorwort zur 1. Auflage Wir widmen dieses Buch unseren Tchtern Katrin und
Dorit, die in den letzten Jahren viel Verstndnis fr
unser ,,lexikografisches Kind aufbringen mussten.

Wie in vielen anderen Fachgebieten ist mit der zu- zur Seite gestanden sind. Ganz besonders hat uns
nehmenden internationalen Vernetzung das Beherr- Dr. P. Huemer (Zahnprophylaxe, Parodontologie,
schen der englischen Fachsprache in der Zahnmedi- Implantologie, zahnrztliche Instrumente, Labor-
zin zu einer wichtigen Zusatzqualifikation gewor- technik) untersttzt. Weiters gilt unser Dank Dr.
den. Einschlgige Hilfsmittel, mit denen sich Zahn- O. Barwart und Dr. G. Brodl (Kieferorthopdie), Univ.-
mediziner die entsprechende sprachliche Kom- Prof. Dr. Dr. I. Grunert (Zahnerhaltung u. -prothetik),
petenz aneignen knnen, gibt es bislang aber nur Dr. C. Hoser (Unfallchirurgie), Dr. I. Moschen (Endo-
ansatzweise. dontie) und Univ.-Prof. Dr. B. Norer (MKG-Chirurgie).
Mit KWiC-Web: Englischer Fachwortschatz Zahn- Auerdem danken wir folgenden Fachleuten von
medizin wurden bahnbrechende neue Materialien der medizinischen Fakultt der Universitt Inns-
zur Aktivierung der produktiven Sprachkompetenz bruck, die die nichtzahnrztlichen Abschnitte
entwickelt. Auf der Grundlage von computer- durchgesehen haben, fr ihre Untersttzung: Dr. H.
gesttzten lexikografischen Methoden und den neu- Hausdorfer (Allgemeinmedizin), Univ.-Prof. Dr. G.
esten Erkenntnissen der Spracherwerbsforschung Helweg (Radiologie), Univ.-Prof. Dr. G. Putz (Ans-
wurde ein zukunftsweisendes Konzept entwickelt, thesie), Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Stenzl (Chirurgie), Dr. H.
welches Zahnmedizinern aller Fachrichtungen die Ulmer (Biostatistik) sowie Dr. S. Schreieck fr die
Mglichkeit bietet, sich zwischendurch oder auf humorvollen Zeichnungen, die zur Auflockerung
der Anreise zu einem Kongress mit den englischen der fachlichen Materie beitragen sollen.
Fachausdrcken und Wendungen eines bestimmten Last but not least verdankt dieses Buch seine Ver-
Fachbereichs rasch vertraut zu machen. ffentlichung dem Mut und Pioniergeist von Dr. T.
Neuland zu betreten bedeutet immer eine Poten- Pilgrim und seinen Mitarbeitern vom Thieme Verlag,
zierung des Aufwandes. Wenngleich wir durch un- die sich nicht gescheut haben, mit KWiC-Web zu
sere Lehrttigkeit an der Universitt Innsbruck auf neuen Ufern aufzubrechen. Wir bedanken uns fr
einen wertvollen Erfahrungsschatz in der Fachspra- das Vertrauen, das sie in uns und unsere Arbeit ge-
chenvermittlung zurckgreifen konnten, wre die- setzt haben und die weiten Wege, die sie bei der
ses Buch ohne die Untersttzung eines ganzen Konzeption einer benutzerfreundlichen grafischen
Teams von Fachleuten und Beratern, denen wir an Gestaltung und der Entwicklung einer speziellen
dieser Stelle unseren besonderen Dank aussprechen Datenbank mit uns gegangen sind, um nur zwei
mchten, nicht realisierbar gewesen. An erster Stelle der Punkte zu erwhnen, die fr alle Pionierarbeit
gebhrt dieser Dank W. Gallagher, M.D. (FACS) und bedeutet haben.
L. Cohen, D.D.S. , Tucson, AZ., USA sowie N. Jones, Bleibt zu hoffen, dass dieses Buch all jenen, die
M.D. (G.B.), die fr uns die englischen Termini und sich mit der englischen Fachsprache der Zahnmedi-
Texte auf deren fachliche und sprachliche Richtig- zin vertraut machen wollen, ein ntzliches und ef-
keit berprft haben. fizientes Hilfsmittel sein mge, das ihnen das Tor
Weiters bedanken wir uns bei einem Team von zur internationalen Fachwelt ffnet.
niedergelassenen und wissenschaftlich arbeitenden
Zahnrzten, die jeweils die deutschen Entsprechun- Innsbruck, Ingrid & Michael Friedbichler
gen der bersetzten Termini in ihren Fachgebieten im Dezember 2000
berprft haben und uns darber hinaus beratend

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Aus Friedbichler, I., M. Friedbichler: Fachwortschatz Zahnmedizin Englisch (ISBN 9783131249432) 2008 Georg Thieme Verlag KG, Stuttgart
VIII Danksagung

Danksagung
Diese Neubearbeitung ist vor allem der Initiative von Weiters sind uns Martha Bohus (Knigsbrunn bei
Prof. Dr. Jens C. Trp (Universittskliniken fr Zahn- Augsburg) und Veronika Rehers-Bender (Mnchen),
medizin, Basel) zu verdanken, dessen tiefschrfende beide bersetzerinnen und Konferenzdolmetscherin-
und weitblickende Rezension zur 2. Auflage in der nen mit langjhriger Erfahrung in der Zahnmedizin,
Deutschen Zahnrztlichen Zeitschrift (2006; 61:346) bei der Schlussredaktion des Textes in dankenswerter
dem Werk nicht nur zu grerer Bekanntheit und Weise zur Seite gestanden.
einem hheren Stellenwert in der Fachliteratur verhol- Schlielich seien auch Dr. Peter Huemer (Institut
fen hat, sondern auch den Ansto dazu gab, dieses fr Implantologie und Parodontologie, Wolfurt/Vorarl-
wertvolle Geschenk an die deutschsprachige Zahnme- berg), der schon bei der Erstauflage Pate gestanden hat,
dizin weiter zu verbessern. und Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dr. Ingrid Grunert (Klinische Ab-
Mit groem Engagement gelang es ihm, fhrende teilung fr Zahnersatz, Medizinische Universitt Inns-
FachkollegInnen von der Bedeutung dieses Werkes fr bruck) erwhnt; ohne sie htte dieses Projekt niemals
deutschsprachige Zahnmediziner zu berzeugen und verwirklicht werden knnen.
ein ganzes Team von Fachbeirten zu motivieren, Sie alle haben mitgeholfen, diesen Fachsprachen-
diese Neubearbeitung in allen fachgebietsspezifischen fhrer signifikant zu verbessern und so um ein Vielfa-
Fragen zu untersttzen. ches ntzlicher zu machen. Falls trotz aller Sorgfalt
Fr diese uneigenntzige Untersttzung im Dienste fachliche oder sprachliche Ungereimtheiten bersehen
an der deutschsprachigen Zahnmedizin gilt unser be- worden sein sollten, sind wir fr Hinweise dankbar.
sonderer Dank (in alphabetischer Reihenfolge): Auch ber konstruktive Anmerkungen jeglicher Art
zum Fachwortschatz Zahnmedizin wrden wir uns
Prof. Dr. Johannes Einwag (Zahnrztliches Fort- sehr freuen. Diese knnen jederzeit ber die e-Mail-
bildungszentrum, Stuttgart) Prventive Zahnheil- Adresse med-english@i-med.ac.at an uns gerichtet
kunde werden.
Prof. Dr. Andreas Filippi gemeinsam mit Dr. Christin Fr einen nicht unwesentlichen Beitrag zur besseren
Wasmer (beide Klinik fr Zahnrztliche Chirurgie, Anschaulichkeit des Werkes bedanken wir uns bei
Radiologie, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde, Universitt Dr. Klaus de Cassan, niedergelassener Zahnarzt in
Basel) Orale Chirurgie Murg/Hochrhein und Geschftsfhrer der ZiiS-GmbH,
PD Dr. Jens Fischer (Klinik fr Kronen- und Brcken- der uns aus seinem Zahnwissen-Lexikon (http://www.
prothetik, Teilprothetik und Materialkunde, Zent- zahnwissen.de) neue Abbildungen in uneigenntziger
rum fr Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde, Univer- Weise zur Verfgung gestellt hat.
sitt Zrich) Werkstoffkunde Es ist uns auch eine groe Ehre, dass sich fhrende
Prof. Dr. Guido Heydecke (Poliklinik fr zahnrztliche internationale Kapazitten wie Prof. Dr. Heiner Weber
Prothetik, Universittsklinikum Hamburg-Eppen- (Tbingen), Prsident der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr
dorf) Zahnrztliche Prothetik und Implantologie Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde (2001 2004), und
Dr. med. dent. Karl Immler (niedergelassener Zahn- Prof. Dr. Werner Geurtsen (Seattle, WA, USA), Schrift-
arzt in Hard/Vlbg.) sthetische Zahnheilkunde, leiter der Deutschen Zahnrztlichen Zeitschrift, bereit
Dentaltechnik erklrt haben, ein Geleitwort fr die 3. Auflage von
Prof. Dr. Irmtraud Jonas (Poliklinik fr Kieferortho- KWiC-Web Fachwortschatz Zahnmedizin zu verfas-
pdie, Universitt Freiburg) Kieferorthopdie sen. ber ihre anerkennenden Worte freuen wir uns
OA Dr. Gabriel Krastl (Klinik fr Parodontologie, End- sehr, sind sie doch die beste Besttigung der Arbeit
odontologie und Kariologie, Universitt Basel) aller am Projekt Beteiligten.
Endodontie, konservierende Zahnheilkunde Nicht zuletzt gilt unser Dank auch Dr. Christian
Prof. Dr. Rainer Schmelzeisen gemeinsam mit Urbanowicz, Dr. Esther Tiessen, Dr. Thyra Parthen
Dr. Ricarda Glaum (beide Klinik fr Mund-, und Martina Drsam vom Georg Thieme Verlag fr
Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Universitt Freiburg) ihre Untersttzung und Geduld bei diesem fr einen
MKG-Chirurgie medizinischen Verlag auergewhnlichen lexikogra-
Dr. Dirk Schulze (Sektion Rntgen, Klinik fr Mund-, fischen Werk.
Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Universitt Freiburg)
Radiologie, bildgebende Verfahren Ingrid & Michael Friedbichler
Prof. Dr. Jens C. Trp (Klinik fr Rekonstruktive Zahn-
medizin und Myoarthropathien, Universitt Basel)
Kraniomandibulre Dysfunktionen, Funktions-
diagnostik
OA Dr. Clemens Walter, DGP (Klinik fr Parodontolo-
gie, Endodontologie und Kariologie, Universitt
Basel) Parodontologie

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Danksagung IX

Table of Contents Inhaltsbersicht

Part 1 Basic Medical & Health Terms Related to Dentistry


Unit 1 Diet & Dieting Nahrung & Dit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Unit 2 Food & Drink Essen & Trinken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Unit 3 Craniofacial Trauma Kopf- und Gesichtsverletzungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Unit 4 States of Consciousness Bewusstseinslagen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Unit 5 Drugs & Remedies Medikamente & Heilmittel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Unit 6 At the Dentists Beim Zahnarzt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Unit 7 Dental Operatory Equipment Zahnrztlicher Behandlungsraum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Part 2 Body Structures & Functions Relevant to Dentistry


Unit 8 Head & Neck Kopf & Hals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Unit 9 The Teeth Die Zhne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Unit 10 Dentition & Mastication Zahnen & Kauen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Unit 11 Human Sounds & Speech Sprache & menschliche Laute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Unit 12 Nutrition Ernhrung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Part 3 Medical Science


Unit 13 Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology Orofaziale Pathologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Unit 14 Medical Statistics Biostatistik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Unit 15 Medical Studies & Research Medizinische Studien & Forschung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Part 4 Clinical Terms


Unit 16 Orofacial Pain Orofaziale Schmerzen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Unit 17 Craniofacial Fractures Kraniofaziale Frakturen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Unit 18 Therapeutic Intervention Therapeutische Manahmen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Unit 19 Pharmacologic Treatment Medikamentse Behandlung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Unit 20 Pharmacologic Agents Arzneimittel & pharmazeutische Wirkstoffe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Unit 21 Surgical Treatment Der operative Eingriff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Unit 22 Basic Operative Techniques Grundlegende Operationstechniken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Unit 23 The Surgical Suite Der Operationstrakt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Unit 24 Surgical Instruments Chirurgische Instrumente . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Unit 25 Perioperative Care Perioperative Manahmen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Unit 26 Sutures & Suture Material Chirurgische Nahttechniken & Nahtmaterialien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Unit 27 Dental & Surgical Asepsis Zahnrztliche & chirurgische Asepsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Unit 28 Wound Healing Wundheilung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Unit 29 Fracture Management Frakturbehandlung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

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X Table of Contents Inhaltsbersicht

Part 5 Dentistry
Unit 30 Basic Dental Materials Wichtige Dentalwerkstoffe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Unit 31 Dental Lab Procedures & Equipment Zahntechnik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Unit 32 Dental Instruments Zahnrztliche Instrumente . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Unit 33 Oral & Maxillofacial Imaging Techniques Bildgebende Verfahren in der Zahnheilkunde . . . . . 137
Unit 34 Oral Hygiene & Preventive Dentistry Mundhygiene & zahnmedizinische Prophylaxe . . . . . . . . . 141
Unit 35 Periodontics Parodontologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Unit 36 Orthodontic Dentistry Kieferorthopdie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Unit 37 Orthodontic Appliances Kieferorthopdische Gerte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Unit 38 Temporomandibular Disorders Kraniomandibulre Dysfunktion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Unit 39 Cosmetic Dentistry sthetische Zahnheilkunde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Unit 40 Restorative Dentistry Konservierende Zahnheilkunde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Unit 41 Endodontics Endodontie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Unit 42 Prosthodontics Zahnersatz & zahnrztliche Prothetik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Unit 43 Dental Implantology Zahnrztliche Implantologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Unit 44 Oral Surgery Oralchirurgie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Unit 45 Maxillofacial Surgery Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

Part 6 Related Medical Specialties


Unit 46 Basic Radiologic Terms Grundbegriffe der Radiologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Unit 47 Basic Terms in Anesthesiology Grundbegriffe der Ansthesiologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Unit 48 Types of Anesthesia & Anesthetics Ansthesieverfahren & Ansthetika . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Unit 49 Basic Terms in Plastic Surgery Grundbegriffe der plastischen Chirurgie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Unit 50 Grafts & Flaps Transplantate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Unit 51 General Oncology Allgemeine Onkologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Unit 52 Head & Neck Tumors Hals-Kopf-Tumoren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

Index English Terms Index der englischen Fachtermini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


229

Index English Abbreviations Index der englischen Abkrzungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



259

Index German Terms Index der deutschen Fachtermini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



261

Quellenverzeichnis der Abbildungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303


Grundstzliches zur englischen Aussprache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Hinweise zur Aussprache medizinischer Fachwrter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Unterschiede zwischen AE und BE in der Schreibweise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

Auf der hinteren Umschlaginnenseite und den -klappen finden Sie:


Hinweise zur Lautschrift (IPA)
Generelle Unterschiede zwischen AE und BE in der Aussprache
Die internationale Lautschrift (IPA-Zeichen)
Abkrzungen und Symbole

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Table of Contents Inhaltsbersicht XI

Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen
Wozu wurde KWiC-Web Fachwortschatz internal derangement (Diskusluxation), einem wich-
Zahnmedizin entwickelt? tigen Ausdruck der MKG-Chirurgie.
Zustzlich wurden die elektronisch herausgefil-
In den letzten Jahren sind fr deutschsprachige terten Schlsselwrter auf ihren didaktischen Wert
Mediziner, fr die die englische Fachsprache im hin geprft, d. h. typische englische Bezeichnungen
Beruf unentbehrlich geworden ist, eine Reihe von und Wendungen wurden gegenber medizinischen
Materialien auf den Markt gekommen, darunter Internationalismen und Termini, die dem Non-Nati-
gleich mehrere zahnmedizinische Fachwrterb- ve-Speaker weder in der Bedeutung noch in der
cher. Ob umfassend oder als Taschenbuch, gebun- Aussprache oder Verwendung Probleme bereiten,
den oder auf CD-ROM, all diese herkmmlichen bevorzugt bercksichtigt.
Wrterbcher haben fr den Sprachlernenden Obwohl Vollstndigkeit ein unerreichbares Ziel
einen entscheidenden Nachteil. Durch die alpha- bleibt, findet man in KWiC-Web alle wichtigen
betische Auflistung der Wrter sind sie zwar als Fachtermini und darber hinaus viele fachspezi-
Nachschlagewerke ideal, fr den Erwerb des eng- fische Wortverbindungen, die zwar gngig sind,
lischen Fachwortschatzes jedoch ungeeignet. aber bisher noch nirgends beschrieben wurden.
Was Sie hier in Hnden halten ist eine vllig an- 2. Context. KWiC-Web geht weit ber eine Liste
dere Art von Wrterbuch. Es ist nach dem Baustein- von englisch-deutschen Wortgleichungen hinaus.
prinzip auf der Grundlage fachlicher Zusammen- Da die adquate Einbettung der Fachtermini im
hnge aufgebaut und ermglicht es sowohl Studen- Kontext fr Fachleute wie auch bersetzer und Dol-
ten der Zahnmedizin, die sich mit den grundlegen- metscher meist die grte Hrde im aktiven Sprach-
den Termini auseinandersetzen, niedergelassenen gebrauch darstellt, ist die Kontextualisierung der
Zahnrzten, die sich mit den Begriffen der dentalen Termini ein wesentliches Kriterium. Spracherwerb
Implantologie vertraut machen wollen, Dentalhygie- findet schlielich immer im Kontext statt, und ber-
nikerinnen ebenso wie Kieferchirurgen, aber auch setzungen bieten meist nur in sehr begrenztem Ma
bersetzern von kieferorthopdischen Texten, ge- Hilfe.
zielt den jeweils relevanten Wortschatz aus den ent- Deshalb werden in KWiC-Web die Schlsselwr-
sprechenden Bausteinen (Modulen) ihren speziellen ter nicht nur mit deutschen Entsprechungen, son-
Bedrfnissen entsprechend zu aktivieren. Da sich dern jeweils samt ihrem typischen semantischen
jedes Modul auf eine berschaubare Anzahl von Umfeld in englischen Erklrungen, Beispielstzen,
Fachtermini beschrnkt, lassen sich diese Baustein und den gebruchlichsten Wortverbindungen (Kol-
fr Baustein auf Reisen oder in schpferischen Pau- lokationen) und Phrasen, die alle einer riesigen
sen zwischendurch leicht einprgen oder auffri- Fachtextsammlung entnommen sind, prsentiert.
schen. Dies gibt dem Benutzer Einblick in die authentische
Verwendung der Fachausdrcke in der medizi-
Was bedeutet KWiC-Web und nischen Literatur.
wie ist der Fachwortschatz strukturiert?
Fachwrterbuch, Thesaurus, Kollokations-
KWiC steht fr Key Words In Context und Web fr wrterbuch und Wissensdatenbank in einem
die Vernetzung in semantischen Netzwerken. KWiC-
Web setzt in zweierlei Hinsicht neue Mastbe. KWiC-Web vereint die Vorzge eines englischen Er-
1. Keywords. Der zahnmedizinische Wortschatz klrungswrterbuches mit jenen einer einsprachi-
in KWiC-Web ist in 50 Kapitel (Module), die in so- gen Phraseologiesammlung und eines zweisprachi-
genannte semantische Netzwerke (sinnzusammen- gen Nachschlagewerkes.
hngende Termini, Ausdrcke oder Wendungen, die Jedes Modul beinhaltet rund 200 morphologisch
wie Nervenzellen miteinander verbunden sind) ge- oder semantisch verwandte Ausdrcke, Phrasen,
gliedert sind, aufbereitet. Diese Module umfassen und Kollokationen die mit verwandten Modulen
die gngigen Begriffe der verschiedenen zahnmedi- durch Verweise verbunden sind, sodass ein einprg-
zinischen Fachgebiete in baumdiagrammartigen sames semantisches Netzwerk (= WEB) von mit-
Verknpfungen von einfachen, die Zahnmedizin einander in enger Beziehung stehenden Termini, Er-
betreffenden Wrtern aus der Allgemeinsprache, luterungen, Wortverbindungen, lexikalischen Clus-
wie z.B decayed tooth (kariser Zahn), bis hin zu tern und Fakten entsteht, das einer Wissensdaten-
sehr spezifischen Mehrwort-Komposita, wie z. B. bank gleicht. Dadurch wird nicht nur die Verwen-

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XII Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen

dung der Schlsselwrter veranschaulicht, sondern tung oder Verwendung; siehe auch Hinweise zur
auch deren Verknpfung und Beziehung mit ande- Aussprache & Schreibweise, letzte Seite).
ren Fachtermini aufzeigt. So wird jedes Modul zu
einer Zusammenschau der wichtigsten Schlssel- Wie sind die Module aufgebaut?
wrter und Wendungen, denen man in einschlgi-
gen Fachtexten und im Klinikalltag immer wieder Die Aufbereitung des zahnmedizinischen Fachwort-
begegnet. Vertraute Ausdrcke und solche, die man schatzes in bersichtliche Module erfolgte analog
schon einmal gehrt, aber wieder vergessen hat, zur fachlichen Strukturierung in einzelne Fachberei-
stehen dabei neben unbekannten, und KWiC-Web che.
zeigt, wie sie untereinander vernetzt sind. Es ent- Auch innerhalb der Module sind die Wortfelder
stehen im Unterbewusstsein Assoziationen, die das nach fachlich-semantischen Kriterien angeordnet.
Wiedererkennen und Behalten auf lange Sicht we- hnlich wie bei einem guten Lehrbuch gelangt
sentlich verbessern. Dadurch kommt das Arbeiten man den Begriffssystemen folgend von den grund-
mit KWiC-Web dem Studium bzw. Querlesen Tau- legenden Schlsselwrtern zu immer spezifischeren
sender Seiten von Fachtexten gleich allerdings in Termini. Das zweite Ordnungsprinzip folgt didakti-
krzester Zeit, da es sich um einen stark verdichte- schen Kriterien. Grundlegende und hufig verwende-
ten Auszug handelt (deshalb auch KWiC!). te Ausdrcke werden jeweils vor den komplexeren
und selteneren angefhrt. Durch den ansteigenden
Korpusgesttztes Erfassen Schwierigkeitsgrad kann jeder Benutzer die Eindring-
tiefe individuell bestimmen und einfach zum nchs-
Ohne die Verwendung von reprsentativen elektro- ten Modul/Abschnitt weitergehen, wenn er den Ein-
nischen Korpora von authentischen englischen druck hat, es wird zu spezifisch. Durch die spezielle
Fachtexten wre die Selektion der Schlsselwrter, Anordnung der Schlsselwrter innerhalb eines jeden
Kontextbeispiele und Kollokationen nur mit Quali- Moduls (den Bedeutungszusammenhngen statt dem
ttseinbuen und einem riesigen Zeitaufwand zu be- Alphabet folgend) ergeben sich zustzliche Kopp-
wltigen. KWiC-Web basiert auf einem ber 20 Mil- lungseffekte, wodurch die Effizienz von KWiC-Web
lionen Wrter umfassenden medizinischen Korpus. weiter gesteigert wird, da die Behaltensquote vor
Um die Verlsslichkeit hoch und die Fehlerhaftigkeit allem fr Benutzer, die mit dem betreffenden Fach-
des Korpus gering zu halten, wurden ausschlielich gebiet in der Muttersprache bereits vertraut sind,
authentische Quellen (Standard-Handbcher, Fach- noch hher wird. Die Eintrge decken jedes Gebiet so
artikel, und Fachtexte englischsprachiger Autoren ab, dass zwischen den Modulen keine wesentlichen
aus verschiedenen Fachbereichen) herangezogen. berschneidungen oder Lcken entstehen.
Die moderne Computerlinguistik ermglicht es Die Module sind mit treffenden berschriften
uns, spezifische Fragen des Sprachgebrauchs, v. a. versehen, die den jeweiligen Bereich klar umreien.
die Verwendung und Verbreitung von Fachausdr- So findet man beispielsweise Termini wie teeth
cken und Wendungen, anhand von authentischen grinding, exfoliated und gag reflex im Modul Denti-
Fachtexten per Knopfdruck zu prfen. Da KWiC- tion & Mastication, und Eintrge wie ache, tender,
Web auf der Grundlage solcher Textanalysen erstellt und analgesic im Modul Pain. Wenn sich auch in
wurde, sind die Sprachdaten nicht nur aktuell son- inhaltlich angrenzenden Modulen manche Ausdr-
dern entsprechen auch jenen Termini und Wendun- cke wiederfinden, als Keywords sind sie jeweils nur
gen, die in der Fachkommunikation tatschlich ver- einem Modul zugeordnet.
wendet werden. Das Ziel bei der Zuordnung der Termini zu den Fach-
gebieten war, eher einschlieend als puristisch und
Welches Englisch? rigoros vorzugehen. Das Keyword stellt die Nabe
dar, an der die gngigen Kollokationen aufgehngt
Die Weltsprache Englisch hat viele Ausprgungen werden, auch wenn nicht immer alle zu ein und
und Varianten. In KWiC-Web wird grundstzlich demselben Fachgebiet gehren. Besonders in Fllen,
Standard American als Ausgangssprache verwendet, wo der betreffende Fachbereich nicht eigens behan-
es wird aber auf regionale Varianten besonders auf delt wurde (z. B. Gnathologie) oder das Stichwort in
Unterschiede zwischen amerikanischem und briti- einem anderen Fachgebiet nicht angefhrt ist, wur-
schem Englisch verwiesen (BE, espBE) und fallwei- den auch Kollokationen mit einbezogen, die nicht
se auch erlutert (bes. bei unterschiedlicher Bedeu- zum betreffenden Fach gehren. Damit soll der
Graubereich, der bei einer modularen Struktur zwi-

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Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen XIII

schen den Fachgebieten zwangslufig entsteht, werden Wrter oder Passagen im Kontext, die fr
mglichst gering gehalten und assoziatives Lernen den Benutzer schwer aus dem Zusammenhang er-
ermglicht werden. schliebar oder besonders wichtig oder ntzlich
sind, bersetzt. Die bersetzten Passagen sind im
Querverweise: Am Beginn jedes Moduls wird auf englischen Text blau markiert und ber Hochzahlen
Zusammenhnge mit verwandten Modulen verwie- den bersetzungen in der Marginalspalte zugeord-
sen, in denen der Benutzer viele Kontextausdrcke net. Dadurch bekommt der Benutzer auch Einblick
samt ausfhrlichen Erklrungen und bersetzungen in spezielle Bedeutungen der Termini im authenti-
wiederfinden kann. Auf zustzliche Querverbindun- schen Kontext.
gen zwischen einzelnen Termini verschiedener Mo- Da Zahnmediziner in Ausbildung, die ihre (Fach-)
dule wird jeweils beim betreffenden Wort verwie- Englischkenntnisse verbessern wollen, die Haupt-
sen (z. B. ?U23-14). Damit wird das Modul (Unit zielgruppe darstellen, wurden vielfach auch Wrter
23) und die Eintragsnummer (14) bezeichnet. bzw. Passagen bersetzt, die nicht zur Fachsprache
gehren, aber erfahrungsgem Probleme bereiten
Wie sind die einzelnen Eintrge strukturiert? (z. B. Wrter wie eventually). Unser Ziel dabei war
es, den Benutzern die Verwendung eines allgemein-
Die Eintrge enthalten folgende Komponenten: sprachlichen Nachschlagewerks zu ersparen. Dies
ist auch der Grund fr die Lautschrift- und Beto-
Das Hauptstichwort (Schlsselwort): Jedes Modul nungshinweise bei Nicht-Fachwrtern.
wurde so angelegt, dass es 10 bis maximal 35 Ein- Bei den bersetzungen wird ein Unterschied zwi-
trge (Hauptstichwrter und deren Wortfelder) um- schen den Hauptstichwrtern und den Zusatzber-
fasst. Nominalformen und Nominalverbindungen setzungen im Kontext gemacht. Bei Ersteren werden
machen den Groteil der Schlsselwrter aus; die immer mglichst alle Entsprechungen angefhrt
dazugehrigen Adjektive, Prpositionen und Verben (ggf. auch verschiedene Bedeutungen). Bei Letzteren
findet man in den Beschreibungen, Beispielstzen, ist das aus Platzgrnden meist nicht mglich. Be-
Wortverbindungen und Phrasen (z. B. an elective sonders in den Beispielstzen und Worterklrungen
operation, to undergo an operation for a tumor, to wird daher meist nur eine bersetzung angefhrt
be operated on, operative approach, operating room). (das dt. quivalent in eben diesem Kontext, teilwei-
Deshalb scheint z. B. das Verb perform zwar nirgends se sogar im entsprechenden Modus). Die Zusatz-
als Haupteintrag auf, im Kontext taucht es allerdings bersetzungen (auch bei den Kollokationen und
immer wieder in Verbphrasen wie to perform a stu- Phrasen) sind also vor allem als Anker fr das Ver-
dy/an operation/a biopsy bei den betreffenden Nomi- stndnis des Wortes/Begriffs zu sehen.
na auf.
Worterklrungen: Hier handelt es sich weniger um
Verwandte Ausdrcke: Bei jedem Schlsselwort Definitionen als um beschreibende Erklrungen
sind Synonyme (syn), Fast-Synonyme (sim), Antony- bzw. Paraphrasen in einfachem Englisch. Diese sind
me (opposite) und verwandte Ausdrcke (rel) wie fr Fachleute als Formulierungshilfe ebenso ntz-
z. B. Unter-, Ober- und Nebenbegriffe des Hauptein- lich wie fr Translatoren, die die Bedeutung des
trags angefhrt. Bei Vorliegen mehrerer synonymer Fachausdrucks weder im Englischen noch in der
Ausdrcke werden diese nicht einfach kommentar- Muttersprache kennen. Auerdem enthalten diese
los aufgelistet, sondern nach Gebruchlichkeit ge- Umschreibungen viele weitere ber-, Neben- und
wichtet. Die hufiger verwendeten werden zuerst Unterbegriffe zu den Haupteintrgen.
genannt, selten gebrauchte Benennungen werden
gekennzeichnet (rare). Zusammen mit den Angaben Authentische Beispielstze (-Symbol): Diese sind
zur Sprachebene und den Kontextbeispielen wird dem medizinischen Korpus entnommen und geben
dadurch fr den Benutzer ersichtlich, welcher Ter- dem Benutzer Einblick in die authentische Verwen-
minus in welchem Zusammenhang bevorzugt ver- dung der Fachtermini in der medizinischen Litera-
wendet wird. tur. Bei der Auswahl der Beispiele wurde sowohl auf
die sprachliche als auch die fachliche Relevanz ge-
Deutsche bersetzungen (Marginalspalte): Fr achtet.
jedes Schlsselwort sowie vorhandene verwandte
Ausdrcke werden in der Marginalspalte jeweils Wortfamilie: Bei jedem Schlsselwort und dessen
die deutschen Entsprechungen angefhrt. Zustzlich verwandten Ausdrcken werden auch die dazuge-

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XIV Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen

hrigen Wortfamilien (Verben, Adjektive etc.) an- gegeben. Eine Erklrung der Lautschriftsymbole an-
gefhrt. Man findet also beim Eintrag diagnosis hand von Beispielen findet sich in der Umschlag-
auch to (over)diagnose, misdiagnosis, (non)diagnostic klappe.
etc.
Tipps und Hinweise auf Besonderheiten (Note):
Hinweise zur Grammatik und Stilebene: Neben Bei Stichwrtern, die in Bezug auf Verwendung, Be-
Angaben zu Wortart und grammatikalischen Beson- deutung oder Grammatik besondere Schwierigkei-
derheiten (Plural, unregelm. Verb etc.) wird auch auf ten bereiten, werden diese in leicht verstndlichem
die Sprachebene, in der die Ausdrcke vorwiegend Englisch erlutert (Hinweis auf falsche Freunde, Ver-
verwendet werden, verwiesen (z. B. medizinischer wechslungsgefahr, Nebenbedeutungen, vom Deut-
Fachterminus, Fachjargon, klinischer oder umgangs- schen abweichende Verwendung etc.).
sprachlicher Ausdruck). Bei Wrtern, die in mehr als
zwei Stilebenen verwendet werden, wurde auf eine Kann ich KWiC-Web auch zum Nachschlagen
Angabe verzichtet. Aus Platzgrnden konnte die bestimmter Suchwrter verwenden?
Stilebene bei den verwandten Termini und den
Wortfamilien nur dann angegeben werden, wenn Alle englischen Schlsselwrter und bersetzungs-
diese von jener der Wrter davor bzw. danach ab- quivalente sind auch ber einen deutschen und eng-
weicht. Die Stilebene von Termini ohne entspre- lischen Index auffindbar, wodurch KWiC-Web auch
chende Angabe entspricht daher jenen, die fr die wie ein zweisprachiges Fachwrterbuch zum Nach-
Wrter danach (verw. Termini) bzw. davor (Wort- schlagen geeignet ist. Ein Index der englischen Ab-
familie) angegeben sind. Die Kennzeichnung der krzungen ermglicht das Auffinden jener Akronyme
Sprachebenen und deren Bedeutung ist den Erlute- im Text, die im klinischen Bereich hufig verwendet
rungen zu den verwendeten Abkrzungen zu ent- und oft zu sprachlichen Stolpersteinen werden.
nehmen (s. Umschlagklappe).
Wie kann ich mit KWiC-Web arbeiten?
Phrasen und Kollokationen (Use): Diese werden
hnlich wie in Kollokationswrterbchern jeweils Es gibt grundstzlich drei Zugangswege zu den in
in Blcken von linken bzw. rechten Kollokationen KWiC-Web aufbereiteten Materialien.
dargestellt. Auf die Tilde wurde verzichtet; das zu 1. ber das Inhaltsverzeichnis und das Modul-
ergnzende Tildewort ist kursiv/halbfett hervor- register. Im Inhaltsverzeichnis finden Sie eine ber-
gehoben. Der Eintrag drilling technique / device / sicht der einzelnen Module (Units), Abschnitte und
site twist / spiral / countersink drill ist also wie Fachbereiche in englischer und deutscher Sprache.
folgt zu lesen: drilling technique, drilling device, Hier knnen Sie die relevanten Bereiche auswhlen
drilling site <neuer Block> twist drill, spiral drill, und dann die betreffenden Module nacheinander in
countersink drill. der gewnschten Tiefe durcharbeiten. Mit Hilfe des
Bei Aneinanderreihungen von Verbphrasen, z. B. to Griffregisters finden Sie schnell zu den gesuchten
relieve/blunt/alleviate pain (to ist jeweils zu ergn- Modulen.
zen) und bei zusammengesetzten Wrtern, wie z. B. 2. ber die Querverweise. Jedes Modul sowie
hypo/hyperesthesia oder pathogenesis/physiology viele Schlsselwrter stehen mit anderen Modulen
steht der Schrgstrich direkt beim betreffenden bzw. Eintrgen in Verbindung. Auf Querverbindun-
Wort(teil). gen zwischen den Modulen wird jeweils am Beginn
jeder Einheit verwiesen (Related Units). Wollen Sie
Klinische Phrasen: In vielen Fachbereichen gibt es also ein spezielles Fachgebiet umfassend erarbeiten,
wiederkehrende klinische Situationen, in denen be- folgen Sie einfach diesen Verweisen, um zu jenen
stimmte Wendungen und Aussagen stndig vor- Fachbereichen zu gelangen, die damit in Verbindung
kommen. Solche Standardphrasen sind jeweils am stehen. Auch die Querverweise zwischen einzelnen
Ende des Moduls unter Clinical Phrases in ganzen Termini sind ntzliche Wegweiser zu weiteren fach-
Stzen mit der deutschen Entsprechung angefhrt lichen Zusammenhngen.
(in 9 Modulen). 3. ber die Indices. Suchen Sie spezielle Termini
oder wollen deren Bedeutung, bersetzung oder
Aussprache: Bei englischen Wrtern, deren Aus- Verwendung nachschlagen, knnen Sie dies mit
sprache bzw. Betonung Probleme bereiten kann, ist Hilfe des deutschen bzw. englischen Index tun. Mit
die internationale Lautschrift bzw. die Betonung an- dem Index knnen Sie auch schnell zu anderen

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Ausfhrliche Benutzeranleitungen XV

Schlsselwrtern und ihrem sprachlichen Umfeld bersetzer und Dolmetscher, die im zahnmedi-
gelangen, selbst wenn kein direkter Zusammenhang zinischen Bereich arbeiten. Ob Sie sich in ein neues
besteht. Fachgebiet einarbeiten oder spezielle Kollokationen
oder Phrasen suchen, in KWiC-Web finden Sie auf
Wer kann mit KWiC-Web arbeiten? kleinstem Raum eine Flle von sprachlichen und
fachlichen Informationen, die Sie sonst aus ver-
Grundstzlich jeder, der ber grundlegende Eng- schiedenen Nachschlagewerken erst mhsam zu-
lischkenntnisse aus der Schulzeit verfgt (upper in- sammensuchen mssen oder berhaupt in keinem
termediate). Durch die differenzierte Aufbereitung anderen Behelf finden knnen.
des reichhaltigen Sprachmaterials ist KWiC-Web Zahnmedizinisches Personal (Dentalassisten-
fr mehrere Benutzergruppen optimal verwendbar. tInnen, MundhygienikerInnen, Dentaltechniker etc.),
Studenten und rzte in Ausbildung, die mit die mit den wichtigsten englischen Begriffen und
englischen Lehrbchern und internationalen Fach- Wendungen in ihrem Fachbereich vertraut sein
zeitschriften arbeiten, ihre Dissertation in eng- mssen. Durch die didaktische Gliederung der
lischer Sprache verfassen oder ein Auslandsjahr in Schlsselwrter (Grundlegendes zuerst) mssen
Boston, Edinburg, Kapstadt oder Sydney anstreben. Sie die relevanten Termini nicht erst mhsam aus
Zahnrzte in Klinik und Forschung, die sich mit einer Flle von Informationen herausfiltern.
Hilfe von englischen Fachartikeln weiterbilden, in-
ternationale Kongresse besuchen oder einen Artikel
in einer renommierten amerikanischen Fachzeit-
schrift verffentlichen wollen.

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Diet & Dieting BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 1

Unit 1 Diet & Dieting


Related Units: 2 Food & Drink, 12 Nutrition, 10 Dentition & Mastication, Part 5 DENTISTRY

ingest [IndZest] v MeSH syn take in v phr, sim eat1 [it] -ate [eItet] -eaten v irr einnehmen, zu sich nehmen
to take in food, drink or medication via the mouth for digestion2 [daIdZestSndI-] essen1 Verdauung2 (Nahrungs)auf- 1
nahme, Einnahme (Medikament)3
ingestion3 n MeSH ingestants4 n intake5 n MeSH
aufgenommene Nahrung, Ingesta4
overeat6 v clin eater n eating n
Ein-, Aufnahme, Zufuhr5 s. ber-
Ingested food is mixed with salivary amylase [eI] before it reaches the stomach [k].
essen6 Splen7 Getrnke8 Taubheit,
Fluoride ingestion from toothpaste is significantly reduced by rinsing7 and/or spit-
Gefhllosigkeit9 iss auf10 Fremd-
ting during toothbrushing. The increase in temperature of dental implants during
krper verschlucken11 akzidentelle/
intake of hot beverages8 was measured. Do not eat anything until the numbness9 in
versehentliche Einnahme12
your mouth wears off. Eat up10 before it gets cold. You should not eat a late meal
Einnahme von tzmitteln13
before bedtime.
essen fr vier14 normale Kost zu
Use to ingest food / foreign [frIn] bodies11 ingested eggs / fluid / drugs / poison
sich nehmen15 (ins Restaurant)
frequency of / daily / excessive / fluid ingestion milk / unintentional / acciden-
essen gehen16 fertig zubereitet17
tal12 / toxin / caustic13 []/ coingestion to eat less / enough / well / like a
heikel beim Essen18
horse14 / without help / cooked foods / a regular diet15 / out16 to have sth./be
Essgewohnheiten19 Essstrung20
unable/to refuse to eat ready17-to-eat oral / caloric / high / poor / (in)adequate
Essstrung mit Heihungeratta-
/ heavy alcohol intake dietary (protein/fat/potassium/iron/calcium) / salt / re-
cken/ Essanfllen21 Fresssucht22
commended daily intake to be a big / small / fussy [] or picky18 / compulsive
[] eater eating habits19 / binge / disorder20 / disordered patient binge21
1
[bIndZ] eating obsessive, compulsive22 overeating

consume [u] v sim have1, dine2 [aI] v, lunch3 [lntS] v & n konsumieren, verzehren,
consumption4 [] n dining n dinner5 [I] n diner6 [aI] n zu sich nehmen
overconsumption n essen, trinken, zu sich nehmen1
speisen, dinieren2 (zu) Mittag es-
Water consumption, teeth brushing and regular dentist check-ups are all good
sen, Mittagessen3 Konsum, Ver-
practices that help preserve your teeth. Nutritional [IS] needs can be met quite easily
zehr4 Hauptmahlzeit, Abendessen5
by adults who consume dairy [e] products7. Why dont you have another toast?
Esslokal6 Milchprodukte7 wenig
They lunched on fast food every day.
Ballaststoffe zu s. nehmen8 Konsum
Use to consume a varied diet [daIt]/ little dietary fiber8 / large quantities of beer
verdorbener Lebensmittel9 K.
consumption of contaminated food9 / heavy [e] meals10 coffee / alcohol / sea-
schwerverdaulicher Gerichte10
food11 / excessive consumption wine / sugar / soft-drink / carbohydrate con-
Konsum v. Meeresfrchten11 fr
sumption fish / caffeine / starchy-plant / breakfast cereal / safe for12 consump-
den Verzehr geeignet/ mindestens
tion to dine out with sb. dining hall13 / room / table / car14 to have/go out
haltbar bis12 Speisesaal13 Speise-
for lunch buffet [eI]/ business / school / in-office lunch lunchtime / break or
wagen14 Mittagspause15
hour15 / room heavy / light / conference dinner dinner canceling / meeting /
2
party

feed [fid] -fed-fed [e] v irr sim nourish1 [nrIS] v ? U12-1 (i) fttern, Nahrung zufhren
(i) to give food to a baby, animals or persons who cannot eat without help (ii) (er)nhren, mit Nahrung
(ii) to supply with nutriment2 [u] versorgen
feed(ing)3 n MeSH underfeeding4 n underfed adj overfeeding n feeder n (er)nhren1 Nahrung2 Stillen, Ft-
A common factor that contributes to tooth decay is inappropriate infant5 feeding tern, Ernhrung3 Unterernhrung4
Sugling5 trinken, nach d. Brust/
practices, above all frequent or prolonged use of bottle feeding during the day or
night. This study examined infant feeding, oral hygiene, and dental attendance Flasche verlangen6 wenig zu sich
practices in preschoolers with established dental disease. Generally, infants weighing nehmen/ trinken (Baby)7 Saugfla-
[eI] less than 1200 g require 2-hour feedings, whereas larger infants are fed at sche8 Schnabeltasse9 Stillzeiten10
3-hour intervals. During your childs first visit, the dentist will inquire about your Ernhrungsplan11 gestillt12
childs dietary and feeding habits. How often does your baby feed6? ausreichend ernhrt13 Sonden-
Use to feed sb. honey []/ sb. with a spoon / poorly7 feeding bottle8 / cup9 / method / ernhrung14 Zwangsernhrung15
pattern10 / problem / tube [u]/ regimen11 [dZ] breast12- [e]/ bottle-/ adequate- starker Esser16 3
ly13 / well / tube-fed tube14 / intravenous [i]/ forced15 /
breast feeding bottle-feeding caries fluoride / chronic
underfeeding infant overfeeding to be a heavy16 [e]/
3
poor feeder

In this 4-year-old the maxillary teeth have been totally


destroyed by early childhood caries, which in this case was
related to inadequate feeding with excessive quantities of
apple juice.

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2 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Diet & Dieting

wolf [U] down v phr inf sim gulp [] down1, bolt down2, gobble (up)2 v phr inf (Speisen) hinunterschlingen
to take big bites3 and swallow4 hurriedly or greedily5 [i] without chewing [tSuIN] or drink in hinunterstrzen (Getrnk),
one swallow6 [swloU] hinunterschlingen (Essen)1
Dont just wolf down your food, eat slowly and chew well. Get ready to gulp down a gierig essen, verschlingen2
Bissen3 schlucken4
1 glass of Cabernet each day because red wines antioxidant punch is thought to be a
useful weapon in the fight against gum disease. The typical American can gobble up gierig5 Zug6
4
a hamburger in five minutes.

nonedible or inedible [e] adj opposite edible1 adj MeSH, rel palatable2 adj nicht essbar, ungeniebar
unfit for human consumption, e.g. past its sell-by date3 ess-, geniebar1
wohlschmeckend, schmackhaft2
unpalatable4 adj palatability5 n
nach dem Ablaufdatum3
Vitamin K1 is present in most edible vegetables, especially in green leaves. Some nicht schmackhaft; ungeniebar4
mothers even put sugar in their babys milk to make it more palatable; rotten teeth
Schmackhaftigkeit5
are the predictable result.
Use nonedible citrus fruit / substances inedible food parts / mushrooms palatable
5
elixir / liquid highly palatable edible seeds / nuts / ingredients

food [fud] n MeSH sim foodstuffs1, groceries2 [oUs], victuals3 n BE, Nahrung, Essen
*grub4 [] n inf Nahrungsmittel1 Lebensmittel2
Lebensmittel, Proviant3 Fressalien4
any substance [] that can be metabolized5 by an organism to give energy and build up tissue
abbauen, umwandeln5
Enjoy your food. Asking the patient to keep a diary6 [daIi] of foods eaten may prove Tagebuch6 Anreicherung7
helpful. Fortification7 of foodstuffs with vitamins etc. has nearly eliminated once-
Mangelzustnde8 Essen zubereiten9
common deficiency states8 [IS].
keinen Appetit haben10 Nahrungs-
Use to eat/chew/swallow/take/withhold/spit out/salt/preserve/store/refuse/prepare9/
aufnahme11 Lebensmittelzusatz-
(BE) be off ones10 food food intake11 / additives12 / preservatives13 / supplement
stoffe12 Konservierungsmittel13
bolus14 of / fatty / ingested / junk15 [dZNk]/ fast / health16 [e] food processed /
Bolus, Bissen14 Nahrung mit
freshly prepared / home-canned / (un)cooked / solid17 / spicy [spaIsi]/ spoiled18
geringem Nhrwert15
food food craving19 [eI] / intolerance20 / allergy / particles / poisoning21 food
Reformkost16 feste Nahrung17
aversion22 / debris23 [i]/ selection / choices / source / chain24 [tSeIn] undigested
verdorbene Nahrung18
/ baby25 / regurgitated26 [grdZ] food food-borne infection27 / preparation /
Essensgelste19
choking / labeling / faddism fortified / contaminated28 / aspiration of foodstuffs
Nahrungsmittelunvertrglichkeit20
grocery store / shelve / list
Nahrungsmittelvergiftung21
Abneigung gegen Speisen22
Note: Food is normally used in the singular. In the plural it is used synony-
Speisereste23 Nahrungskette24
mously with foodstuffs to refer to different types of food.
Suglingsnahrung25 erbrochenes
Essen26 Lebensmittelinfektion27
kontaminierte Lebensmittel28 6

meal [mil] n Mahlzeit; Essen, Kost


food served and eaten at one time ( e.g. breakfast, brunch1 [], lunch, barbeque2, afternoon tea, Brunch, Frhstck u. Mittagessen
supper3, dinner4) in einem1 Grillen (im Freien)2
Eating an apple or chewing some sugar-free gum after a meal can also effectively Abendessen3 Hauptmahlzeit,
(Fest)Essen4 Mahlzeit einnehmen5
clean your teeth. Certain foods or meal patterns can change drug effectiveness.
Use to eat/ingest5/order/miss6 a meal buffet [eI] / the major7 meal before / after / M. auslassen6 Hauptmahlzeit7
in-between meals at mealtime meals on wheels8 [i] (MeSH) large / light / Essen auf Rdern8 schwerver-
heavy9 / fatty / solid10 / test / evening / bedtime meal meal planning / patterns11 dauliches Gericht9 feste Kost10
Essgewohnheiten11 7
/ times / size

dish [dIS] n (i) Gericht, Speise


(i) food prepared in a particular way (ii) Geschirr
(ii) dishware for serving food (pl) (iii) Schale, Schssel
(iii) a shallow1 container, e.g. a Petri dish flach1 austeilen2
dish out2 / up3 v dish towel [aU] / cloth4 [] n or tea towel4 BE anrichten, auftragen3
These infections are mostly due to raw [r] fish dishes. This dish is best when served Geschirrtuch4
cold. They dished up the finest of meals. Geschirr splen/ abwaschen5
Use to do or wash5 the dishes main / side / rice / raw fish / favorite6 [eI] dish a Lieblingsspeise6
one-dish meal dish washer7 / water8 / rack9 Splmaschine, Geschirrspler7
Abwasch-, Splwasser8
Geschirrkorb, -stnder9 8

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Diet & Dieting BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 3

serving [] n syn helping n, sim course1 [krs] n Portion


a portion of food or drink Gang1 servieren2 Bedienung3
Vorlegebesteck4 (ab)braten5
serve2 v service3 n server4 n
Salatbesteck6
You should be eating one serving of dairy, fruits and vegetables each day. Enjoy one
4-gngiges Men7 1
big helping of everything. Frying5 [aI] the food before serving may not destroy the
toxins.
Use single / calories per / standardized serving size [aI] serving of food / guidelines /
tray / spoon [u] first / another / second helping salad server6 a four-course
9
meal7

snack n & v Imbiss, Zwischenmahlzeit;


(n) a light informal meal, e.g. tea or coffee break1 [eI] where you have some refreshments2 Imbiss zu sich nehmen
Dietary strategies to increase appetite or intake include providing salty foods, nu- Kaffeepause1 Erfrischungen2
nhrstoffreiche Getrnke3
trient-dense beverages3
[rIdZIz] such as fruit juice, and easy-to-eat snacks. What are
you snacking on? eine Kleinigkeit essen4
Use to have a4 snack bedtime / night time / midnight snack between-meal Imbissstube5
10
snacks snack food / bar5 / time / break / choices

appetite [QptaIt] n MeSH Appetit


rel hungry1 [], thirsty2 [] adj, hunger3, thirst4 n & v hungrig1 durstig2 Hunger; hun-
gern3 Durst; drsten4 Verlangen,
(i) normal desire to eat
(ii) to have a craving5 [eI] for special foods Lust5 Appetitanreger, -happen, Vor-
speise6 appetitanregend, lecker7
appetizer6 n -iser espBE appetizing7 adj -ising BE
Appetit/ Lust haben auf8 Durst-
The patients appetite is poor. Are you hungry for8 some meat? Some medications
gefhl9 sich e-n Appetit holen10
enhance the sensation of thirst9 by causing a dry mouth.
Appetit anregen11 Appetitlosig-
Use to work up10 / it gives me11 an appetite poor / good / healthy / insatiable
keit12 guter/gesunder Appetit13
appetite loss of12 / healthy13 / inability to control ones appetite to spoil or
Appetit verderben14 Wolfshunger15
ruin14 / lose your appetite to be/feel hungry wolfish15 [U]/ salt / air hunger
Nchtern-, Hungerschmerz16
sensation / pangs of hunger hunger pain16 / strike / cry / behavior [eI]
Appetitzgler17
appetite suppressant17 to experience thirst excessive / increased / impaired
11
thirst thirst mechanism [k]/ center / sensation9

wholesome [hoUlsm] adj syn healthy [helTi], healthful adj gesund, bekmmlich
food supposed to be good for your health because it is rich in nutrients1 or low in artificial reich an Nhrstoffen1
ingredients [i] Vollwertprodukte2
wholefood(s)2 n espBE whole wheat3 [wit] n whole bread4 [e] n Voll(korn)weizen3
Vollkornbrot4
The wholesome ingredients5 of their breads are well documented. Zutaten5
Use wholesome meal / foods / proteins / dietary changes / smile / influence health-
12
ful dental care habits / lifestyle / snacks / drinks / working environment

diet [daIt] v & n MeSH Dit halten;


v to eat sparingly1 [e] (i) Dit, Schon-, Krankenkost
n (i) prescribed selection of foods (ii) usual food and drink consumed by a person (ii) Nahrung, Kost
dietary2 adj & n dietician or -tian3 n dietetics4 n dietetic2 adj in Maen, wenig1 ditetisch;
A healthy person consuming a variety [aI] of foods is unlikely to have a dietary Ditvorschrift2 Ditetiker(in)3
Ditetik, Ernhrungslehre4
deficiency5 [IS]. I have been on this diet for weeks but to no effect. Sugar is not the
only fermentable carbohydrate responsible for the negative effects of diet on dental Mangelernhrung5 Dit halten6
health. auf Dit setzen7 Kost vertragen8
Use to be on6/go on/observe6/follow6/adhere [I] to6 a diet to put sb. on7/pre- strenge Dit9 ausgewogene Kost10
scribe/tolerate8 a diet raw food / non-vegetarian / strict9 / unbalanced / well- ballaststoffreiche Kost11 reizarme/
balanced10 / a 1000-calorie / bulky or high-fiber11 [aI] diet nutritious / low- blande Dit12 flssige Nahrung13
calorie / high cholesterol / low-fat / non-cariogenic / no added salt (abbr NAS)/ Schlankheitsdit, Reduktionskost14
diabetic [e]/ bland [Q] or ulcer12 [ls] diet full- or clear-liquid13 / modified / leichte Kost, Breikost15
(weight- [weIt]) reducing or slimming down14 / crash / soft15 diet changes in / Hauptnahrung16 Ditempfehlung,
staple16 [eI] diet dietary habits / history / fiber / indiscretion / adjustments / empfohlene Nahrungszufuhr17
supplemental fluoride tablets dietary assessment / allowance17 [aU]/ risk factors Ernhrungsberater(in)18
/ service / counselor18 [aU] rigorous / yo-yo / obsessive dieting dieting with Obstdit19
13
exercise / patient / stress diet plan / shift / free of / high in proteins / of fruits19

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4 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Diet & Dieting

starve [stArv] v (ver)hungern (lassen), fasten


(i) to die orinformallysuffer (extremely) from lack of food (ii) not to give someone any food (Ver)hungern, Hungertod1
(ver)hungernd; (Aus)hungern2
(semi-)starvation1 [eI] n MeSH starving2 adj & n
Quecksilber3
1
Staying away from sugar doesnt mean you need to starve yourself; many foods halb verhungert sein, vor Hunger
convert to sugar, even fruits, which are good for us, contain sugars. The presence
umkommen4
of mercury3 will starve healthful forms of bacteria and fungi of the oxygen they
verhungern5
require. Total starvation causes a loss of approximately 0.4 kg of body weight per
Hungerkur6
day.
Sauerstoffhunger7
Use to be starving4 to starve to death5 starvation diet6 to die of / partial / total /
14
prolonged / oxygen7 [ksIdZn] / multiple nutrient starvation

fast [fQst] v & n sim fasting1 [fQstIN] adj & n MeSH fasten, hungern; Fasten(zeit)
to abstain [eI] from2 (certain) food over a specific period of time for therapeutic [ju] or nchtern, hungernd; Fasten1
religious [dZ] reasons sich enthalten2
Patients are fasted under close supervision [IZ] for up to 72 h. Diarrhea [daIri] of sistiert bei Nahrungskarenz3
Nchternblutzucker4
any cause often improves or resolves with fasting3. They also recommend obtaining a
fasting lipid profile. nchtern und mit vollem
Use prolonged periods of / pre-procedural (abbr PF)/ perioperative oral / overnight / Magen5
avoidance of / after fasting fasting blood sugar or glucose levels4 in the fed
15
and fasted states5 under fasting conditions

vegetarian [vedZIteIn] n & adj MeSH sim vegan1 [vign] adj & n MeSH, Vegetarier(in); vegetarisch
rel vegetarianism2 n MeSH streng vegetarisch; strenge(r) V.1
Vegetarismus, vegetarische Lebens-
(n) person who does not eat meat or fish or (often) any animal products (adj) excluding meat
weise2
A vegan diet can be nutritionally adequate, although more thoughtful 3 [Ttfl] food wohlberlegt3 Ergnzung4
choices and supplementation4 with fortified foods5 may be necessary.
angereicherte Nahrungsmittel5
Use (non-)vegetarian food / children / patients / families ovo-/ ovo-lacto/ strictly
streng vegetarische Kost6 16
vegetarian diet6

health freak [i] n inf Gesundheitsapostel


person very enthusiastic [u] about a healthy life-style, esp. health food, often to the point of besessen sein1
being obsessed1 with it Haferkleie2
Oat bran2 [oUt brQn] has become the favorite [eI] of health freaks. 17

Clinical Phrases
Try to keep off salty food. Salzhaltige Speisen sollten Sie nach Mglichkeit meiden She has a sweet
tooth. Sie isst gern Sigkeiten. I dont have a stomach for milk any more. Mir schmeckt die Milch
nicht mehr. I couldnt stomach it. Ich habe es nicht vertragen. Thanks, Im full. Danke, ich bin
satt. I made a real pig of myself stuffing myself with sweets. Ich habe mir den Bauch mit Sig-
keiten vollgeschlagen. He just couldnt stay off the booze. Er griff immer wieder zur Flasche. Do
you want a second helping? Mchten Sie noch eine zweite Portion? Ive hardly touched any food for
a week. Ich habe schon eine Woche kaum etwas gegessen. Most infants will want to feed every two
or three hours. Die meisten Suglinge wollen alle 2-3 Stunden gefttert werden. The babys refused
the bottle ever since. Seither hat das Baby die Flasche verweigert. It seems the boys practically
living on chips and sweets. Der Bub ernhrt sich anscheinend nur von Chips und Sigkeiten. It
makes my mouth water. Mir luft das Wasser im Mund zusammen. Ive been off my food for the
past few weeks. (BE) Ich hatte in den letzten paar Wochen keinen Appetit. I am starved / starving.
Ich komme fast um vor Hunger. For them lunch is just a snack. Sie essen mittags nicht viel.

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Food & Drink BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 5

Unit 2 Food & Drink


Related Units: 2 Food & Drink, 12 Nutrition, 10 Dentition & Mastication

meat [i] n MeSH Fleisch


flesh of animals that is cooked and eaten; types include pork (from pigs), beef1 (cows), veal2 [i] Rindfleisch1 Kalbfleisch2 2
(calf [kQf]), mutton3 [] (sheep), lamb, poultry4 [oU] (chicken, turkey5, etc.), and venison or Schaffleisch3 Geflgel4 Truthahn5
game6 (from wild animals, e.g. deer7 [I]). Meat can be eaten as bacon8, ham9, steak, cutlet10 [], Wild6 Rotwild7 Speck8 Schinken9
chop11, hamburger, sausage12 [ssIdZ], hot dog13, etc. Schnitzel10 Kotelett11 Wurst12
meaty adj meatloaf14 [oU] n meatballs15 n Wrstchen13 Fleischkse14
Foods high in phosphorus and acid-forming elements such as soft drinks and meat Fleischkle15 halb durch16 Soe17
(nicht) durchgegartes Fleisch18
are the tooth destroyers. Do you like your steak medium-rare16 or well-done? Avoid
excessive intake of purine from meat, fish and poultry. You should not pour any mageres Fleisch19 Hackfleisch20
gravy17 [eI] on your meat. zhes Fleisch21
Use raw / (under)cooked18 / fried / roast / lean19 [i] meat fatty / red / white / zartes Fleisch22
ground20 [aU] / tough21 [tf]/ tender22 meat meat tenderizer / substitute23 Fleischersatz23
corned24 beef chicken soup Dosenfleisch24 1

fish v & n MeSH, usu sing fischen; Fisch


types of fish commonly eaten include trout1 [aU], cod2, herring, sardine, salmon3 [sQmn], Forelle1 Dorsch2 Lachs3 Thunfisch4
mackerel, and tuna4 Swasserfisch5 Meeres-, Seefisch6
Fluorides, which help prevent caries, are also found in tea, fish, and fruits. The Rucherfisch7 gegrillter Fisch8
Dosenfisch9 panierter Fisch10
vitamin D in oily fish, milk, eggs, and cereals promotes strong teeth and jaw bones.
Use freshwater5 / marine6 / fatty / lean [i]/ oily fish smoked7 / baked / broiled8 / Fischstbchen11 Seezungenfilet12
canned9 / breaded10 [e] fish fish products / stick or finger11 / oil / proteins
2
filleted sole12 [soUl]

seafood n MeSH Meeresfrchte


edible marine fish and shellfish1, e.g. octopus or squid2, shrimps3, roe4 [roU], lobster5 [], crab, Schalentiere1 Tintenfisch2
mussel6 [], oyster7 Garnelen3 Rogen4 Hummer5
Most cases of food poisoning8 were linked to ingestion9 [dZ] of undercooked seafood. Miesmuscheln6 Austern7
Lebensmittelvergiftung8
Use seafood restaurant / consumption9 / ingestion raw [] seafood
Konsum von Meeresfrchten9 3

milk v & n MeSH Milch; melken


The milk usually eaten with cereal may protect teeth against the action of sugar. This sauer werden1 lindert2 Vollmilch3
Magermilch4 Ziegenmilch5 Mutter-
milk has turned/ gone sour1
[saU]. A glass of milk usually relieves2
the pain.
Use whole3 [hoUl]/ skim(med)4 / raw / cow / goat's5 / breast6 [e] milk (un)pasteur- milch6 Vorzugsmilch7 mit Vitamin
ized [tS]/ certified7 / fortified vitamin D8 / butter milk scalded9 []/ low-fat4 / D angereicherte M.8 abgekochte
condensed10 / acidophilus11 / coconut / dry or instant12 milk milkshake / sugar / M.9 Kondens-, Dosenmilch10 Sauer-
milch11 Trockenmilch12 4
powder [aU]

dairy [dei] products or espBE produce n MeSH Milch-, Molkereiprodukte


foods made from milk such as cheese, cream1 [i], butter, curd2 [], yog(ho)urt [joUgt], Obers, Sahne1 Quark, Topfen2 Mol-
and whey3 [HweI] ke3 Fruchtcreme4 schimmelig5
Low-fat milk and dairy products are especially good sources of calcium, which your Schimmel6 auslsen7 Erdnussbut-
ter8 zerlassene Butter9 geriebener
body needs to help build strong bones and healthy teeth. The fruit custard4 [] may
have been mouldy5 and the mildew6 [du] has probably precipitated7 his symptoms. Kse10 (Doppelrahm-)Frischkse11
Use peanut8 / melted9 butter (un)grated10 [eI] / cream11 / soft12 / Swiss / cottage Weichkse12 Schlagsahne, (st.)
Schlagobers, Schlagrahm13 5
cheese (un)whipped / whipping13 cream dairy farm / cow

vegetable [vedZtbl] n MeSH, usu sing sim legumes1 [legjumz] n Gemse


edible seeds2, roots3, stems4 or leaves or nonsweet fruits of many plants such as potatoes, Hlsenfrchte1 Samen2 Wurzeln3
beets5, asparagus6, cabbage7, cauliflower8 [], lettuce9 [letIs], cucumbers10, rhubarb, horse- Stiele4 Rben, Bete5 Spargel6 Kohl7
radish11, carrots, beans12, peppers13, sweet corn14, onions15 [], green peas16, turnips17, egg Blumenkohl8 Kopfsalat9 Gurken10
plants18, pumpkins19, spinach [ItS], broccoli, lentils20, etc. Meerrettich11 Bohnen12 Paprika13
Eating raw vegetables, fresh fruits, or whole-grain bread can help protect you from Zuckermais14 Zwiebel15 grne Erb-
tooth decay21. Vitamin K1 is present in most edible vegetables, particularly in green sen16 weie Rben17 Auberginen18
leaves. Krbisse19 Linsen20 Zahnfule,
Use fresh / (green) leafy / root / starchy22 [tS] / raw / grated23 vegetables vegetable Karies21 strkehaltiges Gemse22
proteins / oils / fiber salad dressing24 dried beans mashed25 potatoes geraspeltes Gemse23 Salatsoe24
Kartoffelpree25 6

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6 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Food & Drink

fruit [frut] n MeSH, usu sing Obst, Frchte; Frucht


ripened1 [aI], mostly edible reproductive parts of a plant containing the seeds, e.g. apples, pears2 gereift1 Birnen2 Pfirsiche3 Man-
[e], peaches3 [itS], tangerines4 [dZ], cherries5, pineapples6 [aI], apricots, grapes7 [eI], plums8 darinen4 Kirschen5 Ananas6 Wein-
[], prunes9 [u], dates10 [eI], figs11, melons, etc. trauben7 Zwetschgen, Pflaumen8
2 Many fruits are a good source of vitamin C and dietary [aI] fiber12 [aI]. Fresh fruit is gedrrte Zwetschgen, Drrpflau-
not strongly associated with caries; this is thought to be due to the fact that the men9 Datteln10 Feigen11 Ballast-
sugars in fruit are held in the cells of the fruit, and are not released until chewing stoffe12 Trockenfrchte13 Dosen-
breaks down the cells. frchte14 (un)geschltes Obst15
Use fresh / dried13 / canned14 / (un)peeled15 fruit citrus [saI]/ kiwi / tropical / raw / Fallobst16 Fruchtfleisch17 Apfel-
unripened / fallen16 fruit fruit sugar / juice / pulp17 / salad / in heavy/light kuchen18 Apfelmus19 Pfirsich-
syrup fruitcake apple pie18 [paI]/ sauce19 sliced [aI] peaches20 spalten20 7

berries n MeSH, pl Beeren


pulpy1 [] and mostly edible small fruit from low bushes [U], e.g. strawberry2 [], blueberry3, fleischig1 Erdbeere2
blackberry4, black and red currant5 [], cranberry6, raspberry7 [rQzberi] Heidel-, Blaubeere3 Brombeere4
Foods rich in flavonoids, e.g. blueberries, hawthorn berries8, onions, and grapes help Johannisbeere5 Preiselbeere6
Himbeere7 Weidornbeeren8
reduce periodontal inflammation and strengthen the gum tissue. This dental floss is
coated with pure unsweetened cranberry essence, which is removed during the Himbeertorte9 Himbeer-
action of flossing and deposited on the gums to help break up plaque. marmelade10 Himbeergelee11
giftige Beeren12 8
Use raspberry tart / pie9 / jam10 / jello11 [dZeloU] edible / poisonous12 berry

bread [bred] n MeSH sim breadstuff1 n Brot


food made from flour2 [flaU], water and yeast3 [jist] mixed into a dough4 [doU] and baked in Brot(getreide)1 Mehl2 Hefe, Germ3
the oven5 []; bread products include rolls6, buns7 [], doughnuts8, wafers9 [eI], waffles9 [], Teig4 Backofen, -rohr5 Brtchen,
toasts, etc. Semmeln6 se Brtchen7 Krapfen,
breading10 n breaded11 adj Berliner8 Waffeln9 Paniermehl10
Processed foods such as white bread and grains contribute to plaque formation. In paniert11 speziell hergestellte Brot-
sorten12 Roggenbrot13 Weizenb.14
these patients specially processed breads12 and salt substitutes are advisable.
Use white / dark / rye13 [raI]/ barley / wheat14 [i]/ (un)enriched / whole grain15 / Vollkornb.15 Knckeb.16 Knob-
crispbread16 garlic17 / French / raisin18 [eI]/ sourdough19 / gluten(-free) / ginger- lauchb.17 Rosinenb.18 Sauerteig-
bread20 [dZ] a slice21 of / loaf22 [oU] of bread bread products / crumbs23 brot19 Lebkuchen20 eine Scheibe
[krmz] Brot21 Brotlaib22 Brotkrmel,
Brsel23 9

pastry [peIstri] n rel frosting1 n, BE icing [aIsIN] n (Fein)Gebck


dough of flour, water, baking powder2, and shortening3 to make pies4, cakes, strudel, pancakes5, Zuckerguss, Glasur1 Backpulver2
souffls [sufleIz], etc. Backfett3 Trtchen, Obstkuchen,
The challenges to dental health education are great, as daily consumption of cakes or Pasteten4 Pfannkuchen, Omelette5
Vanillesoe, -pudding6 Hauptnah-
pastry was reported by 10% of the population. Apple pie and custard6 [] was his
staple food7 [eI]. You should avoid cookies8 and pastries. rung7 Kekse, Pltzchen8 Kon-
Use short / French / puff / yeasted pastry pastry cook9 / shop / making apple / ditor(in)9 Krbiskuchen10
Schokoladeglasur11 10
pumpkin10 / meat / rhubarb / deep-dish pie chocolate [tSklt] frosting11

pasta n Teigwaren
types of pasta include spaghetti, noodles [u], macaroni, tortellini, etc. Spaghetti bolognese1
Pasta asciuta2
All
carbohydrate-rich foods like breads, pasta and even milk can mix with the
Eiernudeln3
bacteria in the mouth to form destructive acids.
Nudeln al dente4 11
Use spaghetti with meatballs1 / in tomato sauce2 egg3 / tender-stage4 noodles

cereals [sIilz] n MeSH, pl syn cornflakes n espBE (i) Getreideflocken


(i) starchy [tS] grains1 used as food, e.g. rice2, wheat, rye, barley3, oats4 [oU], corn5, buckwheat6 (ii) M(e)sli
[], millet7, etc. (ii) breakfast food prepared from grain strkehaltige Getreidesorten1 Reis2
The starch found in crackers, pretzels, and cereal can result in these cavity-producing Gerste3 Hafer4 Mais5 Buchweizen6
acids, especially if these foods stick on your preschooler's teeth. Oatmeal8 is among Hirse7 Haferflocken8 nahrhafte
the most nourishing [] ingredients9 in cereals. Cereal bars, especially the stickier Bestandteile9 Graham-, Weizen-
ones, are bad news for your teeth. How about Graham crackers10? schrotcrackers10 Vollkornflocken11
Use unsweetened / whole-grain11 cereals cereal-based formulation / grains 12

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Food & Drink BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 7

egg n MeSH Ei
thin-shelled female reproductive body laid by e.g. hens containing the ovum or embryo nahrhaft1 Eigelb, Dotter2 Eiwei3
together with nutritive1 (yolk2 [joUk]) and protective envelopes (egg white3 and shell4) Schale4
Interestingly, the intake of bananas, guavas and chicken egg yolk5 has been shown to Dotter von Hhnereiern5
hart gekochtes Ei6
help in preventing dental caries. 2
Use hard-boiled6 / soft-boiled / raw / whole [hoUl] / scrambled7 / fried8 [aI] egg hen's Rhrei, Eierspeise7 Spiegelei8
/ half a dozen [] / ham and / free-range9 / commercial henhouse10 eggs egg Freilandeier9 Batterieeier10
Eierlikr11 Eieruhr12 13
protein / products / nog11 / cup /-timer12 / allergy

nuts [nts] n MeSH, usu pl Nsse


large, hard-shelled seeds, e.g. peanuts1, walnuts2 [], almonds3 [l], pignolia4 or coconuts Erdnsse1 Walnsse2 Mandeln3
Pinienkerne4 Nussknacker5
nutcracker5 n nutshell6 n
Nussschale6
Advise patients with braces to avoid eating nuts, raw carrots and other hard-to- 14
chew foods. Seeds and nuts are good sources of vitamin E.

oil v & n MeSH sim (cooking) fats1 n l; (ein)len


(n) greasy2 [i], viscous [vIsks] liquid used for cooking, in ointments3, lubricants4 [u], etc. Speisefette1 fett(ig), schmierig2
Salben3 Schmier-, Gleitmittel4
oily adj oilcloth5 n fatty6 adj
Wachstuch5 fett(haltig)6
Take margerine [dZ] instead of lard7 or butter as a cooking fat, but use it sparingly. Schweineschmalz7
Topically applied tea tree oil-containing gel was shown to have an inhibiting effect
pflanzliche Fette8
on dental plaque.
Maiskeiml9 Weizenkeiml10
Use animal / vegetable8 / dietary1 fats soybean / olive / corn9 / walnut / wheat
Rapsl11
germ10 [dZ]/ rapeseed11 / vegetable / tea tree oil fish12 / cod [] liver13 / greasy
Tran12 Lebertran13 15
oil

sugar v & n MeSH sim (mono-/ di- [aI]) saccharide1 [k], rel molasses2 n MeSH Zucker, Saccharose;
sweet crystalline [I] carbohydrate [aI] (fructose [u], lactose, sucrose [u], dextrose, and glucose) sen, zuckern
which works as a sweetener and a source of energy for the body (Mono-/Di-)Saccharid1
sugared3 adj sugary4 adj sugar-coated5 adj Melasse2 gezuckert3
High-fiber, sugar-free cereals should be encouraged. The FDA said it will allow a zuckerhaltig, s4 mit Zucker
berzogen, dragiert5
dental health claim for artificial sweeteners used in gum and soft drinks.
Use a lump [] of6 sugar table / brown7 / refined8 / granulated / powdered9 / cane10 e. Stck Zucker6 brauner Zucker7
[eI]/ maple11 [eI]/ invert12 sugar sugar beet13 [i]/ cube6 / substitute14 / uptake raffinierter Zucker8 Staubzucker9
/-containing foods /-free gum sugared almonds15 / soft drinks / medicines Rohrzucker10
Ahornsirup11 Invertzucker12
Zuckerrbe13 Zuckerersatz14
kandierte Mandeln15 16

candy n MeSH, sing syn sweet(ie) n BE Sigkeiten, Bonbons


rich sweet made of flavored1 [eI] sugar often with chocolate, caramel, honey, liquorice2 [lIkIs], aromatisiert1 Lakritze, Sholz2
nougat [u], fruit or nuts; merchandized [tS] as candy bars, lollipops3 or suckers3, pralines, Lutscher3 Knabbergebck4
crisps4, marshmellows, chewing gum, etc. Sstoff5 (ver)sen6 Sirup7
sweetener5 n sweet adj sweeten6 v kalorienarmer Sstoff8 Riegel9
A high intake of sucrose (table sugar) in such items [aI] as soft drinks, candy, syrup7, Zuckerwatte10 Bonbon11
wohlriechend12 Skartoffeln13
and sweetened cereals is a major risk factor for caries.
Use artificial / nonnutritive8 sweetener candy bar9 / store / floss10 (BE) hard11 / e-e. Schwche fr Sigkeiten
cotton10 candy sweet smelling12 / potatoes13 to have a sweet tooth14 haben14
Nachspeise, Dessert15
17
Note: In BE a sweet15 can also be the last course of a meal (dessert15 in AE).

seasoning [i] n syn seasoner n, rel salt1 n & v Wrze, Wrzen


substances added to food to give it more flavor2, including salt, pepper, herbs3 [rbz] and spices Salz; salzen1 Geschmack2
Kruter3 wrzen4
season4 v (un)salted5 adj salt-rich6 adj salt-restricted7 adj
(un)gesalzen5 stark gesalzen6
Counseling should be offered about seasoning the food with spices (e.g. pepper).
salzarm7 gut gewrzt8
Normal household salt can also be used to clean teeth and keep gums healthy.
Steinsalz9 eine Prise Salz10
Use well seasoned8 table / rock9 /a pinch [tS] of10 salt salt intake11 salted butter
Salzkonsum11 salzarme Dit12
/ water salt-restricted diet12 / depletion13 [i] 18
Salzmangel, -verlust13

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8 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Food & Drink

spices [spaIsiz] n MeSH, usu pl Gewrze


intensely aromatic vegetable substances used for seasoning food, e.g. mustard1 [], garlic2, Senf1 Knoblauch2 Zimt3 Ingwer4
cinnamon3, ginger4 [dZ], cloves5 [oU], nutmeg6, cayenne pepper, chili powder7, curry, etc. Gewrznelken5 Muskat6 Chilipul-
spicy8 adj spice (up)9 v ver7 wrzig8 (pikant) wrzen9
blande/ reizarme Dit10 scharf ge-
2 Herbs and spices have been a part of dental care for centuries. Rely on a mild and
wrzt11 Konsum stark gewrzter
bland diet10 and avoid spicy food.
Speisen reduzieren12 19
Use hot and spicy11 to cut down on spicy dishes12

herbs [rbz] n MeSH, pl syn potherbs n (Kchen)Kruter


(i) dried aromatic plants used in cookery1 for its savory2 [eI] qualities (chives3 [tSaIvz], parsely4, Kochen1 schmackhaft2 Schnitt-
basil5, dill, fennel6, thyme7 [TaIm], sage8 [seIdZ], rosemary9, mint10 etc. lauch3 Petersilie4 Basilikum5 Fen-
(ii) plants used for medicinal purposes, e.g, camomile11, arnica, etc. chel6 Thymian7 Salbei8 Rosmarin9
herbal12 adj & n herbaceous12 [hbeISs] adj herbarium13 n herbalist14 n Minze10 Kamille11 krautartig, Kru-
Culinary herbs can function as digestive aids (e.g. fennel), kill harmful bacteria in the ter-; Kruterbuch12 Herbarium,
Krutersammlung13 Krutersamm-
GI tract (nutmeg), and even dampen pain (e.g. clove oil for dental pain). Many herbal
folk remedies15 are prepared by immersing16 dried leaves or flowers in hot water. ler, -doktor14 pflanzliche Hausmit-
Use herbal tea17 / extract / remedies / medicines garden / officinal18 [fIS] herbs tel15 ansetzen16 Krutertee17
pflanzliche Drogen, Heilkruter18
20

food substitute or replacer n rel food exchange list1 n Nahrungsmittelersatz(stoff)


foods similar in nutritive value and/or taste that are used to replace foodstuffs a person must Nhrwert-, Lebensmitteltabelle1
strictly avoid2 meiden2
substitute3 v substitution4 n replace3 v replacement4 n ersetzen3
Ersatz, Substitution4
Substitution with any food low in saturated fat such as bran5 or nuts will have Kleie5
positive effects.
Milchersatz6 21
Use fat / meat / coffee / milk6 substitute substitution of margerine for butter

dietary supplement n MeSH syn nutritional or food supplement n Nahrungsergnzung(smittel)


rel food additives1 n MeSH Lebensmittelzusatzstoffe, Additive1
Nhrstoffe2 ergnzen3
enrichment of foods with nutrients2 such as vitamins to improve dietary intake according to
specific needs ergnzend4 zustzlich5
Lebensmittelfarbstoffe6
supplement3 v supplementary, -al4 adj additional5 adj
Emulgatoren7
The first dietary measure [eZ] is a low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain Stabilisatoren8
triglycerides [aI]. Contact sensitivity to food dyes6 [daIz], emulsifiers7, stabilizers8,
Eisenanreicherung9
and other food additives can cause oral and perioral symptoms.
Ballaststoffanreicherung10
Use diet / (multi)vitamin / mineral / calcium / iron9 / daily / high fiber10 / weight-loss
zusatzstofffreie Kindernahrung11
supplement iron-supplemented dietary bulk10 additive additive-free baby
22
food11

cooked adj opposite raw1 [r], uncooked1 adj gekocht


food prepared for consumption by heating; it can be baked2 (dry oven heat), boiled3 (in hot roh, ungekocht1 gebacken2
water) fried4 (in hot oil), steamed5 [i] (in water vapor [eI]), stewed6 [stud], roasted7, broiled8 or gekocht, -sotten3 gebraten4
barbequed (abbr BBQ) gednstet5 gednstet, -schmort6
(pre/ over/ pressure-)cook9 v cooking n cookery n cookbook n gerstet7 gegrillt8
The demineralizing effects of cooked food-saliva10 mixtures on fluoride-treated and (vor-/ ver-/ mit Dampf) kochen9
Speichel10 Zahnerosion11
nontreated enamel were studied. A raw food diet was shown to bear an increased
23
risk of dental erosion11 compared to conventional nutrition.

beverage [bevIdZ] n MeSH syn drinks n usu pl Getrnk


any liquid suitable for drinking including mineral water, fruit juice1, tea, carbonated2 and Fruchtsaft1 kohlensurehaltig2
alcoholic drinks trinkbar3 Trink-; (Be)trinken4
drink-drank-drunk v irr drinkable3 adj drinking4 adj & n drinker5 n Trinker(in)5 mit Kohlensure ver-
setzte Getrnke6
Drinking too many sodas and other carbonated beverages6 may increase your child's
Alkoholiker(in),
risk of tooth erosion. How much do you ordinarily drink? He is a heavy drinker7.
Sufer(in)7
Use carbonated / alcoholic beverages to have a drink8 hard / long / soft9 drinks
etwas trinken8 alkohol-
drinking water10 / soda / age / bout11 [aU] beer / wine / tea / social12 drinker
freie Getrnke9 Trinkwasser10
Trinkgelage, Zecherei11
Note: Both in colloquial and clinical situations drink, drinking and drinker are
Gesellschaftstrinker(in)12 24
frequently used to refer to alcohol intake (esp when not further specified).

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Food & Drink BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 9

juice [dZus] n Saft


(i) liquid that can be extracted from fruit and vegetables (ii) body fluid, e.g gastric juice1 Magensaft1
saftig2
juicy2 adj
Preiselbeersaft3
Dental caries in children has been associated with excessive juice consumption.
Zitronensaft4 2
Cranberry juice3 apparently protects teeth against cavities.
4 25
Use orange / grapefruit / apple / lemon / tomato [eI] juice juice bar juicy fruits

caffein(e) [kQfin] n MeSH rel coffee1, tea2 n MeSH Koffein


bitter alkaloid contained in coffee, cocoa3 [koUkoU], and tea that is responsible for their Kaffee1 Tee2 Kakao3
stimulating effects Koffeinvergiftung4 Kaffeestrauch5
caffeinism4 n caffea5 n MeSH caf6 [kQfeI] n (de)caffeinated7 adj Kaffeehaus6 koffeinhaltig; -frei7
fertig werden mit, bewltigen8
Avoiding caffeine for at least six hours before a dental appointment can help you
Zahnbehandlungsangst, Zahnarzt-
cope with8 your dental anxiety9 Tea stains10 teeth more than coffee.
phobie9 verfrben10
Use caffeine withdrawal11 [l] ground12 [aU] coffee coffee bean13 black / green /
Koffeinentzug11
iced tea
gemahlener Kaffee12
Kaffeebohne13 26

alcoholic drinks n MeSH sim brew(age)1 [bruIdZ] n, booze2 [buz] n inf alkoholische Getrnke
fermented brew or distilled alcohol-containing drinks, e.g. beer, wine, cider3 [saId], etc. Gebru1 Alkohol, Schnaps2
Apfelwein, Most3 alkoholisch,
alcohol n alcoholic4 adj & n alcoholism5 n
-haltig; Alkoholiker(in)4
Persons who abuse alcohol are at high risk of having seriously deteriorated teeth6, Alkoholabhngigkeit, Alkoholis-
gums and compromised oral health in general. He's been an alcoholic for years.
mus5 sehr schlechte Zhne6
Use alcoholic excess7 / patient alcohol ingestion or consumption8 / abuse9 /-de-
Alkoholexzess7 Alkoholkonsum8
pendent10 Alcoholics Anonymous11
Alkoholmissbrauch9
alkoholabhngig10
Anonyme Alkoholiker11 27

liquor [lIk] n syn spirits n pl BE Spirituosen


hard (alcoholic) drinks1 which are distilled2 rather than fermented3, e.g. whiskey, vodka, harte Getrnke1 gebrannt2
brandy, gin, tequila vergoren3 werden zugeschrieben4
All forms of alcohol have been associated with oral cancer, but higher risks are Spirituosengeschft5
(Sorgen) im Alkohol ertrnken6
attributed to4 hard liquor and wine intake.
Use liquor store5 to drown in6 [aU]/ intoxicating7 / bottles of liquor berauschendes Getrnk7
Zerebrospinalflssigkeit, Liquor
Note: In medical English liquor is practically never used to refer to body (cerebrospinalis)8
28
fluids, e.g. the amniotic or the cerebrospinal [aI] fluid8.

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10 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Craniofacial Trauma

Unit 3 Craniofacial Trauma


Related Units: 17 Craniomaxillofacial Fractures, 16 Orofacial Pain, 13 Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology,
28 Wound Healing, 29 Fracture Management

3 injure [IndZ] v usu pass syn hurt, wound [u] v ? U16-3 (sich) verletzen, verwunden
to hurt oneself or harm somebody else Verletzung1
Verletzte(r)2
injury1 n MeSH (un)injured / (un)hurt adj the injured2 n
Verband3
Injured inferior alveolar and mental nerves may lead to persistent sensory impair- tdlich verletzt4
ment. The injured area should be cleansed [e] with soap or antiseptic and sterile
verletzte Person/ Partei5
dressings3 applied.
versichern (lassen)6
Use badly / seriously [I]/ multiply / critically / fatally4 injured injured head / teeth
Versicherung7
/ area / party5 / tissue / epithelium [i] to hurt oneself / one's neck war-/
combat-/ gunshot-/ blast-wounded
1
Note: Do not confuse to injure and injury with insure6 [InSU] and insurance7.

injury [IndZi] n MeSH syn trauma [trm] n MeSH Verletzung, Trauma


damage or wound inflicted1 on the body by external forces zugefgt1 schdlich2 unertrglich3
Verletzung(en) erleiden4
injurious2 [IndZUIs] adj injury-free adj
Kieferverletzung5 Erfrierung6
Many patients find even minor injuries (such as venipuncture) unbearable3 [e]. Rckenmarkverletzung7
Two patients sustained traumatic injuries4 including mandibular fractures. Tell me
Explosionstrauma8
about the circumstances of your injury. Excess carotene is not injurious.
Schleudertrauma9
Use to suffer4/receive an injury injury to the jaw5 / from exposure to cold6 site /
Selbstverstmmelung10
type / degree / mechanism [k]/ pattern of injury head / brain / spinal [aI] cord7 /
Krperverletzung11
blast8 / (mandibular) whiplash9 / facial [feISl] / ocular / vascular injury trau-
stumpfe Verletzung12
matic / work(-related) / sports / thermal / cold6 injury high-velocity (abbr HVI)/
Nadelstichverletzung13
bite / radiation-induced / surgical / self-inflicted10 / bodily11 injury superficial /
Quetschung14
blunt12 []/ closed / penetrating injury needle stick13 / crush(ing)14 []/ soft
Weichteilverletzung15
tissue15 / impalement16 [eI] injury injurious effect / agent17
Pfhlungsverletzung16
schdliche Substanz17 2

wound [wund] v & n MeSH ? U28-1ff syn traumatize v term, injure v, verletzen, verwunden;
sim harm1 v Wunde, Verwundung
(v) to cause an injury, esp one that breaks the skin (n) injury to the skin or an internal organ verletzen, Schaden zufgen1 Ver-
caused by violence [aI] or a surgical incision letzte(r); verwundet2 unverletzt,
wounded2 n & adj harm n unharmed3 adj -versehrt3 Wundauflage4
Durchschuss5 Wundsekret6 trb7
The wound was dressed with a plain pad4 and bandage. It was a simple through- Wundrnder adaptieren8 Wunde
and-through bullet [U] wound5. The wound exudate6 was quite frothy7. Explore and
verbinden9 Wunde abtupfen10
debride [i] the wound carefully.
Wundversorgung11 Wundreini-
Use to inflict/cause/approximate8/clean/cover/dress9/swab10 []/close a wound
gungsmittel12 Stichwunde13
wound healing / care11 / cleanser12 [e]/ closure deep / burn / bite / flesh /
klaffende Wunde14 Wundrnder15
open / penetrating wound extraction / gunshot / puncture or stab13 / (surgical-
jem. Schaden/ e-e Verletzung
ly) clean wound contaminated / gaping14 [eI]/ surgical wound wound cavity /
zufgen16
abscess / discharge6 / margins15 [dZ]/ wound edges15 / surface / bed / break-
Krperverletzung17 3
down / dehiscence to do sb16 / to come to / bodily17 harm

trauma [trm] n MeSH, pl -s or -ata syn injury, wound n MeSH Trauma, Wunde,
physical or psychic [saIkIk] injury caused by accidents, violent action, toxic substances, seelische Erschtterung
emotional shock, etc. Schalltrauma1
traumatic adj term traumatize v -trauma, trauma(to)- comb stumpfes Trauma2
There was eyelid swelling from blunt trauma to the orbit. The CNS bleeding occurred schweres Trauma3
Polytrauma4
without evidence of antecedent [si] trauma or of a specific lesion.
Use trauma center / care / index high risk for trauma (maxillo/ mid)facial / Unfalltod5
acoustic1 [ku]/ arterial trauma blunt2[]/ emotional / major3[eIdZ]/ multiple4 traumatisches Ereignis6
trauma a/ non/ posttraumatic traumatic tooth loss / pain / shock / death5 Traumapatient(in)7
[e]/ in origin / event6 traumatic (brain) injury / occlusion / ulceration / avulsion
traumatized zone [zoUn]/ patient7 traumatology /genic baro/ macro/ mi-
4
crotrauma

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Craniofacial Trauma BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 11

lesion [liZn] n MeSH ? U13-3 sim sore1 [sr] n clin & MeSH ? U16-11 (i) Verletzung (ii) Lsion,
(i) wound or injury Schdigung, Tumor
(ii) broad term for all kinds of tissue damage (skin sores2, ulcers [ls], tumors, etc.) wunde Stelle, Geschwr1
If the carious lesion progresses, infection of the dental pulp may occur, causing acute Hautlsionen2 makroskopische
pulpitis [-aItIs]. Has he ever had problems with chronic tissue discomfort, recurrent Lsion3 Herdlsion4 Prkanzerose5 3
denture sores, and difficult mastication? Kopfhautverletzungen6
Use palpable / nodular / gross3 [oU]/ deep seated / occult lesion localized / focal4 / Solitrlsionen7 Rezidive8
irritative / polypoid / premalignant5 / necrotic lesion skin2 / scalp6 / solitary7 / Dekubital-, Druckgeschwr9
recurrent8 [] lesions carious / inflammatory / periapical / mucosal / hyper- eiternde Wunde10
plastic / peri-implant / malignant lesion sore gums / tongue / throat / eyes / Herpes simplex, Fieberblschen11
spot denture / bed or pressure9 / running10 / cold11 sore 5

cut n & v sim slash1, slice2 [aI] n & v clin, incision3 n term ? U21-9 Schnittwunde, -verletzung;
(n) wound made by cutting (v) incise the skin or tissue by accident4 or by intention (in surgical (ein/ab/durch/zer)schneiden
intervention) with a knife [naIf], scalpel, scissors [sIzz], etc. (langer/ tiefer) Schnitt; aufschlit-
cutdown5 n MeSH ? U22-18 cut off6 v jar incise v term zen1 Scheibe; (Scheiben) schnei-
The victim was bleeding profusely7 from a cut on his forehead8 and right cheek. She den2 (Ein)Schnitt, Inzision3 ver-
sehentlich4 Venae sectio, Venen-
cut her lip on the broken glass. Consider early surgery to cut the lingual frenulum9
and loosen the tongue. schnitt5 ab-, wegschneiden6 stark7
Use slight / superficial / deep cut venous5 [i] cutdown cut edge10 / surface11 / Stirn8 Zungenbndchen9 Schnitt-
section / ends / into slices [aI] vein [eI] was cut and ligated12 [aI] to cut rand10 Schnittflche11 Vene wurde
ligiert u. durchtrennt12 6
through / in / away cutting instruments / drill or bur / tool / wheel

laceration [lQsreISn] n MeSH sim tear1 [te] n clin (i) Riss(quetsch)wunde,


(i) a torn external or internal wound with rough [rf] margins2; not a cut or incision Platzwunde (ii) Zerreiung
(ii) the act of lacerating (Ein)riss, Ruptur1
lacerated3 adj term lacerate v usu pass lacerable adj torn adj ausgefranste Rnder2
Bleeding from the external ear is most commonly due to4 local laceration or abra- ein-, aufgerissen, zerfetzt3
zurckzufhren auf4
sion. A tear had developed in the intima of the carotid artery.
Use lacerated wound / tendon5 skin / superficial facial6 / full-thickness / lip / Sehnenriss, -ruptur5
intraoral / tongue laceration puncture7 / through-and-through / scleral / flap- oberflchliche Gesichtswunde6
type / scar from a laceration laceration of the upper lip / mandibular nerve / Stichwunde7
sinus [aI] mucosa / lid margin8 torn dura / vessel9 sinus / mucosal / dural / Lidrandriss8
Gefruptur9 7
retinal / periosteal tear

abrasion [breIZn] n MeSH syn graze [eI] n & v clin, ? U10-19 (i) Schrfwunde, Schramme,
sim chafe1 [tSeIf] v & n, excoriation2 n term Abschrfung (ii) Abrieb,
(i) wound caused by scraping [eI] the skin against a rough object Abrasion, Abschabung
(ii) pathologic or therapeutic grinding or wearing [e] away3 of superficial tissue layers, e.g. of aufscheuern, wundreiben; wund-
tooth substance, skin layers, etc. ? U10-19 geriebene Stelle1
abrasive4 adj & n term abrade5 v excoriated adj chafing n Exkoriation2 Abtragung3
Examine the cornea for abrasions and lacerations. Did you feel any pain or chafing abreibend; Schleifmittel4
abschrfen, -reiben5 Zahnprothese6
from your dentures6? Abrasions such as a floor burn7 should be washed, a mild
antiseptic ointment8 applied, and covered with sterile gauze9 []. One of the victims Abschrfung durch mechan. Rei-
is grazed in the face. bung7
Use superficial [IS]/ dental / facial / scalp / corneal10 / minor / multiple / well-cleansed Salbe8 (Verbands)mull9
[e] abrasion(s) abrasions and/or contusions [ju]/ lacerations skin / nasal / Hornhautabschabung, Abrasio
septum / self-induced / localized / neurotic excoriation corneae10 8

scratch [skrQtS] v & n clin syn scrape [eI] v & n clin (sich) kratzen, schaben;
(v) (i) to inflict small shallow cuts1 with a sharp object (ii) scrape or rub oneself with one's Kratzer, Schramme
fingernails to relieve itching [ItSIN] (n) a small abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off oberflchl. Schnittverletzungen1
The lesions were found along linear scratch marks2. The itch3 provokes a desire to Kratzspuren2 Jucken, Juckreiz3
scratch. Skarifikations-, Kratztest4
Use minor / cat / facial / longitudinal / numerous / deep scratch(es) scratch-type Schleimhautabstrichmaterial5
incision / test4 body / scrapes vigorously [Ig] scraped area skin / tissue / Kratzwunde6
9
corneal / mucosal5 scrapings iris [aI] scraped free scratch injury6

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12 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Craniofacial Trauma

sting [stIN]-stung-stung v irr & n MeSH sim bite1-bit-bitten v irr & n MeSH, stechen, brennen; (Insek-
prick2 v & n, puncture3 [] v & n MeSH ten)Stich, Biss, Stachel (BE)
(n) wound caused by certain insects (e.g. hornets4, wasps [], fire ants5), plants (e.g. nettles6, beien; Biss1
poison ivy7 [aIvi]) and animals (esp marine animals like jellyfish8 [dZ], stingrays9, etc.) typically (ein-, auf-, durch)stechen;
3 associated with exposure to irritating chemicals or venoms10 (Ein)Stich2 punktieren,
stinging11 adj biting adj stinger12 n punctured adj term (durch)stechen; Punktion, Einstich3
Special care should be taken with bites or stings in the mouth or throat, as swelling Hornissen4 Feuerameisen5
(Brenn)Nessel6 Giftefeu7 Quallen8
in these areas may cause suffocation. Usually the barbed venomous stinger13 can be
found in place after a bee sting. The girl was stung by several honeybees. Hospitalize Stachelrochen9 tierische Gifte10
all patients who have been bitten by poisonous snakes. stechend, brennend11 Stachel12
Use insect / scorpion stings animal / dog / cat / snake / insect14 / mosquito / tick15 / Giftstachel mit Widerhaken13
human bite bite wound16 / injury flea17-[i]/ frost18-bitten lip / cheek biting Insektenstich14 Zeckenbiss15
biting sensation puncture wound / site19 needle / lumbar20 []/ acupuncture
Bisswunde16 voller Flohbisse17
to prick one's finger / the gums prick (skin) test21
erfroren18 Punktionsstelle19
Lumbalpunktion20 Pricktest21 10

burn [brn] n MeSH & v clin sim scald1 [skld] v & n clin Verbrennung, Brandwunde;
(n) injury to tissues resulting from fire, hot liquids, steam2 [i], acid chemicals, lightning3, (sich) verbrennen
electricity or radiation (v) to cause a lesion by heat exposure or suffer pain from heat (sich) verbrhen; Verbrhung1
scalding4 adj clin sunburn5 n postburn adj term Dampf2 Blitzschlag3
Burn scars are often unsightly6 [saIt] and total resolution7 is not possible in many siedend (hei)4 Sonnenbrand5
hsslich, unansehnlich6
cases. The mainstay of treatment of any chemical burn is copious8 irrigation with
large amounts of tap water9. Be careful not to scald the anesthetized tissues. Rckbildung7 grndlich8
Use minor / major / deep thermal / 1st degree10 / contact / friction11 [kS] burns Leitungswasser9
chemical or acid12 / caustic / cigarette / electrical / corneal / depth of burn Verbrennung 1. Grades10
burn victim / eschar or scar / trauma / coma / care burned body surface Verbrennungen durch mechanische
burning pain / sensation13 / tongue [tN]/ mouth 14 scald(ing) burn1 scalded Reibung11 Vertzung12
skin15 / face Brennen, brennendes Gefhl13
Mundbrennen14
verbrhte Haut15 11

frostbite [frstbaIt] n clin & MeSH sim chilblain [tSIlbleIn] or Erfrierung, Congelatio
(erythema) [i] pernio1 n MeSH Frostbeule, Pernio1
Blsse, Blasswerden2
blanching2, paresthesias3 [i], edema [Idim] and local tissue destruction as a result of exposure
to extreme cold Parsthesien, Sensibilitts-
strungen3 erfroren4
frostbitten4
adj clin frostnip5 n
leichte Erfrierung5
After rewarming the frostbitten area becomes purple [], painful and tender. Chil-
mit Blasenbildung6
blains are red, itching, blistering6 skin lesions without actual freezing of the tissues.
schwere/ hochgradige Erfrierung7
Use deep / superficial / severe7 frostbite frostbitten tissue / nose / ears / digits [dZ] 12

bruise [bruz] n & v clin & MeSH syn contusion [u] n MeSH, Quetschung, Prellung, Kon-
sim hematoma1 [himtoUm] n MeSH ? U13-26 tusion, Bluterguss; quetschen,
(n) injury to soft tissues produced by blunt trauma (e.g. a blow2, kick, or fall) producing a s. einen blauen Fleck holen
subcutaneous hematoma from ruptured blood vessels Hmatom, Bluterguss1
(v) to cause a contusion, e.g. by bumping into3 [] sth. Schlag, Sto2
bruising4 n contuse v black eye or shiner5 [aI] n clin stoen gegen3
Gags applied to the mouth may leave bruises. Gums that bleed or bruise easily can Prellungen, blaue Flecke(n)4
blaues Auge, (ugs) Veilchen5
be caused by vitamin C deficiency. The wound edges are badly contused. How do you
differentiate subdural hematomas from cerebral contusion without hematoma? leicht blaue Flecke(n) bekommen6
Use skin / superficial / facial bruises to be easily6 bruised easy / unexplained / Hirnprellung, Contusio cerebri7
ecchymosis [kI] and bruising soft tissue / cerebral7 / cortical / periorbital / lip Quetschwunde8
contusion contusion of the jaw / cheek / spinal [aI] cord contused wound8 /
13
nerve / eyeball / margin (of a laceration)

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Craniofacial Trauma BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 13

This patient developed a subcutaneous hematoma


of the upper lip as a complication of oral surgery.

concussion [knkSn] n clin & MeSH syn commotio [kmoUSioU] n MeSH rare (Gehirn)erschtterung,
(i) generally, a collision [IZ] or violent shaking Commotio
(ii) the resulting injury to soft tissues, esp. the brain or retina e-e (Gehirn)erschtterung haben1
be concussed1 phr concussive2 adj postconcussion adj erschtternd2
Concussion affects only mentation3, with return of consciousness moments or min- mentale Funktionen3
Aufprall, Sto4
utes after impact4. Amnesia5 [iZ] after concussion typically follows a few moments
of unresponsiveness6. Amnesie, Erinnerungslcke5
Use concussion of the brain7 / spinal cord8 to suffer a9 / dental / cerebral7 / cochlear Nichtansprechbarkeit6
[k]/ labyrinthine / grade 3 concussion concussive effect / blow / (head) injury / Commotio cerebri7
state postconcussion headache / syndrome10 Commotio spinalis, Rcken-
markerschtterung8
e-e Gehirnerschtterung erleiden9
postkommotionelles Syndrom10
14

swelling n clin & MeSH sim puffiness1 [] n clin, (An)Schwellung


tumescence2, edema3 [Idim] n MeSH Aufgedunsenheit1
Tumeszenz, (diffuse) Anschwel-
abnormal localized enlargement due to accumulation of fluid4 in the tissue
lung2 dem3
swell5-swelled-swollen v irr puffy6 adj edematous7 [e] adj
Flssigkeitsansammlung4
Swelling around the mouth, cheeks, eyes and sides of the face is not uncommon after (an)schwellen5
wisdom tooth removal. In order to reduce the puffiness after oral surgery, apply ice verschwollen6
on the cheek for 15 minutes. Venous stasis [eI] may sometimes affect lymphatic demats7
vessels, producing a permanent swelling called solid edema8. Myxdem8
Use swelling subsides9 swollen lymph nodes / eyelids / gums / nasal mucosa Schwellung klingt ab9
acute / local(ized) / diffuse / residual / inflammatory10 / marked11 / painful or entzndliche Schwellung10
tender swelling facial / soft tissue / submandibular / eyelid12 swelling notice- starke Schwellung11
able / cloudy13 [aU] / postoperative / unilateral swelling puffiness in the face / Lidschwellung12
about the eyes puffy eyes / face / bags under the eyes facial / upper airway / trbe Schwellung13
periorbital / bone marrow / mandibular / vestibular / pitting14 / cytotoxic edema eindrckbares dem14 15
edematous gingiva / (oral/ pharyngeal) mucosa / uvula

sprain [eI] n & v clin & MeSH rel distorsion1 [S] n term Verstauchung, Zerrung, Dis-
(n) injury to the tendons2, ligaments3 and/or capsule around a joint (v) to twist4 a joint torsion; zerren, verstauchen,
torsional5 adj distort6 v torsion7 n berdehnen
His TMJ problems were due to a sprain-type injury to the jaw joint. An associated Verformung, Verzerrung1
Sehnen2 Bnder3
deformity in patients with cleft lip8 is distortion of the soft tissue and cartilage
structures of the ala and dome of the nose. The relationship between whiplash-as- verdrehen, -stauchen, umknicken4
sociated cervical sprains and TMJ injury is speculative. Dreh-, Torsions-5
Use (trauma-related) TMJ / TMJ ligament9 / collateral ligament sprain (cervical) verdrehen, -zerren6
dorsal /(un)stable / minor / third-degree / ill-defined / old sprain sprain frac- Torsion, (Ver)Drehung7
ture10 sprained joint11 / jaw / neck torsional movement12 / displacement13 / Lippenspalte8
stress facial / bony / outward / medial / mandibular14 distortion distorted Bnderzerrung im Kiefergelenk9
face15 / anatomy / maxillomandibular relationship / occlusion Abrissfraktur10
Gelenkdistorsion11
Note: In English medical usage distortion and sprain are not synonymous. Drehbewegung12
Drehfehlstellung13
Unterkieferasymmetrie14
verzerrtes Gesicht15 16

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14 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Craniofacial Trauma

strain [eI] v & n clin & MeSH sim pull1 v, sprain v & n clin & MeSH berdehnen, -lasten, zerren;
(v) to overstretch2 or overexercise a muscle [msl] or ligament berdehnung, -belastung,
(n) damage (usually muscular [kjU]) resulting from excessive physical effort3 Zerrung
straining4 n strenuous5 [e] adj (Muskel) zerren1 berdehnen2
3 She was unable to bring her lips together without straining and the upper teeth krperliche beranstrengung3
Anstrengung, Belastung4
pushed the lower jaw down and back to accentuate6 her deficient chin7. A splint8 can
also reduce strain on the area. anstrengend5 betonen6 fliehendes
Use to strain or pull1 a muscle / ones eyes / one's voice cervical spine9 / muscle10 / Kinn7 Schiene8 berbelastung der
mechanical / compressive / eye11 / emotional12 strain tissue / muscle10 / cervical Halswirbelsule9 Muskelzerrung10
spine straining beranstrengung der Augen11
seelische Belastung12 17

rupture [rptS] n & v MeSH syn tear [te] -tore-torn n & v irr clin, Ruptur, Riss, (Durch)Bruch,
sim disruption1 [] n Hernie; reien, platzen,
(n) a break [eI] or tear in continuity2 of soft tissues (tendons, vessels) rupturieren
(un)ruptured adj tearing [teFIN] n disrupt3 v disruptive4 adj Zerreiung, Spaltung1 Kontinuitt2
(zer)stren, zerreien, spalten3
During trauma the sutures linking the facial bones rupture in predictable fashion.
zerreiend, -strend4 Spontanrup-
There was a tear of the middle meningeal artery. Disruption of the olfactory fila-
tur5 Sehnenriss, -ruptur6 Einriss7
ments in the cribriform plate results in anosmia.
gedeckte Ruptur8 sophagusrup-
Use traumatic / spontaneous5 [eI] rupture tendon6 / partial7 / delayed [eI]/ free /
tur9 Gefruptur10 Bulbusruptur11
contained8 [eI] rupture esophageal9 / vascular10 / salivary duct rupture rup-
Trommelfellruptur12 Narbenbruch13
ture of the (ocular) globe11 / longitudinal ligaments / the lacrimal sac ruptured
Bnderriss14 Zerrung15
eardrum12 / vessels / aneurysm [QnjrIzm]/ nerve / scar13 / blister ligamen-
traumatische Nervendurchtren-
tous14 / partial15 / neural16 / family disruption disrupted muscle / sleep17 /
nung16 gestrter Schlaf17 strendes/
speech disruptive behavior18 / child / patient tear injury wear-and-19
destruktives Verhalten18 Abnutzung,
[e]/ capsular20 / frenulum tear
Verschlei19 Kapselriss20
Trne21 Trnen(trufeln);
Note: Mark the difference in pronunciation and meaning in tear21 [I] and
trnend22 18
tearing22 [I].

hemorrhage [hemrIdZ] n MeSH Blutung, Hmorrhagie


syn bleeding n clin & MeSH, bleed n jar ? U13-26 Sickerblutung1 kleinste2 Blutung,
Blutaustritt3 Nasenbluten4
internal or external bleeding usually from a ruptured vessel, e.g. prolonged minor oozing [uzIN]
of blood1 from minute2 [maInut] vessels or acute and massive extravasation3 Bluter(in), Hmophile(r)5
pulssynchron spritzen6 Blutung
hemorrhagic adj nosebleed4 n bleed-bled-bled v irr bleeder5 n inf
stillen7 starke Blutung8 innere
In an arterial [I] hemorrhage the blood is bright red in color and comes in spurts6 Blutung9 unstillbare Blutung10
[]. Mild bleeding or oozing1 [u] after oral surgery is normal.
okkulte Blutung11 Nachblutung12
Use to arrest or stop a7 hemorrhage acute / major8 / brisk8 / profuse8 / intracranial /
Zahnfleischbluten13
internal9 hemorrhage petechial [k]/ capillary / postextraction / uncontrollable10
Massenblutung14
/ essential / concealed11 [si]/ secondary12 hemorrhage intraoral / gingival or
19
gum13 / nasal / life-threatening / massive14 bleeding

dislocation n MeSH rel displacement1 n, fracture2 n & v MeSH ? U17-1ff Verrenkung, Luxation
displacement of the articular surface of a bone from its joint; in displaced fractures the main Verschiebung, Fehlstellung, Dis-
bony fragments are widely separated lokation1 (Knochen)Fraktur, -bruch;
dislocate3 v term displace4 v (un)displaced adj (Knochen) brechen/ frakturieren2
verrenken, luxieren3
Proper positioning of the x-ray tube5 will improve identification of the dislocation. verschieben, dislozieren4
Swelling may mask the bone displacement.
Rntgenrhre5 Luxationsfraktur6
Use traumatic / spontaneous / fracture-6/ (un)complicated / open / recurrent7 [] /
habituelle Luxation7 Kondylusluxa-
mandibular / condylar / temporomandibular (abbr TMJ) dislocation dislocation
tion8 Grad der Fehlstellung9
of the jaw [dZ]/ (mandibular) condyle8 downward / anterior / medial / lateral
dislozierte Fraktur10
/ (non-reducing) disc displacement displacement of the nasal bone / globe / left
(in)stabile Fraktur11
zygoma degree9 / direction of displacement double / (non)displaced10 / old
Bruchstelle12
(healed) / (un)stable11 fracture fracture site12 [aI]/ fragments / reduction13 / nail
Reposition d. Fraktur13
/ healing fractured tooth / incisor / root / facial bones / jaw14 / maxilla /
Kieferfraktur, -bruch14 20
zygomatic arch / orbita / dental implant

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States of Consciousness BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 15

Unit 4 States of Consciousness


Related Units: 3 Injuries, 47 Anesthesiology, 21 Surgical Treatment, 25 Perioperative Care

conscious [knSs] adj, -ly adv opposite unconscious1 adj bewusst


(i) associated with thought, will, or perception2 (ii) related to consciousness (iii) awareness bewusstlos; unbewusst1 4
undulled3 [] by sleep, faintness, or stupor Wahrnehmung2 ungetrbt3
(un/sub)consciousness4 n MeSH semiconsciousness5 n self/subconscious adj (Unter)Bewusstsein4
Dmmerzustand5
Some patients may consciously or unconsciously engage in forceful air swallowing. Bewusstsein erlangen6 nachlassen7
She became conscious6 after the anesthesia wore off7. The clinical definition of con-
Vigilanz, Wachheit8
sciousness ranges from alert wakefulness8, to mild lethargy, stupor, and deep coma.
Bewusstsein wiedererlangen9
Use loss of / to lose / to regain or return to9 / clouding of11 [aU] consciousness
Bewusstseinsstrung,
alteration of10 []/ altered state of10 / to assess the level of consciousness full
-vernderung10
/ impaired11 [e]/ compromised11 / dull11 / waxing-waning12 [eI] consciousness
Bewusstseinstrbung11
to lapse or fall into13/verify unconsciousness conscious biting and chewing /
schwankende Bewusstseinslage12
sedation / awareness to become13/be unconscious unconscious patient /
das Bewusstsein verlieren,
guilt14 [gIlt]/ motivation [eI] (un)conscious process / control weight- [weIt]/
bewusstlos werden13
health-15 [helT] conscious
nicht bewusste Schuld14
gesundheitsbewusst15 befangen,
Note: Do not confuse self-conscious (inhibited)16 and self-confident (=self-
gehemmt16 selbstbewusst17
reliant)17 [aI] as well as conscious and conscience18 [knSns] and
Gewissen18 gewissenhaft19 1
conscientious19 [-SIenSs].

alert [lrt] adj & v & n term & clin sim arousal1[aU], vigilance2 [dZ] n MeSH wach, rege; warnen,
(adj) be wide awake3 [eI], watchful or mentally responsive, fully aware, (v) to alarm alarmieren; Alarm
(n) warning signal Erhhung des Wachheitsgrades;
alertness2 n clin arouse4 [aU] v vigilant5 adj Erwachen; Arousal1
An alert, wakeful patient responds immediately and appropriately to all stimuli [aI]. Wachheit, Vigilanz; Wachsamkeit2
hellwach3
A stuporous patient responds only when aroused by vigorous6 [vIgrs] stimulation.
Coma is characterized by complete unarousability. (auf)wecken, erregen4
Use quiet/active alert state patient is awake, alert and oriented/cooperative wach, rege5 stark6
medic-alert tag7 be alert to be on the8 / fully alert mental / decreased or mediz. Informationsplakette7
diminished alertness level of / agitated / partial / nocturnal / early morning / einsatzbereit/ auf der Hut sein8
2
sexual arousal daytime / psychomotor / increased / hygienic vigilance

lucid [lusId] adj term bei Bewusstsein, hell, klar


mentally clear, not confused, and able to be understood, esp. between periods (denkend)
of clouded consciousness Klarheit, bei klarem Verstand1
lucidity1 n clin lucidness1 n stark schwanken2
The level of alertness fluctuated considerably2 with the occurrence of episodic con- helle Augenblicke/ Phasen3
Epiduralhmatome4
fusion and lucid intervals3 suggesting delirium. A brief lucid interval after initial
unconsciousness is a typical clinical feature of epidural hematomas4.
3
Use lucid patient / periods3 [I] / intervals3 / lethargy periods of3 / pain-free lucidity

faint [feInt] v & n & adj MeSH & clin sim blackout1, breakdown2 n clin, ohnmchtig werden;
syncope3 [sINkpi] n MeSH Ohnmacht; schwach
(v) to collapse6 or pass out4 (n) temporary loss of consciousness usually due to cerebral hypoxia (kurze) Ohnmacht, Blackout1
Kollaps2
faintness5 n clin break down6 v syncopal adj term
Synkope3
Shouting and gentle shaking are usually enough to revive7 [rIvaIv] a person who ohnmchtig werden4
may have fainted or may be just sleeping. The pain may be so severe that the patient
Schwche(gefhl)5
faints. Syncope is a sudden transient loss of consciousness that resolves spontane-
kollabieren6
ously.
ins Bewusstsein zurckholen7
Use to precipitate/produce8 a faint syncopal attack1 fainting fit or spell1 / episode
Ohnmacht verursachen/ auslsen8
to experience / to feel close to / sudden / unexplained / recurrent / psychogenic
schwacher Puls9
fainting exertional / near-/ vasovagal10 [eI]/ postural / Stokes-Adams / cardio-
vasovagale Synkope10
genic / cerebrovascular / cough syncope

Note: As an adjective faint is also used in medicine to mean weak or hard to


4
hear, see etc. (faint pulse9 /heart sound /macules)

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16 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS States of Consciousness

light-headed adj clin benommen


sim (to feel) faint1 phr, drowsy2 [draUzi], dizzy3 [dIzi] adj clin einer Ohnmacht nahe sein1
schlfrig; benommen2
to feel weak or dizzy and likely to lose consciousness
schwindlig3
light-headedness4 n clin & MeSH drowsiness5 n MeSH dizziness n MeSH
4 Benommenheit4
Faintness, dizziness, or light-headedness may indicate an impending6 loss of con- Schlfrigkeit5
sciousness. Both drowsiness and stupor are usually attended by7 some degree of bevorstehend, drohend6
mental confusion. Some degree of shock accompanies most severe injuries and is einhergehen mit7 Blsse8
manifested initially by pallor8, cold sweat, weakness, lightheadedness, hypotension9, Hypotonie, niedriger Blutdruck9
tachycardia10, thirst, air hunger, and, eventually, loss of consciousness. Herzrasen, -jagen, Tachykardie10 5

pass out v inf sim be out1 v jar, opposite come to2 v clin, BE come round2 phr in Ohnmacht fallen,
to lose consciousness ohnmchtig werden
She passed out in the dentist's chair while having a wisdom tooth pulled and did not bewusstlos/ weg sein1
wieder zu sich kommen2
come to until 10 minutes later. My mouth came to again from the local anesthetic
much quicker than normal and without the funny stinging sensations that I nor-
6
mally get.

unresponsive adj term & jar opposite responsive1 adj term & jar (i) nicht ansprechbar
(i) failing to respond to sensations or verbal stimuli (ii) nicht reagierend/ anspre-
(ii) failing to respond to treatment chend
(un)responsiveness2 n term respond (to)3 v response4 n ansprechbar1 Ansprechbarkeit,
Although unconscious, patients with concussions rarely are deeply unrespon- Reaktionsfhigkeit, Reagibilitt2
reagieren, ansprechen (auf)3
sive. Certain psychiatric [saIkIQtrIk] states can mimic5 coma by producing
an apparent [Q] unresponsiveness. Reaktion4
Use unresponsive pupils6 [pjuplz]/ to stimuli / to light unresponsive patient / to vortuschen5
endodontic treatment to establish / duration of / witnessed / persistent unre- lichtstarre Pupillen6
7
sponsiveness

disorientation n MeSH sim confusion1 [-fjuZn] n MeSH, Desorientiertheit,


lose one's bearings2 [e] phr inf fehlende Orientierung
be bewildered3 [I] or perplexed4; reactions to one's surroundings5 (esp. time, place, person) are Verwirrtheit, Verwirrung1
inappropriate Orientierung verlieren2
(dis)oriented adj confused3 adj orientation n MeSH verwirrt3
verblfft, perplex4
Patients with psychotic disorders may be fully oriented or exhibit a disorientation as Umgebung5
to person that is at least as great as their disorientation as to time and place.
orientiert zu Zeit, Raum, Person6
Use patient is disoriented and confused well-oriented to time, place, and person6
Verwirrtheitszustand7
disoriented behavior acute / progressive / right-left / left-right / directional
disorientation transient / severe / (sub)acute / mental / nocturnal confusion
8
confusional state7

stunned [stnd] adj inf sim dazed1 [deIzd] adj inf, *spaced out2 [eI] adj (i) betubt (durch e. Schlag)
(i) knocked out by a heavy blow (ii) benommen, (wie) ge-
(ii) mental numbness3 [nmns] esp. due to a shock, great surprise or intense light lhmt; fassungslos
A concussion should be suspected if the athlete is feeling "foggy", stunned or dazed, benommen, verwirrt1
or has problems with balance or vision such as seeing flashing lights. During trans- (wie) unter Drogen, weg, high2
portation the patient seemed slightly dazed, but not at all unconscious. Suspect Benommenheit3
lightning injury4 in persons found dazed or unconscious after a thunderstorm5. Verletzung durch Blitzschlag4
Use stunned confusional state dazed victim / behavior Gewitter5
9

obtunded [] adj term sim blunt1 [], dull2 [] adj & v clin teilnahmslos, abgestumpft,
reduced level of consciousness; insensitive to pain as a result of an analgesic3 [-dZisIk] or gedmpft
anesthetic4 abgestumpft; abstumpfen1
obtundent5 adj & n obtundation n semi-obtunded adj teilnahmslos; abstumpfen, dmpfen2
If lavage [lvAZ] is done in an obtunded or comatose patient, prophylactic insertion Schmerzmittel3
Narkotikum4
of a cuffed [] endotracheal [eIk] tube6 is recommended to prevent aspiration. Brain
function may range from alertness to obtundation. dmpfend; dmpfendes Mittel5
Use to be / to become / deeply7 obtunded state of mental / prolonged / progressive / Endotrachealtubus mit Cuff6
stark gedmpft7 10
posthemorrhagic obtundation obtundent mouthwash

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States of Consciousness BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 17

stupor [st(j)up] n MeSH Stupor, Reaktionsunfhigkeit


impaired1 [e] or reduced consciousness with marked decrease in eingeschrnkt1 stupors2
responsiveness to stimulation Betubung, Benommensein3
(semi-)stuporous2 adj term stupefaction3 n stupefacient4 [-feISnt] adj & n betubend; Betubungsmittel4
gedmpft5 stumm6
In stuporous catatonia the patient is subdued5, mute6 [mjut], and negativistic,
katatoner Stupor7
4
accompanied by varying combinations of staring [e], rigidity [dZI], and cataplexy.
schizophrener Stupor8
Use alcoholic / anergic [nrdZIk]/ benign [aIn] / semistupor catatonic7 / depressive
Stupor nach epileptischem Anfall9
/ delusion8 / epileptic / postseizure9 [iZ] stupor stuporous patient / state or
11
condition

lethargy [leTdZI] n MeSH Lethargie


sim apathy1 [Q] n, opposite hyperactivity2, agitation3 [dZ] n MeSH Apathie1 Hyperaktivitt2
psychomotorische Unruhe,
a state of abnormal indifference4, listlessness5, sluggishness6 [], lassitude6, languor6 [g] or
stupor Agitiertheit3
Gleichgltigkeit4
lethargic adj term apathetic adj hyperactive adj agitated7 adj
Antriebs-, Teilnahmslosigkeit5
Apathy, drowsiness, and confusion improve more gradually. Hepatic encephalopathy
Trgheit, Mattigkeit6
may begin with irritability8 and mild confusion and slowly progress to agitation,
agitiert7 Gereiztheit8
lethargy, change in personality and difficulties in judgment9 and orientation.
Urteilsvermgen9
Use to complain of / mild / temporary / fatigue [ftig] and10 lethargy generalized /
Mdigkeit u. Lethargie10
depression, withdrawal11 [-drl] and apathy apathetic state / patient / re-
Zurckziehen11 12
sponse / hyperthyroidism [aI]

somnolence n MeSH & clin sim sopor1 [soUp] n term (i) schlfrige Teilnahmslosig-
(i) semicomatose state (ii) state of unnatural drowsiness keit (ii) Somnolenz
(semi-)somnolent adj term soporific2 adj & n soporiferous2 adj Sopor, schlafhnlicher Zustand1
einschlfernd; Schlafmittel2
The patient complained of excessive daytime somnolence, morning sluggishness and
fatigue. Her lethargy deepened into somnolence.
13
Use daytime / episodes of somnolence somnolent and lethargic / metabolic rate

coma [koUm] n MeSH & clin Koma


profound [aU] unsconsciousness1 from which a patient cannot be aroused even by powerful tiefe Bewusstlosigkeit1
stimuli [aI] komats2
comatose2 [-toUs] adj MeSH semi-comatose adj coma-like3 adj komaartig3
stecknadelkopfgroe Pupillen4
CNS symptoms include lethargy, coma, and convulsions []. Pinpoint pupils4, coma, sind ein Anzeichen fr5
and hypertension are suggestive [dZe] of5 cerebellar hemorrhage [e].
ins Koma fallen6
Use to lapse into6/be in/lie in / induced7 coma alcoholic / diabetic [e] or hypogly-
knstlicher Tiefschlaf7
cemic [-glaIsi]/ thyrotoxic8 [ai]/ uremic [i] coma irreversible / deep(ening) /
thyreotoxisches Koma8
impending / frank / prolonged coma depth / duration / level / onset / cause of
Glasgow-Komaskala9
coma Glasgow coma scale9 [eI] to be / to become / deeply or profoundly10
tief komats10 14
comatose

trance [trQnstrAns] n term Trance(zustand)


(i) altered state of consciousness as in hypnosis [I], hysteria [I], or ecstasy (ii) dazed or stupo- Losgelstsein1
rous state (iii) detachment1 [QtS] from one's surroundings (e.g. in deep concentration or day- Tag-, Wachtrumen2
dreaming2) trancehnliche Zustnde3
A history of trancelike states3 during which simple motor behaviors persist besttigt, erhrtet4
corroborates4 the presence of daytime somnolence. hypnotischer Schlaf5
Use alcoholic / hypnotic5 / induced5 / death6 trance trance-like state / attack Scheintod6 15

delirium n MeSH Delir, Delirium


clouded state of consciousness and confusion, marked by difficulty in sustaining attention to ngstl. Erregung, Angst(zustnde)1
stimuli, anxiety1 [QNzaIti], illusions and hallucinations, disordered sleep-wakefulness cycles2 gestrter Schlaf-Wach-Rhythmus2
[saIklz], motor disturbances; etc. delirant3
delirious3 adj term Zittern4
Delirium is an acute confusional state associated with a change in level of con- Delirium tremens, Alkohol-,
Entzugsdelir5
sciousness ranging from lethargy and withdrawal to agitation. Symptoms and
signs of delirium tremens include profoundly delirious states associated with tremu- Verfolgungswahn6
lousness4 and agitation. Erschpfungsdelirium7
Use delirious patient delirium tremens5 (abbr DT) / of persecution6 agitated / Fieberdelir8
toxic / postoperative / acute / transient / exhaustion7 [IgzstSn]/ traumatic /
16
febrile8 [ei] delirium

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18 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Drugs & Remedies

persistent vegetative [vedZ-] state n MeSH, abbr PVS apallisches Syndrom,


syn vigil [dZ] coma n MeSH, rel akinetic [eIkaInetIk] mutism1 [ju] n MeSH Coma vigile, Wachkoma
state of unresponsiveness due to diffuse cortical or brain stem damage2 akinetischer Mutismus1
Hirnstammschdigung2
PVS patients may show some improvement from an initially comatose state and
5 appear to be awake but lie motionless and without evidence of awareness or higher
17
mental activity.

brain death [deT] n MeSH Hirntod


syn irreversible coma n MeSH irreversibler Ausfall1
hirntot2
cessation [s] and irreversibility1 of brain function; legal definitions vary from state to state
bestehen, andauern3
brain-dead2 adj term
isoelektrisches/ Nulllinien-EEG4
The criteria [aI] for brain death must persist3 for 6 hours with a confirmatory Hirntoddiagnose sicherstellen5
isoelectric [aI] (flat) EEG4. hirntote (Organ)spender6
Use to be indicative of/confirm/declare/establish5/mimic brain death suspected /
diagnosis of / diagnostic criterion [kraItIIn] for brain death brain death
18
legislation [dZ] brain-dead donors6

Unit 5 Drugs & Remedies


Related Units: 19 Pharmacologic Treatment, 20 Pharmacologic Agents, 48 Types of Anesthesia & Anesthetics

medication n MeSH syn medicine n clin & inf, medicament n rare (i) Medikament(e) (ii) Arznei-
(i) medicinal preparations1 (mittel)verordnung,
(ii) administration2 of remedies -anwendung, Medikation
medicinal3 adj term medical4 adj medicate5 v self-medication n MeSH Prparate1 Verabreichung2 medizi-
Relapses6 can be treated with a second course7 of these medications. Don't forget to nisch, Heil-3 medizinisch, rztlich4
medikaments behandeln5
take your medicine! Are you on any medication? Before taking this medication, tell
your dentist if you are on a low-salt or a salt-free diet. Rckflle, Rezidive6 Zyklus, Kur7
Use to take/start/receive [i]/continue/discontinue8/review9 [vju] medication oral / Medikament absetzen8
pre10/ transdermal / sodium-containing11 / pain medication preoperative / pre- Medikament berprfen9 Prmedi-
scribed / over-the-counter / daily schedule [skS] of / life-long12 medication kation10
medication regimen / use / delivery / safety / side effects / (non)compliance / natriumhaltiges Medikament11
error / adjustment medicinal drug13 / products / herbs14 [rbz]/ irrigation Dauermedikation12
/-grade titanium / dental office smell medical therapy15 medicated bath / Arzneidroge13 Heilkruter14
mouth rinse16 / dental floss / soap [oU]/ area medikamentse Behandlung15
medizinisches Mundwasser16 1

remedy [remdi] n & v clin & MeSH (Heil- / Arznei)Mittel;


rel remediation1 [i] n MeSH bessern, heilen
(n) substance or treatment that can cure2 [kjU] a disease or relieve3 pain or other symptoms Behandlung, Besserung1
(v) to cure kurieren, heilen2 lindern3
remediable4 [i] adj clin remedial5 adj heil-, behebbar4 heilend, Heil-5
Zeruminalpfropf6 Schmerzmittel7
The cause of his hearing loss (impaction of ear wax6) was easily remediable. Use pflanzliche Droge8 Hausmittel9
these natural home remedies to ease the pain. Obstructive [] causes must be ex-
rezeptfreies Arzneimittel10
cluded or remedied.
Mittel gegen Erkltungen11
Use pain-relieving7 / dental / herbal8 (folk) / home9 / over-the-counter10 / cold11 /
Mittel zur ueren Anwendung12
homeopathic remedy remedy for internal/external use12 / burns remediable
2
condition

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Drugs & Remedies BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 19

drug [] n MeSH & inf sim agent1 [eIdZnt] n term (i) Medikament, (Arznei)Mit-
n (i) any substance other than food used for preventing, diagnosing, treating, and curing disease tel (ii) (Rausch)Droge,
(ii) in genE it also refers to stimulating or depressing substances that can be addictive2, esp. Suchtgift
narcotics3 Wirkstoff1 abhngig/ schtig ma-
drug-induced [us] adj drug-related adj drug4 v usu pass chend2 Narkotika, Rausch-, Betu- 5
Paracetamol is the drug of choice5 for postoperative pain control. bungsmittel3 (starke) Medikamente
Use to administer6/be on or take7 drugs street or illicit8 / recreational9 / designer / geben, Drogen nehmen, betuben4
potent10 / powerful drug crude11 / scheduled / (non)prescription12 / over-the- M. der Wahl5 M. verabreichen6
counter13 (abbr OTC) drug oral / experimental or investigational new14 (abbr Drogen nehmen, drogenabhngig
IND) drug drugs for sedation15 drug administration / dependence16 / dispens- sein7 illegale Droge8 Psychophar-
ing17 / incompatibility18 / interaction /-related deaths19 sustained/prolonged makon9 hochwirksames Medika-
release20 drug adverse drug event (abbr ADE) or drug reaction21 (abbr ADR) ment10 Ausgangsdroge11
therapeutic / (dental) bonding / anesthetic / blocking / antiallergic / antibacterial rezeptpflichtiges Medikament12
agent drug-induced jaundice22 [dZndIs] / oral changes / condition / xerosto- rezeptfreies Medikament13
mia / gingival overgrowth Testmedikament14
Beruhigungsmittel, Sedativa15
Note: In view of its double meaning the expression drug is best avoided when Drogenabhngigkeit16 Arzneimit-
talking to patients about medication as it may give rise to misunderstandings. telhandel17 Arzneistoffinkompati-
Among physicians and in the literature, however, the term is widely used. bilitt18 Drogentote19 Depot-, Re-
While patients are likely to interpret Is he on drugs? as a reference to cocaine tardprparat20 Nebenwirkung, un-
or LSD, doctors commonly use terms like drug-related disease or drug erwnschte Arzneimittelwirkung21
therapy23. Drogenikterus22
medikamentse Behandlung23 3

pharmacy [fArmsi] n clin & MeSH sim BE chemist('s)1 [kemIst] n (i) Apotheke
(i) retail2 store where medicinal preparations and supplies3 are sold (ii) Pharmazie, Pharmazeutik
(ii) a branch of pharmacology Apotheke u. Drogerie1
pharmacist4 n term druggist5 n inf pharma(co)- comb ? U20-1 Einzelhandels-2
In general, the prescribing physician6 provides or asks the dispensing pharmacist to Arzneimittel u. rztebedarf3
Apotheker(in), Pharmazeut(in)4
provide written drug use information for the patient.
Use hospital7 pharmacy pharmacist-on-call8 pharmacochemistry /therapy9 /logy Apotheker(in), Drogist(in)5
verschreibende(r) Arzt/ rztin6
Note: In America drugstores are retail shops which sell drinks, snack, cos- Anstalts-, Klinikapotheke7
metics, household goods, etc.; they may, however, include a pharmacy where diensthabende(r) Apotheker(in)8
medikamentse Behandlung9 4
prescription drugs are dispensed.

dispense v term (Arznei) (zu)bereiten u.


to prepare, compound1 [aU], label2 [eI], sell and give out medications to patients abgeben
dispensatory3 n term dispensary4 n clin dispenser5 n (ab)mischen1 etikettieren2 Arznei-
mittel-Codex, Ergnzung z. amtl.
Today these drugs are increasingly dispensed without prescription6. It may not be
Arzneibuch3 Anstalts-, Klinikapo-
sold or dispensed directly to the patient. Dispense in dropper bottle7 or amber8 [Q]
theke4 Spender, Dispenser5 rezept-
glass container.
frei6 Tropfflasche7 bernsteinfarben8
Use dispensing chemist9 (BE) dental floss / mouthwash / soap dispenser
Apotheker(in), Drogist(in)9 5

dosage [doUsIdZ] form n MeSH sim dosage formulation1 n term Arznei-, Darreichungsform
describes how a drug is supplied2 (as a tablet or cream [i], powdered [aU], in liquid form, etc.) Zubereitungsform1
hergestellt, vertrieben2
formulate3 v term
zubereiten3 berzug4
Special coatings4 [oU] are used to retard5 the disintegration6 of solid dosage forms in
verzgern5 Zerfall6 Darm7
the gut7 []. This solution is specifically formulated for exclusive application to the
perorale Arzneiform8
oral mucosa.
feste Arzneiform9 Mixtur10
Use oral8 / topical / solid9 / liquid / oral suspension10 dosage form parenteral /
Retardprparat11 Dosieraerosol12
pediatric [IQ]/ controlled- or slow-release11 dosage form commercial []/
schnell zerfallende
metered [i] spray12 / water-in-oil / delayed-11 [eI]/ extended-11 / prompt-release13
Arzneizubereitung13 6
/ capsule formulation

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20 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Drugs & Remedies

tablet v & n MeSH, abbr tabs sim capsule1 [kQpslsjul] n term & clin, Tablette; tablettieren
pill2 n clin & inf Kapsel1 Pille2 geformt3 gepresst4
zergehen lassen5 unzerkaut schlu-
solid dosage form varying in shape (disk-like) and size, and method of manufacture (molded3
[oU], compressed4); a caplet is a mixture between a tablet and a capsule-shaped dosage form cken6 magensaftresistente Tablet-
te7 Kautablette8 Tablette m. Tei-
5 Dissolve5 the tablet under the tongue. Swallow [] the capsule whole6. Take the lungs-, Bruchkerbe9 forte Tablette10
tablet with a glass of water.
Brause-, Lsungstablette11 Retard-
Use enteric-coated7 / chewable8 [u]/ scored9 / sublingual tablet buffered []/ half-
prparat12 berzogene Tablette,
strength, / regular-strength, / double-strength10 / rapidly dissolving tablet dis-
Dragee13 Manteltablette14
persible11 []/ slow-release12 [i]/ coated13 / dry-coated14 / film-coated15 tablet
Filmtablette15
(hard/soft) gelatin [dZe]/ translucent [us] capsule sleeping / sedation16 [eI] /
Beruhigungstablette, -pille16
contraceptive17 [se] pill
Antibabypille17 7

. . . strictly for the birds!

ointment [I] n MeSH or salve [sQv] n clin, abbr oint. or UNG sim gel1 [dZel], Salbe, Unguentum
paste2 [eI], cream3, balm [bQlmbAm] or balsam4 [] n clin Gel1 Paste2
Creme3 Balsam4
semisolid medicinal preparations for application to the skin which are suspended5 in fatty or
greasy6 [i] material suspendiert5
fettig, schmierig6
creamy adj
Puder7 auftragen8 verteilen9
Oils, powders7, and ointments should not be routinely used. Lindane 1% cream is also Gaze, Verbandsmull10
effective but may irritate the skin. Apply8 the ointment topically and spread9 [e] it
Augensalbe11
with gauze10 [gz]. Alcohol can worsen the side effects of nitroglycerin ointment.
emulgierende Salbe12
Use to use/rub in an ointment ophthalmic [fTQl] or eye11 / dental / emulsifying12
weiche Salbe, Unguentum molle13
[]/ 5% / water-soluble ointment emollient or soothing13 [uD]/ steroid [i]/
Iodsalbe14 Zinkpaste15
iodine14 [aI] ointment ointment dosage form / tube / application topical /
Feuchtigkeitscreme16
lidocaine / film-forming / regular-strength gel (emollient) dental / zinc15 (oxide)
Khlsalbe17
/ gelatin [dZe] paste corticosteroid / (sun block) lip balm dental or tooth / lip /
8
hand / moisturizing16 [tS]/ polishing / cold17 cream

powder [paUd] n & v clin & MeSH sim pellet1 n MeSH & clin Puder, Pulver; (ein)pudern,
solid preparation dispensed in the form of small particles; pellets are small cylindrical or ovoid pulverisieren
pills of compressed agents, e.g. steroid hormones for subcutaneous implantation and slow Granulat, Pellet1 pulverfrmig2
release pulverisiert3 gut umrhren4
powdery2 adj powdered3 adj Verdnnungsmittel5
Dissolve one 2-gram package [pQkIdZ] of powder in a full glass (8 ounces [aU]) and vorsichtig schwenken6
fungizider Puder7 Aktivkohle,
stir [str] well4. The diluent5 [I] is slowly injected into the vial [vaIl] which is then
gently [dZ] swirled6 [] until the pellet is dissolved. Carbo medicinalis8 Streupuder9
Use absorbent / oral / tooth / topical / antifungal7 / gold powder amalgam alloy / gefriergetrocknete Granula10
bone / activated charcoal8 [tS]/ sprinkle9 / aerosol [e] powder freeze-dried10
9
[aI] / (absorbent/medicated) cotton pellets

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Drugs & Remedies BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 21

tincture [tINktS] n MeSH syn extract n, sim lotion1 [oUS] n MeSH & clin Tinktur
medicinal agents suspended in an alcohol-containing solution Lotion1 Wegwischen2
einreiben3 Iodtinktur4
Preparations containing tincture of benzoin can be removed by swabbing2
them with
thanol-Wassergemisch5
rubbing alcohol. The gel is spread onto the ulcer as a thin continuous film. Apply
benzoesurehalt. Opiumtinktur6 5
enough gel and rub in3 gently.
Schttelmixtur7
Use iodine4 [aI]/ alcohol / chamomile / lavender / hydroalcoholic5 / benzoin [z] opi-
schmerzlindernde Lotion8
um6 / toothache tincture shake7 / drying / (antiseptic) soothing8 [u] lotion
Reinigungslotion9 10
(sports) rub / antifungal [Ng]/ cleansing9 [e]/ whitening lotion

drops n MeSH & inf usu pl, abbr gtt. sim solution1 [uS], Tropfen, Guttae
syrup2 [sIrp] n MeSH & clin, abbr Liq Lsung1 Sirup2
Augenwsser, Collyria3
(i) dosage for medications (ii) popular term for tinctures, eyewashes3, etc.
Lsungsmittel4 gelster Stoff5
solvent4 n term solute5 n (in)soluble6 adj solubility7 n
lslich6 Lslichkeit7
Some recommend a dose of 2 drops of ophthalmic solution. 5mL of a 20% solution eingetrufelt, instilliert8 Spritze9
should be instilled8 with a syringe9 [dZ] connected to the catheter. Ipecac [I] syrup10 Ipecacuanha-, Brechwurzelsirup10
is still used as a centrally acting emetic11 in acute oral drug overdose. Emetikum11 Magentropfen12
Use eye / nose / fluoride / stomach12 [k] drops maple13 [eI]/ flavored [eI]/ demulcent Ahornsirup13 Hustensaft, -sirup14
[ls]/ glucose / cough14 [kf] syrup clear / cloudy15 [aU]/ discolored / diluted16 trbe Lsung15
[u]/ aqueous17 [eIkwIs] solution concentrated / IV / nasal / oral / saline18 [eI] verdnnte Lsung16
solution wssrige Lsung17 Kochsalzlsung18
11

suppository [spztri] n MeSH Zpfchen, Suppositorium


solid cone-shaped1 [oU] dosage form for introduction into the rectum or vagina [dZ] that readily kegelfrmig1 schmilzt2
[e] melts2 at body temperature befeuchten3
Moisten3 the suppository by placing it in a cup of water for 10 sec before rectal im Krper verbleiben4
Zpfchen einfhren5
insertion. For best results the suppository should be retained4 for at least 3 hours.
Stuhlzpfchen6 12
Use to place/insert5 a suppository rectal / benzocaine / laxative6 suppository

vial [vaIl] or phial [faIl] n term Stechampulle, (der) Vial,


sim ampul(e) or ampoule1 [QmpJul] n term Ampullenflasche
small receptacle2 [se] (usually of glass) for holding liquids, and esp. medicines which are Ampulle1 Behlter2
typically withdrawn3 [n] with syringes for IV or IM injection; ampuls are hermetically sealed4 entnommen3 verschlossen4
[i] vials which need to be broken for use entsorgen5
Discard5 opened vials after 96 hours. Remove the vial from packaging6 just before Verpackung6
use and shake well. The vial should be rolled not shaken to dissolve the drug. 0.05 Einzeldosisampullen7
mg/mL is packaged as single-use ampuls7, all other strengths8 as multiple-dose vials. Konzentrationen8
Use plastic / reaction / diluent [I] / multiple dose9 vial opened / 4-mL size ampul Mehrfachentnahmeflasche9 13

lozenge [lzndZ] n clin syn pastil(le) [pQstlpQstil] n clin Pastille, Lutschtablette


(i) a dose of medicine in the form of a small pellet (ii) a small aromatic or medicated candy ganz schlucken1
lutschen2
Dissolve slowly in the mouth, do not bite or chew [tSu] lozenges or swallow [] Hustenpastille, -bonbon3
them whole1 [hoUl]. He was sucking2 [] a lozenge.
Lutschtablette gegen Hals-
Use menthol / iron / cough3 [kf] / sore throat4 lozenge benzocaine [keI]/ chlora-
schmerzen4
septic / blackcurrant / sugar-free lozenge fruit / menthol / sweetened / chewable
14
/ throat4 / antibiotic pastille

antidote [QntIdoUt] n & v MeSH & inf Gegenmittel, -gift, Antidot;


drugs that can neutralize [u] toxic substances1 or counteract2 [aU] their effects Gegenmittel verabreichen
This medication is to be used as an antidote for emergency use in poisoning3. Gift(stoff)e1 entgegenwirken2
bei Vergiftungsnotfllen3
Use universal / physiologic [fIz]/ chemical4 [ke] antidote antidote to / against
chemisches Gegenmittel4 15

pack(age) [pQkIdZ] n & v sim packet1[pQkIt], carton2 [A] n Packung; verpacken


(n) container (glass bottle, carton, packets for powders etc.) for dispensing drugs Schachtel, Packung1
in adequate doses (Papp)Karton2 Verpackung3
packaging3 n repackaging n Blisterpackung4
Klinik-, Anstaltspackung5
Keep in the protective packaging until used. Each blister card4 contains one day's
kindersichere Verpackung6
dosage (14 cards per package). Dispense in the original carton to protect the solution
Einzeldosispackung7
from light.
Use dose / triple [I] card / hospital5 pack double-barrier / child-resistant6 / unit-
16
dose7 packaging

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22 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS At the Dentist's

package insert n MeSH syn patient instruction [] leaflet [i] or sheet n Packungsbeilage,
important product information for the patient (composition1, mode of action2, dosage3, Beipackzettel
administration4, indications, contra-indications5, side effects6, precautions [] etc.) Zusammensetzung1 Wirkungswei-
Carefully read the package insert for specific dosing guidelines7 [aI]. All drug doses, se2 Dosierung3 Anwendungsweise4
6 indications, and contraindications should be confirmed in the package insert. Gegenanzeigen, Kontraindikatio-
Use to check the / patient (abbr PPI) package insert the manufacturers patient nen5 Nebenwirkungen6
information sheet Dosierungsrichtlinien7 17

precautions [prIkSnz] n MeSH & inf Vorsichtsmanahmen


these are warnings to take preventive1 or security measures2 [eZ], e.g. not to exceed [i] the vorbeugende Manahmen1 Sicher-
recommended dosage3, do not take with alcohol, avoid excessive heat, keep drugs out of the heitsmanahmen2 empfohlene
reach of children, etc. Dosis nicht berschreiten3
precautionary1 adj caution4 [kSn] n & v Vorsicht; warnen4 Schlfrigkeit,
Caution in increasing dosage is recommended. These precautions do not apply to Benommenheit5 Beeintrchtigung
der Fahrtchtigkeit6 Distanzein-
short-term IV use unless otherwise specified. Use caution when driving or operating
machinery because of possible drowsiness5 [aUz], impairment [e] of motor skills6 schtzung7 zu bercksichtigende
and/or judgement [dZdZ-] of distance7, etc. Vorsichtsmanahmen8 warnen
vor9 18
Use precautions to consider8 / while using this medication to caution against9

storage [strIdZ] n Lagerung


the conditions under which drugs are kept1 are decisive [aI] for their shelf life2 and stability3 gelagert/ aufbewahrt werden1
Haltbarkeit2 Stabilitt3 licht-
Store below 40C (104F) in a tight [taIt], light-resistant4 container and protect from
undurchlssig4 Wirkung behalten5
freezing. Fomepizole is stable [eI] for at least 48 hs when refrigerated [dZ] or if
ber das Verfalldatum hinaus6
stored1 at room temperature. The tablet will maintain potency5 through the expira-
19
tion date6 provided the bottle cap is replaced tightly after each use.

Clinical Phrases
These tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. Diese Tabletten sollten auf nchternen Magen
eingenommen werden. Take these capsules with meals. Nehmen Sie diese Kapseln zu den Mahl-
zeiten ein. The drug is well tolerated. Das Medikament ist gut vertrglich. Protect from light!
Lichtschutz erforderlich. This drug has a particularly swift onset of action. Dieses Medikament wirkt
besonders rasch. Consult your family doctor if symptoms persist. Bei anhaltenden Beschwerden
sollten Sie Ihren Hausarzt aufsuchen. Store in a cool, dry place. Protect from heat and moisture.
Khl und trocken aufbewahren! For expiration date see bottom of container. Verfalldatum auf der
Unterseite des Behlters beachten!

Unit 6 At the Dentist's


Related Units: 7 Basic Dental Equipment, Part 5 DENTISTRY

dentist n MeSH syn dental practitioner [tIS] or surgeon [srdZn] n term Zahnarzt
a doctor licenced [aIs] to treat the teeth and the associated structures in the oral cavity; dentists Kieferorthopden1
may be specialized in various fields of dentistry, e.g. orthodontists1, endodontists, or Kinderzahnrzte2
pedodontists2 [i]; their academic title is D.D.S. (Doctor of Dental Surgery or D.M.D. (Doctor konservierende Zahnheilkunde,
of Medical Dentistry) Zahnerhaltung3
More than 90% of patients who see a dentist less than once a year suffer tooth loss. assistierte Zahnheilkunde4
The referring dentist had requested placement of implants in the area of the right Zahngesundheit5
mandibular molars. Zahnpflege6 zahnmedizinischer
Use to see/visit/consult the dentist general / cosmetic / private / prescribing dentist Behandlungsplan7
preventive / restorative3 / prosthetic / implant / geriatric / pediatric / four-hand- Zahnarztphobie, Zahnbehandlungs-
ed4 dentistry dental profession / health5 / medicine / care6 / patient / treatment angst, Angst vor dem Zahnarzt(be-
plan7 / procedures / anxiety8 [aI]/ injection dental / oral9 / maxillofacial10 such)8
[-feISl] surgeon dentist-patient relationship Oralchirurg(in)9
Gesichts- u. Kieferchirurg(in)10 1

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At the Dentist's BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 23

dental practice n sim dental office or BE dental surgery1 n (i) Zahnarztpraxis


(i) rooms where dentists see and treat patients (ii) daily routine of a practitioner (ii) Praxisalltag, Praxis-
This is essential for all dentists in private practice. This can be seen daily in the management
practice office. Time with the patient in the office is limited. Zahnarztpraxis, Ordination1
Use to run a2 practice private (dental) / clinical practice practice1 / periodontal eine Praxis fhren2 6
office (dental) office hours3 [aUz]/ setting or environment [aI]/ schedule4 Ordinationszeiten3
[skS]/ visit / manager / assistant surgery hours3 (BE) in-office control Praxisablauf4 2

dental staff [stQf] n syn dental personnel n espBE Personal, Belegschaft


employees at an organised dental facility, institution or hospital who provide dental services to Personal einstellen1
patients Hilfspersonal2
Perhaps the surplus of dentists has lowered interest in having dental staff members Personaleinstellung3
perform more clinical functions.
Use to hire1 [aI]/recruit/train/fire staff hospital / experienced / friendly dental staff
new / laboratory / nursing / ancillary 2 [sI] staff staff recruitment3 [u]/ mem-
3
ber / meeting

dental or dentist's assistant n MeSH Zahnarztassistent(in),


key member of the dental team who directly assists the dentist at chairside1 and may also be Zahnarzthelfer(in)
delegated2 to provide intraoral dental services that do not require the skill and judgement of a am Behandlungsstuhl1 angewiesen,
dentist abgestellt2 Stuhlassistenz3 Instru-
chairside assistance3 n mentieren4 selbstndig eine Be-
Today's assistants are no longer just responsible for passing instruments4 and handlung durchfhren5 zahnmedi-
zinische(r) Fachangestellte(r)6 Den-
materials but also provide hands-on care5.
Use accredited or registered (abbr RDA)/ clinical / administrative dental assistant talhygieniker(in), Hygieneassis-
dental nurse6 (BE)/ hygienist7 / front office manager / ancillary staff8 chairside tent(in)7 zahnmedizinisches Hilfs-
assistant / equipment / dental work / manner personal8 4

dental (laboratory) technician [teknISn] n MeSH Zahntechniker(in)


professional trained in making dental prostheses [prsTisIz], orthodontic appliances [aI], etc. Ermittlung der Zahnfarbe1
on a dentist's orders within a dental office or in his own lab Rntgenassistent(in)2
Then the laboratory technician can apply porcelain [prslIn] and form the profile of
the restoration. The tooth form and shade recordings1 were performed by a dental
technician at a dental laboratory.
5
Use x-ray [eks] or radiology2 technician in-office dental laboratory

(dental) receptionist [rIsepSnIst] n MeSH Sprechstundenhilfe,


assistant at the reception desk1 who manages the appointments, telephone calls, office Rezeptionsassistent(in)
schedule, etc. Anmeldung1
The receptionist is not only the up-front contact for the patient but is also involved aushelfen2
in book-keeping or backing up2 in the lab, all of which require a considerable einschieben3
6
amount of insight. All right, I'll try to squeeze3 [i] you in today.

reception room n syn waiting room n Warteraum, -zimmer


In the dentist's reception room there is a video which covers various dental pro- aufgeklrte Einwilligung,
Einwilligungserklrung
cedures, introduces the patient to treatment options, and even helps to handle
informed consent1 efficiently. (nach Aufklrung)1
7
Use waiting area / list / period [I]/ time / chairs

practice leaflet [liflt] n Patienteninformation


contains information on office hours, facilities1 [sIl], dental care (e.g. dental hygienist2 [aIdZ]), Einrichtungen1
appointment system, treatment available (domiciliary visits3, etc.), fees4 [i] and charges5 Dentalhygieniker(in)2 Hausbesuche3
[tSArdZiz], practice philosophy, etc. for actual and potential patients Honorare4 Gebhren5 8

dental operatory n term syn (dental) treatment room n Behandlungsraum


Surface contamination1 in the dental operatory is a constant issue. Why cant I be Oberflchenkontamination1
Sedierung2
with my child in the dental treatment room during the sedation2? Is parental pre-
sence in the dental operatory desirable?
Use open / closed / computerized dental operatory dental-operatory suite / equip-
ment / unit or chair / light / wastewater hygiene treatment room (dental)
9
treatment room procedures / disinfection / emergencies

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24 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS At the Dentist's

(dental) appointment n sim (dental) visit1 n Zahnarzttermin, (Zahn)Be-


visit to the dentist arranged in advance2 handlungstermin
(re)appoint3 v interappointment adj Arztbesuch, Hausbesuch1
im Voraus2
6
My receptionist will give you a new appointment. During the first two years, no
(neuen) Termin geben3 nicht ein-
more than 6 months should elapse between hygiene visits. We'll have to reappoint
gehaltener Termin4
Mr Hill.
Termin fr Abdrucknahme5
Use to fix/schedule or arrange/give/make/have/miss/cancel an appointment dental
Ein-, Anprobetermin6
appointment form broken4 / examination / impression5 [eS]/ try-in6 / postin-
Kontrolltermin7 Nachsorgetermin8
sertion / extra / delivery appointment review or checkup7 / followup / mainte-
festgelegter/ geplanter Termin9
nance8 / recall / scheduled9 appointment appointment card / book by ap-
nur nach Vereinbarung10
pointment only10 initial / emergency / return visit annual / regular / hygiene
Behandlungsplan m. 5 Sitzungen11
visits a five-appointment protocol11 interappointment flareup12 [e]
akute Verschlechterung vor dem
nchsten Termin12 10

cancellation n clin Terminabsage


A backup list of patients who will come in at short notice1 is necessary auf Abruf1 kurzfristig2 Vorgangs-
weise bei Terminabsagen3 Ausfall-
for last-minute2 cancellations. What is the cancellation policy3 if I miss a
dental appointment? gebhr wegen Terminabsage4
11
Use cancellation fee4 [i]/ form / list

consultation [knslteISn] n MeSH rztliche Beratung,


meeting with your dentist where (s)he discusses your treatment plan Konsultation
consult1 v consulting adj consultant2 n (BE) zu Rate ziehen, konsultieren1
Konsiliarius; leitender Facharzt
You should seek [i] the consultation3 of an endodontist. Casts4 on a semiadjustable
(i. brit. Krankenhaus)2
[dZ] articulator5 were used for surgical consultation and patient education.
hinzuziehen3 Modelle4
Use to seek/obtain/require consultation dental / dentist-patient / presurgical / pros-
teiljustierbarer Artikulator5
thodontic6 / implant / orthodontic consultation telephone / free or complimen-
(zahn)prothetische Beratung6
tary / initiale comprehensive7 / cosmetic / emergency consultation consulta-
eingehende Beratung7
tion room / hours8 / visit
Sprechstunde8 12

referral n MeSH & clin rel second opinion1 n berweisung


(re)directing patients to a specialist or a specialized medical center for definitive treatment Zweitgutachten, zweite Meinung1
zur medizinischen Abklrung2
refer to v term referring adj
erwnschte berweisung3
The patient was referred back to his dentist for the final restoration. She was referred berweisungsschein4
for a medical evaluation2 which resulted in a diagnosis of osteoporosis.
13
Use the referring dentist dental / self3-referral referral form4 / assistance

treatment or management plan n Therapie-, Behandlungsplan


sheet of paper or special index card1 used to record treatment progress Karteikarte1
implantatgesttzter Zahnersatz2
A combined consultation involving a restorative dentist and maxillofacial surgeon is Behandlungsmglichkeiten3
critical for optimal treatment planning and coordination of implant-retained [eI]
prostheses2 [prsTisIz].
Use to develop/outline/modify/reassess/cancel the treatment plan provisional /
written / dental / underbite / five-appointment / preoperative treatment plan
14
treatment approach / options3 [pSnz]/ alternative / considerations / decisions

dental chart [tSArt] n clin syn treatment or medical card n term BE Patientenbogen, Karteikarte
file or index card used to record the patient's history (carious teeth, etc.) and treatment Rntgenbilder1 zahnrztliche
progress Krankengeschichte/ Anamnese2
The number of x-rays1 taken should be recorded on the patient's chart. The initial Parodontalstatus3
Abformungen4
step in patient management is the collection of a detailed medical and dental his-
tory2, periodontal charting3, and diagnostic casts4.
Use dental / primary teeth eruption / periodontal3 / three-dimensional charting
15
(dental/followup) appointment card

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Dental Operatory Equipment BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 25

checkup n clin sim followup1, recall2 n term Vorsorgeuntersuchung,


dental visit where the condition of the teeth is inspected for asymptomatic lesions [iZ] Kontrolluntersuchung
This patient did not come for a regular checkupthis was an out-of-hours emergency Nachuntersuchung, Nachsorge1
Wiederbestellung2
[rdZ] visit3. At each checkup the restorations are inspected for mobility.
Use to have/go for a checkup annual4 / routine / final checkup regular / weekly Notfallbehandlung auerhalb 7
checkups follow-up exam(ination)1 / visit / radiograph / report recall system5 der Ordinationszeit3
/ schedule / interval / visit / examination jhrliche Kontrolle4
Recall-, Vormerksystem5
Note: Many dental offices have a recall system administered by the
receptionist who invites the patients at regular intervals (telephone calls or
16
appointment cards).

Clinical Phrases
When was the last time you saw a dentist? Wann waren Sie das letzte Mal beim Zahnarzt? What
kind of dental treatments have you had previously? Welche Behandlungen wurden schon durch-
gefhrt? Do you occasionally grind your teeth or bite your nails? Knirschen Sie manchmal mit
den Zhnen oder kauen Sie an den Ngeln? Which tooth is causing the problem? Welcher Zahn tut
Ihnen weh? Do you get pain with hot or cold liquids? Haben Sie Schmerzen, wenn Sie heie oder
kalte Flssigkeiten trinken? Have your gums been bleeding? Hatten Sie Zahnfleischbluten? I will
now tap your teeth with my mirror to find out where they are sore. Ich werde jetzt mit dem Zahn-
spiegel leicht auf die Zhne klopfen, um festzustellen, wo es weh tut. How do you feel about the
appearance of your teeth? Sind Sie kosmetisch mit Ihren Zhnen zufrieden? Have you ever noticed
any popping sounds in your jaw joints? Haben Sie jemals ein Knacken im Kiefergelenk bemerkt?
Which tooth is loose? Welcher Zahn wackelt? Do you bleed a lot after extraction? Bluten Sie stark
bei Extraktionen? Are you currently attending your doctor for any medical condition? Sind Sie
derzeit in rztlicher Behandlung? Are you on any medication? Nehmen Sie derzeit irgendwelche
Medikamente? Have you ever been hospitalized? Waren Sie jemals in stationrer Behandlung?
Come back in six months for a check-up. Kommen Sie in 6 Monaten zur Kontrolle.

Unit 7 Dental Operatory Equipment


Related Units: 6 At the Dentist's, 30 Basic Dental Materials, 24 Surgical Instruments,
31 Dental Lab Procedures & Equipment 32 Dental Instruments

dental chair n rel dentist('s) or operator stool1 n (Zahn)Behandlungs-, Dental-,


seat with a foot and head rest2 in which the patient can be positioned for treatment as required Patientenstuhl
chairside adj term Zahnarztstuhl, -hocker1
Kopfsttze2
All patients were seated comfortably in a dental chair in an upright position. Now
Rckenlehne absenken3
we'll whisk you backwards3 a little. This dental operator stool features an adjustable,
auf dem Behandlungsstuhl liegen4
ergonomic lumbar support and convenient pneumatic seat height adjustment. This
Patientenumhang, Dentalserviette5
test can be performed at chairside and takes only a few minutes to complete.
Zahnbehandlungsangst, Zahnarzt-
Use to lie back or recline4/ be recumbent [] in the dental chair foot-operated /
phobie6
hydraulic / mobile / reclining dental chair dental chair unit / equipment / bib5 /
Stuhlassistenz7
position / anxiety6 to make a consultation at chairside chairside monitoring /
Drehstuhl, -hocker8
assistance7 / procedure / techniques / bleaching / communication / test / steril-
Behandlungszeit, -dauer9
ization / darkroom operatory / pivoting8 / ergonomic / (dental) assistant's
1
(chairside) stool chair time9 (disruption) / disinfection / occupancy rate

dental unit n (Zahn)Arztelement,


central apparatus [eI] in the treatment room that is supplied with all the main tools and (Behandlungs)Einheit
equipment required for standard dental therapy Vorsichtsmanahmen1
Use standard precautions1
(gloves, safety glasses and face mask) when removing the Amalgamabscheider2
chairside amalgam trap filter2 from the dental unit.
2
Use portable dental unit dental unit water (system) / waterline (contamination)

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26 BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS Dental Operatory Equipment

dental engine [endZIn] n Elektro-, Luftmotor


motor that drives a handpiece with drills with the help of electricity or pressed air bedient1
Fuschalter2
Most dental engines can be operated1
via a foot control2.
The osteotomy was per-
Rundbohrer3
formed over the lesion using a low-speed dental engine with a round bur3.
7 3
Use high-speed / mobile / foot-driven dental engine dental engine belts / repair

chip-blower [tSIp bloU] n clin syn chip or air syringe [sIrIndZ] n term Luft-, Spanblser
instrument with a pressure tank and a metal nozzle1 [nzl] for drying or blowing the debris2 Ansatzstck1
[i] out of a tooth cavity that is being excavated for a filling Bohrstaub2
To prevent possible air emboli3, turn off the chip blower (located below the hand- Luftemboli3
Handstck4
piece4 turbine). Gently dry the tooth surfaces with an air syringe.
Use wet / dry chip blower chip blower function / button dental / dry / 3-way air
4
syringe

water syringe n rel cooling1, irrigation2 n MeSH Wasserspritze


fluid channel [tS] usually integrated in the handpiece3 for cooling and irrigating the drill site Khlung1
Splung2
An additional air-water spray from a triple [I] (3-in-1) syringe was used. The coolant Handstck3
is discharged from the tip of the drill, therefore the cooling and rinsing effect of these
Spraywasser-Luftkhlung4
drills is better than with externally cooled ones.
Khlmittel5
Use to operate the / autoclavable / (dental) air-/ water syringe internally / exter-
Splung mit physiologischer
nally irrigated drill dental bur / air-water spray4 / spot cooling cooling agent
Kochsalzlsung6
[eIdZnt] or coolant5 / water / conditions oral / dental / nasal [eI] / sinus [aI] /
grndliche Splung7
pulsatile / continuous / water irrigation saline6 [eI] / subgingival / chlorhexi-
5
dine / copious7 / one-time or single irrigation

hypodermic [aI] needle n rel (dental) syringe1 n & v ? U24-5 Injektionsnadel, -kanle
thin hollow needle attached to a syringe used mainly for subcutaneous injection of fluids (e. g. Injektionsspritze; (ein)spritzen1
anesthetics, vaccines2 [vQks-] and other medications) but also for aspiration and irrigation Impfstoffe2
purposes Einstichstelle3
Slightly retract the skin overlying the vessel superior to the point of needle entry3. grolumige Hohlnadel4
Use dental / fine / ultra-thin / 19-gauge [geIdZ]/ butterfly / IV (intravenous [i]) infu- Punktionsnarbe5
sion needle large-bore4 [br]/ syringe needle needle site3 [aI]/ electrode /
6
biopsy [aI]/ puncture [] mark5 / stick injury dental / prefilled / capped syringe

saliva [aI] ejector [IdZekt] n syn aspirator n term Speichelsauger, Saugkanle


suction [] device1 usually operated by the assistant to aspirate saliva or coolants from the oral (Ab)Saugvorrichtung1
cavity (ab)saugen, aspirieren; Aspirat2
aspiration n term aspirate2 [v QspeItn Qspt] v & n ? U22-16 ansammeln3
schlrfend4
Saliva pooling3 at the corners of the mouth needs to be removed with the saliva reichlich5
ejector. The aspirator must be inserted farther. There was the constant slurping4 []
Saugerspitze6
sound of the aspirator tip picking up the copious5 flow of saline [seIlaIn-lin]
coolant. Saliva was aspirated and enamel powder was washed with 0.5 ml of KCl
buffer.
Use disposable / autoclavable saliva ejector saliva ejector tip6 / hose dental /
7
saliva / surgical / high-speed / plastic aspirator

(dental) cuspidor [] n clin & term syn bowl [oU], spitoon [u] BE n clin Splbecken, Speischale
bowl with a tumbler1 [] of rinsing water for the patient to flush2 [] debris, saliva, blood or (Mund)Splbecher1
fluids wegsplen2
The cuspidor operates smoothly with the timed bowl rinse3 and swing-away arm. zeitlich programmierte
Speischalenrundsplung3
The porcelain spittoon bowl can be easily removed for thermo-disinfection.
8
Use (dental) chair / rotatable / flush-flow cuspidor cuspidor bowl / unit / waste

dental (operatory) or task light n sim operating light1 n Behandlungsfeldleuchte


lights that can be positioned by means of a swivel arm2 to allow for good visualization [Z] of the Operationsleuchte1
oral cavity or operative site Schwenkarm2
Modern dental operatory lights allow most procedures to be performed from a heads Stirnlampe3
up, more ergonomic position.
Use surgical light source1 [srs] adjustable []/ high-intensity / halogen / LED /
9
overhead / ceiling-mounted task light headlight3

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Dental Operatory Equipment BASIC MEDICAL & HEALTH TERMS 27

protective spectacles n syn safety specs or goggles BE n Schutzbrille


eyewear [e] for the patient used mainly to shield the eyes as a major protective measure [eZ] abgedeckt1
Abdecktuch2
Dark eyeglasses were used to slightly discourage [] the patient from directly
Beschmutzen3
observing the passage of the instrument. The patient is provided with protective
10 7
spectacles and draped1 [eI] with a protective napkin2 to preclude soiling3 of clothes.

(dental) instrument table n Instrumententisch, -ablage


mostly a tray1 mounted [aU] on a swivel arm; this is where the assistant lays out2 [leIz] Auflagetablett, Tray1
the instruments needed auflegen2
instrument cupboard3 [kbd] n Instrumentenschrank3
Use mobile / adjustable / operating room instrument table instrument tray / stand /
11
sterilization

pager [peIdZ] n syn beeper [i], bleep [i] n inf BE Piepser


device that makes a bleeping noise when the doctor is wanted on the telephone auspiepsen1
Funkpiepser2
page sb1 vt bleep1 v inf & jar
You are asked to carry this pager with you so that you can quickly respond in case of
an emergency [rdZ].
Use emergency / wireless2 / long-range pager pager system / number / scheme /
12
notification

intercom (system) n Gegensprechanlage


device1 enabling people in different rooms of a building to communicate Vorrichtung, Gert1
Behandlungsbereiche2
Wireless headsets with intercom capability are used in the reception and operatory
areas2 and allow staff to communicate. Call the hygienist on the intercom when
patient is ready.
Use office / voice / visual / 2-way / computerized intercom (system) intercom
13
announcement / software

Clinical Phrases
You can lean back now. Sie knnen sich jetzt zurcklehnen. Are you comfortable? Sitzen Sie
bequem? Open your mouth as wide as you can, please. Bitte den Mund ganz weit aufmachen.
Try to avoid swallowing now. Bitte jetzt nicht schlucken. Press your tongue against the roof of your
mouth. Die Zunge jetzt an den Gaumen drcken. Unclench your teeth. Unterkiefer ganz locker,
bitte. We'll have to take the bite now. Wir mssen jetzt einen Abdruck machen. Have a rinse,
please! Aussplen, bitte! Flush the debris thoroughly to make the bitter taste go away. Splen Sie
den Mund gut aus, damit der bittere Geschmack weggeht! Do not rinse out your mouth for the rest
of today. Heute sollten Sie nicht mehr den Mund splen. You must not have any solid food for five
hours. Sie drfen erst in 5 Stunden wieder feste Nahrung zu sich nehmen. Can you take out your
dentures, please. Nehmen Sie bitte die Zahnprothese heraus.

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28 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS The Head & Neck

Unit 8 The Head & Neck


Related Units: 9 The Teeth, Part 5 DENTISTRY

head [hed] n MeSH (i) Kopf; (ii) Caput; (iii) Leiter


(i) top part of the body on the neck including the face, skull1 [], and brain Schdel1
(ii) major end of long bones, e.g. the femoral [e] head2 Oberschenkelkopf, Caput femoris2
(iii) top position in a team or a department an der Spitze stehen3
head3 v bareheaded4 [e] adj headache [hedeIk] n headless adj ohne Kopfbedeckung4
Tilt5your head backward and elevate the chin. The patient's head was placed neigen5
Kopf nach vorne neigen6
against the headrest so that the fixtures were perpendicular to the floor.
Use to shake/turn/flex6/hold one's head head and neck region [ridZn]/ tumor / Hochlagerung des Kopfes7
surgery head position / movement / rotation / elevation7 / examination / injury Schdelrntgen8 Kopfsttze9
/ film8 head rest or support9 / mirror10 / gear condyle / abutment / screw11 Stirnspiegel10 Schraubenkopf11
[skru]/ implant head sense of head fullness two-12/ bald-13 [] headed to doppelendig12 glatzkpfig13
zusteuern auf14 1
lose one's head head first to head for14 headless bone screw
8
face [feIs] v & n MeSH Gesicht; gegenberstehen,
(n) the front of the head including the forehead1 [frhed], the chin, the temples2, konfrontiert sein
and cheeks Stirn1 Schlfen2
facial [feISl] adj -faced adj midface n facies3 [feISIiz] n term Gesicht(sausdruck), Facies3
The first eruptions4 are seen on the face around the eyes and nose. The patient Ausschlag4
persistierende Gesichtsschmerzen5
complained of persistent facial pain5.
Use facial expression or gestures6 [dZestSz]/ muscles [mslz]/ contours / surface / Gesichtsausdruck, Mimik6
deformity / asymmetry facial bones / nerve / hair / injuries / trauma / Gesichts-, Fazialislhmung7 grobe
numbness / palsy7 [plzi] / support / prosthesis coarse [krs] facial features8 Gesichtszge8 gertetes Gesicht9
[fitSz] flushed9 [S]/ attractive / congenitally deformed / mask-like face to das Gesicht verziehen10
lose one's / to make a10 face face mask / lift / pack11 / cream [i] abnormal / Gesichtspackung11
moon / bird-like12 / adenoid facies red-/ purple-/ round-faced to face a prob- Vogelgesicht12
2
lem / death

eye [aI] v & n MeSH Auge; ansehen, mustern


paired organ of sight [saIt] located in the eye sockets [] (orbits)1 including the pupil2, Augenhhlen, Orbitae1 Pupille2
lense and retina (Augen)lid3 Wimpern4 Augapfel5
(eye)lid3 n eyebrow [aU] n eyelashes4 [Q] n eyeball5 n cross-eyed6 adj schielend6 Zucken7
mit bloem Auge8 Trnenscke,
Keep your eyes closed. Another method of retention involves the incorporation of an
Ringe unter den Augen9
auricular prosthesis as a part of the patient's eyeglasses. There was infrequent
blutunterlaufene Augen10
blinking and fluttering7 [] of the closed eyelids. This is not visible to the naked
blaues Auge11
[neIkId] eye8.
Blinzeln, Augenzwinkern12
Use to close/open the eyes bags under the9 eyes watery / red / bloodshot10 / puffy /
Sehprobentafeln13 Augenklappe14
dry eyes black11 / glass / prosthetic eye eye contact / movement / blinking12 /
Sehkraft15 Okular16
rubbing / charts13 [tS]/ patch14 [tS] eyeglasses / prosthesis / drops /-sight15 /
Augenzeuge17 3
piece16 / injury / witness17 / care to raise [eI] the / upper / lower eyelids

nose [noUz] v & n MeSH Nase; herumschnffeln


covering of the nasal cavity1 with the nostrils or nares2 [neiz] (term) through which we Nasenhhle1
breathe [briD] and smell Nasenlcher, Nares2
nasal [neIzl] adj naso- comb nosebleed3 n Nasenbluten3
Sinus paranasales, Nasenneben-
The primary site for nasal defects was the anterior maxilla at the base of the nose. A hhlen4
nose with a markedly depressed bridge is called saddle nose. These patients have
sich die Nase putzen,
coarse facial features, a broad, flat nose, and widely set eyes. There is blood in the
sich schnuzen5
nasal sinuses4 [aI].
Nasenwurzel6
Use to blow one's5 nose to speak/breathe through the nose tip / root6 [u]/ back or
Nasenrcken7
bridge7 / lining / deformity / ala / base of the nose runny / blocked-up8 nose
verstopfte Nase8
nasal height [haIt]/ concha9 [kNk]/ septum / bone / cavity / wall / aperture /
Nasenmuschel, Concha nasalis9
fossa / mucosa / floor nasal air flow / inlay / graft / prosthesis / decongestant
Nasenspray10
[dZe] spray10 nose job11
Nasenoperation11 4

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The Head & Neck BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 29

cheek [tSik] n MeSH Wange, Backe, Bucca


syn bucca [bk] n MeSH bukkal1 hing herunter2 Farbe3
eingefallene Wangen4
the fleshy part at either side of the face below the eyes
gertete Wangen5
-cheeked adj buccal1 adj term bucco- comb
Joch-, Wangenbein,
The sensory nerves of the lips and cheeks may still feel numb. The lower lid sagged2 Os zygomaticum6
[sQgd] permitting tears [tIz] to spill over the cheeks. Her cheeks had a rosy hue3 Wangenbeien7
[hju]. pausbckig8
Use fat / upper / lateral / sunken4 []/ rosy5 / flat / fatty cheeks cheekbone6 / Wangenschleimhaut9
contours / biting7 [aI]/ bite / support / retractor / muscles red/ chubby8 [tSbi]/
full-cheeked buccal mucosa9 / surface / vestibule / gingiva / musculature / cusp
5
/ dehiscence / fenestration defect buccolabial [eI]/lingual

chin [tSIn] n clin & MeSH Kinn, Mentum


syn mentum n term & MeSH vorspringender1 Unterkiefer2
Kinnvorsprung, Protuberantia
the protruding1 front portion of the lower jaw2 formed by the mental protuberance3 8
mentalis3
mental adj term genial [dZInaIl] adj mento-, genio- [dZinIoU] comb
Mundspitzen, Vorstlpen der Lip-
Test eyebrow elevation, smiling, lip pursing4, cheek puff5 and chin muscle contrac- pen4 Aufblasen d. Wangen5
tion. Even an accidental bump to the chin from an elbow can lead to traumat- Masseterreflex6 Kinnsttze7
ic capsulitis. The head must be tilted and the chin lifted so that the oropharynx Kinnkappe8 vorspringendes Kinn9
can be explored. schlaff herabhngendes Kinn10
Use chin reflex6 / protuberance3 / tilt / lift / rest7 chin musculature / contour / graft / Doppelkinn11 mit kantigem Kinn12
ptosis / cap8 unshaven / prominent9 / firm []/ sagging10 / double11 chin Foramen mentale13
square12-chinned mental foramen [eI] or canal13 / nerve / region genial Tuberculum mentale, Kinnhcker14
tubercle14 genioplasty15 /hyoid [aI] muscle mentolabial /plasty15 Kinn-, Genioplastik15 6

jaws [dZz] n clin & MeSH Kiefer


sim jawbone1 n clin Kieferknochen1
Oberkiefer, Maxilla2
bones of the skull (maxilla2
and mandible3) and adjacent [dZeIsnt] soft tissues that frame
the mouth and hold the teeth Unterkiefer, Mandibula3
zahnlose Kiefer4 Unterkieferrand5
In edentulous [-tSls] jaws4 of elderly persons, atrophy of the alveolar process is zusammengepresste Kiefer6
common. The skin of the lateral cheeks, jawline5, and neck is dissected free in the
(Unter)kieferwinkel, Angulus
subcutaneous plane. The pain is localized to the jaw, base of the tongue, pharynx or
mandibulae7 Kieferrelation8
larynx, tonsillar area, and ear.
Masseterreflex9 Zhnepressen10
Use upper2 / lower3 / opposing / broken / protrusive jaw both / clenched6 [tS]/
Kiefergelenkknacken11
retrusive jaws angle7 [QNgl]/ spasms / weakness of the jaw jaw position /
Kiefer-Lid-Phnomen12
relation8 / movement / muscle jaw (jerk [dZrk]) or reflex9 / clenching10 /
support / exercises jaw stiffness / clicking or popping11 / fracture / winking12
7
jawbone anatomy / architecture / defect / resorption / segment

mouth [maUT] n clin & MeSH Mund


sim oral [] cavity1 n term & MeSH Mundhhle, Cavitas oris1
weicher/ harter Gaumen2
opening to the lungs and stomach [k] including the throat, soft and hard palate2, teeth,
tongue [tN], the upper and lower lips Bissen, Schluck3
Mundwasser4 oral5
mouthful3 n mouthwash4 n oral5 adj term stomat-, oro-6 comb
den Mund betreffend, Stomato-6
These patients should not be given barium [e] by mouth5. The patient complained Mundschleimhautentzndung,
of a sore mouth7 and difficulty swallowing.
Stomatitis7 nchtern8
Use to open/close one's mouth wide / dry / edentulous / nothing by8 (abbr NPO)
den Mund wssrig machen9
mouth to make one's mouth water9 roof / floor / corner10 of the mouth
Mundwinkel10 Mundatmung11
mouth opening / rinse4 / breathing11 [i]/-watering12 / flora / guard13 [gArd]
lecker12 Zahnschutz13
oral health / mucosa / epithelium / function / hygiene [haIdZin]/ bacteria / envir-
orale Verabreichung14
onment / status [eI]/ administration14 / malignancies / rehabilitation orophar-
8
ynx /antral /nasal /facial stomatology /itis7 [aI]/ognathic system

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30 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS The Head & Neck

lip n clin & MeSH Lippe, Labium


syn labium [eI] n term, pl labia, sim prolabium1 n term Lippenwulst, -rot, Prolabium1 be-
grenzen2 Furche, Sulcus3 Lippen-
(i) one of the two fleshy muscular folds with an outer mucosa surrounding the mouth
(ii) a liplike structure bounding2 [aU] a cavity or groove3 [u] balsam4 labial, Lippen-5 Lippen-
saum6 Blschenbildung7 Schorfbil-
lip balm4 [bAlm] n labial5 [eI] adj term labio- or cheil(o)- [kaIl] comb
dung8 Oberlippengrbchen, Phil-
The oral cavity is bounded anteriorly by the vermilion border of the lips6. Vesicula- trum9 Lippen schrzen/ vorstl-
tion7, scabbing8, and crusting around the lips occurred over the next few days. The
pen10 sich d. Lippe lecken11 Lip-
infranasal groove in the midline of the upper lip is called the philtrum9 [f].
penspalte, Labium fissum, Hasen-
Use to pout10 [aU]/chew [tSu]/bite/suck []/lick or smack11/burn one's lips (short)
scharte12 aufgesprungene Lippen13
upper / lower / double / cleft12 or harelip [e] inner / red of the / open / closed /
breite/ wulstige Lippen14 sich
pouted / dry lips cracked or fissured13 / thick14 / swollen / scaling15 [eI] lips lip
schuppende Lippen15 Wundrand16
of a wound16 [u]/ reading /stick17 lip mucosa / musculature / support / con-
Lippenstift17 Lippenprofil18 Lippen-
tour18 / closure19 [oUZ]/ line20 / (in)competence21 / biting / retractor22 labial
schluss19 Lippenschlusslinie20 Lip-
tooth surface / vestibule23 / margin labial frenulum24 / consonant25 / ulcer []
pen(in)kompetenz21 Lippenhalter22
labiopalatal /buccal space cheilosis /itis26 [aI]/oplasty
8 labialer Mundvorhof23 Lippen-
bndchen, Frenulum labii24 Labial-,
Lippenlaut25 Lippenentzndung,
Cheilitis26 9

(oral) vestibule [vestIbjul] n term & MeSH (Mund)vorhof,


syn buccal [] cavity, vestibulum oris n IAT & MeSH Vestibulum oris
part of the mouth ouside the teeth and/or gums bounded1 [aU] laterally by the lips and the begrenzt1
cheeks, and by the reflections of the mucosa2 from the lips and cheeks to the gums Umschlagfalten der Schleimhaut2
vestibular3 adj term vestibulo- comb vestibulr3
flaches Vestibulum4
The patient presented with a severely resorbed mandible and a shallow vestibule4.
i. d. Mundvorhof hineinreichen5
The local vestibular swelling responded well to antibiotic therapy.
Vestibulum nasi, Naseneingang6
Use to extend into5/reconstruct/deepen the vestibule vestibule of the mouth / nose6
Mundvorhoftiefe7
labial / (labio)buccal vestibule vestibular surface / space / depth7 / mucosa /
Vestibulum-, Mundvorhof-
incision / sulcus [] vestibuloplasty8
plastik8 10

tongue [tN] n clin & MeSH (i) Zunge, Lingua, Glossa


syn lingua [lINgw] n IAT, glossa [] n term (ii) Sprache
(i) mobile muscular organ of taste1 and speech on the floor of the oral cavity covered with Geschmacksorgan1
mucous membrane2 which assists in chewing, swallowing3, and articulation4 Schleimhaut2 Schlucken3
(ii) language Aussprache, Artikulation4
lingual5 adj term glossal5 adj gloss-, -glossia comb lingual, zungenseitig5
The anterior two-thirds of the tongue (oral tongue) is limited posteriorly by the Zungenpapillen, Papillae
linguales6
circumvallate [-vQleIt] papillae6 [i] and includes the tip, dorsum, lateral borders,
and undersurface of the mobile tongue. To increase mobility of the tongue, the Ankyloglossie, Zungenver-
lingual frenum [i] may need cutting. Untreated tongue-tie7 may affect speech and wachsung7 behindern8
interfere with8 mastication and passive cleansing [e] of the teeth. Zunge herausstrecken/ zeigen9
Use to put out9/hold10/bite one's tongue clean / furred [] or coated11 / moist / d. Mund halten10 belegte Zunge11
parched [tS] or dry / fissured [IS] or scrotal or grooved12 [u]/ burning / bald [] Faltenzunge, L. plicata12
or glossy or glazed13 [eIz] tongue tip / base14 / margin [dZ]/ anterior/posterior Lackzunge13
third / thickening of the tongue mappy or geographic15 / bitten / inflamed [eI]/ Zungengrund, Radix linguae14
strawberry16 / smoker's / black hairy17 / cleft or bifid18 tongue tongue space / Landkartenzunge, L. geographica15
function / movement / pressing / paresis / depressor19 lingual nerve / tonsil20 / Himbeer-, Erdbeerzunge16
artery linguolabial glossal surface / ulcer glossopharyngeal muscle /epiglot- schwarze Haarzunge, Melano-
tic folds /palatine nerve /dynia [I]/ptosis glossitis21 glossie17 Spaltzunge, L. bifida18
Zungenspatel, -halter19
Zungenmandel, Tonsilla lingualis20
Zungenentzndung, Glossitis21 11

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The Head & Neck BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 31

throat [TroUt] n clin & MeSH syn pharynx [fQrINks] n term & MeSH, (i) Rachen, Schlund, Pharynx
sim fauces1 [fsiz] n pl term (ii) Hals, Kehle
(i) the fauces and pharynx Schlund(enge), Fauces1
(ii) in genE, the front part of the neck between the chin and the clavicle2 Schlsselbein, Clavicula2
throaty3 adj clin pharyngeal [-dZIl] adj term faucial [fSl] adj heiser, rau; guttural3
wickeln4 Schal5 Halssplungen6
The throat must be packed in order to protect the pharynx and airway from blood Gurgelmittel7 sich ruspern8
and debris shed during the operation. Wrap4 [rQp] this scarf5 around your throat.
Halsschmerzen9 Halskratzen10
You need warm throat irrigations6 or gargles7. The patient underwent palatoplasty
Rachenabstrich11 HNO12
and pharyngeal flap surgery.
entzndeter/ geschwollener
Use to clear one's8 throat sore9 / scratchy10 [tS]/ dry throat throat swab11 []/
Rachen13
pain / infection / culture / pack ear, nose and throat (abbr ENT)12 posterior /
Rachenmandel, Tonsilla
examination of the pharynx pharyngeal mucosa / wall / abscess / candidiasis /
pharyngealis14 raue Stimme15
infection / paralysis / cancer / flap surgery injected13 [dZe] fauces pharyngeal
12
or faucial14 tonsil throaty voice15

neck n clin & MeSH syn cervix [srvIks] n IAT & MeSH, (i) Hals, Nacken 8
sim nape [neIp] or nucha1 [n(j)uk] n term (ii) Zervix, Collum
(i) narrowed connection between the trunk [] and the head Nacken1 zervikal, Hals-2 Nacken-3
(ii) neck-like narrowing in bones, teeth, etc. Ausschnitt, Dekolletee4 beweglich,
cervical2 adj term nuchal3 adj MeSH neckline4 n clin weich5 verspannt6 H. (ver)drehen7
Nackensteifigkeit8 Halsknoten, -tu-
The neck was supple5 []. Her neck muscles [mslz] were tight6 [taIt] and she com- mor9 Halskette10 Halsschwellung11
plained of a headache. Pruritic lesions are particularly common around the neckline.
Kiefergelenkhals, Collum mandibu-
Use to twist7/break one's neck back of the1 neck neck pain / muscles / stiffness8 /
lae12 zervikale Lymphknoten13
mass or lump9 /lace10 [-ls]/ veins / injury / dissection / surgery swollen11 /
Halswirbelsule14 Halskrause15
condylar12 neck nuchal rigidity8 [rIdZIdti] cervical (lymph) nodes13 [oU]/
13
spine14 [aI]/ rib / collar15

Adam's apple n clin syn laryngeal [-dZ(I)l] prominence n term Adamsapfel, Prominentia
cartilage1 [kartlIdZ] of the voice box (larynx)2 [lQrINks] moving up and down in the front of the laryngea
neck, esp prominent in men Knorpel1 Kehlkopf, Larynx2
The cricothyroid [aI] membrane is about 1.5 fingerwidths below the laryngeal prom- begrenzt3 Ringknorpel,
14
inence and is bounded3 [aU] caudally by the cricoid cartilage4. Cartilago cricoidea4

ear [I] n IAT & MeSH Ohr


organ of hearing [I] and equilibrium1 consisting of the outer, middle, and inner or sensory ear2 Gleichgewicht1 Innenohr2 Trom-
melfell, Membrana tympani3 Ohr-
eardrum3 [] n earlobe4
[oU] n auditory5
[] adj term [] aural5
lppchen4 (Ge)hr-, auditiv5 Aus-
adj oto-, oro-, -otia comb

schlag6 Haaransatz7 Mittelohr8
The rash6 typically begins at the hairline7 and behind the ears. One patient had lost a
Ohrepithese9 Ohrschutz, Watte-
natural ear in an accident. Four patients with microtia or anotia received surgical
pfropf10 Ohrenschmalz, Cerumen11
reconstruction of the deformed ear.
Boxerohren12 Gehrgang, Meatus
Use inner2 / middle8 / external / deformed / missing / artificial9 ear ear prosthesis9
acusticus13 Gehrknchelchen,
/ache [eIk]/ drops / plugs10 []/ wax11 / skin defect / deformities cauliflower12
Ossicula auditus14 Hrschwelle15
[] ears auditory canal or meatus13 [IeI]/ ossicles14 / threshold15 [TreSHoUld]
Ohr(en)fluss, Otorrhoe16 15
aural discharge16 / pressure

hair [he] n IAT & MeSH, usu sing Haar


slender threadlike1 [e] outgrowth [-oUT] covering the human scalp2, face (beard [I], mustache3 fadenfrmig1 Kopfhaut2
[mstQS]) and body hair; hair loss leads to a receding [i] hairline4 and finally to baldness5 []; Schnurrbart3 Haaransatz4
artificial hair is called a toupee [tupeI] or wig6 Glatzkpfigkeit5 Haarteil, Percke6
hairy adj hairless adj hairdo or hairstyle7 n haircut n Frisur7 Nhe8
Split-thickness skin grafts were also employed in patients whose hair-bearing tissues sprliche Achsel- u. Schambe-
haarung9
were in close proximity8 to the implant sites. Drugs can cause diffuse hair loss. This
disease favors hairy areas like the scalp. These patients typically have sparse [A] kastanienbraunes Haar10
axillary and pubic hair9. fettiges Haar11 gelocktes Haar12
Use to grow/cut/wash/comb hair blond or fair [fe]/ auburn10 []/ graying / dry / brchiges Haar13
greasy11 [i]/ curly12 []/ shoulder-length / brittle13 / blood-stained hair hair Geschmacksstiftchen14
turns gray / falls out scalp / body / ear / nose / taste14 hair hair brush / root15 / Haarwurzel15
16
shaft / follicle / thinning / growth / loss / removal / transplant

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32 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS The Teeth

Unit 9 The Teeth


Related Units: 8 The Head & Neck, 10 Dentition & Mastication, 11 Human Sounds & Speech, Part 5 DENTISTRY

tooth [tuT] n clin & MeSH, teeth [tiT] pl syn dens n IAT, pl dentes Zahn, Zhne; Dens, Dentes
one of the bony structures set in the alveoli [aI] of the jaws [dZz], used in mastication Artikulation, Aussprache1
and assisting in articulation1 pochender/ klopfender Schmerz2
dental adj maxillodental adj term interdental adj dento- comb Lockerung3 Zungenbrennen4
Zahnbeweglichkeit5
The tooth may become sensitive to hot or cold, and then severe continuous throbbing Zahn(hart)substanz6 Zahnform7
pain2 follows. Oral features [fitSz] of vitamin C deficiency include loosening3 of
Zahnablagerungen8
teeth, swelling, bleeding, ulceration [s] and a burning sensation in the tongue4 [tN].
Nachbarzhne9
Use to examine/tap/lose/pull (or extract/treat/fill a tooth tooth surface / mobility5 /
Gegenzhne, Antagonisten10
substance6 / loss / socket []/ retention / wear index (abbr TWI) toothache
Zahnfehlstellung11
[eIk]/ form7 / position / contacts / stability / color / care / accumlated material8
mehrwurzelige Zhne12
(abbr TAM) adjacent9 [dZeIs]/ opposing10 teeth natural / artificial / poorly
devitale Zhne13
aligned11 [aIn]/ residual teeth mandibular / maxillary / multirooted12 / devital-
9 ized or non-vital13 [aI]/ tender14 / damaged / injured / crowded15 / spaced16 /
schmerzempfindliche Zhne14
engstehende Zhne15
rotten17 teeth pegged18 / broken / loose / knocked out / cracked / chipped /
lckige Zhne16 sehr schlechte
extracted tooth dental articulation / esthetics / geriatrics19 / senescence20
Zhne17 Zapfenzahn18
interdental space / cleaning / (tooth)brush / pick / consonant maxillodental
Alterszahnmedizin19
anomaly / deformity / surgery
Zahnalterung20 1

Intraoral view of a patient with peg-shaped


lateral incisors in the maxillary arch
(indicated by arrows).

anterior [I] teeth n term syn front teeth n clin, opposite posterior teeth1 n term Frontzhne,
the cutting teeth (centrals, laterals, cuspids []); the posterior teeth are the bicuspids [aI] and Vorderzhne (ugs)
molars Seitenzhne, (ugs) Backenzhne1
Ceramic veneers2 are white, thin ceramic shells, made to fit precisely onto the front Keramikveneer2 teilbezahnte Pa-
of anterior teeth. Treatment of partially edentulous patients3 with missing anterior tienten3 groe kosmetische He-
teeth presents a specific cosmetic challenge4 to the dentist. Without implants, when rausforderung4 weitspannige fest-
posterior teeth were lost, treatment options included a long-span fixed partial den- sitzende Zahnteilprothese5 aus-
ture5 or a removable prosthesis. geschlagene/ luxierte Frontzhne6
Use maxillary or upper / mandibular / deciduous / permanent / natural / artificial / Seitenzhne der Laterotrusionssei-
traumatized / avulsed6 anterior teeth missing / opposite / working-side7 / te7 Frontzahnfhrung8 frontzahn-
restored / impacted posterior teeth anterior tooth form / guidance8 / protected geschtzte Okklusion, Okklusions-
articulation9 konzept mit Frontzahnfhrung9 2

incisor [sI] or incisal tooth n IAT & MeSH syn cutting tooth n clin Schneidezahn, Dens incisivus
one of the four front teeth the centrals and laterals with cutting (incisal) edges in each jaw Mamelon-Strukturen1
at the apex [eI] of the dental arch [tS] linker mittlerer Schneidezahn2
incisal adj term interincisal adj lateraler/ seitlicher Schneidezahn3
Inzisalpunkt4
The crown of the maxillary central incisor is roughly triangular in outline, the incisal Inzisalkante, Schneidekante5
edge is nearly a straight, slightly crescent-shaped line. The maxillary right lateral
Einziehung am Schneidezahn6
was missing. Mamelons1 are present on freshly erupted, unworn central incisors.
Front-, Schneidezahnfhrung7
Use right / left first or central2 / second or lateral3 / primary / permanent incisor or
central maxillary or upper / mandibular or lower / missing incisors incisor
crown / area / position / point4 / length / contact / display / tipping incisal edge5
3
/ embrasure6 [eIZ] / contacts / guidance7

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The Teeth BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 33

(tooth) cusp [ksp] n IAT syn cuspis dentis n term Zahnhcker, Cuspis dentis
elevated chewing [tSuIN] or tearing [e] points of the cuspids, bicuspids, and molars Hcker-, hckrig1
Hckerwinkel2
(inter)cuspal1 adj cuspless adj intercusp(id)ation n term
Hckerspitze3
The cuspal angle2 [QNgl] of the restoration must be increased. The lingual cusp had Hckerneigung4
to be sacrificed. The artificial teeth are arranged in proper occlusal harmony and
Hckerabstand5
cusp-to-fossa relationship.
Interkuspidationskontaktpunkt6
Use (mesio)lingual / facial / (mesio/disto)buccal [] / (non)functional or (non)support-
maximale Okklusion/ Interkuspida-
ing / short / accessory / talon cusp cusp tip3 / size / area / contact / opposition /
tion, Schlussbiss7
alignment cusp(al) inclination4 / angle / deflection intercuspal distance5 /
4
contact position6 maximum7 intercuspation

canine [keInaIn] (tooth) n & adj IAT & MeSH syn eye tooth n inf, Eck-, Augenzahn;
cuspid (tooth) n MeSH rare Dens caninus
one of the corner teeth in the arch next to the laterals identified by a pointed cusp for tearing Eckzahnspitze1
food eckzahngeschtzte Okklusion,
9
A fixed prosthesis [i] extended from the canine to the first molar region. (Okklusionskonzept mit) Eckzahn-
fhrung2
Use left mandibular / maxillary right / transposed / submerged canine canine emi-

nence or cusp tip1 / alveolus [I]/ guidance2 [aI]/ root / fossa / bruxing / retention /
5
reshaping primary [aI] / unerupted canines

premolar [primoUl] n & adj IAT & MeSH syn bicuspid [aI] (tooth) n & adj MeSH Prmolar, kleiner/ vorderer
one of the teeth just behind the cuspids which have two cusps or points Backenzahn (ugs), Stockzahn
On statistical average, premolar teeth are retained for a longer period than molar (st., schw.), Bikuspidat, Dens
teeth. All molars and the mandibular premolars were missing. praemolaris
Use right mandibular first / maxillary or upper right second premolar first / second vollstndig durchgebrochene
/ primary bicuspid unrestored / fully erupted1 [] / malformed premolars Prmolaren1
premolar area2 / root (length) / eruption / gap (width) / occlusal contact / ex- vorderer Seitenzahnbereich2
6
traction (site)

molar (tooth) n & adj IAT & MeSH syn cheek [i] tooth n inf, dens molaris n IAT Molar, Mahlzahn,
one of the teeth behind the second bicuspids with flattened surfaces and four or five cusps groer Backenzahn (ugs),
The shape and occlusal relation of the denture [dentS] was similar to natural Dens molaris
molars. Tartar1 is deposited particularly near the orifices2 of the salivary ducts3 on Zahnstein1
the buccal surfaces of the maxillary molars. ffnung, Mndung, Ostium2
Use left maxillary first / right mandibular second molar primary / permanent / first Speichel(drsen)gang3
or 6-year4 / second or 12-year / lower molars premolar-molar region single- Sechsjahrmolaren4
molar restoration carious / decayed / missing / abscessed lower molar molar molare Kaukraft5
cusp / crown (size/ enamel thickness/ preparation) / occlusal force5 / root (canal/
7
fracture) / furcation (defect) / caries / extraction

third molar (tooth) n IAT & MeSH syn wisdom tooth n IAT & clin & MeSH 3. Molar, Weisheitszahn,
one of the most posterior teeth that erupt in late adolescence and have four cusps; Dens serotinus
their roots are often fused1 [fjuzd] verschmolzen1 verlagerter Weis-
The incidence of trauma [] to the mental nerve during removal of third heitszahn/ dritter Molar2 impak-
molars is 3-5.5 %. When a wisdom tooth is partially erupted, food and bacteria tierter/ retinierter Weisheitszahn3
may collect under the gum and cause a local infection. unvollstndig durchgebrochener
Use upper left / ectopic2 / impacted3 / partially erupted4 3rd molar third molar Weisheitszahn/ dritter Molar4
space / tuberosity / eruption / removal / extraction / osteotomy / agenesis / pain
8
/-related morbidity right upper wisdom tooth

(dental) arch [ArtS] n clin & MeSH (i) Zahnbogen (ii) Zahnreihe
(i) horseshoe-shaped1 ridge supporting the teeth hufeisenfrmig1 ghnte2 Oberkie-
(ii) collectively all upper or lower teeth ferzahnbogen, obere(r) ZB/ Zahn-
The prosthesis frequently loosened when the patient, who had an atrophic [eItrfIk] reihe3 verkrzte(r) Zahnbogen/
Zahnreihe4 geschlossene Zahnrei-
dental arch, yawned2 [jnd].
Use mandibular or lower / upper3 / shortened4 / completely edentulous / (partially/ he5 V-frmige Zahnreihe6 (oberer/
fully) dentate5 / V-shaped6 (dental) arch (maxillary/ mandibular) alveolar7 arch unterer) Alveolarbogen, Arcus al-
in both arches (dental) arch width8 [wIdT]/ length9 (discrepancy, abbr ALD) /
veolaris (mandibulae/ maxillae)7
form10 / index full arch prosthesis11 opposing arch impression U-shaped Zahnbogenbreite8 Zahnbogenln-
arch form12 ge9 Zahnbogenform10 Vollprothe-
se11 U-frmige Zahnbogenform12 9

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34 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS The Teeth

palate [pQlt] n IAT & MeSH syn roof of the mouth n clin, palatum [eI] n IAT Gaumen, Palatum
the bony (hard) and muscular (soft) partition between the oral and nasal cavities; popularly Uvula, Zpfchen1 weicher Gaumen,
used to refer to the uvula1 which is also termed pendulous palate1 Gaumensegel, Velum palatinum2
palatal adj term palatine [aIn] adj palato- comb harter Gaumen, Palatum durum3
Spitz-, Steilgaumen, hoher Gau-
The boneless soft palate should rise symmetrically when the patient says ah. men4
Use soft2 / hard3 / anterior / high-arched4 / cleft5 palate palatine tonsil6 []/ arch7
Gaumenspalte5 Gaumenmandel6
palatal wall / vault8 [vlt] / height9 / width / length / mucosa / malformation /
Gaumenbogen7 Gaumendach8
defect / incision / flap10 palatopharyngeal [dZil] /nasal [eI]/glossal /plasty11
Gaumenhhe9 Gaumen-,
Palatinallappen10 Gaumenplastik11
10

fren(ul)um [frinmfrenjlm] n IAT & MeSH, pl fren(ul)a or frenums Frenulum, Bndchen


fold of mucous membranes attaching the lips, cheeks and tongue to the gums Zungenbndchen, Frenulum lin-
guae1
9 The lingual frenum1
may need cutting to increase mobility of the tongue []. Tongue-
Ankyloglosson, -glossie, -glossum,
tie2 or partial ankyloglossia is manifested by an abnormally short and thick lingual
Verkrzung des Zungenbndchens2
frenulum.
oberes/ unteres Lippenbndchen,
Use lingual1 / /(superior/inferior) labial3 / congenitally short / loosening of the / du-
Frenulum labii superioris/ inferio-
plicated / absent / torn frenulum frenulotomy4 /ectomy5
ris3 Frenotomie, Frenulotomie4
Frenulektomie, Frenektomie5 11

gums [gmz] n clin & MeSH, usu pl Zahnfleisch, Gingiva


syn gingiva [dZIndZv] n IAT & MeSH, pl -ae [i] ? U35-3ff gingival, das Zahnfleisch betref-
fend1
epithelial and connective tissues attached to the tooth and alveolar bone
Zahnfleischrand2
gingival1 adj term gingivo-1 comb gummy1 adj jar
befestigte Gingiva3
The effect of local anesthesia was checked by pricking the gums. berschssiges Zahnfleisch4
There is a band of red, inflamed gingiva along the necks of the teeth. Zahnfleischverfrbung5
Use gingival tissue / margin2 [dZ]/ tenderness free / attached3 / interdental / buccal / Zahnfleischtpfelung6
excess4 / grafted gingiva marginal / keratinized / hyperplastic / necrotic gingi- Zahnfleischwucherung7
vae gingival gumline2 / discoloration5 / massage [A(d)Z]/ stippling6 / pockets / Zahnfleischschwund8
overgrowth7 sore / swollen / bleeding / receding8 [i] gums gummy smile9 Zahnfleischlcheln, gummy smile9
gum contour / disease / irritation10 gingivo-periodontal lesions /labial sulcus Gingivareizung10
/stomatitis
12
Note: In the singular gum most commonly refers to chewing gum.

(dental) alveolus [QlvIls] n IAT & MeSH, pl alveoli [aIi] ? U35-1f (Zahn)alveole, Zahnfach
syn (tooth) socket [] n clin & MeSH Wurzelhaut, Desmodont1
Eckzahnalveolen2
opening in the maxilla or mandible in which the tooth is attached by the periodontal ligament1
(abbr PDL) Molarenfcher3
Alveolarfortsatz4
alveolar adj term alveolo- comb
Alveolarkamm5
The tooth must be sectioned and atraumatically extracted to preserve socket anato- Alveolarfortsatzspalte6
my. The vertical bite force induces a bending moment as the tooth moves in its
die Alveole erweitern7
alveolus. Control the bleeding by direct pressure on the tooth socket with a sterile
Extraktionshhle8
dressing.
trockene Alveole, Wundheilungs-
Use maxillary / canine2 / molar3 / adjacent / residual / intact / reconstructed / implant
strung nach Zahnentfernung9
alveoli alveolar bone / socket / canal / height / mucosa / wall / width / process4
Alveolarrand10
/ ridge5 [dZ] / crest10 / fracture / cleft6 to debride/enlarge7 /place into/preserve
the socket bony / extraction8 / dry9 socket socket outline / anatomy / wall /
13
margin10 alveolectomy /oplasty

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The Teeth BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 35

(dental) crown [kraUn] n clin & MeSH syn corona dentis n IAT ? U40-18 (anatomische Zahn)Krone,
rel dental neck or cervix1 n IAT Corona dentis
(i) part of the tooth above the gums covered with enamel (ii) an artificial substitute for that part Zahnhals, Collum/ Cervix dentis1
koronal, an der Zahnkrone2
(mid-)coronal2 adj term (supra/sub)cervical3 adj
zervikal, am Zahnhals3
Decalcification of dental crowns occurs with chronic vomiting4 (the lingual surfaces
Erbrechen4
of the lower anterior teeth are primarily affected5). The coronal root surface is
betroffen5
normally covered by acellular cementum. Should a non-carious cervical lesion6
nichtkarise zervikale Lsion6
(abbr NCCL) be restored?
prothetische Krone7
Use molar / artificial (tooth)7 / natural (tooth)/ crown crown-root ratio / size /
berempfindlicher/ hypersensibler
contours / diameter / lengthening / discoloration /-down root canal preparation
Zahnhals8
/-root fracture / restoration hypersensitive8 / exposed9 (dental) neck coronal
freiliegender Zahnhals9
bulge / enamel margin / third (of the canal) / lesion / defect / cavity cervical
dentine wear / abrasion

Note: The term crown more commonly refers to restorations. The expression
dental or tooth crown is used when referring to natural teeth.
14 9
(dental or tooth) enamel [InQml] n IAT & MeSH syn enamelum n IAT (Zahn)Schmelz, Enamelum
hard ceramic layer covering the exposed part of teeth Zahnentwicklung, Odontogenese1
Schmelzgrbchen2
These enamel changes range from whitish opaque areas to severe brown discolora- Schmelzbildung, Amelogenese3
tion. High fever during odontogenesis1 can interfere with enamel formation; a nar-
Schmelzpulver4
row zone of chalky, pitted enamel2 is visible once the tooth erupts.
Dentalfluorose5
Use enamel formation3 / changes / hypoplasia [eIZ]/ powder4 saliva-coated [aI] /
Schmelzoberhutchen6
softened / decalcified / mottled5 enamel enamel cuticle6 [kjutIkl]/ organ /
Schmelzflecken7
projection / pits2 enamel discoloration / stains7 / opacities / pearl8 / defects /
Schmelzperle, -paraplasie,
hypoplasia9 / demineralization / loss / microabrasion10
Enamelom8 Schmelzhypoplasie9
Schmelzmikroabrasion10 15

dentin [dentIndentin], BE dentine n IAT & MeSH syn dentinum [aI] n IAT Zahnbein, Dentin
calcium [s] part of a tooth below the enamel containing the pulp chamber [tSeI] and root canals freigelegtes Dentin1
Wurzeldentin2
dentinal adj term dentino- comb dentinogenesis [dZe] n
Dentinogenesis imperfecta
Caries spreads rapidly in dentin because of its lower mineral content. The pulp is
(hereditaria), erbliche Strung
surrounded by hard dentinal walls. There is a considerable variation in the com-
der Dentinbildung3
position of primary and secondary dentin.
Dentinkanlchen4
Use coronal / cervical / secondary / exposed1 / root2 / softened / carious / sclerotic /
Dentinflssigkeit5
hereditary opalescent3 dentin dentin(al) tubules4 / surface / abrasion denti-
karise Dentinlsion6
nal fluid5 / wall / carious lesion6 / pain7 / bonding agent dentinoenamel junc-
Dentinschmerz7
tion8 [dZNkSn] /blasts9
Schmelz-Dentin-Grenze8
Odonto-, Dentinoblasten9 16

cementum [sImentm] n IAT & MeSH syn (tooth) cement n clin ? U30-7 Wurzelzement (das),
layer of mineralized connective tissue covering the dentin of the roots and neck of a tooth Cementum
Cementum functions as an anchoring substance for the tooth to the alveolar bone. Primrzement, azellulres Wurzel-
zement1 Sekundrzement, sekun-
Noncarious teeth can become painful when enamel and cementum do not quite
contact each other. dres/ zellulres Wurzelzement2
Use acellular or primary1 / cellular or secondary2 / newly formed / root / periapical Schmelz-Zement-Grenze3
cementum cementoenamel junction3 /dentinal junction /blasts4 /cytes5 ce- Zementoblasten4
mentum-like tissue / layer / formation / deposition / fracture6 Zementozyten5
(Wurzel)zementfraktur6
Note: Unlike cementum the term cement7 also refers to a nonmetallic Zement (der)7
Befestigungsmaterial8 17
adhesive [i] material8 used for various restorations.

(dental) pulp [plp] n MeSH & clin syn pulpa (dentis) n IAT ? U41-2ff (Zahn)Pulpa, Pulpa dentis
soft, spongy [spndZI] tissue in the center of the tooth containing blood vessels and nerves Karies1
Zahnhhle, Pulpakavum2
pulpal adj term pulpless adj
Pulpafreilegung3
Teeth with decay1 [dIkeI] involving the pulp are a potential source of alveolar bone
Vitalitts-, Sensibilittsprfung4
infection. A deeply carious tooth may have an infected or necrotic pulp.
Pulpaberkappung5
Use pulp chamber [tS] or cavity2 / canal pulpal tissue / disease / inflammation /
hemorrhage / pain pulpal reaction / exposure3 [-ouZ] pulp testing4 /
18
capping5

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36 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS The Teeth

root (of tooth) [u] n IAT & clin syn radix [eI] dentis n IAT ? U41-6,9 Zahnwurzel, Radix dentis
part of a tooth below the neck1; which is covered by cementum rather than enamel Zahnhals1
radikulr, die Zahnwurzel betref-
midroot adj term radicular2 adj
fend2
The tooth demonstrated extensive occlusal root caries. The abscess was located at Wurzelspitzen3
the root apex of a nonvital tooth.
Wurzelkaries4
Use natural / adjacent / fractured / retained root root tips or apices3 [eIpIsiz]/ canal
Wurzelfllung5
/ bifurcation [aI] / length / surface / fragment / caries4 / resorption / resection
Wurzelbehandlung6
root canal filling5 / treatment6 (abbr RCT) crown-to-root ratio [eI] single-/
mehrwurzeliger Zahn7 19
two-/ multi7-rooted tooth

(dental) quadrant [kwdrnt] n term Kieferquadrant


the dental arches are divided anatomically into the upper left and right and the lower left and Gegenquadrant1
right quadrants kontralateraler Quadrant2
Jaw quadrants are assigned the digits 1 to 4 for the permanent and 5 to 8 for the teilbezahnter Quadrant3
deciduous teeth. The patient had six implants placed per quadrant.
9 Use mandibular left / opposing1 / contralateral2 / right posterior / partially edentu-
20
lous3 quadrant

mesial [mizIl] adj term mesial


opposite distal1 adj term distal1
neben, benachbart2
toward the median [i] plane [eI] following the curvature [krvtS] of the dental
arch; away from the dental midline is described as distal Mesialwanderung3
mesiodistale Zahnbreite4
The mesial surface of the bicuspid is the portion which is adjacent to2 [dZeIs]
distale Zahnhalskaries5
the cuspid. Bone support for the distal and mesial teeth adjacent to the cleft
was evaluated.
Use mesial drift or migration3 / inclination / tipping / rest / view mesiodistal width4
/ crown dimensions distal wall / surface / root / cervical caries5 (abbr DCC)/ end
21
cutter

proximal [] adj term sim interproximal1 adj term proximal


close by; mostly referring to the surface between adjacent teeth Interdental-, Approximal-1
Bissflgelaufnahmen2
The crowns were checked for proximal contact, occlusion, and articulation. Inter- Nachbarzhne3 Interdentalraum,
proximal caries and periapical [eI] lesions [iZ] are best visualized [Z] by pos-
Approximalbereich4
terior bitewing [AI] radiographs2 [eI].
Interdentalbrstchen5
Use proximal or adjoining teeth3 / tooth contact / margin preparation / restorations
Approximalkaries6 22
interproximal space4 [eI]/ surface / brush5 [] / distance / caries6

labial [eI] adj MeSH sim buccal1 [] adj, labial


opposite lingual2, palatal3 adj MeSH bukkal1 lingual2 palatal3
Prothesenrand4
towards, referring or adjacent to the lips (labial), cheek [i] (buccal), tongue [tN] (lingual), and
palate (palatal) durchbrechen5 Labialflche6
Mundvorhof7
labio- comb bucco- comb linguo- comb
bukkale Hckerspitze8
To restore the labial profile, lip support is obtained from labial denture flanges4 [dZ] Lingualnerv, Nervus lingualis9
optimally extended into the vestibule. The maxillary anterior teeth tend to erupt5
Lingualhcker10
labially.
Lingualkippung11
Use labial aspect or surface6 / gingiva / muscle [msl] labiobuccal /palatal /lingual
Lingual-, Zungenlaute12
buccal cavity7 / cusp [] tip8 / crown margin [dZ]/ mucosa buccoalveolar /labial
/gingival [dZ] /lingual /version lingual nerve9 / tooth surfaces / cusp10 / tipping11
23
/ dental splinting / to the alveolar crest linguopalatal pressure / phonemes12

occlusal [kluzl] adj MeSH ? U36-7 okklusal


referring to the chewing [tSuIN] or grinding [aI] surface of the bicuspid and molar teeth Bissebene1
Kauflche2
Occlusal and chewing forces were mainly directed in the vertical and horizontal
dimensions.
Use occlusal plane1 [eI] (abbr OP)/ surface2 / contact / guidance / wear / trauma /
24
interference or prematurity

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Dentition & Mastication BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 37

intraoral [] adj MeSH opposite extraoral1 adj MeSH intraoral


inside as opposed to (from) outside the mouth extraoral1
intraorale Befestigung2
The intraoral approach has the disadvantage of temporary paresthesia [-TiZ] Mundmilieu3
from stretching the mental nerve.
intraorale Leitungsansthesie4
Use intraoral anchorage2 [QNk]/ environment3 [aI]/ local anesthesia4 [-TiZ]/ camera
extraoral exam / radiography / cheek retractor / appliance (abbr EOA)/ traction /
25
anatomic landmarks

maxillofacial [mQksIloUfeISl] adj MeSH Gesicht u. Kiefer betreffend,


referring to the dental arches, jaws and face maxillofazial
An oral-maxillofacial surgeon1 was consulted because of persistent malocclusion. Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurg(in)1
Kiefer-Gesichtsprothetik2
Use maxillofacial pathology / fracture / surgery / radiology / prosthetics2 / restoration
26
/ defect / augmentation / implant maxillopalatine /mandibular /labial /turbinal

10
Unit 10 Dentition & Mastication
Related Units: 9 Teeth, 8 Head & Neck, 11 Human Sounds & Speech, 2 Food & Drink, Part 5 DENTISTRY

dentition [dentISn] n MeSH (i) Gebiss, Dentition


(i) collective term for the teeth in the dental arch (ii) Zahndurchbruch
(ii) the teething [tiDIN] process (from calcification to eruption) Zahnausfall, Zahnverlust1
dedentition1 n term (non-)dentate2 adj (un)bezahnt2
His dentition is in poor repair3. The situation when both deciduous and permanent in schlechtem Zustand3
Wechselgebiss, (ugs) Misch-,
teeth are present is termed mixed dentition4. The occlusal examination revealed a
healthy dentition with no missing or carious teeth. bergangsgebiss4 Zahnersatz5
Use healthy / maxillary / mandibular / neighboring / opposing / residual / nonrestor- verzgerte Dentition, Dentitio
able dentition deciduous / permanent / natural / artificial5 / retarded6 / preco- tarda6
cious7 [prIkoUSs] dentition dentate adults / subjects / mandible vorzeitige Dentition,
Dentitio praecox7 1

a Mixed dentition in
an 8-year-old: The
four central incisors
and the 6-year
molars have already
erupted.
b Eruption of this
molar is complicat-
ed by gingival in-
flammation and pus
formation (indicat-
ed by arrow).

a b

deciduous [dIsIdjUs] teeth n MeSH syn baby or milk teeth n clin & inf Milchzhne, -gebiss
also called primary [aI] or temporary ( set of) teeth which fall out in childhood and are replaced vorzeitig1
by the permanent teeth nachstoende bleibende Zhne,
The deciduous teeth begin to calcify [s] about the 16th week of prenatal life. Prema- permanente Folgezhne2
Milchzhne bekommen3
ture1 loss of deciduous teeth in children often results in approximation of adjacent
teeth, causing insufficient space for eruption of the permanent successors2. Milchzhne fallen aus4
Use to cut3/shed4/lose deciduous teeth maxillary / exfoliated / fully calcified / lckiges Milchgebiss5
spaced5 / retained / persistence of / ankylosed deciduous teeth deciduous
2
dentition / premolar teeth / canine / maxillary central incisor

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38 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS Dentition & Mastication

erupt [Irpt] vi term syn come in v phr clin & inf durchbrechen
(i) when a tooth elongates and breaks the gums (ii) generally, to break through the skin Zahneruption, -durchbruch1
(pr/ post)eruptiv2
(over)eruption1 [] n MeSH (pre-/ post)eruptive2 adj unerupted adj
Zahnbogenbreite3
Early childhood caries can develop as soon as teeth erupt. A significant change in verzgerter Zahndurchbruch4
arch width3 [artSwIdT] occurs with eruption of the permanent teeth. The right
erschwerter Zahndurchbruch,
lateral incisor (tooth # 7) was congenitally missing and tooth # 6 had erupted in
Dentitio difficilis5
its intended position.
(Zahn)durchbruchszeit6
Use fully / partially erupted (primary/ permanent) tooth or dental / onset of /
Dentitions-, Eruptions-,
delayed4 [eI]/ impeded5 [i]/ ectopic eruption ectopically erupting molar
(Zahn)durchbruchszyste7
eruption pattern / path / sequence / time6 / chart / delay / cyst6 / hematoma7 3
Eruptionshmatom8

teething [tiDIN] n clin & MeSH syn cutting of teeth n clin & inf Zahnen, Zahndurchbruch
process of eruption of the primary teeth normally beginning around the 6th month of life Sabbern1
zugeschrieben2
10 Your baby may be teething. Look, he's cut his first tooth. Teething is often associated Zahnungsperiode3
with excessive drooling1 [u], irritability, and biting on hard objects. This problem
Zahnungsschmerzen4
cannot be ascribed to2 teething. Occasionally, noticeable gum swelling is seen during
Beiring5
teething.
sptes Zahnen6
Use teething process / period3 / symptoms / pain4 / remedies / ring or teether5 /
4
powders [aU] infant / late6 teething

exfoliate vi term syn shed vt, fall out vi phr clin & inf (Zhne) verlieren, ausfallen
physiologic shedding of primary teeth in childhood; first the teeth loosen1 and sich lockern1
eventually2 fall out schlielich2
exfoliation3 n MeSH (non)exfoliated adj shedding n Zahnwechsel, physiologischer
Zahnverlust3
The first baby teeth are usually shed when the child is six, but it is not uncommon for
verfrhter Zahnwechsel4
them to be retained much longer. By age 9 the permanent incisors reach the dental
spontaner Zahnverlust5
height [haIt] of the exfoliated incisors.
verzgerter Zahnwechsel6
Use primary tooth / premature4 / late / spontaneous5 / iatrogenic exfoliation (natu-
5
ral/ childhood/ decidual/ delayed) tooth6 shedding

permanent or secondary teeth or dentition n MeSH bleibende(s) Zhne/ Gebiss


rel succedaneous [sksdeInIs] or successional teeth1 n term nachfolgende Zhne,
(Nach)Folgezhne1
adult set of teeth which erupt between about the 6th and 13th year of life
beibehalten2
Once erupted, many permanent teeth do not maintain2 a fixed position. After sec- berzhliger Zahn3
ondary dentition was completed, the supernumerary tooth3 was removed surgically.
Verfrbungen an bleibenden
How does primary tooth extraction affect the eruption of succedaneous premolars?
Zhnen4
Use perfect set of / staining of4 / carious / avulsed5 [] permanent teeth succeda-
luxierte bleibende Zhne5
neous permanent teeth or dentition6 / supernumerary teeth / bicuspids / un-
permanente Folgezhne6 6
erupted second premolar / tooth eruption

edentulous [IdentSls] adj term & MeSH syn toothless adj clin & MeSH unbezahnt, (ugs) zahnlos
having lost all natural teeth bezahnt1
Edentation, durch Zahnentfernung
dentulous1 adj term edentulism n edent(ul)ation2 n edentulousness n
bedingte Zahnlosigkeit2
She received a freestanding prosthesis3 [i] in each edentulous quadrant []. Freiendprothese3
Use partially4 / semi-/ totally or completely edentulous edentulous patient / adult /
teilbezahnt4
mouth / arch / space / gap / alveolar ridge5 [dZ] / maxilla / site partially4 / fully
Alveolarkamm (nach Zahnverlust)5
or completely6 / semi-dentulous toothless seniors / upper jaw [dZ]/ smile
vollbezahnt6 7
total or complete / mandibular / treatment modality for edentulism

denture [dentS] n MeSH & clin ? U42-2 Zahnprothese,


syn (dental) plates [eI] n pl, artificial or false teeth n clin & inf knstliches Gebiss
artificial replacement for some or all natural teeth Druckgeschwr1
Interimsprothese2
The existing denture was readapted 14 days after fixture installation. One patient festsitzende Zahnprothese3
developed a decubital ulcer1 on the buccal-lateral surface of the maxilla from the
Prothesenbasis4
interim denture2, resulting in graft loss.
prothesentragende Flche5
Use complete or full (set of) / partial / upper or maxillary / mandibular / fixed3
Prothesenreiniger6
denture removable / temporary or transitional2 / implant-retained / immediate
schlecht sitzende Zahnprothese7
denture denture base4 / satisfaction / wearer [e]/-bearing [e] area5 denture
retention / (in)stability / cleanser6 [e]/ patient / prosthetics / esthetics / placement
8
/ fracture / sores to wear / ill-fitting7 / partial (dental) plates

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Dentition & Mastication BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 39

salivation [eI] n MeSH Speichelbildung,


sim drooling1 [u] n clin & inf Speichelfluss, Salivation
the secretion of saliva as the mouth waters, e.g. at the sight or smell of tasty food Sabbern1 Speichel produzieren2
bler Mundgeruch3
saliva [slaIv] n MeSH saliva(to)ry adj term salivate2 v drool v clin
blutig tingierter Speichel4
Fetid [i] breath odor3 and blood-tinged saliva4 may accompany any ulcerative
beeintrchtigt5
lesions of the oral mucosa. Salivary control was slightly hampered5 and this led to
sprlicher Speichelfluss6
drooling.
starker/ bermiger
Use reduced / scanty6 / increased / excessive or profuse7 salivation saliva flow /
Speichelfluss7
production / acidity / substitute tenaceous or viscous8 / blood-tinged4 [tIndZd] /
zhflssiger/ klebriger Speichel8
artificial saliva salivary gland / duct (stricture/ tumor) / stone9 / pellicle10
Speichelstein, Sialolith9
salivary secretion / flow rate / proteins / buffer capacity11 excessive or heavy12
exogenes Schmelzoberhutchen10
/ control of drooling
Speichelpufferkapazitt11
bermiges Sabbern12 9

spit - spit - spit v irr & n inf rel phlegm1 [flem] n clin, sputum2 n MeSH (aus)spucken; 10
(v) to force out the contents of the mouth, usually saliva Speichel, Spucke
(n) saliva Schleim1 Auswurf, Sputum2
spitoon3 [u] n term BE spittle4 n inf Mundsplbecken, Speibecken3
Rinse5 and then spit out. Avoid rinsing, spitting, or touching the wound on the day of Spucke4 aussplen5
Schleim aushusten6
surgery.
Use to spit out blood / phlegm spitting spitting habit / tobacco to bring or cough bel riechender Schleim7
up6 / clear / thick / bloody / excessive / foul-smelling7 phlegm sputum pro- Sputumabstrich8
Sputumprobe9 10
duction / smear8 / specimen or sample9 / culture

bite - bit - bitten v irr sim nibble1 v clin & inf (zu)beien
to seize [i] with the teeth or jaws; to nibble is to bite off very small pieces knabbern1
ab-, durch-, hineinbeien2
bite off/ through/ into2 v biting adj & n bitemark n
hinunterschlingen3 Zungenbeien4
The patient was asked to bite as if he was chewing [u]. The patient complains of an Wangenbeien5 Lippenbeien6
inability to bite on the posterior teeth. Try to take small bites of food, and nibble
Ngelbeien, -kauen7
instead of gulping3.
krftiges Zubeien8
Use (repeated) tongue4 / cheek5 / lip6 / nail7 / forceful8 biting biting edge9 / pres-
Schneidekante (beim Zahn)9
sure10 / position bitten tongue / lips / cheeks [i] 11
Beidruck10

bite [baIt] n clin & term & jar syn morsel n inf ? U36-12 f (i) Bissen, Happen (ii) Biss
(i) in genE, a mouthful of solid food Okklusionsbefund, -diagnostik,
(ii) forced closure of the jaws or the pressure developed thereby -analyse1 locker, lose2 Bissflgel3
(iii) jargon for various dental terms, e. g. interocclusal record1 and interarch distance Vertikaldimension, Bisshhe4
I only took a bite and then the tooth was loose2. Softer foods, slower chewing, and Kieferrelationsbestimmung, Biss-
smaller bites should be promoted in these patients. nahme5 Aufbissschiene6
Use to take/have a bite bite wing3 / opening4 / plane / block / force bite regis- Bissgabel7 mundgerecht8
tration5 / guard [gArd] splint6 bite fork7 /-sized8 [aI] / elevation9 check10/ Bisshebung, -erhhung9
cross/ deep / open bite einfache Bissregistrierung, (jar)
Checkbiss10 12

occlude [klud] v term ? U36-7 f okkludieren,


to bring the teeth of both jaws into contact Zahnreihen schlieen
occlusion n MeSH malocclusion1 n MeSH occlusal adj Okklusionsstrung, Malokklusion1
Gegenzhne, Antagonisten2 in ha-
As they occlude, all teeth should contact their opponents2. The molars occclude
bitueller Okklusion3 statische Ok-
normally. The patient was asked to occlude with as much force as possible. First
klusion4 dynamische Okklusion5
the vertical dimension of occlusion was registered.
zentrische Okklusion6 Nonokklusi-
Use balanced / in habitual3 / static4 / dynamic5 / centric6 occlusion eccentric / non7/
on7 gestrte Okklusion8 eckzahn-
interfered8 / canine-guided9 / traumat(ogen)ic10 occlusion occlusion rim11 / con-
gefhrte Okklusion9 traumatisie-
cept12 occlusal surface / contact / force / curvature / path / level / vertical dimen-
rende/ traumatische Okklusion10
sion13 / load occlusal plane14 / prematurity15 / adjustment16 / interference17 /
Bisswall11 Okklusions-, Fhrungs-
pivot / wear / trauma / appliance / splint
konzept12 Vertikaldimension, Biss-
hhe13 Okklusions-, Kau-, Bissebe-
ne14 (okklusaler) Vorkontakt15 Ein-
schleifen der Okklusion16 okklusale
Interferenz(en)17 13

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40 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS Dentition & Mastication

freeway space n term syn interarch or interocclusal distance n term Interokklusalabstand, IOA
gap between the occluding surfaces of opposing teeth with the jaws in physiologic resting Ruhelage, Ruheschwebe(lage)1
position1 ausreichender IOA2
The vertical dimension of occlusion should allow for adequate freeway space. To groer Interokklusalabstand3
Kieferrelationsbestimmung4
partially compensate for vertical growth, the teeth continually erupt to maintain
interocclusal distance.
Use anterior / limited / (in)adequate2 freeway space small / large3 / excessive inter-
14
arch distance interocclusal clearance / rest space / record4

masticate [mQstikeIt] v term syn chew [tSu], munch [] v clin & inf (zer)kauen
chewing food and mixing it with saliva to prepare it for swallowing1 [] and digestion [dZe] Schlucken1
Kauvorgang2
mastication2 n MeSH masticatory adj chewing adj & n MeSH
Kaubelastung3
While the patient chewed standardized pieces of crispbread, seated upright in a mastikatorische Schleimhaut4
dental chair, recordings of masticatory sequences from start to swallowing were
Kauzyklusdauer5
performed.
10 Use masticatory muscles / process2 / load3 / mandibular movement / oral mucosa4 /
Kauapparat6
(mittlere) Kaukraft7
function / improvement masticatory cycle [saIkl] duration5 / ability / apparatus
Kauleistung8
or system6 / pain mean [i] masticatory force7 masticatory silent period
Kaubewegung9
chewing surface / efficiency8 [IS]/ pattern / stroke9 / ability / contacts / force7 /
15
speed

gag [gQg] v & n MeSH syn retch [retS], heave [i] v, (i) wrgen, Brechreiz haben
sim choke1 [tSoUk] v clin & inf (ii) mit Mundsperrer ffnen;
v (i) to retch or cause to retch, e.g. by touching the soft palate2 Mundsperrer
(ii) to keep the jaw from closing by placing a mouth prop between the teeth (er)wrgen; ersticken1
gag or pharyngeal [-IndZil] reflex3 n term gagging adj & n weicher Gaumen2
He started gagging every time I inserted an instrument. The patient gags reflexively. Wrg(e)reflex3
Reflux, Regurgitation4
Attempts at feeding result in choking, gagging, and regurgitation4.
Use to experience / exaggerated gagging gagging sensation / reflex3 / patient a
16
severe gagger

clench [klentS] v clin rel gnash1 [nQS] v clin zusammenbeien, -pressen


to squeeze [i] together tightly [taItli], e.g. the upper and lower teeth or the hand to make a fist2; knirschen1 Faust ballen2
diurnal3 [daIrnl] or nocturnal teeth clenching4 is one of the so-called parafunctional activi- diurnal, whrend des Tages3
ties5 which also include gnashing, gritting6, bracing7, and grinding of the jaws and teeth nchtliches Zahnpressen4
jaw / tooth / teeth clenching8 n term parafunktionelle Aktivitten,
He was encouraged [] to clench as hard as possible. He was a clencher who Parafunktionen5
(auf die Zhne) beien6
habitually9 kept his teeth tightly together. Often TMD patients10 express their stress
by biting hard or gnashing their teeth as a replacement for clenching the fist or Kiefer anspannen7
sweating when tense11. Zahnpressen8
Use to clench/gnash/grit one's teeth clenching force / habit / level / in centric [s] stndig, gewohnheitsmig9
occlusion jaw / parafunctional / nocturnal or nighttime4 clenching involun- CMD/MAP-Patienten10
angespannt, nervs11 17
tary gnashing

grind [aI] -ground - ground [aU] v irr clin (i) knirschen


rel bruxism1 [] n MeSH ? U36-11 (ii) (zer)mahlen
(i) making a grating sound by clenching and rubbing the teeth (iii) (ab-, ein)schleifen
(ii) to crush food (Zhne)knirschen, Bruxismus1
(iii) wearing [e] away by polishing or abrasion, e.g. to reshape the contour of a tooth Schleifstein2
teeth grinding1 n clin grinding wheel2 [i] n grinder3 n jar Knirscher; Schleifmaschine3
If the patient is a grinder3 there will be continuous movement of opposing tooth parafunktionelles Knirschen4
stndiges Knirschen5
surfaces. Try not to clench your jaw or grind your teeth. For a long time, premature
occlusal contacts were thought to be triggers of bruxism. habituelles Knirschen6
Use parafunctional4 / incessant5 grinding grinding sound / movement / habit6 / Schleifkrper7
equipment7 ground section8 nocturnal or sleep9 bruxism (ab)geschliffene Flche8
nchtliches/r Zhneknirschen/
Bruxismus9 18

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Dentition & Mastication BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 41

(dental) attrition n MeSH (Zahn)Attrition, -abrieb,


sim abrasion1 [-eIZn] n MeSH, demastication2 n term Zweikrperverschlei
wearing away of the biting surfaces by mechanical forces from opposing teeth in the process of (Zahn)Abrasion, -abnutzung,
normal mastication; loss of tooth structure from mechanical wear other than chewing is Dreikrperverschlei1
termed abrasion Demastikation, Abkauung
attritional adj term abrade3 [eI] v abrasive [eI] adj & n (der Zhne)2
Attrition is tooth wear from tooth-to-tooth contact occurring in occlusal function or abreiben, abradieren, abkauen,
abtragen3 abgenutzt4
parafunction (e.g. bruxism). With age the biting surfaces become worn4 (attrition).
A special form of abrasion is demastication, which means wear from chewing food. Schmelzabrasion5
Use occlusal / (molar/ anterior) tooth / degree of / severe or heavy attrition tooth / Dentinabrasion6
enamel5 / dentin6 / cervical7 / incisal / molar abrasion mechanical8 [k] / radio- zervikale Abrasion7
active dentin (abbr RDA)/ radioactive enamel (abbr REA)/ air abrasion abrasive mechanische Abrasion8
tooth (surface) loss / tooth paste / polishing paste9 / paper10 / tooth whitening / Polierpaste9
property11 attritional tooth wear / contact / facets / asymmetries Schleifpapier10 abtragende
Wirkung, Schmirgelwirkung,
Abrasivitt11 19 10
(dental or tooth) erosion [IroUZn] n MeSH (Zahn)Erosion, Usur
rel (tooth) abfraction1 n term (Zahn)Abfraktion, Ausbrechen
(v. Schmelz, Dentin)1
irreversible loss of dental hard tissues2 due to processes not related to bacterial action
Zahnhartsubstanz2
erode3 v term erosive adj abfractive adj
abtragen, erodieren3
The teeth were sufficiently in contact with acidic foods and beverages to produce usurierte Bereiche4
surface decalcification which ultimately resulted in erosion. Tooth grinding erodes Schmelzerosion5
and eventually reduces the height [haIt] of the dental crowns. Abfraction has not Sureerosion6
been identified as a sole cause of cervical dentin hypersensitivity and, with abrasion chemische Erosion7
or erosion, is most likely a co-factor in tooth structure loss. Funkenerosion8
Use eroded areas4 / cement / enamel lesion enamel5 / bone or bony / acidic6 /
chemical7 [k]/ abrasion-/ spark8 erosion erosive process abfraction lesion /
20
defect

decalcification [dIkQls-] n MeSH Dekalzifikation, -zierung,


rel demineralization1 n MeSH Entkalkung
loss of calcium salts from teeth or bone; may be the result of a pathologic process or part Demineralisation1
of a bone grafting procedure entkalken/ verkalken2
(de)calcify2 v term (non-/ de)calcified adj remineralization n

Kokainschnupfen3
kariesanfllig4
Chronic cocaine [koUkeIn] snorting3 may result in widespread decalcification of
Schmelzentkalkung5
teeth. Decalcified teeth are more susceptible [se] to decay4 [dIkeI]. The bone products
verkalkte Ablagerungen6
were freeze-dried, decalcified, and sealed [i]. As the permanent teeth calcify, the
dekalzifiziertes Prparat7
roots of the baby teeth are gradually resorbed.
Use dental or tooth / enamel5 / cervical / mild / generalized decalcification decal-
cification risk / marks calcified tissue / deposits6 / bone decalcified section /
21
specimen7 [es] decalcifying solution

(tooth) resorption [rIzrpSn] n MeSH (Zahn)Resorption,


destruction of bone or tooth structure by pressure; gradual process of demineralization of (Zahn)Abbau
dentin and cementum of the root, e. g. of the primary teeth prior to shedding Knochenabbau1
bone resorption1 n term bone-resorptive adj resorb2 resorbieren2
Orthodontic treatment is a well-known cause of minor external root resorption3. externe Wurzelresorption3
Wurzelresorption4
Clearly, the microdamage induced by the high stresses is one cause of bone
resorption. Milchzahnresorption5
Use (tooth-)root4 / deciduous tooth5 / pathologic (root) / cervical6 / external apical Zahnhalsresorption,
(root)7 / internal resorption severely resorbed edentulous jaws advanced / zervikale Resorption6
extensive / alveolar8 / jaw bone resorption resorptive pattern / state [eI]/ pro- externe Wurzelspitzenresorption7
Alveolarkammabbau8 22
cess / changes

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42 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS Human Sounds & Speech

Unit 11 Human Sounds & Speech


Related Units: 9 The Teeth, 8 The Head & Neck

utter [] v sim articulate1 v term ? U36-3 uern, Laute hervorbringen


to make a sound with your voice (includes verbal expression2 but also shouts3 [aU], artikulieren, deutlich (aus)spre-
laughter [lQft], cries4, and other human sounds) chen1
utterance5 n articulation6 n MeSH (in)articulate7 adj verbale uerung2
Rufe3 Schreie4
Of the five main components of speech (respiration, phonation, resonation,
Sprechweise, (stimmliche)
neurological integration, and articulation) the latter is affected most by dental
uerung5
defects. His verbal utterances include unassociated rambling statements8. Their
Sprechlautbildung, Artikulation6
speech [spitS] is well-articulated but has little content. The patient is clear and
deutlich artikuliert, verstndlich7
articulate9.
unzusammenhngendes Gefasel8
Use spoken / oral / nasal / spontaneous / excited / involuntary / compulsive utter-
drckt sich klar und deutlich
ances monosyllabic / single word / mean length of (abbr MLU)/ phrase length
aus9
[leNT] utterance (difficulty with/ aberrant/ impaired) speech / dental /
11 jaw articulation poor / compensatory / place of / front articulation
1

laugh [lQf] v & n sim giggle1, snicker1, chuckle2 [tSkl], lachen; Lachen
roar3 [], howl4 [haUl] v inf kichern1
kichern, in sich hineinlachen2
(v) to smile and make the typical guttural [] sounds5 to express amusement or pleasure6 [eZ]
schallend lachen3
laughter7 n laughable8 adj giggly9 [gIgli] adj
(vor Lachen) brllen; heulen4
You use your teeth every time you smile, laugh, kiss, speak, chew, and in every Guttural-, Kehllaute5
professional and social situation. Facial expressions and untroubled laughter are Vergngen, Freude6 Gelchter7
determined to a great extent by the appearance of the teeth. Coughing10 [kf-], lcherlich8 albern9 Husten10
straining11 [eI], sneezing12 [i] and laughing brought on13 severe [-I] headaches. Pressen11 Niesen12 verursachte13
Use to have to/make sb./be a14/raise [reIz] a15 laugh belly16 laugh to laugh softly17 urkomisch sein14
/ out loud / one's head off18 / at19 sb. or a joke / about sth. to burst [] out3 Gelchter ernten15
laughing to roar with20 roaring / fits of / hysterical / nervous laughter drhnendes Lachen16 leise lachen17
laughter lines / therapy sich totlachen18 lachen ber19
vor Lachen brllen20 2

sob [sb] v & n sim weep [i]-wept-wept1 v irr, cry1, whimper2, wail3 [eI] v schluchzen; Schluchzen
(v) to weep in convulsive [] gasps4 with or without shedding tears5 [tIz] weinen1 wimmern2
jammern, klagen3
She was sobbing hysterically when we left the dentists office. The child was sobbing
krampfartiges Keuchen4
her heart out6. She called the ambulance, her voice choked [tSoUkt] with sobs7. The
Trnen vergieen5 bitterlich/ herz-
boy used to cry every time he was taken to the dentist.
zerreiend weinen6
Use to sob bitterly6 / oneself to sleep to let out a8 / choking / bitter sob to have a
mit trnenerstickter Stimme7
good9 weep to cry uncontrollably / one's eyes out
aufschluchzen8
sich ausweinen9
Note: Mark the two meanings of cry and crying, (i) to break out in tears,
3
and (ii) to shout. ? U11-14

sigh [saI] v & n sim moan1 [moUn], groan1 [oU] v & n seufzen; Seufzer
(v) breathe [briD] deeply and heavily [e] and exhale audibly2 [] to express sthnen, klagen; Sthnen, chzen1
sadness, boredom3, etc. (deutlich) hrbar ausatmen2
Check your dentures for proper fit and avoid deep sighing. The baby's breathing Langeweile3
hnlich sein4
movements resembled4 a deep sigh. Sighing is a common sign of neurasthenic [nu-]
pain. The girl kept moaning and groaning till the end of the treatment. Between einen Seufzer ausstoen5
groans he admitted that his own dentist back home had told him he needed an leiser/ lauter Seufzer6
extraction. Seufzer der Erleichterung7
4
Use to let out/give/heave5 [i] a sigh (in)audible6 / deep sigh sigh of relief7 [i]

snore [snr] v & n rel snort1, grunt2 [] v & n schnarchen; Schnarchen
(v) to breathe noisily while sleeping due to vibration of the soft palate3 (wtend) schnauben, prusten;
Schnauben1 knurren, chzen,
Is there a cure4 for snoring? A dentist can supply you with a dental appliance that brummen, grunzen; chzen2
can help you control your snoring. An estimated 25% of the adult male population
weicher Gaumen3
and 15% of the adult female population snore every night. A loud snort accompanies
(Heil)Mittel4
the first breath following an apneic episode.
Nachtschiene5
Use loud / severe / severity [e] of / cyclical [saIk-]/ habitual / chronic snoring heavy
5
[e] snorer snore guard5 [gArd] to snort with laughter

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Human Sounds & Speech BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 43

sneeze [sniz] v & n niesen; Niesen


rel cough1 [kf] v & n MeSH, to clear one's throat2 [TroUt] phr husten, Husten1 sich ruspern2
s. die Nase putzen3
to exhale explosively because of a cold, irritants in the nose, etc.
Verstopftsein (d. Nase)4
The pain gets worse with sneezing. Advise the patient to avoid sneezing and blowing Nasensekret5 Gesundheit6
his nose3. The introduction of allergens into the nose is associated with sneezing,
Niesanfall (haben)7
stuffiness4 [] and nasal [eI] discharge5 [dIstSArdZ]. Cats make her sneeze. When
heftiges Niesen8
somebody sneezes you might say 'Bless you'6.
nicht unterdrckbares Niesen9
Use to cause/have a fit or paroxysm of7 sneezing episodic / violent8 [aI]/ light-
Niesreflex10 Niesreiz11
induced or photic / irrepressible9 sneezing sneezing fit7 / reflex10 sneezed
nicht zu verachten12
sputum [pju] sneeze(-inducing) effect11 not to be sneezed at12 to have/give
starker Husten13
a cough bad13 / mild / productive / nonproductive or dry or hacking14 cough to
trockener/ unproduktiver Husten14
cough up blood / phlegm15 [flem] cough reflex / syrup 6
Schleim aushusten15

gargle [gArgl] v & n gurgeln; Gurgeln,


(v) rinse1 one's throat with mouthwash2 and/or make bubbling3 sounds with the fluid Gurgelmittel 11
Gargling with saline4 [eI] may remedy5 a sore throat6. In these cases gargles or splen1 Mundwasser2
blubbernd3 Kochsalzlsung4
sprays of lidocaine [eI] should be used before intubation.
Use sore throat / hydrogen peroxide / salt water gargle gargle solution helfen bei5
Halsschmerzen6 7

speak [i] -spoke-spoken v irr rel communicate1, vocalize2 v sprechen


express thoughts in language, e.g. to talk, mention3 [-Sn], remark3, gossip4, observe, suggest5 kommunizieren, s. verstndigen1
[dZ], imply6 [aI], state, report, confirm7 [], insist (on)8, hint9, deny10 [aI], read out loud, etc. Ausdruck verleihen, vokalisieren2
speech11 [spitS] n MeSH communication n erwhnen, bemerken3
communicative12 adj vocalization13 n MeSH tratschen4 vorschlagen5
andeuten, implizieren6
Is the patients physical mechanism sufficiently adequate to produce acceptable
besttigen7 beharren (auf)8
conversational speech? This 52-year-old male had very hypernasal speech following
hinweisen9 bestreiten, leugnen10
extensive maxillofacial surgery, for the removal of a tonsillar carcinoma. Speech may
Sprache11 mitteilsam, gesprchig12
have a nasal timbre14 [tQmb] caused by weakness of the palate. Symptoms of
Vokalisation13 Stimmklang, Tim-
confusion, slurred [] speech15, ataxia and inappropriate behavior are common.
bre14 verwaschene Sprache15
Use to speak up or louder / fluently16 / distinctly17 / coherently18 [I]/ frankly19 to
flieend sprechen16 deutlich spr.17
deliver20 a speech speaking aids21 speech development22 / output / pattern /
zusammenhngend reden18
intelligibility / disturbance23 / arrest / rehabilitation aid speech center / per-
offen/ ehrlich sagen19 Rede halten20
ception24 / discrimination / (-language) pathologist25 / therapist25 (un)clear or
Sprechhilfen21
(un)intelligible [-dZIbl]/ clipped or scanning26 / spontaneous [eI]/ disorganized
Sprachentwicklung22
speech purposeful / esophageal27 [-dZil]/ absence of speech language devel-
Sprach-, Sprechstrung23
opment / function spoken / written / body / sign28 language communicative
Sprachverstndnis24
assessment (non)verbal / level of / to encourage [] communication commu-
Logopde/-in25 abgehackte Sprech-
nication skills29
weise, skandierende Sprache26
sophagusstimme27
Zeichensprache28
kommunikative Fhigkeiten29 8

log(o)- comb rel -phasia1 [feIZ(I)], -arthria2 comb Wort-, Sprach-, Sprech-, Logo-
referring to language, speech or words -phasie1 -arthrie2 Logopdie3
aphasisch4 dysarthrisch5
logopedics3 [i] n term aphasic4 [eIz] adj dysarthric5 [I] adj
Sprach-, Sprechstrungen6
Logopedics or speech therapy3 is the study and treatment of speech defects6. Speech Sprachproduktion7
output7 is fluent but paraphasic8; comprehension of spoken language is intact. The
paraphasisch8 beeintrchtigt9
paraphasic output in conduction aphasia interferes [I] with9 the ability to express
Rededrang, Logorrhoe10
meaning. First hypernasality, which often complicates dysarthria, needs to be im-
Leitungsaphasie11
proved before a satisfactory effect can be achieved with a palatal augmentation
amnestische Aphasie12
prosthesis (PAP).
motorische/ Broca-Aphasie13
Use logorrhea10 [i] conduction11 / (non)fluent transcortical / global / anomic12 /
Dysphasie14
motor13 aphasia aphasic deficit / patient / syndrome dys14/ paraphasia
pyramidale/ spastische Dys-
paraphasic speech mild / marked / spastic15 dysarthria 9
arthrie15

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44 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS Human Sounds & Speech

voice n & v MeSH rel phonation1 [eI] n MeSH Stimme; zum Ausdruck
(n) sound produced by the vocal folds2 and articulated in the vocal tract bringen
voiced3 adj voiceless adj vocal4 adj vocalist5 n Stimm-, Lautbildung1 Stimmlip-
phonic6 adj term phon(o)-7 comb pen2 stimmhaft3 Stimm-, vokal4
Snger(in)5 Stimm-, phonisch6
Her voice sounded nasal and she had difficulty swallowing8 []. Videolaryngeal
Laut-, Ton-, phono-7 beim Schlu-
endoscopy is a diagnostic procedure for assessing voice production and vocal func-
cken8 heisere Stimme9 belegte
tion. The voice is 'breathy' when too much air passes incompletely apposed
Stimme10 leise Stimme11 hohe/
vocal cords, as in unilateral vocal cord paralysis.
schrille Stimme12 piepsende Stim-
Use hoarse9 []/ thick10 / husky / breathy [breTi]/ low11 / deep voice high-pitched12 /
me13 raue Stimme14 beruhigende
hollow-sounding / squeaky13 [skwiki] voice harsh14 / poorly modulated / com-
Stimme15 Sprechstimme16 d. Stim-
forting15 / (normal) spoken16 voice to lower17/raise/lose one's voice voice is
me dmpfen17 Stimme zittert18
shaking or quivering18 voice box19 / problem / change to hear voices (within
Kehlkopf19 Stimmbnder20 Stimm-
you) vocal apparatus / folds / cords20 / sounds control of / poor / vowel /
ritzenkrampf, Laryngospasmus21
glottalic / murmured / whisper(ed) phonation phonic tic / spasm21 phoniat-
Phoniatrie22 Phonasthenie,
rics22 /ology /etic /etics /eme /asthenia23 [i]
11 Stimmschwche23 10

tone [toUn] (of voice) n sim sound1 [saUnd] n & v MeSH Ton(fall,-hhe), Klang,
quality (including pitch2 [tS], timbre, loudness or volume, etc.) of a person's voice Stimme
intonation3 n term overtone4 n undertone5 n Laut, Schall, Ton, Gerusch; klingen,
sondieren1 Tonhhe2 Intonation,
Suddenly his tone of voice changed. The timbre of the voice depends on the size and
Sprach-, Satzmelodie3 Oberton
shape of the resonating chambers6 [tSeI-] (mouth, pharynx, nasal sinuses [aI], chest,
(musik.), Unterton (fig.)4 Unterton;
etc.). All patients demonstrated improved alar base and upper lip support and there
gedmpft5 Resonanzkrper6
was marked improvement in speech and reduced nasal intonation in 47 (90.38 %) of
in barschem/ scharfem Ton7
the 52 cases.
mit gedmpfter Stimme8
Use in a(n) harsh7 / normal / angry / subdued8 [u]/ friendly / threatening9 [e] tone
mit drohender Stimme9
high-tone range sound substitution10 / discrimination11 in an8 undertone
Lautersatz10
sentence / rising / falling / vocal / nasal intonation intonation pattern / units
Lautunterscheidung(sverm-
/ preferences
gen)11 11

syllable [sIlbl] n Silbe


a unit of language consisting of several phonemes1 [i] (vowels2 [aU] or consonants3) Phoneme, (Einzel)Laute1
Vokale, Selbstlaute2
monosyllabic4 adj term & clin syllable-stumbling5 [] n
Konsonanten3
The form of stuttering6 [] in which patients halt7 [] before certain syllables they einsilbig; wortkarg4
find difficult to enunciate [ns] is termed syllable-stumbling or dyssyllabia5 [eI].
Silbenstolpern5 Stottern6
stocken7 12

pronunciation [] n sim phonation1 n MeSH, enunciation2 [] n term Aussprache


production of sounds in accordance with the phonetic system of a specific language Laut-, Stimmbildung1
(includes emphasis3, intonation, and accent4 [Qksnt]) Artikulation2
pronounce5 v enunciate6 v term phonate7 v phonetic adj Betonung3
Akzent, Tonfall4
The alterations in phonation were due to obstruction. He enunciates each word aussprechen; erklren5
carefully. She had difficulty segmenting words into pronounceable components.
artikulieren6
Use to pronounce badly / properly hard8 to pronounce correct / word pronuncia-
Laute bilden, phonieren7
tion normal phonation phonetically balanced (abbr PB)
schwer auszusprechen8
deutlich, ausgeprgt9
Note: The word pronounced9 (adj) commonly appears in medical contexts as
13
a synonym for marked9, e.g. Stiffness was more pronounced in the morning.

shout [SaUt] v & n syn cry, yell [jel], scream [i], holler, shriek [i] v & n inf schreien, brllen, (laut) rufen;
to raise your voice when talking or utter a loud scream (of protest, anger [Ng], fear [fI], etc) Schrei, Ruf, Gebrll
During night terrors1 a child may sit up in bed screaming and thrashing [S] about2. A Nachtangst, Pavor nocturnus1
(wild) um sich schlagen2
weak or absent cry at birth may suggest [dZ] vocal cord impairment. In laryngitis
[dZaI] vigorous [Ig] use3 of the voice (shouting, singing, swearing4 [e], roaring5) starke Beanspruchung3
may cause vocal nodules6. In mere shouting the vocal cords are made to vibrate at fluchen4 brllen5
their maximum intensity. Stimmlippenkntchen6
Use shouting voice / intensity normal hunger / shrill / protracted7 cry to shriek in langgezogener Schrei7
vor Angst kreischen8 14
terror8 / with laughter

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Human Sounds & Speech BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 45

murmur [mrm] v & n sim mumble1 [], mutter1 [] v murmeln, nuscheln;
(v) to speak indistinctly2 in a low voice behauchte Stimme;
(n) constant quiet sound or voice that cannot be heard [] or understood very well Gemurmel
Any sound which can be voiced3 can be produced with murmur. She mumbled murmeln, nuscheln, brumme(l)n1
something about her late husband. undeutlich2
stimmhaft ausgesprochen3 15

whisper [HwIsp] v & n sim whispering1 n flstern; Geflster


(v) speaking softly2 in a low2 voice without vibration [aI] of the vocal cords Flstern, Getuschel, Gerede1 leise2
Redeflussstrung3 berging in4
There was impaired [e] fluency3
which then resolved4
into a hoarse whisper. Whis-
Bronchophonie, Bronchialstimme5
pered pectoriloquy5 is an extreme form of bronchophony in which softly spoken
leises Geflster6 Flsterstimme7
words are readily heard by auscultation [sk-].
Flsterprobe8
Use to whisper into sb's ear to speak in a / soft6 whisper whispered voice7 /
16
speech / sounds / bronchophony5 whispered voice test8
11
babble v & n sim coo1 [ku] v, lallation2 n term babbeln, plappern;
to produce incoherent3, meaningless sounds, e.g. a baby or like a baby Babbelei, Geplapper
babbling4 n lal(o)- comb -lalia comb lallen1 Lallen2 unverstndlich, un-
zusammenhngend3 Plappern,
By 2 months of age the child's vocalizations5 include cooing, while babbling begins
Babbelei4 Sprachuerungen5
by 6-10 months of age. The connection between dyslalia and orthodontic anomalies
Stimmengewirr6 Lallphase7 Echola-
was investigated. At school the language of the autistic boy did not overcome voca-
lie8 (zwanghafter) Gebrauch vulg-
lization and lallation.
rer Ausdrcke; Koprolalie9 Nseln,
Use babble of voices6 lallation phase7 echo8 [k]/ copro9/ rhino10 [aI]/ dyslalia11
Rhinophonie, -lalie10 Artikulations-
lal(i)ophobia12
strung, Dyslalie11 Sprechangst,
Lalophobie12 17

eloquent [elkwent] adj sim communicative1, talkative1 [tk-] adj wortgewandt, beredt
very articulate and able to express oneself fluently, clearly, effectively gesprchig, redselig, mitteilsam1
Redegewandtheit, Eloquenz2
eloquence2 n uncommunicative adj taciturn3 [Qs] adj
schweigsam, wortkarg3
Profoundly [aU] retarded4 children (IQ < 30) are usually minimally communicative. schwerstbehindert4
His phonation succeeds in being eloquent enough, even if it remains static.
18
Use eloquent person / language / speech / brain tissue / cortex / area

ramble v sim rant1, chatter2 [tS], blab(ber)3 v, go on about sth.4 phr faseln, unzusammen-
to speak incessantly5 [se] and in a confused way about unimportant matters hngendes Zeug reden
The patient's spontaneous speech is continuous, rambling, and disorganized. Our irres Zeug reden, Tiraden loslassen1
schwatzen2 plappern, ausplaudern3
new patient keeps ranting on about the melting polar caps. Stop this idle [aI]
chatter6, you've got work to do. stundenlang etw. erzhlen4 unauf-
hrlich5 leeres Geplapper6 19

stutter [] n & v sim stammer1 [Q] n & v, pause2 [], falter2 [] v clin Stottern, Dysphemie; stottern
(n) speech disorder marked by involuntary hesitations3 and repetitions; mispronunciation and Stammeln, Dyslalie; stammeln1
transposition of sounds is referred to as stammering ; esp. in BE usage stutter and stammer are stocken2
used synonymously Stocken3 Stotterer4
stammerer4 n stutterer4 n stammering5 n MeSH Stottern, Gestotter5
Many children who stutter grow out of it, although the problem may reappear in angespannt6
nervs7
times of stress in later life. Stammering can be spasmodic, which means that it also
affects the facial muscles. She only stammers when she is tense6 or uptight7 [-taIt]. stottern8
Use a severe / nervous stammer to have a8 stutter acquired / childhood / devel- Silbenstolpern9
20
opmental / adult / syllable9 stuttering

lisp v & n syn (para)sigmatism n term, sim hiss1 v & n lispeln; Lispeln, Sigmatismus
(n) speech defect in which sibilants2 esp. [s] and [z] are distorted3 to a hissing sound zischen; Zischen1
Zischlaute2
She began lisping when she lost one of her front teeth. Should my 30-month-old see fehlerhaft gebildet3
a speech therapist for her lisp? You may even think that your child's lisp sounds cute4
klingt niedlich4
[kjut] now.
Use to speak with/utter with/correct/overcome a lisp frontal / interdental / slight /
21
discernable / childhood / permanent lisp

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46 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS Nutrition

hypernasal [eI] adj term opposite hyponasal1 [haIpoU-] adj term hypernasal
excessive nasal air emission [IS] commonly due to velopharyngeal [dZ] incompetence2 hyponasal1 Insuffizienz des velo-
pharyngealen Abschlusses2
Speech problems including hypernasality and articulation errors3
are commonly
Artikulationsstrungen3
associated with facial [feISl] clefts4. It is estimated that around 20-30% of patients
Gesichtsspalten4
with clefts develop hypernasal speech after pharyngeal flap surgery.
nselnde Sprache, Rhinolalie5
Use hyponasal resonance / voice hypernasal speech5 / children / speaker
intermittierende/ zeitweilig
momentary / intermittent6 hyponasality consistent / perceived hypernasality
auftretende Hyponasalitt6 22

aphonia [eIfoUnI] n MeSH sim dysphonia1 [dIs-] n MeSH Aphonie, Stimmlosigkeit


inability to vocalize2 (except for whispered speech) because of disease or Dysphonie, Stimmstrung1
injury to organs of speech (laut) aussprechen2
These laryngeal [-dZil] disorders are commonly associated with hoarseness3, apho- Heiserkeit3
Stridor, pfeifendes Atemgerusch4
nia, and stridor4 [aI]. Dysphonia refers to any kind of difficulty or pain in speaking.
Use to suffer from / spastic / hysteric(al) / (iatrogenic) functional aphonia spas- tonlose Stimme5
12 modic / flaccid dysphonia aphonic voice5
23

Clinical Phrases
The patient spoke in low murmurs. Der/Die Patient(in) murmelte leise vor sich hin. He has a bad
stammer. Er stottert stark. His voice was breaking much too early. Er hatte viel zu frh den
Stimmbruch. She gave a history of marked difficulty with swallowing and a hot-potato voice.
Sie klagte ber starke Schluckbeschwerden und eine belegte Stimme. When did you first notice the
deepening and coarsening of the voice? Wann ist Ihnen erstmals aufgefallen, dass Ihre Stimme rauer
und tiefer wird? The words are phonetically balanced. Die Sprache ist phonetisch unauffllig. The
patient's spontaneous speech was fluent maintaining appropriate phrase length and melody. Die
Spontansprache des Patienten war flieend; Satzlnge und Satzmelodie waren im normalen Bereich.

Unit 12 Nutrition
Related Units: 1 Diet & Dieting, 2 Food & Drink, 10 Dentition & Mastication,
25 Perioperative Management, Part 5 DENTISTRY

nourish [nrIS] v sim nurture1 [nrtS] v & n, feed2 [i] v & n ? U1-3 (er)nhren
to provide babies or the seriously [I] ill with food or supply body tissues with nourishing aufziehen, pflegen; Pflege, Erzie-
substances [] hung1
nourishment3 n nourishing4 adj mal / overnourishment5 n term fttern, ernhren, stillen; Futter,
Stillen, Ftterung2
Make sure the children are well-nourished6. The child's behavior may need to be
Nahrung3 nahrhaft4
modified in order for the parent to be able to appropriately nourish and nurture the
Unter-, berernhrung5
baby. Evaluate the patient's state of health, nourishment and physical development.
gut genhrt6
Use well / poorly7 / (in)adequately / fully nourished poorly / mal-/ well-nourished
unterernhrt7 stillen8
(abbr W/N) patient nourishing oral supplement to feed a baby2 to breast8-
parenterale/ knstliche
[e]/ bottle-/ cup-feed oral / IV or drip9 / enteral feeding feeding difficulties
Ernhrung9 1

nutrient [nutrint] n & adj sim nutriment1 n Nhrstoff; nahrhaft


(n) substance in food that can be metabolized by the organism to give energy and build tissue Nahrung(smittel), Nhrstoff1
(adj) nourishing Nhr-, Ernhrungs-2 nahrhaft3
nutritive2 adj nutritious3 [IS] adj macronutrient n term Nhrstoffverlust4
Nhrstoffzufuhr5
Nutritional requirements and tolerances can be altered [] by increased utilization Nhrstoffaufnahme, -resorption6
of nutrients, hyper- and malabsorption, impaired metabolism of nutrients, and nu-
Nhrstoffgehalt7
trient wastage4.
ernhrende Gefe8
Use nutrient intake5 / uptake6 []/ requirements [kwaI]/ content7 / delivery / pro-
Nhrlsung9
cessing / vessels8 / solution9 / broth10 adequate / ingested11 [dZ]/ essential
Nhrbouillon10
nutrients nutritive value12 / ratio [eIS] drug-nutrient interaction nutritious
zugefhrte Nhrstoffe11
diet [aI]/ snacks13
Nhrwert12
nahrhafte Zwischenmahlzeiten13 2

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Nutrition BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS 47

nutrition n MeSH syn alimentation n term Ernhrung(slehre)


(i) process of food uptake and metabolism Mangel-, Fehlernhrung1 Ernh-
(ii) study of human food and liquid requirements rungs-, nahrhaft2 alimentr, Nah-
malnutrition1 n MeSH nutritional2 adj alimentary3 adj nutritionist4 n rungs-, Verdauungs-3 Ernhrungs-
wissenschaft(l)er(in)4 Ernhrungs-
Dietary intake and nutritional status were poor. Diet counseling5 [aU] can help
beratung5 Zottenernhrung, mini-
improve nutrition. He's an expert on nutrition issues in clinical dentistry. Do these
male enterale E.6 (totale) parente-
dentists receive training in the nutritional aspects of dental health?
rale E.7 Ernhrungsstrung8 Erhe-
Use adequate / minimal enteral6 / total parenteral7 (abbr TPN) nutrition nutritional
bung d. Ernhrungszustandes9
needs / disorder or disturbance8 []/ assessment9 nutritional therapy / sup-
knstliche E.10 Ernhrungsgewohn-
port10 / deficiency [IS]/ habits11 mild [aI] degree of / severe [I]/ chronic / energy
heiten11 Protein-Energie-Mangel-
protein12 malnutrition nutritionally balanced diet artificial10 [fIS]/ forced13
syndrom12 Zwangsernhrung13
alimentation alimentary tract or canal14
Verdauungstrakt14 3

joule [dZul] n, abbr J sim calorie1 [kQlri] n, abbr cal Joule


unit of heat or energy content; for referring to food kcal has been replaced by J (4.187 J equals Kalorie1 kalorisch, Kalorien-2 12
1 cal). wrmeerzeugend3 berschssige
(non)caloric2 adj calorific3 adj calorimeter n Kalorien4 Kalorien verbrauchen/
verbrennen5 kalorienbewusst6
Excess [Ikses] calories4 are stored in the body as fat. Every effort should be made to Kalorienverbrauch7
provide sufficient [IS] amounts of carbohydrate [aI] and calories.
Kalorienbedarf8
Use to burn5/count calories empty / large or kilocalories calorie-conscious6 [S] /
kalorienarme Kost9
content caloric intake / expenditure7 [tS]/ restriction / requirement8 / defi-
empfohlene Kalorienzufuhr10
ciency high / low9-calorie diet caloric excess / deficit / recommen-
Brennwert, kalorischer Wert11 4
dation10 / value11

carbohydrates [aI] n MeSH syn carbs n jar, rel starch1 [stArtS] n clin Kohlenhydrate (KH)
main ingredients2 [i] in many foods including sugar compounds3, starches, glycogen Strke1
[glaIkdZn], and cellulose polysaccharides; starch is built up of glucose residues4 and con- Bestandteile2
verted5 into dextrin, glucose, and maltose Zuckerverbindungen3
starchy6 adj carbohydrate-rich adj Glukosereste4
Much of the carbohydrate we ingest is in the form of starch. A diet with excessive aufgespalten5
strkehaltig6
nonprotein calories from starch or sugar but deficient in total protein and essential
amino acids eventually results in protein-energy malnutrition. Carbohydrate-rich Kohlenhydratdepots7
meals are advisable [aIz]. leicht verdauliche KH8
Use carbohydrate (mal)absorption / metabolism / oxidation / stores7 rich in / simple Strke abbauen/ aufspalten9
/ complex / easily digestible8 [daIdZ-] carbohydrates to hydrolyze9 [aI]/ soluble / Maisstrke10
corn10 / potato starch starch solutions / sugar11 / intolerance starchy food / Strkezucker11
5
vegetables

saccharides [sQkraIdz-Idz] n MeSH, pl syn sugars [SUgz] n MeSH ? U2-16 Saccharide, Zucker
saccharides are classified as mono-, di- [daI], tri- [traI], and polysaccharides according to Saccharin, Sstoff; Zucker-1
the number of monosaccharide groups they are composed of zuckerhaltig2
saccharin(e)1 n & adj saccharo- comb sacchariferous2 adj term Stuhlgang frdern3
(un)aufgespaltene Disaccharide4
Nonabsorbable saccharides (e.g. sorbitol) help promote the evacuation of stools3. The stark geste Nachspeise5
nonnutritive sweetener saccharin is considered safe for consumption [] by all
zuckerhaltige Getrnke6
people with diabetes [daIbitIz].
Nchternblutzucker7
Use (un)split di4/ lipopoly/ mucopolysaccharides high-sugar dessert5 sugar-
Milchzucker, Laktose8
containing beverages6 fasting blood7 (abbr FBS)/ milk8 / fruit sugar simple /
Dreifachzucker9 6
complex / triple9 [I]/ starch sugars sugar-free gum

glucose [glukoUs] n MeSH syn dextrose n MeSH Glukose, Traubenzucker,


simple sugar found in certain foods; fructose and other monosaccharides are converted into Dextrose
glucose which is the chief source of energy for the body; its metabolism1 is controlled by Stoffwechsel, Metabolismus1
insulin; excess glucose is stored in the form of glycogen2 [glaIkdZn] or converted into fat Glykogen2 Glukonat3
(adipose tissue) Glukosamin4 abhngig sein von5
gluco- comb gluconate3 [eI] n term glucosamine4 [i] n Glukosebelastung6
Unlike other organs, the brain relies mainly on5 glucose to supply its energy Glukoseschwelle7 Glukosegabe8
requirements. During IV sedation, a solution of saline and dextrose is dripped into Liquorzucker(spiegel)9
the vein. Glukosespiegel nach Nahrungs-
Use liquid glucose glucose load6 / threshold7 [TreSoUld]/ tolerance factor (abbr GTF) zufuhr10
glucose tolerance test / administration8 / feeding / metabolism blood / CSF9 / Nchternblutzucker11
postprandial10 / fasting plasma11 glucose level glucose-nitrogen [aI] ratio [eIS]/ Glukosetransporter12
assimilation / carrier12 glucokinase [kaIneIz]/genesis [dZen]/corticoid /suria13 Glukosurie13 7

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48 BODY STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS Nutrition

lactose [lQktoUs] n MeSH syn milk sugar n clin, lactin n term rare Laktose, Milchzucker
disaccharide in mammalian [eI] milk1 used in modified milk preparations and food for infants Sugetiermilch1
lakto-, Milch-2
lacto-2 comb lactosuria3 n term lactose-free /-containing adj
Laktoseausscheidung i. Harn,
The drug reduces the rate of absorption of most carbohydrates such as starches, Laktosurie3 angeborener/
dextrins, maltose, and sucrose (but not lactose). Hereditary lactase deficiency4 [fIS]
kongenitaler Laktasemangel4
causes lactose intolerance.
aufgespaltene Laktose5 Milchsure6
Use (non)metabolized / (un)hydrolized5 [aI] lactose lactic acid6 lactose content /
Laktosebelastung7
ingestion / assay [QseI] or tolerance test7 / intolerance8 / (mal)absorption lacto-
Laktoseintoleranz8 8
ferrin /genic /vegetarian

protein [proUtin] n MeSH Protein, Eiwei


compounds of one or more polypeptides [aI] involved in many essential body structures and Blutgerinnung1 Proteinurie2
functions (hormones, enzymes [zaI], muscle contraction, blood clotting1 immunological eiweiabbauend, proteolytisch3
response) Proteinbilanz, -haushalt4
proteo- comb proteinuria2 n MeSH proteolytic3 [I] adj Strukturprotein, Gersteiwei5
12
Both energy and protein requirements may further increase following surgery to Molkeeiwei6
Fremdprotein7
promote healing.
Use protein balance4 / concentration / deficiency / biosynthesis [sIn]/ efficiency ratio natives Protein8
structural5 / soy [sI]/ whey6 [weI]/ egg protein basic / foreign7 []/ native [eI]
proteingebundenes Iod9
or natural8 / C-reactive (abbr CRP)/ bone morphogenetic (abbr BMP)/ synovial Proteindenaturierung10
fluid protein protein-bound iodine9 [aIdIn] (abbr PBI)/ ingestion / binding / Protease, proteolytisches Enzym11
Proteoglykane12 9
denaturation10 / kinase [aI] proteolytic enzyme11 proteoglycans12 [aI]/lysis

amino acids [QminoU QsIdz] n MeSH abbr AA, syn aminos n jar Aminosuren
nitrogen-bearing1 [naItrdZn] organic acids absorbed in the gut2 [] stickstoffhaltig1
that are the building blocks of the body's own protein Darm2
aminoacidemia3 [i] n term aminoaciduria4 n term Aminoazidmie3
Aminoazidurie4
The 9 essential amino acids (among them leucine [lusin], tyrosine [aI], valine
(nicht) essentielle Aminosure5
[eIQ], threonine [i], lysine [aI]) cannot be produced by the body and must be
basische Aminosure6
absorbed from the diet.
verzweigtkettige Aminosure7
Use (non)essential5 (abbr EAA and NEAA)/ basic6 [eI]/ acidic [sI]/ amino acid neutral
Aminosurelsung8
[u]/ aromatic / branched chain7 (abbr BCAA)/ BCAA-enriched amino acid
10
amino acid metabolism / content / composition / solution8 / infusion / imbalance

fat [fQt] n & adj syn lipid [lIpId] n & comb MeSH Fett, Lipid; fett(haltig),
n (i) the triglycerides [traIglIs-] in greasy [i], oily and waxy substances that are insoluble1 in fettschtig, -leibig
water (ii) adipose or fatty body tissue; unlslich1 fettleibig2
adj (i) containing or composed of fat fetthaltig, Fett-3
(ii) impolite expression for being big, overweight or obese2 [i] fettartig, lipoid4
fatty3 adj lip(o) comb lipoid4 adj pflanzliche Fette5
You should reduce the amount of fat in your diet. Try vegetable fats5 such as palm Doppelbindungen6
[pAm] oil instead of butter, meat or cheese. Polyunsaturated fat is a triglyceride Fetteinlagerungen7
composed of fatty acids that contain 2-4 double bonds6. Fettpolster8
Use fat absorption /-free / deposits7 / pad8 / exchange / supplements saturated mehrfach ungesttigte Fettsuren9
[sQtS-]/ (mono/poly)unsaturated9 fatty acids long-/medium-chain10 / free / mittelkettige Fettsuren10
triglyceride fatty acids fatty meal / foods / tissue11 / stool12 brown13 / depot Fettgewebe11
fat simple / compound14 lipid lipoprotein /tropic lipidemia [i]/osis Fettstuhl, Steatorrhoe12
braunes Fett13
komplexes Lipid14 11

essential [IsenSl] fatty acid [QsId] n MeSH abbr EFA essenzielle Fettsure
EFAs cannot be synthesized [sInTsaIzd] by the body and must be supplied in the diet; Linolsure1
they include linoleic [lInliIk] acid1, omega-3 fatty acids2, and monounsaturated fats3 Omega-3-Fettsuren2
Dietary oils and EFAs are necessary for fat loss, athletic performance, and general einfach ungesttigte Fette3
health. Deficiencies in EFAs can develop quickly in the infant of very low birth weight
12
[weIt], who has little body stores of essential fatty acids at the time of birth.

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Nutrition 49

vitamin [aII] n clin & MeSH sim multivitamin, provitamin n MeSH Vitamin
organic substances present in small amounts in natural foodstuffs; essential to normal Mangelkrankheiten1
metabolism; insufficient amounts in the diet can cause deficiency diseases1 Hypervitaminosen2
Disorders of vitamin excess2 may now be more common than vitamin deficiency3. Vitaminmangel3
Vitaminprparate4
Retinol (vitamin A) is important for healthy skin, teeth and bones. The vitamin B
complex includes thiamin [TaImIn] (B-1), riboflavin [raIboUfleIvIn] (B-2), and pyr- Vitaminzusatz, -anreicherung5
idoxine [pIrdksIn] (B-6). wasserlsliches Vitamin6
Use vitamin preparations4 / level / B-12 deficiency / supplement5 / absorption fat Provitamin A7
soluble / water soluble6 / high potency vitamin excess intake / synthetic ana- Vitaminderivat8
13
logues4 of vitamins vitamin A precursor7 []/ derivative8 / toxicity

folic acid [foUlIk QsId] n MeSH syn folacin [foUlsIn] n MeSH, Folsure
sim folate1 [foUleIt] n MeSH Folat, Folsuresalz1
Folsuremangelanmie2
a member of the vitamin B complex necessary for the production of red blood cells
and in pregnancy Folsuresupplementierung3
Folic acid can also be produced synthetically. Prescribed along with phenytoin, sys- Folsuresynthesehemmer4 12
temic folic acid delays the onset and reduces the incidence and severity of pheny-
toin-induced gingival overgrowth.
Use systemic / topical folic acid folic acid deficiency anemia2 [i]/ supplementation3
14
/ antagonist / synthesis inhibitor4

ascorbic [skrbIk] acid n MeSH syn vitamin C n clin & MeSH Ascorbinsure, Vitamin C
a water-soluble antioxidant1 and detoxifier2 which must be supplemented3 [] regularly as Antioxidans1 Entgiftungsmittel2
it cannot be stored ergnzt, zugefhrt3 frdert4
Vitamin C functions primarily in the formation of collagen [kldZn], the body's Vitamin C ergnzen5
Vitamin C
chief protein substance and aids in4 the absorption of iron.
Use L-ascorbic acid deficiency / level vitamin C-deficient patients to replenish5 / Gesamtmenge im Krper6
Vitamin C-Langzeittherapie6 15
total-body pool of6 / long-term use of7 vitamin C

(dietary) fiber [daIteri faIb] n MeSH sing, BE fibre Ballaststoffe


syn roughage [rfIdZ] n MeSH espBE, Ballaststoffe; Menge,
sim bulk1 [] n clin Masse, Volumen1 Kleie2
Darmttigkeit, Peristaltik3
largely indigestible material, e.g. bran2 [Q], cereals [sI] and vegetable fibers serving as
volumins, raumfllend4
a stimulant of intestinal peristalsis3
Fllmaterial (Darm)5
bulky4 adj bulkage5 n bulkiness6 n
Volumen; Beleibtheit6
If you ingest a diet higher in roughage, you will produce more frequent and bulkier voluminsere Sthle7
stools7. Pectin is a soluble fiber found in the skins of fruits and vegetables thought to Kotmasse8
slow digestion and keep food in the stomach longer. Enhanced fiber intake increases ballaststoffreiche Nahrung9
fecal [fikl] bulk8. Ballaststoffe10
Use intake of dietary fiber low / high9 roughage diet high-fiber diet9 / content / Muskelmasse11
intake fiber supplementation / supplement dietary10 / intestinal / muscle11 Fllmittel, Quellstoffe12 16
[msl] bulk bulk-producing agent / forming laxatives12 bulky food9 / tumors

trace [treIs] element n MeSH sim trace mineral1, trace metal2, Spuren-, Mikroelement
micronutrients3 [u] n MeSH mineralisches Spurenelement1
metallisches Spurenelement2
inorganic molecules in food (e.g. iron4 [aIn], iodine5 [aI], copper6, fluorine7 [iI], manganese8
[i], selenium9 [i], zinc10 [z], silicon11) required in minute12 [maInut] amounts (less than 1 essentielle Mikroelemente3
mg/d) which are essential nutritionally and in metabolism Eisen4 Iod5 Kupfer6 Fluor7
trace13 v traceable14 adj (radio)tracer n Mangan8 Selen9 Zink10 Silizium11
sehr klein12 aufspren13
The functions of trace elements and of more abundant15 [] metals (calcium16
nachweis-, auffindbar14
[kQlsIm], phosphorus, potassium17, sodium18 [oU], chloride19 [aI], and magnesium
reichlich vorhanden15 Kalzium16
[i]) are determined, in part, by their charges20 [tSArdZIz], mobilities, and binding
Kalium17 Natrium18 Chlorid19
constants to biological ligands21 [aI].
Ladungen20 Liganden21
Use disturbance in / absorption of trace elements trace amounts22 / component /
geringste Mengen22
concentration / metal deficiency / impurity23 [pjU] to be found in traces24
minimale Verunreinigung23
to be traceable to sth25
in Spuren (vorkommen)24
zurckzufhren auf25
Note: Mark the difference between silicon and silicone26 and between
Silikon26 17
manganese and magnesium.

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50 MEDICAL SCIENCE Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology

Unit 13 Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology


Related Units: 3 Craniofacial Trauma, 16 Orofacial Pain,
17 Craniofacial Fractures, PART 5 DENTISTRY

pathologic(al) [pQTldZIk] adj term pathologisch, krankhaft


related to the causes [], development, and nature of abnormal conditions, to the resulting Pathologie, path. Prozess/ Befund1
structural and functional changes, or to pathology as a medical science and specialty Pathologe/in2
pathology1 n MeSH pathologist2 n pathogen3 n patho-, -opathy comb (Krankheits)erreger3
pathologisches Merkmal4
This condition is characterized pathologically by diffuse inflammatory changes. Is pathologischer Befund5
there a relationship between TMJ pathology and types of orthodontic treatment?
pathologische Einheit6
Occult fungal infection was detected by routine mucosal scrapings evaluated for oral
Zell-, Zytopathologie7
pathology.
Grundleiden, -krankheit8
Use pathologic anatomy / histology / feature4 [fitS]/ changes / abnormality / condi-
kein pathologischer Befund9
tion pathologic finding5 / appearance [I]/ fracture / bone resorption patho-
Histopathologie10
logic entity6 / examination / diagnosis / confirmation / staging anatomical /
Koagulopathie,
cellular7 / clinical / comparative / functional pathology humoral / medical /
Gerinnungsstrung11
molecular / surgical pathology underlying8 / characteristic / oral / dental / jaw /
pathogen, krankheitserregend12
endocrine [IaI]/ speech / negative for9 pathology (no) evidence9 / site / type of
pathology cyto/ histo10/ neuro [U]/ immunopathology arthr/ (lymph)aden/
coagul11/ encephalopathy pathogenic12 [dZe] /genesis /genicity /physiology
1
periodontal / opportunistic / cyto [saI-]/ neuropathogens

morbid [] adj term ? U18-12, U14-9 syn diseased [i] adj clin krank(haft), pathologisch,
related to physical or mental diseases or pathologic conditions morbid
morbidity1 n MeSH comorbidity2 n dys-3 [dIs], mal-3 comb Morbiditt, Krankheitshufigkeit1
-osis, -iasis [aI] comb
Komorbiditt, Begleiterkrankung2
13 Dys-, Fehl-, gestrt3
She has a morbid fear of dentistry and has overly delayed her consultation. Hyper-
Verschlechterung4
natremia [i] in the elderly is a heterogeneous [dZi], morbid, and iatrogenic [aIQ-]
krankhafter Zustand5
entity. In most cases there is little clinical morbidity or deterioration4 [I] of circu-
Fettsucht, Adipositas6
latory function.
krankhafte Angst7
Use morbid condition5 / risk / depression / obesity6 [i]/ thoughts / fear7 / tissue /
pathologische Anatomie8
anatomy8 (BE) perioperative / graft / donor site / drug-related morbidity
Speichelstein(bildung),
dysfunction(al) /plasia [eIZ] dermat/ cheil/ (pseudo)arthr/ fibr/ cyan/ fluor/
Sialolithiasis9
acid/ leukocytosis [u] sialolith9 [k] / psor10 [s]/ candidiasis malformation11
Psoriasis, Schuppenflechte10
/function(ing) /position12
Fehlbildung11
Lageanomalie12 2

focus n term, pl -i [foUsaI] (Krankheits)Herd, Fokus


sim lesion1 [liZn] n MeSH ? U3-5 Lsion, Schdigung, Verletzung,
Tumor1
center or starting point of a pathologic process or change in the tissues; the term lesion is often
used to refer to one of the sites of a multifocal disease herdfrmig, fokal2
umschrieben3
focal2 [foUkl] adj term multifocal adj
einzelstehend, solitr4
Leukoplakia typically presents as off-white lesions that may be isolated or multi- schlecht abgegrenzt5
focal. Lesions may be localized, circumscribed3 [aI], discrete4 [i], linear, poorly de-
Lsionen sind beschrnkt auf6
marcated5, diffuse or generalized in distribution. Were you able to determine the
Lsionen breiten sich aus7
initial [IS] focus of infection?
Lsionen gehen einher mit8
Use lesions consist of / contain / are composed of / are confined [aI] to6 / are clustered
karise Lsion9
[] in lesions are centered around / begin as / spread [e] to7 / are associated
erhabene Lsion10 intrakranielle
[oUS] with8 carious9 / periapical / periodontal / mucosal / primary [aI]/ solitary4
Raumforderung11 tastbare Lsion12
/ elevated10 / genetic lesion inflammatory / chronic / pre-existing / (intracranial
Entzndungsherd13
[eI]) mass11 / obstructive / palpable12 / painless lesion focus of inflammation13
Nachbarherd14
principal / contiguous14 [-IgjUs]/ external focus multiple / metastatic15 foci
Metastasenherde15
focal lesion / abscess / infection16 / gingival hyperplasia / hemorrhage / infiltrate /
Fokal-, Herdinfektion16 3
neurologic deficit

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Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology 51

affect vt clin syn involve vt, sim compromise1 [-maIz], impair2 [e] vt clin (i) befallen, angreifen
(i) to have a morbid, incapacitating3, or otherwise damaging impact (ii) betreffen
(ii) to influence in some way beeintrchtigen, gefhrden1
(un)affected adj term (un)involved adj involvement4 n impairment5 n MeSH einschrnken, schwchen, schdi-
Males and females are equally affected. People who suffer from impaired mastica- gen2 behindernd, arbeitsunfhig
machend3
tory function often adapt food consistency to their oral status. Alveolar ridge defects
compromise the suitability of these sites for restoration with dental implants or Befall, Beteiligung4
impair the esthetics of the restorative solution. Strung, Schwchung, Schdigung5
Use to affect young individuals / adults / dental health / the mandible adversely6 / geschdigt, angegriffen6
most commonly / cleft-affected affected teeth / bone / area / side7 / eye / by betroffene Seite7 eingeschrnkte
gingivitis / first-degree relatives mentally / hearing / visually impaired im- Sensibilitt8 abwehrgeschwcht9
paired function / perfusion / sensation8 / growth / nasal breathing / wound vorbergehende Beeintrchtigung10
healing medically / hemodynamically / immuno9/ acutely compromised com- Lymphknotenbefall11
promised esthetic outcome / medical status airway / cranial nerve com- Metastasierung12
promise functional / transient10 / irreversible / neurologic impairment nodal11 gleichzeitige orale Beteiligung13
4
[oU]/ systemic / metastatic12 / secondary / concomitant oral13 involvement

anomaly n MeSH syn abnormality n, Anomalie, Fehlbildung


sim mal/deformation1 n MeSH Fehlbildung, Deformierung, De-
formitt1
deformity1, impairment, dysfunction or deviation2 [i] from the average or norm
Abweichung2
anomalous3 adj term abnormal3 adj de-/malformed adj
abnorm, anomal3
Dental anomalies involving alterations in number, size, and structure of teeth often abnormer Verlauf4
present a major challenge for dental practitioners. Occlusion may occur as a result of angeborene Fehlbildung5
an anomalous course4 of the artery. An impeded tongue function was the cause of deformierte Ohren6
the palatal deformation. deformierte Kiefergelenke7
Use congenital5 / chromosome / developmental / craniofacial / jaw / skeletal / dental 13
or tooth anomaly malformed ears6 / teeth / palate / oral cavity deformed
5
temporomandibular joints7 / (TMJ) disc / facial bones / chin / ear

congenital [dZen] or inborn adj term angeboren, kongenital


opposite acquired1 [kwaId] adj term erworben1
Eigenschaften, Merkmale2
diseases, malformations, anomalies, mental or physical traits2 [eI] existing at birth
nosokomial3
hospital-acquired3 adj term transfusion-acquired adj
Taubheit4
Rubella causes a variety [aI] of congenital defects, e.g. deafness4 [defns] and Anophthalmus congenitus5
mental retardation. angeborene Gaumenspalte6
Use congenital disorder / absence of the eye5 / malformation / deficiency / infection / genetischer Stoffwechseldefekt7
cleft palate6 / deafness / craniofacial microsomia to occur on a congenital basis nosokomial, im Krankenhaus
inborn error of metabolism7 / deformation of the skull community-/ nosoco-
erworben8
mially8 / domestically or household-/ occupationally9 [eIS]/ newly / acutely ac- berufsbedingt, Berufs-9 6
quired

hereditary or inherited adj term erblich, hereditr, Erb-


sim familial1 adj term familir1 Kind, Nachkomme2 von
einer Generation auf die nchste3
transmitted from parent to offspring2 in an ancestral [se] line of descent3 [dIsent]
erben4
inherit (from)4 v inheritance5 n term
Vererbung, Hereditt5
heredity5 n inheritable6 adj heredo- comb
erblich, vererbbar6
Synovitis [aI] is frequently seen in familial forms with early onset7. The ancestral Beginn, Ausbruch7
history8 showed dominant inheritance of susceptibility9 [sep] to retinoblastoma. Ahnengeschichte8
Both disorders are transmitted as autosomally [] inherited traits10. (familire Pr)Disposition9
Use hereditary syndrome / angioedema / opalescent dentin11 / factors inherited autosomal vererbte Merkmale10
(clotting) [] disorder / trait / genetic defect mode of / maternal12 / Mendelian Dentinogenesis imperfecta11
inheritance familial / autosomal / dominant13 / recessive / x-linked14 inherit- maternale Vererbung12
ance pattern familial x-linked trait / tendency / (pre)disposition or suscepti- dominante Vererbung13
bility9 familial transmission / syndrome / pattern / clustering [] or aggrega- X-chromosomaler Erbgang14
tion15 familial occurrence16 []/ incidence / polyposis / macrocephaly familire Hufung15
x-linked14 heredity heredofamilial /pathology familires Auftreten16
vertraut sein mit17 7
Note: Do not confuse familial and familiar as in to be familiar with17.

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52 MEDICAL SCIENCE Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology

idiopathic [IdIoUpQTIk] adj term idiopathisch, genuin,


referring to a disease of unknown cause or etiology1 [i] essentiell
Many cases of dental erosion are classified as idiopathic in origin because of a lack of tiologie, (Krankheits)Ursache1
idiopathische periphere Fazialispa-
definitive proof of chemical action. In the majority of patients with Bells palsy2,
spontaneous recovery occurs within two months. rese, Bell-Lhmung2 idiopathische
Use idiopathic tooth erosion / facial paresis3 / osteosclerosis / condylar resorption / thrombozytopenische Purpura,
Morbus Werlhof3 8
thrombocytopenic purpura / vitiligo [aII] chronic idiopathic orofacial pain

iatrogenic [aIQtrdZenIk] adj, -ically adv term ? U19-15 iatrogen, durch d. Arzt/rztin
induced by an unfavorable1 [eI] response to medical or surgical treatment verursacht
Diamonds carry a lower risk of potential iatrogenic tooth fracture than carbide burs ungnstig, unerwnscht1
iatrogen2
used for the same purposes.
Use iatrogenic factor / infection / (nerve) injury / (dental) trauma []/ (tooth) fracture durch rztliche Ma-
/ foreign body / complication iatrogenically induced / triggered2 / com- nahmen beeintrchtigt3
9
promised3

irritation [IrIteISn] n term ? U16-3 Reizung, Irritation


(i) itching1 [ItS], painful, or incipient2 [sIp] inflammatory reaction juckend1 beginnend2 berreizung3
(ii) overexcitation3 [ksaI] or excessive sensitivity4 berempfindlichkeit4
irritate v term irritative or -able5 adj irritability6 n irritant7 n reizbar, Reiz-5
Reizbarkeit, Irritabilitt6
There was some local irritation at the site of injection. Whitening toothpastes should
Irritans, Reizmittel7
not be used on a regular basis because they can be abrasive to the enamel and
Nervenwurzelreizung8
irritating to the oral tissues.
Schleimhautreizung9
Use skin / nerve root8 / meningeal [-dZIl]/ mucosal9 / chronic / mechanical / chem-
irritative Rhinitis10
ical irritation (generalized/ focal) nervous / neuromuscular / reflex / airway /
gereizte Stimmung11
13 tissue irritability irritative reaction / complaints / lesion / rhinitis10 / hyper-
reizbare(r) und nervse(r)
plasia of the oral mucosa irritable mood11 [u]/ and tense patient12 / eyes13
Patient(in)12 empfindliche Augen13
10

inflammation [InflmeISn] n MeSH Entzndung


dynamic cytologic and histologic reactions in response to injury or abnormal stimulation schdlich, schdigend1
caused by physical, chemical, or biologic agents; includes local reactions and the resulting entzndet2
morphologic changes, destruction or removal of injurious1 [dZu] materials, and responses entzndlich3
leading to repair and healing (Flssigkeits)absonderung4
inflamed2 [eI] adj term -itis [aItIs] comb (non-/ anti-)inflammatory3 [Q] adj klassische Entzndungszeichen5
Plaque accumulations are known to produce gingival inflammation. Inflammations exsudative Entzndung6
Adhsion infolge v. Entzndung7
of mucous membranes with free discharge4 [-tSArdZ] are called catarrh. The so-
called cardinal signs of inflammation5 are redness, heat, swelling, pain, and inhibit- fokale Entzndung8
ed function. proliferative Entzndung9
Use (sub)acute / chronic / exudative6 [u]/ catarrhal / adhesive7 [i] inflammation nekrotisierende Entzndung10
bacterial / mucosal / gingival / plaque-induced / peri-implant inflammation serse Entzndung11
allergic []/ atrophic / degenerative inflammation focal8 / fibrinous [aI]/ fibroid eitrige Entzndung12
/ granulomatous inflammation signs of / clinically overt / hyperplastic or pro- entzndliches Exanthem13
liferative9 / interstitial [IS]/ necrotic10 inflammation productive []/ sclerosing / entzndungshemmende Mittel,
serous11 [I]/ serofibrinous / purulent [pjU] or suppurative12 [] inflammation Antiphlogistika14
inflammatory process / reaction / eruption13 / changes / exudate / infiltrate

anti-inflammatory drugs14 / effect / treatment


11
Note: All terms for inflammations end in -itis, e.g. gingivitis, stomatitis, etc.

pus [ps] n MeSH Eiter, Pus


a protein-rich liquid inflammation product comprised of leukocytes [u], a thin fluid, and Zelltrmmer1 eitrig, purulent2
cellular debris1 Eiterung, Eiterbildung3
purulent2 [pjUlnt] adj term pyo- [paIoU] comb purulence3 n Gewebeeinschmelzung4
Eiter absondern5
An abscess is a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of belriechender Eiter6
tissue4. If a dental abscess bursts and releases pus it is called a gum boil.
makroskop. sichtbare Eiterung7
Use to release [i] or discharge5/contain pus sterile / foul-smelling6 [aU]/ gross7 [oU]/
klin. manifeste Abszedierung8
frank8 / localized / loculated pus aspiration / drainage9 / evacuation of pus pus
Eiterableitung9
collections10 /-forming11 / formation / cells / fluid / pocket / sample pus from an
Eiteransammlungen10
abscess purulent collections10 / infection / sinusitis / (nasal) discharge12 / exu-
eiterbildend11
date / conjunctivitis
eitriges Sekret12 12

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Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology 53

consolidation n term (i) Verdichtung


rel infiltration1 n term (ii) (Ver)Festigung, Ausheilung
(i) solidification2 into a firm dense mass; esp. inflammatory changes of the lung due to the Infiltration1
presence of cellular exudate in the air spaces Hart-, Festwerden2
(ii) stage in healing, e.g. in fractures when the callus changes into bone verdichten3
consolidate3 v term consolidated adj infiltrate4 v & n infiltrative5 adj infiltrieren; Infiltrat4
During the consolidation period, a distraction osteogenesis6 site can be callus ma- infiltrativ5
Distraktionsosteogenese6
nipulated with orthodontic springs7 to correct an open bite.
Use to undergo3 consolidation process / areas8 / (x-ray) signs9 of consolidation kieferorthopdische Federn7
bone / graft / pulmonary10 / antral / focal11 / premature consolidation massive / Verdichtungsareale8
parenchymal consolidation consolidation period / phase / rate organ / meta- (radiologische) Verschattung9
static / tumor / bone marrow12 / endosteal infiltration nodular / diffuse / pulmonale Verdichtung10
pulmonary / cellular / inflammatory13 / interstitial [IS] infiltrate infiltrative Verdichtungsherde11
growth / tumor / metastasis / process Knochenmarkinfiltration12
entzndliches Infiltrat13 13

induration n term Induration, Verhrtung


(i) pathological process of becoming extremely firm or hard (ii) focus of indurated tissue verhrten, indurieren1
Ausschlag, Exanthem2
indurated adj indurate1 v indurative adj
(druck)schmerzempfindlich3
The rash2 was associated with muscular pain, tenderness, and induration. After Gewebeverhrtung4
rupture the tissues surrounding the ulcer [ls] often become indurated, reddened
teigige Induration5
and tender3. Palpation of the lips is essential to detect indurated areas indicative of
indurierte Knoten6
early squamous cell carcinoma.
Use localized / extensive / marked / focal / painful / palpable / painless induration
leathery [e] or brawny4 []/ red / gray / doughy5 [doUi] induration area / degree
of induration indurated borders / edges / nodules6 / inflammatory tissue / 13
14
plaque / ulcer

hypertrophy [haIprtrfi] n MeSH Hypertrophie, Vergrerung


sim hyperplasia1 [-eIZ(I)] n MeSH Hyperplasie1
Gre2
increase in bulk2 [] (through increase in size not in number of cells) of an organ or tissues not
due to tumor formation hypertroph3 vergrert4
hyperplastisch5
hypertrophic3 adj term hypertrophied4 adj hyperplastic5 adj
Gingivahypertrophie6
Chronic irritation from ill-fitting denture bases may develop and can result in in- Tonsillenhypertrophie7
flammatory hyperplasia of the palatal mucosa.
hemifaziale Hyperplasie8
Use gingival6 / masseter (muscle) / tonsillar7 / lip / hemifacial8 / compensatory9 hy-
kompensatorische Hypertrophie9
pertrophy hypertrophic scar10 / gingivitis11 / chondrocytes12 hypertrophied
hypertrophe Narbe10
muscle (denture-induced) fibrous / gingival13 / (inflammatory) papillary / hemi-
hypertrophe Gingivitis11
mandibular / condylar hyperplasia
hypertrophe Chondrozyten12
Gingivahyperplasie13
Note: Although different in meaning, hypertrophy and hyperplasia are often
15
(incorrectly) used synonymously.

a b

a A case of gingival hyperplasia resulting from poor oral hygiene and ill-fitting dentures.
b The erupting incisor is already becoming visible directly underneath the eruption cyst (indicated by arrow).

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54 MEDICAL SCIENCE Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology

nodule [ndjUl] or -lus n MeSH sim swelling1, tumor1 [t(j)um] n MeSH, Nodulus, Knoten, Kntchen
lump1 [], mass1 n jar & clin ?U51-2f Schwellung, Geschwulst,
Tumor, Knoten1
(i) a small, palpable mass of solid pathologic tissue (ii) rarely also a node of normal tissue
Knoten(bildung), Nodositas2
nodosity2 n term nodular or nodose3 [noUdoUs] adj nodulation4 n
knotig, knotenfrmig3
He has a small, painless nodule under the tongue. Intraoral examination revealed an Knotenbildung4
elevated ulcerative mass involving the hard palate at the midline. Therapeutic neck Kropf, Struma5
dissection was performed for a lump in the neck which was suspicious for cancer. solitr6
Most multinodular goiters5 are benign, while a solitary6 thyroid [aI] nodule tends to Rheumaknoten,
be malignant. Nodulus rheumaticus7
Use fibrous / rheumatoid7 [u]/ gouty8 [aU]/ solitary or discrete9 nodule gingival / Gichtknoten, Tophus arthriticus8
subcutaneous [eI]/ calcified [s]/ ulcerated / mobile10 [aI]/ metastatic nodules Solitrknoten9
nodular aggregations11 / lesion / hyperplasia painless12 / firm / apparently bewegliche Knoten10
benign lump maxillofacial / neck / parotid / soft tissue / asymptomatic / palpa- Knotenansammlungen11
ble / gelatinous / malignant mass mass lesion indolenter Knoten12

Note: Even though the term tumor is generally used for any morbid enlarge-
ment or swelling, patients are more likely to associate this word with its
second meaning, i.e. neoplasia. Therefore, the expressions swelling, mass,
16
and lump should be preferred when talking to patients.

ulcer [ls] n MeSH & clin sim sore1 [sr] n & adj clin ? U16-11 Ulkus, Ulcus, Geschwr
rel erosion2 [IroUZn] n MeSH ? U10-20 wunde Stelle, Hautlsion,
Geschwr; wund1
lesion on the surface of the skin or mucosa caused by loss of superficial3 [IS] tissue
(chiefly as a result of inflammation) Erosion2
oberflchlich3
ulcerative4 adj term ulcerated adj ulceration5 n erosive adj
ulzers, ulzerierend4
13 Aphthous ulcers (canker sores) and cold sores are common oral ulcer types which
Geschwrbildung, Ulzeration5
are caused by the herpes simplex virus. Any mouth ulcer which does not heal within
Ulkuskrater6
2-3 weeks should be checked by a dentist or doctor. A wound [u] with superficial
Magengeschwr,
loss of tissue from trauma is not primarily an ulcer, but may become ulcerated if
Ulcus ventriculi7 Ulcus pepticum8
infection occurs. Do not ignore suspicious sores that bleed easily and fail to heal.
Dekubitalgeschwr9
When the mouth is sore, remove your dentures and leave them out until the mouth
perforiertes Ulkus10 traumatisches
heals.
Geschwr11 Aphthe, Mundschleim-
Use ulcer crater6 [eI]/ margin / formation / pain / bleeding / recurrence / healing
hautgeschwr12 Druckulkus13
mouth / (intra)oral / nasal / gastric7 / peptic8 / decubitus9 / erosive / inflamed /
Ulcus rodens, exulzerierend wach-
penetrating / perforated10 ulcer traumatic11 / (recurrent) aphthous12 [QfTs]
sendes Basaliom14 Strahlenulkus15
(abbr RAU)/ pressure13 / rodent14 [oU]/ radiation15 / eosinophilic ulcer deep /
oberflchliches Ulkus16
shallow16 / marginal17 [dZ]/ chronic / indolent or non-healing18 ulcer healed /
Randulkus17
herpetic ulcer dendritic [I]/ diphtheritic / distention / undermining [aI] ulcer
nicht heilendes Geschwr18
ulcer of the oral mucosa / tongue / cornea oral / mucosal / corneal ulceration
Prothesendruckstelle19
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (abbr ANUG) canker12 / pressure13 / den-
eiternde Wunde20 Herpes simplex21
ture19 / open / running20 / cold21 / plaster22 sore sore throat / tongue / mouth /
Druckstelle durch Gipsverband22 17
(jaw) muscles

obstruction [] n MeSH sim obturation1, occlusion2 n, ? U10-13, U36-7f Obstruktion, Verlegung,
rel obliteration3, atresia4 [-iZ(I)] n MeSH Abflussstrung
blockage or clogging2 of vessels, ducts, and body passages, e.g. by occlusion or stenosis Verlegung1 Okklusion, Verschluss2
Obliteration, Verdung3 Atresie4
obstruct5v term (non)obstructive6
adj obstructing6
adj v occlude7
obstruieren, verlegen5
occlusive adj atretic [e] or imperforate8 adj

obstruktiv, obturierend6
Untreated nasal obstruction and maxillofacial deformity may contribute to dimin-
verstopfen, -schlieen7 atretisch8
ished airway dimension9. Radiation therapy of the oral cavity causes progressive
Atemwegsdimensionen9
occlusion and obliteration of the fine vasculature10. Traditionally, midface defects
kleinlumige Gefe10
have been obturated by a maxillofacial prosthesis.
Atemwegsobstruktion11
Use to produce/cause/demonstrate/relieve obstruction (upper) airway11 / nasal12 /
Nasenobstruktion12
salivary duct13 / fixed / strangulating / membranous obstruction recurrent14 /
Speichelgangobstruktion13
prolonged / pronounced15 / partial obstruction obstructed airway / vessels
rezidivierende Obstruktion14
obstructing foreign [frIn] body / tumor / calculi [aI] obstructive process /
ausgeprgte Obstruktion15 obstruk-
sleep apnea16 (abbr OSA) vascular / dental / occlusion root canal / palatal /
tive Schlafapnoe16 Choanalatresie17
defect / prosthetic obturation choanal17 [koUnl]/ congenital18 atresia atretic
angeborene Atresie18
duct []/ tissue / plate imperforate (submandibular) duct19 18
Gangatresie19

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Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology 55

stricture [strIktS] n MeSH Striktur, (hochgradige)


sim stenosis1 [oU] n MeSH, pl -ses Verengung
abnormal narrowing of a tube or duct due to contracture2 [-QktS] or deposition of tissue Stenose, Verengung1
Kontraktur2 verengen3
constrict3 v term constriction4 n constrictive adj strictured adj
Ein-, Verengung, Einschnrung,
stenose5 v term stenotic or stenosed adj stenosing6 adj
Konstriktion4
The sialogram shows a stricture in the duct of the parotid gland leading to obstruc-
stenosieren, eng werden5
tion. One of the arteries to the brain is markedly stenosed. The success rate in
verengend6 Speichelgangstriktur7
treating stenoses of small vessels are better than for complete occlusion.
Anastomosenstriktur8
Use salivary duct7 / external auditory canal / esophageal stricture burn / caustic /
spastische/ funktionelle Striktur9
anastomotic8 / short / contractile / functional stricture nondilatable [aIleIt]/
Bougierung10 Choanalstenose11
intrinsic / spasmodic9 / permanent / temporary / recurrent stricture stricture
Karotisstenose, Halsschlagaderver-
formation / dilation10 (upper) airway / choanal11 / parotid ductal / supraglottic /
engung12 inkomplette Stenose13
atherosclerotic / carotid12 stenosis partial13 / high-grade14 / short / degree or
hochgradige Stenose14
severity [e] of stenosis maxillary / mandibular / apical15 constriction con-
apikale Konstriktion15
strictive scar tissue / epineuritis stenosed Eustachian [ju] tube stenotic lesion
19
/ nares / duct orifice

calculus n MeSH, pl -i [aI] ? U34-9 syn stone n, concretion [i] n term Stein, Konkrement
concretion usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids forming in body passages (nicht) steinbedingt, Stein-1
steinfrei2 steinbildend3
(a)calculous1 adj term -lith(o)- comb stone-free2 /-forming3 adj
Speichelstein, Sialolith4 Zahnstein5
Minimally invasive retrieval of salivary calculi is associated with low morbidity and subgingivaler Zahnstein6
affords the possibility of preserving glandular function. Calculi less than 1cm in
Dentinkrnchen, Pulpastein7
diameter may be approached endoscopically. If a stone has previously been passed
Dakrylolith8
or if one is recovered, its chemical composition should be analyzed.
sichelfrmiges Konkrement9
Use salivary4 / dental5 / cerebral / subgingival6 calculus pulp7 [] / arthritic [I]/
abgegangener Stein10 Hilusstein11
lacrimal8 calculus crescent-shaped9 / apatite [aI]/ struvite [-uvaIt]/ oxalate
Ohrspeicheldrsen-, Parotisstein12 13
[eI]/ cystine [sI]/ fibrin / hematogenetic / encysted / dislodged10 [dZ] calculus
Steinleiden13
salivary duct4 / hilar11/ parotid12 stone stone disease13 / clearance14 / impac-
Abgang des Steines14
tion15 / extraction / former16 tonsillar17 / lacrimal8 / calcium [s] concretion
Steinimpaktion, -einklemmung15
lithotomy /tripsy18 /tripter sialo/ dacryo8/ rhinolith(iasis)
Steinbilder16
Tonsillen-, Mandelstein17
Lithotripsie, Steinzertrmme-
rung18 20

prolapse [n proUlQpsv -lQps] n & v MeSH Vorfall, Prolaps


sim ptosis1 [toUsIs] n MeSH Ptose, Senkung1
Senkung2
(n) displacement or sagging2 of an organ or structure, esp. at a natural or artificial orifice
Risswunde am Oberlid3
ptotic adj term prolapsing adj prolapsed adj
herabhngend4
There was a left upper eyelid laceration3 with prolapsed orbital fat. Ptosis, i.e. a Weichgewebeprolaps5
droopy4 [u] upper eyelid, may be congenital or acquired. Ptosis of the chin and lip Zungenvorfall, Prolapsus linguae6
incompetence are worrisome complications of mandibular surgery. Totalprolaps7
Use soft tissue5 / mucosal / tongue6 prolapse partial / first-degree / complete7 intermittierende Ptose8
prolapse traumatic / palpebral or upper lid / lower lip / brow / midface ptosis
fluctuating8 / blepharo/ myo/ glosso/ pro/ neurogenic / progressive ptosis
21
ptosis repair / surgery

hernia [hrnI] n MeSH Hernie, Bruch


rel rupture1 [rptS] n & v term ? U3-18 Ruptur, Riss; reien, platzen1
Hervortreten2 austreten3
protrusion2 of a structure through the tissues normally enclosing it
Einklemmung, Herniation4
herniate3 v term herniation4 n hernial adj hernio- ,-cele [sil] comb
Fett(gewebs)bruch, Steatozele5
Right lower eyelid orbital fat herniation5 occurred after periocular corticosteroid Bruchsack6 Bruchpforte7
injection. The hernia sac6 was excised [aI]. Orbitahernie8 Narbenbruch9
Use hernial sac6 / canal7 / defect direct / orbital8 / cerebral / obturator / incisional9 Bruchoperation, Hernioplastik10
[sIZ] hernia hernia repair10 / defect brain11 / internal herniation hernio- zerebrale Herniation11
plasty10 /rrhaphy meningo12/ encephalo/ hydrocele Meningozele12 22

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56 MEDICAL SCIENCE Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology

cyst [sIst] n MeSH Zyste


rel pseudocyst1 [sudoU-], mucocele2 [mjUksil] n MeSH falsche Zyste, Pseudozyste1 Mu-
koidzyste, Mukozele2 epitheliale
abnormal sac containing gas, fluid or semisolid material which has a membranous lining3 [aI]
Auskleidung3 zystisch4 Mund-
cystic4 adj term cyst(o)- comb cyst-like adj
bodenzyste, Frosch-, Frschlein-
A ranula5 is a transparent retention cyst6 in the floor of the mouth arising from the geschwulst, Ranula5 Retentionszys-
sublingual salivary glands. Dentigerous [dentIdZ-] cysts7 may delay eruption te6 Dentitions-, Eruptionszyste(n)7
[IrpSn] and require marsupialization8 or enucleation9. Marsupialisation8 Ausschlung,
Use odontogenic10 / jaw / gingival / periapical or radicular11 / eruption7 / follicular12 / Enukleation9 odontogene Zyste10
kerato/ sialo13/ bone cyst sebaceous14 [eIS]/ solitary / residual15 / calcified / radikulre Zyste11 follikulre Zyste,
encapsulated16 / ruptured cyst cyst fluid / leakage17 [likIdZ]/ wall / cavity Zahnkeimzyste12 Speichelzyste13
cystic lesion / fibrosis18 [aI]/ mass / carcinoma / degeneration [dZ] antral / Atherom, Talgzyste14 Residual-,
mucous retention / keratin-filled pseudocyst oral / salivary / lower lip / (frontal) Restzyste15 eingekapselte Zyste16
sinus mucocele Austritt v. Zystenflssigkeit17
zystische Fibrose, Mukoviszi-
dose18 23

fistul(iz)ation n term ? U35-22, U44-5 Fistelbildung;


pathologic or therapeutic [pju] formation of an abnormal passage from one epithelialized [i] Anlegen einer Fistel
surface to another Fistel1 fistelartig, Fistel-2
fistula1 n term, pl -as or -ae [i] fistulated adj fistulous2 adj fistulo- comb Fistelgnge3 eitriges Sekret4
The implants were removed along with a significant amount of bone, resulting in an odontogene Fistel5
oroantrale Fistel6 Unterlippenfistel7
oroantral fistula, which was closed surgically. Examination of the facial skeleton
revealed bilateral fistulous tracts3 associated with gross purulent discharge4 on the arteriovense Fistel8
inferior border of the mandible. sophagotrachealfistel9
Use to be prone to / intraoral / extraoral / suborbital fistulation odontogenic5 / ableitender Fistelgang10
13 parotid / orocutaneous / oroantral6 / (oro)nasal / lower-lip7 fistula arteriove- innere Fistel11
nous8 [i]/ perilymph / tracheoesophageal9 [-dZIl] fistula draining10 / internal11 blind endende Fistel12
/ blind12 / long-standing fistula fistulous tract3 / opening13 / communication14 / Fistelmaul, -mund13
fistelartige Verbindung14 24
anomaly fistulotomy /ography /ectomy

mandibular torus [trs] pl -i n term Unterkieferwulst,


rel palatine torus1, epulis2 n MeSH Torus mandibularis
benign [bInaIn] overgrowth3 of bone (exostosis or hyperostosis4) protruding from the lingual Gaumenwulst, T. palatinus1 Epulis2
aspect of the mandible Wucherung3 Hyperostose, ber-
The tissue covering a torus is thin and easily traumatized [] by foods. Clinically, schussbildg. v. Knochengewebe4
beeintrchtigen5 abgetragen6
torus palatinus may interfere [I] with5 the proper fitting of dentures and require
surgical removal. Tori [aI] can be reduced6 under a local flap or removed with a Meiel7 Epulis fissurata, Prothe-
chisel7 [tS], but with a palatal torus1 this can be risky. Epulis fissuratum8, also known senreiz-, Prothesenrandfibrom8
Epulis congenita9
as denture hyperplasia and inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia is an overgrowth of
peripheres Riesenzellgranulom,
tissue in the mucobuccal or labial fold induced by chronic trauma from ill-fitting
dentures. Riesenzellepulis, Epulis
gigantocellularis10 25
Use torus fracture / removal congenital9 / mandibular / giant-cell10 epulis

hematoma [himtoUm] n MeSH, pl -as Hmatom, Bluterguss


rel hemorrhage1 [hemrIdZ] n & v MeSH ? U3-13 Blutung, Hmorrhagie; bluten1
(aus d. Gefen) ausgetreten2
localized mass of extravasated2 blood confined [aI] in tissue spaces, e.g. a bruise3 [bruz]
or a black eye4 blauer Fleck, Bluterguss3
blaues Auge4
hemorrhagic adj term bleeding1 [i] n bleed5 v ooze6 [uz] v
bluten5
Some hematomas will resorb, but those that become encapsulated usually require
(Blut) sickern6
surgical treatment. In hematomas the blood is usually clotted and may manifest
zufllig entdeckt7
various degrees of organization and discoloration. Incidentally discovered7 aneu-
intrakranielles Hmatom8
rysms [Qnj-] that have not previously [i] hemorrhaged have a 2-3% annual risk
Blutung stillen9
of bleeding.
Zahnfleischbluten10
Use intraoral / palatal / subperiosteal / sublingual / spontaneous / traumatic / super-
Blutung nach Zahnextraktion11
ficial [IS] hematoma (intra)cerebral / (intra)cranial8 [eI]/ epi- or extradural /
punktfrmige/ petechiale Blutung12
subdural / periorbital / auricular / retropharyngeal hematoma to control or
Sickerblutung13
arrest9 a hemorrhage to stop9 a bleeding nasal / (intra)oral / subarachnoid
pulssynchron spritzende Blutung14
[Qk] / intraventricular bleeding gingival10 / retinal / postextraction11 hemor-
innere Blutung15
rhage punctate12 []/ oozing13 / occult / spurting14 []/ intermediate / internal15
Nachblutung16 hmorrhagisches
hemorrhage primary / secondary16 / serous [I]/ life-threatening hemorrhage
Exanthem17
hemorrhagic rash17 / gums / exudate / fever [i]/ shock / otorrhea / stroke18 /
hmorrhagischer Insult18 26
necrosis

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Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology 57

petechia [pItekI] n MeSH, usu pl -ae [i] Petechie, punktfrmige


sim ecchymosis1 [ekImoUsIs] n MeSH, pl -ses [siz] Hautblutung
punctate purpuric2 [prpjUIk] lesion due to extravasation of blood into tissues differing from Ekchymose, flchenhafte Hautblu-
ecchymosis only in size tung1 purpuraartig2 (Haut)Aus-
petechial adj term ecchymotic adj micropetechiae n schlag3 Scharlach4 blass werden5
verblassen, verschwinden6
The rash3 of scarlet fever4 blanches5 on pressure, may become petechial, and fades6 dem7 Purpura8
[eI] in 2-5 days. Examination revealed infraorbital and paranasal ecchymosis.
diskrete/ einzelstehende Petechien9
Edema7, purpura8, and ecchymoses may also be present.
disseminierte Petechien10
Use oral / palatal / gingival / discrete9 [i]/ multiple / linear / scattered10 petechiae
mit konfluierenden Petechien11
petechial hemorrhage / lesion / rash petechially confluent11 facial / oral /
27
periorbital / postauricular ecchymoses

ischemia [IskimI] n MeSH Ischmie, Blutleere


opposite hyperemia1 [aI] n MeSH, BE -aemia vermehrte Blutflle, Hypermie1
ischmisch2 hypermisch3
local deficiency of blood due to functional constriction or mechanical obstruction of vessels
reponieren4 Anschwellen5
(anti-)ischemic2 adj term hyperemic3 adj ischemia-induced adj
Ischmie auslsen6
If signs of ischemia are present the surgeon should not hesitate to reposition4 the ischmisch werden7
maxilla back to its prior anatomic position. Obstruction was related to hyperemia gingivale Ischmie8
and engorgement5 [dZ] of the microvasculature. lagebedingte Ischmie9
Use to precipitate6 [sI]/produce/develop7 ischemia gingival8 [dZ]/ retinal / cerebral / Esmarch-Blutleere10
brainstem / end-organ ischemia peripheral / digital [dZ] / exercise-induced / absolute/ totale Ischmie11
postural9 [tS]/ focal / local / tourniquet10 [trnIkt] ischemia irreversible / Pulpahypermie12
persistent / transient / silent / recurrent / profound11 [aU]/ relative ischemia Stauungshypermie13
mucosal / conjunctival [aI]/ pulp12 / active / passive / reactive / congestive13 13
28
[dZe] hyperemia hyperemic mucosa

degenerative [dIdZenrtIv] adj term degenerativ


rel atrophic1 [eItrfIk] adj term atrophisch1
allmhliche Verschlechterung2
marked by gradual deterioration2 [I] of cells and organs with concomitant3 loss of function
bei gleichzeitigem3 Degeneration,
degeneration4 n MeSH degenerate v degenerating adj
Entartung4 Atrophie; verkmmern,
atrophy5 [Qtrfi] v & n MeSH
atrophieren5 Gewebeschwund6
Atrophy is a wasting [eI] of tissues6 due to necrosis and resorption of cells, dimin- Atrophie d. zahnlosen UK-Alveolar-
ished cellular proliferation, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, hor- kamms7 Axondegeneration8
monal changes, etc. Patients with severe atrophy of the edentulous mandibular Makuladegeneration9 Waller(sche)-
ridge7 have been successfully treated with osseointegrated fixtures. Every tooth Degeneration10 Verksung11
was examined for the presence of inflammation, calcification, congestion and atro- degen. Gelenkerkrankung,
phic degeneration. Arthrose12
Use axonal8 / cerebellar / macular9 / hyaline [haIlIn] / arthritic / Wallerian10 / fatty / Gingivaatrophie13
cheesy11 [i]/ progressive degeneration degenerative lesion / changes / joint Inaktivittsatrophie14
disease12 atrophic (edentulous) mandible7 / alveolar ridges / age-related mac- Altersatrophie15
ular degeneration / skin hemifacial / degenerative / scar / gingival13 [dZ]/ muscle Sehnerven-, Optikusatrophie16
or muscular atrophy residual ridge / disuse or inactivity14 / senile15 [sinaIl]/
29
optic16 / degree of atrophy

necrosis [nekroUsIsnI-] n MeSH syn cell death n, Nekrose, Zell-, Gewebstod


rel gangrene1 [i] n MeSH Gangrn, Brand1 Gewebeschrump-
fung2 nekrotisch3 absterben, nek-
localized death of cells as a result of irreversible damage (e.g. shrinkage of tissue2)
rotisieren4 gangrns5 verschmol-
necrotic3 adj necrose4 [oUs] v necrotizing adj gangrenous5 adj
zen6 grobkrnig7 Gewebstod8 ver-
The outlines of individual necrotic cells are indistinct, and cells may become merged6 ksende Nekrose9 fokale Nekrose10
[rdZ], sometimes forming a focus of coarsely [] granular7, amorphous, or hyaline nekrotisierender Verbindungs-
[aI] material. Swelling, edema, and then frank necrosis progressing to gangrene may gang11 Drucknekrose12 Strahlen-
occur. nekrose13 Kolliquationsnekrose14
Use to undergo necrosis tissue8 / aseptic / avascular / fat / caseation or caseous9 [eI] eitrige Nekrose15 nekrot. Gewebe-
necrosis central / focal10 / total / coagulation / bridging11 necrosis bone / trmmer16 Gasbrand, -dem17
epiphyseal [fIs]/ laminar / cortical / mucosal / fibrinoid [aI] necrosis progressive feuchte Gangrn18 beginnende
/ pressure12 / hemorrhagic / radiation13 / liquefactive14 / suppurative15 [] necro- Gangrn19 Hospitalbrand, Gangrae-
sis tumor necrosis factor (abbr TNF) to be/become/appear necrotic necrotic na nosocomialis20 gangrnse
debris16 [debri]/ eschar / ulcerations / foci [foUsaI]/ tissue dermal / venous [i]/ Gingivitis21 Wangenbrand, Noma,
emphysematous [i] or gas17 gangrene (non)traumatic / distal / wet18 / dry / Cancrum oris22 gangrnse
incipient19 [sI]/ nosocomial20 gangrene gangrenous tissue / tooth (pulp) / in- Phlegmone23 30
fection / gingivitis21 / pharyngitis / stomatitis22 / phlegmon23

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58 MEDICAL SCIENCE Medical Statistics

Unit 14 Medical Statistics


Related Units: 15 Medical Studies & Research

statistics [sttIstIks] n MeSH, usu pl Statistik


collection of values, facts or other items [aI] of information which are then numerically ana- (stat.) Wahrscheinlichkeit1
lyzed, particularly with regard to the probability1 that the resulting empirical findings are due Zufall2
to chance2 Biostatistik3
statistical adj term biostatistics3 [aI] n statistician [-tISn] n schlechte Statistik4
Current [] statistics for patients subjected to radiotherapy show improved disease- Inferenzstatistik5
(Bevlkerungs)statistik6
free survival rates. The statistical risk of recurrence [] is 50%. The dismal statistics4
of oral cancer patients may be significantly improved by more aggressive interven- Mortalitt(sstatistik)7
tion. berleben(sstatistik)8
Use to interpret statistics inferential5 / descriptive / vital6 [aI] statistics health / statistischer Nachweis9
cancer / outcome / mortality7 / survival8 / five-year statistics statistical analysis statistische Teststrke, Power10
/ study / evidence9 / comparison / difference / likelihood1 [U]/ power10 / genetics statistische Signifikanz
to approach [oUtS]/achieve [tSi] or reach11/be evaluated for statistical signifi- erreichen11
1
cance

subject [sbdZekt] n term sim individual [-vIdZUl], Proband, Testperson,


patient [peISnt], case1 [eI] n term Untersuchungsobjekt
object of research, treatment, observation, experimentation, or dissection2 Fall1 Sektion, Obduktion2 konnten
nicht weiter kontrolliert werden3
This complication was not seen in young subjects. 41% of subjects were lost to
fettleibige Probanden4
followup3. This is the first reported case of spontaneous regression of bilateral den-
Kontrollpersonen5
tigerous cysts.
Probandenstatus6
Use asymptomatic or healthy or normal / severely [I] ill / human / clinical research
betroffene Personen7
14 subjects well-motivated / (non)obese4 [is]/ elderly / control5 subjects subject
Risikopersonen8
status6 [eI] affected7 / otherwise healthy [e]/ high-risk8 individuals infected /
anfllige Personen9
susceptible9 [sep]/ untreated [i] individuals individual case management /
Fallstudie, Kasuistik10 2
screening [i] case study10 / report / series [sIiz]

population n MeSH sim cohort1 n MeSH, series2 [sIiz] sing & pl, Population
(sub)group [], subset n term Kohorte1 Reihe2
Ereignisse3
set of objects, events3, or subjects in a particular class from which a sample is drawn
gleichaltrig4
A contemporary4 watchful waiting5 population was selected as a control. mit Surveillance5
Use population-based6 [eI] (non)white / ag(e)ing [eIdZIN]/ age-matched7 / school-
bevlkerungsbasiert6
aged / community-based / cell population eligible8 [dZ]/ female [i]/ general9 /
in der gleichen Altersgruppe7
normal / pediatric [i]/ patient / study population placebo10 [si]/ prospective /
die Einschlusskriterien erfllende
screening / 1930 birth cohort controlled / prospective / small / large / consecu-
Population8
tive11 / autopsy [] series
Allgemeinbevlkerung9
Placebogruppe10
Note: Series is both a singular and plural noun and can be used with a
konsekutive Patientenserie11 3
singular verb and the indefinite article, e.g. a large series is/was ...

sample [Q] n & v MeSH Stichprobe;


rel sampling1 n MeSH Stichprobe erheben/ ziehen
representative portion of a population selected for research Stichprobenerhebung, -entnahme1
to achieve statistically significant results Stichprobengre, -umfang2 erwar-
Selection of low-risk subsets resulted in inadequate sample size2 [saIz]. When sam- tete3 Ausflle, Therapieabbrecher4
Therapiewechsler5 Stichprobe zie-
ple size is calculated, the frequency of the condition to be prevented, the anticipated3
[tIs] effectiveness of the treatment thought to be clinically relevant, and variables hen6 Zufallsstichprobe7 (un)ver-
such as predicted dropouts4 and crossovers5 must be taken into account. zerrte Stichprobe8 geschtzter
Use to draw6 [] a sample random7 [Q]/ big / small / representative / (un)biased8 Stichprobenumfang9 Stichproben-
[aI] sample sample size estimated sample size9 sampling error / method10 / verfahren10 Stichprobenerhebung
with(out) replacement11 (quasi-)random [kweIzaI]/ single or basic12 / cluster13 mit/ohne Zurcklegen11 Ziehen e-r
[]/ stratified14 / quota [kwoU] sampling sampling studies einfachen Zufallsstichprobe12
Ziehen e-r Klumpen-/ Cluster-
Stichprobe13 Ziehen e-r geschichte-
ten/ stratifizierten Stichprobe14 4

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Medical Statistics MEDICAL SCIENCE 59

parameter n term syn variable n term, sim trait1 [eI], (co)factor2, Parameter, Kenngre,
phenomenon3, indicator4, index5 n term Variable
a characteristic1 of a population Merkmal1 (Ko)faktor2
Phnomen3 Indikator4
uni/ multivariate6 adj term multifactorial adj variable7 adj inf
Index, Kennziffer5
In this case disease-specific variables are poor discriminants8 of general quality of
uni-/ multivariat6
life. Nodal involvement was predictable preoperatively by clinical and histological
variabel, vernderlich7
parameters.
Unterscheidungsparameter8
Use biochemical / prognostic or predictive / gross [oU] neurological9 parameter
makroskopische neurologische
serologic [I]/ laboratory / sensitive / suitable [u]/ single parameter random
Variable9
or chance / (in)dependent10 / stochastic [kQ]/ baseline clinical variable outcome
(un)abhngige Variable10
/ binomial [aI] or dichotomous11 [daIkt-]/ ordinal / discrete [i] variable con-
dichotome Variable, Variable mit
tinuous12 / intervening [i]/ quantitative variable growth / prognostic / risk13 /
zwei Ausprgungen11
predisposing14 [i] factor etiologic [i]/ contributing / complicating factor
stetige Variable12 Risikofaktor13
Prdispositionsfaktor14 5

scale(d) [skeIld] or standard score n term Standardwert(e), Z-Wert(e)


opposite raw score1 [r skr] n term Rohwert(e)1
verzeichnen, erzielen2
statistically referenced score representing the deviation of a raw score from its mean [i]
in standard deviation units Wert, Score, Ziffer3
Skala, Mastab, Schema4
score2 v term score3 n scoring n scale4 n
Punktezahl5
The study group started at a lower pretreatment score than did the placebo arms. Glasgow-Komaskala6
Score the findings on a scale of 0-2. This is an objective score comprising five
Punktesystem, -schema7
different parameters.
Use to assign [saIn] a score age-equivalent / clinical performance score initial
prognostic / point or numerical5 / percentile rank score dental attitude / symp- 14
tom / IQ / achievement [tSi] score trauma / maxillofacial injury severity [e]
(abbr MFISS)/ Glasgow Coma6 score raw score table (comparison) / grouping /
6
method scoring system7 color / numerical7 / self-rating scale scale down

incidence [InsIdns] n MeSH Inzidenz, Neuerkrankungsrate


sim prevalence1 [prevlns] n MeSH Prvalenz1
Periodenprvalenz2
the number of new cases of a disease in a defined population over a specific period of time
altersadjustierte Inzidenz3
Dental surgery performed under general anesthesia [i] is associated with a high Gesamtinzidenz4
incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The number of cases of a disease
wahre Inzidenz5
existing in a given population within a specific period [I] of time is termed period
Punktprvalenz6
prevalence2. In low-prevalence populations the ELISA test was less accurate.
Prvalenzrate7
Use age-adjusted3 [dZ]/ age-specific / annual / cumulative / cancer incidence in-
crease in / fall in / peak [i]/ overall4 / reported / true5 / worldwide incidence
incidence rate estimated / HIV / population / smoking / point6 prevalence
7
prevalence index / rate7

rate [reIt] n term sim ratio1 [reIS(I)oU], percentage2 [psentIdZ], Rate


proportion3, preponderance4 n term Quotient, Verhltnis1
Prozentsatz2
proportion per 1,000 (or 100,000) of the population, e.g., number of births per 1,000 residents5
Verhltnis3
Alpha interferon has had a 15 20 % response rate. Men outnumber women [wImIn] berwiegen, -hang, -gewicht4
by a 3:1 ratio. The ratio of helper to suppressor (H/S) cells in healthy individuals is
Einwohner5 betrchtlich6
about 1.6 to 2.2. This is a sizeable6 [aI] percentage of cases.
rohe Rate7
Use crude7 [u]/ standardized / adjusted8 rate complication / cure9 / death / failure
adjustierte Rate8
rate recurrence10 / retreatment / success / 5-year actuarial11 rate odds12 (abbr
Heilungsrate9
OR)/ likelihood / core:dentine thickness / anterior interarch tooth size / risk-be-
Rezidivrate10
nefit / dentist-patient / sex or male-to-female / signal-to-noise ratio percentage
5-Jahresrate11
points calculated / fixed high / large / small percentage male-to-female13
Chancenverhltnis, Odds Ratio12
[fimeIl] preponderance 8
berhang bei Mnnern13

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60 MEDICAL SCIENCE Medical Statistics

morbidity (rate) n MeSH Morbiditt(srate)


rel mortality (rate)1 n MeSH Mortalitt(srate), Sterblichkeit1
altersadjustierte Mortalitt2
proportion of patients in a given population who have a particular disease at a given time
Grad der Komorbiditt/ Zweit-
Laparoscopic resection is associated with a lower morbidity rate. The mortality rate erkrankung3
in high-impact fractures is as high as 12%, yet death rarely results directly from
Morbiditt gering halten4
maxillofacial injury. They assessed mortality adjusted for age2 and severity [e] of
verbunden sein mit
comorbidity3 at the time of surgery.
einer Morbiditt5
Use to predict/reduce/minimize4/cause5/produce5/carry a5/influence morbidity im-
narkosebedingte Mortalitt6
mediate / clinical / oral / dental / respiratory / psychologic / donor site morbidity
standardisierter Mortalitts-
(peri)operative / postoperative / long-term / significant or severe [I] or major
quotient7
[meIdZ] morbidity minor [aI] or low / minimal associated [oUS]/ trivial morbid-
ity crude / 5-year / hospital / specific / conditional / (outpatient) anesthetic6 /
9
mortality rate standardized mortality rate or ratio7 (abbr SMR)

mean [min] n sing & adj term Mittel(wert); mittlere(r)


sim median1 [midIn] n & adj term Median, Zentralwert; median(e)1
durchschnittlich2
(n) average2 [QvrIdZ] value (usually the arithmetic mean3 unless otherwise specified)
of a sample or population arithmetischer Mittelwert3
geometrischer Mittelwert4
Mean time of narcotics use postoperatively was 4.3 days; 72 patients were con- Standardfehler des Mittelwerts5
sidered cured [kjUd] after a mean of 18 sessions. The median value divides the
medianer Nachuntersuchungs-
probability distribution of a random variable in half.
zeitraum6
Use sample / population / geometric4 mean mean age / concentration / decrease [i]
/ cell volume / survival time standard error of the5 mean (abbr SEM) median
10
followup period6 / hospital stay

percentile [psentaIl] n term sim quartile1 [kwr-], fractile2, Perzentil(e)


14
decile3 [es] n term Quartil(e)1
Fraktil(e)2
rank position of an individual in a serial [I] array4 [reI] of data stated in terms of what
percentage of the group (s)he equals [i] or exceeds [i] Dezil(e)3
nach Gre geordnete Reihe4
Comprehensive dental rehabilitation was shown to have a catchup effect on the (Krper)Gre5
percentile weight and percentile growth velocity of children with early childhood
altersentsprechende Perzentile6
caries. About 10% of these children were below the third percentile for height5 [haIt].
Perzentilenrang7
The men in the quartile with the highest values had a three times higher risk than
Alters- u. Geschlechtsperzentile8
those in the lowest quartile.
Use above/below the 5th / 95th / weight for height / growth / age-matched6 percentile
11
percentile curve []/ level / rank7 / for age and sex8

frequency [i] distribution [-bjuSn] n MeSH Hufigkeitsverteilung


rel outlier1 [aUtlaI] n MeSH Ausreier1 Messwert2
falsch, fehlerhaft3
statistical description of raw data in terms of the number or frequency of items [aI] charac-
terized by each of a series or range of values of a continuous variable Gau-, Normalverteilung4
Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung5
The distribution of the ratios was non-Gaussian. A reading2, value or measurement gleichmige Verteilung6
[eZ] far outside the central range of the data is termed an outlier and is considered
Student-, t-Verteilung7
to be in error3.
gleichverteilt8
Use normal or Gaussian4 / standardized normal / binomial [aI]/ probability5 distribu-
Verteilungskoeffizient9
tion even6 [i]/ linear / Student's or t-7 / chi-square / Poisson distribution
verteilungsunabhngiger Test10
demographic / age / sex / female-to-male [i] / caries distribution randomly /
12
uniformly8 distributed distribution curve []/ coefficient9 [IS]/ free test10

deviation [divieISn] n term Abweichung


sim skew(ness)1 [skjuns] n term Schiefe1
Abweichung2
(i)departure2 [-tS] from symmetry of a frequency distribution
(ii) shift3 away from the normal course or site Verschiebung3
abweichen4
deviate4 [divieIt] v term skew v
Quadratwurzel5
The standard deviation is the statistical index of the variability within a distribution Standardabweichung6
(the square [skwe] root 5 [u] of the average of the squared deviation from the
schiefe Verteilung7
mean). The median, range, upper quartile and the skewness of chain code variance
were most predictive of recurrence [].
Use standard6 deviation (abbr SD)/ of the mean (abbr SDM) measure of skewness
13
skew distribution7

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Medical Statistics MEDICAL SCIENCE 61

variance [veints] n MeSH sim variation1 [veIeISn] n term Varianz


(i) variation found between a set of observations Variation1 unterschiedlich2
(ii) state of being variable, different, divergent2 [daIvrdZnt] abweichend; Abart, Variante3
variant3 adj & n variability4 n covariance5 n term Variabilitt4 Kovarianz5
weichen ab von6
Variance is calculated as the square of the standard deviation. Mean pressure re-
Varianzanalyse7
sponses and measures of variance were calculated. These findings are at variance
Variationskoeffizient8
with6 those of Bell.
Intra-Beobachter-Variabilitt9
Use analysis of7 variance, abbr ANOVA coefficient [fIS] of (abbr CV) variation8
Inter-Beobachter-Variabilitt10 14
intra-observer9/ inter-observer10 variability

range [reIndZ] n MeSH Spannweite, Bereich


statistical measure [eZ] of the variation of values determined by the endpoint values1 Extremwerte1 langfristig2
liegen, schwanken3
long-range2 adj term range3 v
lebensgefhrlich4
The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from mild to life-threatening4 [e]. The
weisen auf5
concentrations exhibit5 episodic increases, with values ranging up to 4 pmol/L.
Referenzbereich6
Use broad []/ wide [aI]/ narrow / in the 8090% / age / reference6 / therapeutic7
therapeutische Breite7 15
[pju] range to range from A to B / between A and B

degrees of freedom n term abbr df Freiheitsgrade, FG


the number of observations (subjects, test items and scores1, trials2 [aI], conditions, etc.) minus Werte, Scores1
the number of independent restrictions3 in the sampling undertaken Versuche, Untersuchungen2
The length of hospital stay was significantly associated with the severity of injury Einschrnkungen, Restriktionen3
(t = 4.7, 245 degrees of freedom, P = 0.00004). Mean preoperative anxiety score
obtained for the reconstructive surgery group was 38.0 +/- 8.7, while it was 44.2
16
+/- 10.79 for the cosmetic surgery group (t test, df = 60, P = 0.015).
14
confidence interval n MeSH, abbr CI Konfidenzintervall,
statistical measure for the range of uncertainty about the probability of an outcome Vertrauensbereich
Actuarial disease-specific survival rates and associated 95% confidence intervals Kaplan-Meier Schtzung/ Methode1
Konfidenzgrenze2
were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method1.
Konfidenzniveau3 17
Use confidence limit2 / band / level3 time / disease-free / follow-up interval

bias [bAIs] n MeSH syn systematic error, distortion [dIstrSn] n, Bias, systematische(r) Fehler/
rel confounder1 [aU] n term Verzerrung
deviation [divIeISn] of results from the truth or mechanisms [k] leading to such deviation, e.g. Strgre, verzerrender Faktor1
analysis bias, measurement bias, selection bias, withdrawal [-l] bias2, etc. Verzerrung durch abgebrochene
biased3 adj unbiased4 adj confounding adj Beobachtungen2
verzerrt3
The common biases of screening are length, lead-time [i] and selection biases.
unverzerrt4
Lead-time bias5 occurs when the patient is merely [I] diagnosed at an earlier
Lead-time Bias5
time but life expectancy6 remains unchanged. An extreme [i] form of length bias
Lebenserwartung6
is overdiagnosis. The data may be biased.
Bias-anfllig sein7
Use to minimize/be prone [oU] to7/reflect bias selection / gender [dZ]/ information /
verzerrte Stichprobe8
length / confounding / recall bias biased study / sample8 [Q] to be biased
gegenber Kindern befangen/
toward children9 / by personal involvement / related to patient selection un-
voreingenommen sein9
biased estimator10 sampling / standard11 / systematic / false-positive []/ false-
erwartungstreue Schtzfunktion10
negative error confounding variable1
Standardfehler11 18

event [Ivent] n MeSH Ereignis


experience, incident1, trait, or clinical condition defined by a binary [aI] outcome measure2 Vorfall1 dichotomer Parameter2
urschliches Ereignis3
Needle breakage during administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block is a rare ereignisabhngige Daten4
event in modern dental practice. It is not relevant when the underlying event3 took
sicheres Ereignis5
place.
(nicht) ausschlieendes Ereignis6
Use event rate /-driven data4 / analysis / recorder simple / certain5 / (non-)exclud-
zufallabhngiges Ereignis7
ing6 / life-change / complementary event clinical / random7 / initial [S]/ recur-
wiederkehrendes Ereignis8
rent8 / stressful / reportable event negative life / traumatic / precipitating9 [sIp]/
auslsendes Ereignis9 19
isolated [aI] event work-related / (pre)terminal [] events

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62 MEDICAL SCIENCE Medical Statistics

endpoint n MeSH syn primary [aI] outcome or event n term Endpunkt, Zielgre
outcome variable used to judge1 [dZdZ] the effectiveness of treatment beurteilen1
sich als besser erweisen als2
In terms of major endpoints the test drug did not prove superior [I] placebo to2
Odynophagie, schmerzhaftes
[si]. Endpoints examined were toxicity, survival, and improvement of dysphagia,
Schlucken3 harte Endpunkte4
odynophagia3, and regurgitation.
weiche Endpunkte5
Use hard4 / soft5 / study / valid6 / primary / secondary / multiple endpoints
valide Endpunkte6
endpoint analysis clinical / treatment / quality-of-life7 / overall / long-term8
Ergebnis e-r Lebensqualittsstudie7
outcome favorable [eI]/ poor / adverse []/ fatal9 [eI] outcome
Langzeitergebnis8
letaler Ausgang9 20

statistically significant adj term statistisch signifikant


opposite insignificant1 adj term nicht signifikant1
Signifikanz2
the statistical probability (must be < 5%) that a finding is very unlikely the result of chance
alone grenzwertige Signifikanz3
Grenzdifferenz4
significance2 n term
Signifikanzniveau5
Mean probing periodontal attachment loss was greater for restored than for non-
p-Wert6
restored molars, but only with marginal [dZ] significance3 (P = 0.051). The factor was
found to be of significance for tumor recurrence.
Use highly significant statistically insignificant least significant difference4 (abbr
LSD) significance level5 p-value6 prognostic / clinical / borderline3 signifi-
21
cance

false [] positive adj & n term falsch-positiv(er Wert)


opposite false negative1 adj & n term falsch-negativ(er Wert)1
Kontrollgruppe2
14 test result which wrongly indicates the presence of a disease, condition or finding
bei Normotonikern3
No false positives were found in the control group2. The two false negative results falsch positiver Fehler4
were obtained in normotensive patients3.
richtig positiv/ negativ5
Use false positive error4 / result []/ rate / scan / test / cultures [] true5 positive /
22
negative

sensitivity n MeSH Sensitivitt


rel specificity1 [spesIfIsti] n MeSH Spezifitt1
Reliabilitt, Zuverlssigkeit2
proportion of individuals with a positive test result for the disease that the test is intended to
reveal [i] mangelnde Sensitivitt3
die Spezifitt verbessern4
The reliability2 [aI] of a diagnostic test is measured by its sensitivity and specificity.
The specificity of a screening test is the number of true negative results as a pro-
portion of the total of true negative and false-positive results. The test has a sensi-
tivity of 75% and a specificity of 95%.
Use 95% / high / moderate / low / lack of3 sensitivity to increase4 [i]/ to enhance4
23
[Q]/ diagnostic specificity

cutoff (point/value) n term syn cut-point, threshold [TreSoUld] n term Schwellenwert, Grenzwert,
point or value in an ordered sequence [i] used to separate these values into two subgroups Cutoff
Test sensitivity and specificity depend on the reference range used, i.e. the cutoff Altersgrenzen1
Transplantatempfnger2
point above which a test is interpreted as abnormal. Many programs use age cutoffs1
to select potential transplant recipients2 [sIp]. exakter Grenzwert3
24
Use sharp3 / low / subgrouping cutoff a cutoff value of 4 ng/mL

survival [svaIvl] n MeSH berleben(szeit)


sim survivorship1 n term berleben, Gruppe der berleben-
den1 berleben2
period between the institution or completion of any procedure and death
berlebende(r)3 berlebensrate4
survive2 v survivor3 n
berlebenszeit5 berlebensvorteil6
The limiting factor for survival was the tumor, not age. Children with Hodgkin's berlebenszeitanalyse7
disease have a 75% overall survival rate at more than 20 years' followup. Median berleben bis ins Erwachsenen-
survival was 11 months. alter8
Use survival rate4 / time or period5 / probability / curve / benefit6 / trial / analysis7 ereignisfreies berleben9
survival to adulthood8 / to the 6th decade / to age 50 survival from oral cancer / erwartete Transplantatlebens-
following surgery / at 1 year median or mean / disease-free / event-free9 / dauer10
cumulative survival implant / (expected) graft10 / improved / lower survival
25
long-term / mouth cancer survivor

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Medical Statistics MEDICAL SCIENCE 63

life-table analysis [nQlsis] n MeSH syn survival analysis n MeSH berlebenszeitanalyse,


a method of analysis that relies [aI] on a count of the number of events (e.g. death) observed -statistik
and the time points at which those events occurred [], relative to some zero [I] point1 Nullzeitpunkt1
In life-table analysis for clinical trials the time to an event for a patient is usually Verschlechterung aufzeigen2
measured from the time of randomization and treatment effects are assessed by abgekrzte Sterbetafel3
comparing event rates in the different treatment groups. Lifetable analysis to 15 Kohortensterbetafel4
years failed to yield a deterioration2 [I] in graft outcome for these patients.
Use to run a life-table analysis to generate [dZen-]/prepare/create [ieI] a life table
period / abridged3 [IdZ]/ survivor analysis / cohort4 life table life-table methods
26
/ event rates / survivorship

table n term sim diagram1 [aI], graph1 n, chart1 [tS], plot1 n & v term Tabelle, Tafel
data arranged in parallel rows [roUz] and columns2 to display the essential facts in an easily Diagramm, Graph, graphische Dar-
appreciable3 [iS] form stellung; (i. Graph) eintragen, plot-
tabulation4 n term tabulated5 adj plotter6 n -gram comb ten1 Spalten2 bersichtlich3 tabel-
larische Darstellung4 tabellarisch5
Surface area, like metabolic rate, is not a linear function of weight [weIt] and
Kurvenschreiber6 belegt durch7
requires the use of a table or nomogram. The postoperative results are summarized
Kontingenztafel8 Sulen-, Balken-
in the table. Normalized fluorescence was plotted against cycle number. This increa-
diagramm9 Streudiagramm10
se was evidenced by7 a larger area under the curve (abbr AUC) in the receiver [i]
Blockdiagramm11 Kreis-, Torten-
operating characteristic (abbr ROC) plot.
diagramm12 Flussdiagramm13
Use tabulated results contingency8 [IndZ]/ (cohort) life table bar9 / scatter10 /
Kaplan-Meier Diagramm14
block11 / vector diagram pie12 [aI]/ bar9 / flow13 chart ROC / Kaplan-Meier14
X gegen Y auftragen15 27
/ scatter10 plot to plot X against Y15 acid-base nomogram histogram

multivariate [-IItIeIt] analysis n MeSH syn multivariable analysis n term multivariate/ mehrdimensio-
statistical model in which more than one dependent variable is simultaneously [eI] predicted nale Analyse
14
Data from the Mayo Clinic using multivariate analysis indicate that only the pres- bivariate Analyse1
Kovarianzanalyse2
ence of a locally advanced lesion [iZ] was independently predictive of recurrence
and ultimate [] death from disease. Cluster-Analyse3
Use multivariate analysis of variants (abbr MANOVA) multivariate relative risk Diskriminanzanalyse4
model frequency / univariate / bivariate1 / covariance2 analysis factor /
28
interim / cluster3 / correspondence / discriminant4 analysis

prediction [prIdIkSn] n MeSH sim estimation1 [estImeISn] n MeSH Vorhersage, Prdiktion


statement anticipating2 [tIs] or forecasting3 [Q] a future event or prognosis Schtzung1 vorhersehen2
voraussagen3
predictive adj term predict v predictor4 n estimate5 n&v
prdiktiver Parameter4
A positive biopsy finding has a predictive value of about 90%. Location and thickness Schtzwert; schtzen5
of primary melanoma are the most accurate predictors of prognosis.
positiver Vorhersagewert6
Use long-term / risk prediction prediction error positive6 / negative predictive
(Sterbe)Tafelmethode7 29
value actuarial7 estimation estimation of a proportion

reliability [rIlaIbIlti] n MeSH rel reproducibility1, validity2 n MeSH Reliabilitt, Zuverlssigkeit


measure [eZ] of the consistency of statistical data (i.e. results are reproducible on retesting) Reproduzierbarkeit1
Gltigkeit, Validitt2
validation3 n MeSH validate4 v valid5 [vQlId] adj (un)reliable6 adj
Gltigkeitsprfung3
The ultrasound measurements showed a high degree of reliability with histologic validieren4
measurements for tumor thickness of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma. No
gltig5
clear picture of could be derived [aI] from7 these data regarding their validity in
(un)zuverlssig6
the assessment of implant-bone anchorage.
basierend auf7 Retest-Stabilitt8
Use test-retest8 / interjudge9 [-dZdZ] reliability reliable indicator / marker / test
Inter-Beobachter-Reliabilitt9 30
internal / external / predictive validity protocol validation

probability n MeSH syn likelihood [laIklihUd] n MeSH & genE Wahrscheinlichkeit


statistical measure indicating how likely1 a specific event is to occur [] wahrscheinlich1
(un)wahrscheinlich2 erzielen3
(im)probable2 adj to be (un)likely to happen2 phr
Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung4
Prosthetic replacement has the greatest probability of preventing recurrence. The Wahrscheinlichkeitsdichte5
probability of obtaining3 a given outcome due to chance is expressed by the P
bedingte Wahrscheinlichkeit6
value (a significance of p 5 0.05 means that up to 5 times out of 100 the result
Lebenszeitwahrscheinlichkeit7
could have occurred by chance).
kumulative berlebenswahr-
Use probability interval / curve []/ distribution4 / density5 low / high / greater /
scheinlichkeit8
calculation of / conditional6 probability posttest / pretest / prior [praI]/ 1% /
long-term probability lifetime7 / cumulative [kju] survival8 probability high-
31
probability group / event likelihood functions / estimates

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64 MEDICAL SCIENCE Medical Studies & Research

correlation n MeSH sim association1, relation(ship)2, link3 n term Korrelation


degree of relationship (positive or negative) between two sets of paired [e] measurements4 of Zusammenhang1 Beziehung2
traits [eI] or events Verbindung3 zwei Wertepaare4
(un)correlated5 adj term correlate v correlative6 adj (un)korreliert5 Korrelations-6
Spearman'scher Rangkorrelations-
Due to common risk factors, there is a strong correlation between chronic oral
koeffizient7
diseases and diabetes. The reliability of the index was high, with a test-retest cor-
Kreuzkorrelation8
relation coefficient of r = 0.93.
schwach korrelieren9
Use Spearman('s) rank7 / Pearson's correlation coefficient cross-8/ autocorrelation
gegensinnig korrelieren10
to correlate with / well / better / poorly9 / closely / strongly to correlate
gegensinnig lineare Korrelation11
directly / positively / negatively / inversely10 [] to be correlated with cor-
in Zusammenhang stehen12
relation of data / between A and B / of A and/with B correlative study causal
32
[kzl]/ close / inverse linear11 relationship to be associated with12

regression [rIgreSn] n term Regression


rel slope1 [sloUp] n term Steigung1
logistische Regressionsanalyse2
functional relationship between a dependent and one or more independent variables
Regressionskoeffizient3
Prediction of mortality was performed by logistic [dZ] regression analysis2. Regressionsgerade4
Use regression coefficient3 / line4 / curve univariate5 / bivariate [aI]/ linear [I]/
univariate Regression5 33
multiple [] regression

chi-square(d) [kaI-] test n MeSH Chi2-Test, x2 Test


rel t- or Student's (t-)test1 n term t-Test1 feststellen2 ROC (Receiver-
Operating-Characteristic) Kurven3
statistical technique [ik] whereby variables are categorized to determine2 whether a distribu-
tion of scores is due to chance or experimental factors Signifikanztest4 Logrank-Test5
Zerlegung der Quadratsummen6
The chi-square test and ROC curves3 were used for statistical analysis.
parameterfreier Test7
15 Use significance4 / binomial / log-rank5 / parametric test chi-square analysis / dis-
Wilcoxon (Rangsummen)Test8
tribution Pearson chi-square analysis partition [IS] of the6 sum of squares,
U-Test nach Mann und Whitney9
abbr SS chi-squared nonparametric or distribution-free7 / Wilcoxon's rank
34
sum8 / Mann-Whitney U9 test test of independence / fit / significance4

(Cox) proportional [rS] hazard model n MeSH Cox Regression


syn Cox (regression [eS]) model n MeSH lineares Regressionsmodell1
Modell mit proportionalen
regression method for modelling censored survival data which assumes the ratio of the risks
(hazard ratio) Ja-Nein Quotienten2

A multi-level proportional hazard model revealed smoking, baseline bone loss, num-
ber of molars left, and degree III furcation involvement as risk factors influencing
retention time of molars. Cox regression uses the maximum likelihood method rather
than the least [i] squares method.
Use linear1 / time-dependent Cox regression model proportional odds model2 /
35
censorship [sen-]

Unit 15 Medical Studies & Research


Related Units: 14 Medical Statistics

study [stdi] n & v term Studie, Untersuchung;


sim clinical trial1 [traIl] n MeSH untersuchen
(i) research activities involving the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data klinische Studie/ Untersuchung1
(ii) project involving several investigations or a clinical trial bildgebende Verfahren2
(iii) diagnostic investigations (biochemical [k], imaging studies2, etc.) im Gange3 Studie beginnen4
A prospective study is under way3 to evaluate these two treatment options. wird zur Zeit untersucht5
Use to perform/carry out/make/undertake/launch4 [] a study to be under study5 Longitudinal-, Lngsschnittstudie6
longitudinal6 / (quasi-)experimental / non-experimental research / cross-section- Prvalenz-, Querschnittstudie7
al or prevalence7 / follow-up8 / prospective9 / retrospective study interventio- Verlaufsuntersuchung8
nal10 / observational11 / historical / epidemiological / parallel cohort / case-con- prospektive Studie9 Interventions-
trol(ed)12 / feasibility [i] or pilot13 [aI] study study participant / population / studie10 Beobachtungsstudie11
protocol / manual randomized / (un)controlled / triple-blinded [I]/ single- Fall-Kontroll-Studie12 Pilotstudie13
blind14 / multicenter (clinical) trial phase I / II / III / IV / open label15 [eI] trial einfach blinde Studie14
offene Studie15 1

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Medical Studies & Research MEDICAL SCIENCE 65

investigation [-geISn] n term sim research1 [n ri-, v rIsrtS] term (i) (wissenschaftliche) Unter-
(i) a thorough2 [Tr] and systematic examination or study of unknown issues3 suchung (ii) klinische Studie
(ii) a clinical study or trial (Er)Forschung, (er)forschen1
investigator4 n term investigate v investigational5 adj grndlich2 Zusammenhnge, Fra-
investigative5 adj researcher6 n gen3 Untersucher4 Test-, For-
These observations warrant7 [] further investigation into the effects of different schungs-, Untersuchungs-5 For-
scher(in), Wissenschaftler(in)6
management approaches. Clinical investigation revealed a 9-mm long penetrating
corneal wound. rechtfertigen7 Forschungsstipendi-
Use to do research1 on / into research fellow8 / worker6 clinical / preliminary9 / at(in)8 vorlufige U.9 experimentel-
longitudinal / (non-)invasive [eI]/ multidisciplinary / parallel group investigation le Behandlung10 Einsatz eines
principal investigator investigational treatment10 / new drug application11
neuen Testmedikaments11 Sonder-
(abbr INDA or IND) / device [dIvaIs] exemption12 (abbr IDE) in an investigative genehmigung f. ein neues Medi-
stage13 [steIdZ] to be under investigation zinprodukt12
im Forschungsstadium13 2

objective [dZek] n term syn aim [eIm], sim purpose1 [prps] n Ziel, Zielsetzung
research papers2 about medical studies are usually structured as follows: title, abstract, Zweck1
introduction and objectives, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusion(s) wissenschaftliche Arbeiten/ Pub-
aim (at)3 v likationen/ Vortrge2
abzielen auf, anstreben3
The objective of the present study4 was to compare the reliability of four partial- vorliegende Studie4
mouth protocols in assessing5 shallow, moderate, and deep sites for periodontal
untersuchen5 3
pocket depth and clinical attachment levels.

patient recruitment [ut] n MeSH sim enrollment1, assignment2 [aIn], Patientenrekrutierung


allocation2 n term Aufnahme1 Zuteilung2
aufgeklrte Einwilligung einholen3
selecting and obtaining informed consent3 from patients (subjects)
in die Studie aufnehmen4
15
to participate in clinical trials
Studien-, Versuchsteilnehmer(in)5
recruit [ut] v term enroll in(to)4 v enrollee5 [i] n allocate v assign v
Aufnahmekriterien6
It is recommended that children with brain tumors be enrolled in multicenter pro- vor der Aufnahme7
tocols. The study was inconclusive owing [oUIN] to problems in recruitment and low
stratifizierte Zuteilung8
subject enrollment.
randomisiert der Behandlung
Use patient recruitment goal [oU] enrollment criteria6 [kraItIi] time of / at /
zugeteilt9
prior [aI] to7 enrollment uniform or equal [i] treatment / stratified allocation8
4
fixed / adaptive allocation design randomly allocated to treatment9

randomization [rQndmaIzeISn] n MeSH Randomisierung,


(i) a chance1 [tSQns] assignment of treatments in an experiment (ii) a statistical selection Zufallszuteilung
process in which all subjects or samples presumably have the same chance of being selected2 zufllig1
random1 adj term randomize3 v (non)randomized adj randomizer4 n Rekrutierungschance2
Altogether 512 patients were randomized to chemotherapy [ki-]. The visit where a randomisieren3 Zufallsgenerator4
zugeteilt5 Zufallszahl6
participant is randomly assigned5 to treatment groups of a clinical trial is termed
randomization visit. Zufallszuteilung7
Use random number6 / variable / process / allocation7 / population / biopsy [aI] randomisierte klinische Studie8
randomized clinical trial8 / controlled study / blocking9 / prospective series blockweise Randomisierung9
5
randomization visit / process at1 random in a random fashion1

prospective adj term opposite retrospective1 adj term prospektiv


subjects with a specific trait [eI] or parameter are identified and then observed for retrospektiv1 Eintreten2 bestand
the occurrence2 [] of the outcome aus3 prospektive Erhebung4 prosp.
This prospective two-part trial comprised3 [aI] a pilot study of 10 men. Versuchsserie5 potentielle(r) Blut-
spender(in)6 prosp. Empfnger(in)7
Use prospective study / survey4 [] / clinical trial / series5 [I] prospective evalua-
tion / observation protocol / data [eI] prospective blood donor6 [oU]/ recipient7 retrospektive Analyse v. Kranken-
geschichten8 6
[sI] retrospective analysis / chart [tS] review8 [i]

(study) protocol n MeSH sim study manual of operations1 n term (Studien)Protokoll


(i) precise plan for a clinical trial or a therapeutic [pju] regimen2 [redZ-] Studienanleitungen1 Behandlungs-
(ii) guidelines (iii) official notes (e.g. at autopsy []) plan2 Surveillance, Beobachtungs-
Fifty patients with oral lichen planus were on a neoplasia surveillance [sveIlns] strategie3 Therapiekontrollen4 Ein-
haltung d. Behandlungsprotokolle5
protocol3. Treatment audits4 [] were performed for adherence [I] to protocols5.
Patients who desire more aggressive treatment should be referred6 for experimental berwiesen6 Studiendesign7 Studi-
protocol therapy. enprotokoll f. Feldversuch8 v. d.
Use protocol trial / design7 study / treatment / testing / chemotherapeutic [ki-] U.S. Gesundheits- u. Lebensmittel-
protocol three-drug / transfusion / field8 / formal protocol well-designed / behrde genehmigtes Studien-
protokoll9 7
followup / watchful waiting3 / FDA-approved9 / short-stay protocol

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66 MEDICAL SCIENCE Medical Studies & Research

placebo [plsiboU] n MeSH Plazebo, Leermedikament,


sim inactive control or sham [SQm] treatment1 n term Scheinmedikament
(i) inert2 [] substance (a sugar pill) identical in appearance with the drug studied which is Scheinbehandlung1
administered under the pretense of real treatment; used in clinical trials to distinguish between inaktiv, unwirksam2
the actual efficacy [-ksi] of an experimental drug and its suggestive [dZe] effect wirksamer, besser3
(ii) more generally, any ineffective treatment (usually prescribed to meet a patient's demands) Placeboresponder4
Eighty percent of the patients who received a placebo became asymptomatic. Cho- Scheinftterung5
linergic parasympathomimetic agents were superior [I] to3 placebo. Those initially
on placebo were switched [tS] to drug at the end of the 4th week of the trial.
Use placebo effect / control group / responder4 / relief [i]/ therapy /-treated patient
/-controlled trial nonmedicine placebo sham-treated controls / group /
8
feeding5 [i] /-operated periosteum

blind [blaInd] adj term syn blinded adj term blind


(adj) keeping study participants and/or investigators from knowing which subjects are assigned verflschende Faktoren,
to the treatment and the placebo group in order to keep biases1 [baIsIz] or expectations from Verzerrungen1
influencing the results verblinden2
blind2 v term unblind3 v offenlegen3
Our randomized double-blind study shows that administration of alpha-blockers is einfacher Blindversuch4
Doppelblindversuch5
effective. We performed an open-label, evaluator-blinded study.
Use single4-/ double5-blind study partially [S] blinded blind(ed) study6 / sham Blindversuch6
9
controlled study / placebo trial / procedure

control group n MeSH Kontrollgruppe


opposite treatment or experimental group1 n term Test-, Behandlungsgruppe1
nicht exponiert bzgl.2
subjects [] (e.g. healthy individuals or normals) participating in the same experiment as the
15 treatment group but not exposed to2 the test medication or the variable under investigation3 Prfvariable3
Kontrollpersonen4
(case-)controlled adj term control v controls4 n pl
Gesunde5
There was no difference in survival between control and study groups1. The results gesunde Freiwillige6
were compared to normals5 for patient age. Healthy [e] volunteers6 served as con-
nicht operierte Kontrollpersonen7
trols.
historische Kontrollgruppe8
Use control animals / patients / population / samples healthy or normal / age-
kontrollierte klinische Studie9
matched / untreated / nonoperative7 / unexposed / own / historical8 controls
10
(in)active control treatment controlled clinical trial9

treatment block n term sim blocking1 n, series2 [sIiz] n sing & pl, Therapieblock
cohort3 n term Blockbildung, blockweise
Zuteilung1
prespecified4 number of patients enrolled in a study and assigned to the various study treat-
ments in such a way so as to satisfy a preset4 allocation ratio [reIS(I)oU] Patientenreihe, -serie2
Kohorte3
The patients were randomized by center according to blocks of treatment (vorher) festgelegt4 Blockanlage5
(block size: 4).
stationre Kohorte6
Use treatment block size block design5 hospitalized6 cohort cohort members /
Kohortenstudie7
study7 a published []/ small / large / consecutive8 series
konsekutive Patientenreihe8 11

treatment arm n term Therapiearm


term sometimes used in place of study treatment, or study group nach dem Zufallsprinzip zugeteilt,
randomisiert1
Ten patients were randomized1 to each arm of the study. 12
Use chemotherapy [ki-]/ therapeutic [pju]/ no drug / control arm

factorial design [dIsaIn] n term faktorielles Design


treatment structure in which one study treatment is used in combination with at least one gruppensequentielles Design1
other study arm in a trial, or where multiples of a defined dose of a specified treatment are used
in the same trial
The fractional factorial design allows the comparison of a number of risk factors.
Use partial [S]/ (2x2) full / 2-level factorial design adaptive / parallel group / group
13
sequential1 [sIkwenSl]/ crossover design factorial treatment structure

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(treatment) crossover n MeSH Therapiewechsel, Crossover


planned (e.g in a crossover trial) or unplanned switch1 of study treatments for a patient Wechsel1
in a clinical trial ohne Therapiewechsel2
noncrossover2 adj term Ausfall, Therapieabbrecher3
Zugang, Therapiewechsler4
Unplanned crossovers are called "drop out3" and "drop in4." All participants were
Crossover-Studie5
offered a treatment crossover to the other splint type.
Use two-/ multi-/ three-period treatment crossover crossover trial5 / design
14
crossed treatments

data [deIt] n term pl only Daten(material),


rel information1, documentation2 n term sing only (Mess)werte, Angaben
collection of facts on a specific patient or set of patients from which conclusions may be drawn Fakten, Informationen1
Dokumentation, Unterlagen2
document3 v & n term (un)documented adj informative adj
dokumentieren, belegen;
There are only few data available for comparison. Submit documentation of at least Dokument3
10 operative reports from residency training.
Daten erheben4 Daten abrufen5
Use to obtain [eI]/collect4/retrieve5 [i]/store/evaluate/analyze/process6/compare/con-
Daten verarbeiten6
firm7 data scanty8 [sk]/ abundant9 [] data on sth. ordinal / nominal / interval
Daten besttigen7
/ historical data baseline10 [eI]/ (un)censored [s]/ anatomic data data item
sprliche Daten ber8
[aI]/ field / form11 / entry / base12 / file13 [aI] data editing / protection14 / and
zahlreiche Daten9
safety monitoring board (abbr DSMB) well/poorly documented information
Ausgangswerte10
retrieval / on sth. / about sth.
Datenerhebungsblatt11
Datenbank12 Datei13
Datenschutz14 15

case report form n term, abbr CRF syn case record form n term Patientenerhebungsbogen
Laborberichte1
15
standardized data entry form for all information collected and used in a clinical trial
Schlsselwerte2
Even in circumstances where there is other documentation in addition to CRFs (e.g. 16
lab slips1), generally all key [ki] values2 that will be analyzed appear on the CRF.

evidence n & v term sim confirmation1, proof2 [u], verification3 n term Nachweis, Beweis, Beleg;
(n) observations or findings which indicate, support or confirm [] assumptions4 [] belegen, beweisen
or conclusions [uZ] Besttigung1 Beweis2 Verifizierung3
evident5 adj term (un)confirmed adj verify6 v Annahmen besttigen4
A growing body of evidence7 supports our theory. There is no evidence of recurrent offensichtlich, evident5
berprfen, verifizieren6 Beweis-
[] disease. For intraoperative confirmation of the surgical margin, frozen sections
have been widely used. material7 Be-/ Nachweis liefern8
Use to seek [i]/provide8/exhibit8/reveal8 [i]/search for evidence for / in favor of / in viele/ gute Belege9 eindeutige
support of / against strong9 / clear(-cut)10 / conclusive11 [u]/ overwhelming12 / Beweise10 schlssige Beweise11
experimental / anecdotal13 evidence clinical / gross14 [oU]/ radiographic evi- schlagender Beweis12 vereinzelte
dence Belege13 makroskopischer Nach-
weis14 17

in vitro [i] phr MeSH opposite in vivo1 [i] phr term in vitro
in an artificial [fIS] environment [aI] e.g. a test tube2 or culture [] media [i] rather than3 in the in vivo1
living body Reagenzglas2
Do these agents inhibit cellular proliferation4 in oral cancer [Q] both in vitro and in anstatt3
Zellwachstum4
vivo?
Use in vitro techniques [ik]/ model / testing / analysis / cartilage formation in vivo
18
administration / experiment

alternative hypothesis [haIpTsIs] n term, pl -ses [iz] Alternativhypothese


opposite null [] hypothesis1 n term Nullhypothese1
ergeben2
assumption [] that the study will yield2 [jild] observations, results, differences in outcome
measures [eZ] between study groups that are not the result of chance alone eine Hypothese aufstellen3
postulieren, Postulat aufstellen;
hypothesize3 v term postulate4 v & n hypothetical adj
Postulat4
Some authors hypothesize that a more virulent [I] agent must be responsible. This Hypothese widerlegen5
supports the hypothesis that maxillofacial trauma alone is rarely life-threatening.
Arbeitshypothese6
Use to advance3/develop/propose3/postulate a hypothesis to put forward3/confirm/
(un)haltbare Hypothese7
support/reject5 [rIdZekt]/accept a hypothesis null treatment / working6 /
zweiseitige Alternativhypothese8
(un)tenable7 [e] hypothesis one-tailed [eI] or one-sided / two-tailed or two-
19
sided8 alternative hypothesis

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68 MEDICAL SCIENCE Medical Studies & Research

intention-to-treat analysis [nQlsIs] n term syn analysis by intention [S] Intention-to-treat Analyse
to treat n term unabhngig von der
Therapietreue1
data analysis in which the primary outcome data are analyzed by assigned treatment and
irrespective of treatment adherence1 [I] (analysis by treatment administered)
The endpoint of the study was analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. 20

treatment lag [lQg] n term Wirkungsverzgerung


time required (or thought to be required) for a therapy to exert1 [] its full effect entfalten1
zeitliche Verzgerung2
The time lag2
for a successful response may be 6-8 weeks.
sich verzgern3
Use lag period / phase [feIz] to lag behind3 jet4 / lid lag treatment interaction5 /
Zirkadian-, Jet-Lag-Syndrom4
effect / compliance6 [aI]/ difference / failure7 [feIlj]
Wechselwirkung von Wirkstoffen5
Compliance6
Therapieversager7 21

expanded [Q] access [Qkses] n term erweiterter Therapiezugang


broad term for methods of distributing experimental drugs to patients who are unable to Behandlungsmglichkeiten1
participate in ongoing clinical efficacy [efiksi] trials and have no other treatment options1 experimentelle medikamentse
These drugs are available to selected patients via expanded access. Types of expand- Behandlung2
ed-access mechanisms [k] include parallel track, IND treatment2, and compassionate
use.
22
Use expanded access program / trial

compassionate [kmpQSnt] use n term Verabreichung von nicht


15
providing unapproved drugs to very sick patients who have no other treatment options for zugelassenen Testmedika-
which case-by-case approval1 [u] must usually be obtained2 [eI] from the FDA (Food and Drug menten
Administration) Bewilligung1
Because of toxicity, some agents have been withdrawn [] from the market3 but are eingeholt2
still available for compassionate use. aus dem Verkehr gezogen3
23
Use compassionate use protocol / program / group / arm of the study

institutional review [rIvju] board [] n term abbr IRB, Ethikkommission


syn hospital ethics [eTIks] committee n term genehmigen1
sicherstellen2
a committee of physicians [fIzISnz],statisticians [IS], community advocates, and others which
must first approve1 [u] a clinical trial and ensure2 [-SU] that it is ethical and that the rights of
the study participants are protected
24

steering [stI-] committee n term abbr SC Studienbegleitkommission


(i) broadly, the committee responsible for directing the activities of a designated1 project festgelegt1
(ii) key committee in the organizational structure of a multicenter clinical trial Durchfhrung2
The SC is responsible for conduct2 of the trial and gets the reports from all other Beschwerdeausschuss3
Ethikkommission4
committees, except the Adverse Experience Committee3 and Data and Safety Moni-
toring Board and the Advisory Review and Treatment Effects Monitoring Committee. Arbeitsgruppe f. Seuchenbekmp-
Use publications / research ethics4 (abbr REC) / infection control5 (abbr ICC) / stand- fung5
ing6 / joint7 [dZ]/ advisory8 [aI] committee stndiger Ausschuss6
gemeinsamer Ausschuss7
Beratungskomitee8 25

efficacy [efIksi] n term syn effectiveness, sim efficiency1 [efISnsi] n term Wirksamkeit, Effektivitt
capacity or power of a procedure [i], drug etc. to produce a desired effect Leistungsfhigkeit, Effizienz1
Wirkung; (be)wirken2
effect2 n & v effective3 adj efficacious3 [keIS] adj (in)efficient4 [IS] adj
wirksam, effektiv3
Our study confirms the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia [dZi]. Bite force,
(un)wirksam, (in)effizient4
occlusal contact area and masticatory efficiency were evaluated before and after
Nachwirkung5
sagittal split ramus osteotomy in 27 patients with mandibular prognathism.
wohltuende/ gnstige Wirkung6
Use to be of/show/demonstrate great efficacy long-term / documented / overall /
erwnschte Wirkung7
therapeutic efficacy cost-efficient to have an / carry-over5 / beneficial6 [fIS]
gnstige Wirkung8 26
effect desired7 [aI]/ favorable8 [eI]/ profound [aU]/ systemic effect on

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Medical Studies & Research MEDICAL SCIENCE 69

outcome [aUtkm] n term Therapieergebnis,


condition of a patient following therapeutic intervention1 Resultat, Folge
Nutrition recommendations were developed to meet treatment goals2 and desired therapeutischer Eingriff1
Behandlungsziele erreichen2
outcomes3. Intracranial [eI] bleeding (sometimes fatal [eI] in outcome) occurred
following hypertensive crisis. angestrebte Behandlungs-
Use to affect4/alter []/improve [u] outcome outcome criteria [aI]/ data / statement ergebnisse3
treatment / clinical / surgical5 / primary outcome 3-year / long-term / cen-
Behandlungsergebnis beeinflussen4
sored6 / maternal-fetal [i] outcome fatal7 / (un)favorable8 / poor9 outcome Operationsergebnis5
multiple [] outcomes binary [aI] outcome measure10 zensiertes Ergebnis6 Tod, Exitus7
(un)gnstiges Ergebnis8
schlechtes Ergebnis9
binrer Ergebnisparameter10 27

censoring [sensrIN] n term zensierte Beobachtung


term used mainly in survival [aI] analyses1 to denote an individual who has not experienced the berlebenszeitanalysen1
event of interest at a specific point, e.g. at the time of interim analysis, end of study, or of lost to nicht mehr zur Verlaufskontrolle
followup2 erscheinen, nicht mehr zur
The process by which patient outcome data cannot be obtained beyond a specific Verfgung stehen2
28
point in time is termed censoring.

withdrawal [wITdrl] n term sim drop-out or dropout1 n jar Studienabbruch,


removing an individual from a study because of unwillingness or inability abgebrochene Beobachtung
to return for follow-up Drop-out, Studienabbrecher(in);
withdraw2 v term drop out2 v inf Ausfall1
Withdrawals were mainly due to side effects of treatment; 12 pts. withdrew [u] ausscheiden, ausfallen2
interkurrente Erkrankung3
during treatment, 2 dropped out because of intercurrent [] disease3, and 3 were 15
lost to follow-up. Patients had the option of dropping out of the study at any time. Ausfallsrate, Drop-out Rate4
There was a steady [e] dropout of patients.
Use withdrawal from treatment / from the study / rate patient / systematic drop-
29
out drop-out rate4

stopping rule [u] n term sim termination1, stop condition2 n term Studienabbruchbestimmung
rule usually set prior [aI] to patient recruitment [u] that specifies3 a limit for the observed Beendigung, Abbruch1
test-control treatment difference for the primary outcome, which, if exceeded [i], leads to Studienabbruchbedingung2
termination of the test or control treatment, depending on the direction of the observed differ- festlegen3
ence liegt vor4
A stop condition is encountered4 [aU] when a patient enrolled [oU] in a trial, requires abbrechen, beenden5
or permits clinic personnel to take some action related to that patient, such as vorzeitige Beendigung6
instituting a change in treatment or terminating5 follow-up of that patient.
Use early stopping premature6 [primtSU] termination termination stage / of
30
the procedure

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70 CLINICAL TERMS Orofacial Pain

Unit 16 Orofacial Pain


Related Units: 47 Basic Terms in Anesthesiology, 48 Types of Anesthesia & Anesthetics,
3 Craniofacial Trauma, 13 Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology

discomfort n clin (leichte krperliche) Be-


opposite comfort1 n schwerden, Unpsslichkeit
sligthly painful feeling, e.g. after a minor injury2 or being in an uncomfortable3 position; Trost, Beruhigung, Bequemlichkeit1
often used as a clinical understatement leichte Verletzung2
(un)comfortable4 adj comfort5 v unbequem, unangenehm3
angenehm4
Discomfort during mastication may be the first indication of implant failure. Does trsten5
this cause any discomfort? There was some discomfort but no real pain. Use hard
sich unwohl fhlen6
sugarless candy to help alleviate mucosal discomfort.
Beschwerden ertragen7
Use to cause/feel/experience6/tolerate7/control/aggravate8/ameliorate9 [i]/minimize
Beschwerden verstrken8
discomfort minimal / moderate / severe / high levels of discomfort oral /
Beschwerden lindern9
(post)surgical / donor site / pressure / migratory [aI]/ postprandial / vague [veIg]
haltungsbedingte Beschwerden10
discomfort aching / acute / mild / postural10 [pstSl]/ local / residual11 dis-
Restbeschwerden11 1
comfort patient / denture comfort uncomfortable position / sensations

distress n & v term & clin sim suffering1 [ ] n MeSH & clin Not(lage), Leid, Kummer;
(i) being affected by worries, extreme sadness, pain bedrcken, beunruhigen
(ii) to be in danger or in urgent [rdZnt] need of help Leid(en)1
distressed2, -ing, -ful adj suffer (from)3 v sufferer4 n notleidend, bekmmert2
The patient was in acute distress because of his neck spasm and pain. Distress eiden an, erleiden3
Leidende(r), Patient(in)4
mostly refers to emotional suffering. He suffers from severe midfacial deficiency.
Have you ever suffered an injury to your mouth, jaw, and/or teeth? How should unertrgliches Leiden5
unbearable [e] suffering5 be defined? dringend Hilfe bentigen6
Use to be in (no) acute6 / minimal distress signs of distress emotional / physical / Dental Distress Syndrom7
dental7 / psychological / family / respiratory8 distress distressing experience / Atemnot8
symptom9 distressed child / family10 to suffer a relapse / postoperative com- beunruhigendes Symptom9
plications / early implant loss physical / mental / needless / unrelievable suffer- besorgte Familienangehrige10
ing bad breath11 [e]/ TMD12 / tongue cancer / chronic tinnitus sufferer Halitosispatient(in)11
CMD-Patient(in)12
Note: Mark the difference between to suffer from13 an illness, sleep apnea, leiden an13
denture instability, etc. and to suffer a stroke12, a heart attack, an injury, tooth einen Schlaganfall erleiden14
2
loss, etc.

16 hurt - hurt - hurt [hrt] v irr & adj sim irritate1, bother2 [] v schmerzen, weh tun; (sich)
v (i) to feel physical or emotional pain verletzen; verletzt
? U3-1
(ii) injure oneself or sb. else or be injured irritieren, stren1
to get/be hurt phr irritating3 adj irritation4 n bothersome5 adj zu schaffen machen, stren2
Does it hurt when you chew on your left side? The light hurts my eyes. Mucosal unangenehm, strend3
Irritation, Reizung4
lesions may cause dentures to hurt or fit poorly. Are you hurt? His irritating rash6
[Q] has become extremely bothersome. It does not bother me that much. lstig, beeintrchtigend5
Use to cause/be susceptible to/avoid irritation tissue / skin / mouth / mucosal7 / Hautirritation6
painful tongue / palate irritation gum / (chronic) gingival / local / denture / Schleimhautreizung7
acne / mechanical / signs of irritation to (be) bother(ed) about sth.8 bother- sich Sorgen machen8
3
some symptoms / tooth / snoring / for the patient

ache [eIk] v & n & comb MeSH schmerzen, weh tun;


(v) to hurt constantly Schmerz(en); -weh,
(n) a continuous, not very intense, often not precisely localized pain -schmerzen
earache1 n toothache n headache2 n aching3 adj & n Ohrenschmerzen, -weh1
This may cause your other teeth to ache temporarily. Maxillary sinusitis causes pain Kopfschmerzen2
schmerzhaft; Schmerzen3
in the maxillary area, toothache, and frontal headache. The gingival swelling was
accompanied by a dull [] ache4 distal to the maxillary left second molar. dumpfer Schmerz4
Use vague5 [veIg]/ mild / generalized [dZen-]/ deep-seated6 ache neck7 / belly / nicht lokalisierbarer/ diffuser
stomach [k]/ muscle8 ache aches and pains9 shoulder aching aching feeling Schmerz5
or sensation / tooth / pains9 to be aching all over10 Tiefenschmerz6
Nackenschmerzen7
Muskelschmerzen8
anhaltende leichte Schmerzen,
Wehwehchen9 alles tut weh10 4

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Orofacial Pain CLINICAL TERMS 71

toothache n MeSH syn tooth or dental pain n, odontalgia n MeSH Zahnschmerz(en), Zahnweh,
pain localized in or around the teeth, in the jaw or face, typically caused by dental cavities, a Dentalgie, Odontalgie
cracked tooth, an exposed tooth root, gum disease, problems in the temporomandibular joint, akute Zahnschmerzen1
or spasms of the masticatory muscles schmerzempfindliche Zhne,
Acute dental pain1 may involve toothache, dental sensitivity2 as well as periopera- Zahnempfindlichkeit2
tive or postoperative pain. A toothache can also be caused by a problem that does pochende Zahnschmerzen3
not originate from a tooth or the jaw. bohrende Zahnschmerzen4
Use to have/experience a toothache low-grade / minor / throbbing3 / boring4 / stechende Zahnschmerzen5
lancinating5 / dull / diffuse / long-standing / constant / severe / unbearable6 / unertrgliche Zahnschmerzen6
maxillary / nondental or non-odontogenic toothache toothache prevention / atypische Odontalgie, Phantom-
severity / relief oro/ acute / persistent / chronic / postoperative dental pain zahnschmerzen7
phantom7 / generalized / wisdom tooth pain dentinal8 / (dental or tooth) pulp9 Dentinschmerz8
pain episodic / prodromal / neurovascular / idiopathic / atypical7 odontalgia Pulpaschmerz9 5

pain n MeSH, usu sing syn dolor n term rare (i) Schmerz(en) (ii) Wehen
(i) unpleasant sensation1 [eI] related to tissue damage, conveyed2 [eI] to the brain by nerve Empfindung1 bertragen2
fibers where its conscious appreciation3 [iS] may be modified by various factors bewusste Wahrnehmung3
(ii) painful uterine contraction in childbirth (usu pl, e.g. labor pains) schmerzhaft4 schmerzerfllt5
painful4 adj pained5 adj painless, pain-free adj indolent6 adj langsam heilend, schmerzlos, in-
How long have you had this pain? Facial pain of dental origin may occur with air dolent6 Schmerzen verursachen7
Schmerzen auslsen8
pressure changes. You won't feel any pain. This is a completely painless procedure.
Use to experience/develop/cause or arouse [aU] or evoke or give rise to7/elicit8/aggra- Schmerzen halten an/ persistieren9
vate/control pain pain arises / spreads / persists9 / recurs to have a/be in/feel Gesichtsschmerz(en)10
pain (dento/ oro/ mid)facial10 / muscle / myofascial / joint / pathologic11 pain pathologischer Schmerz11
a pained face12 / expression pain-free dental treatment / intervals / jaw open- schmerzverzerrtes Gesicht12
ing pain perception / assessment / therapy / clinic pain on palpation / man- Schmerzen beim Kauen13
dibular function / chewing or mastication13 / biting14 / coughing [kfIN] free15 / Aufbissempfindlichkeit14
history of pain (in)sensitivity to16 pain painful stimuli [aI]/ sensation / joint schmerzfrei15
(area) / swallowing17 / lesion painless swelling / mass or lump18 / procedure Schmerz(un)empfindlichkeit16
indolent ulcer19 [ls]/ (clinical) course / tumor Schluckbeschwerden17
indolenter Knoten18
Note : Pain is normally singular. When used in the plural it refers to the pain schlecht abheilendes/ indolentes
related to menstruation or childbirth or to show that it recurs. It can also Geschwr19
mean to try very hard, e.g. in painstaking20 and to take or go to great pains21. sorgfltig, gewissenhaft20
sich Mhe geben21 6

character or nature of pain n clin Schmerzqualitt


16
What kind of pain is it? Pain from pulpitis may be intense, throbbing, intermittent, (Schmerz)Attacken, -episoden1
lanzinierend2 gelindert3 ziehende/
or continuous and is usually more severe than dentinal pain. She reported bouts1 of
severe, lancinating2 pain lasting seconds to minutes in the distribution of one or reiende Schmerzen4 Aneurysma
more of its sensory divisions. Was the pain promptly alleviated3 [livIeIt-] by anal- dissecans5 brennender Schmerz,
gesics? Tearing [e] pain4 is characteristic of a dissecting aneurysm5 [-UIzm]. Brennen6 stechender Schmerz7
Use pain of a burning nature6 throbbing / smarting6 / cutting / stabbing or piercing7 pltzlich einschieende Schmer-
/ crampy / shooting8 [u]/ boring9 pain stinging7 / sharp / gnawing10 [nIN] / zen8 bohrender Schmerz9 nagender
dragging4 pain odontogenic / neurogenic11 / nociceptive / acute / functional / Schmerz10 neurogene Schmerzen11
postoperative pain (psycho)somatic12 / psychogenic [saIkoUdZenik]/ spontane- somatische Schmerzen12 Spontan-
ous13 [eI]/ tumor(-related)14 / cancer15 / hunger16 / rest17 / intractable18 pain schmerz13 Tumorschmerz(en)14
Krebsschmerz(en)15
Nchternschmerz16 Ruheschmerz17
therapierefraktre Schmerzen18 7

duration [eI] and periodicity of pain n clin Schmerzdauer


When did you first notice this pain? How long did it last? The episodes of pain Remissionen, Besserung1
flchtiger Schmerz2
became more frequent, remissions1
became shorter, and a dull ache persisted bet-
ween the episodes of stabbing pain. Akutschmerz, akute Schmerzen3
Use onset / cessation / bouts or episodes of pain fleeting2 [i]/ short-lived / inter- anhaltende Schmerzen4
mittent / occasional / acute3 / chronic / steady [e] or persistent or lingering4 [Ng] hartnckige Schmerzen5
pain unremitting or stubborn5 []/ nagging6 [Q] pain daytime / night(time) / lstige Schmerzen6
delayed7 [eI]/ long-standing / recurrent8 / posttreatment / postprandial / post- Sptschmerz7 rezidivierende
Schmerzen, Schmerzrezidiv8 8
operative pain

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72 CLINICAL TERMS Orofacial Pain

intensity of pain n clin syn pain intensity, pain level n clin Schmerzintensitt
Doctor, this pain is killing me. Does anything make it worse? How do you get relief? leichte Schmerzen1
dumpfer Schmerz2
The patient experienced violent pain in his left cheek below the zygomatic arch.
Lidocaine is ineffective for prevention or relief of this intense pain. Agonizing pain heftige/ starke Schmerzen3
is a sign of serious [I] or advanced disease. akute Schmerzen4
Use assessment or estimation of / level of / changes in / preoperative pain intensity sehr starke (arbeitsunfhig
degree / amount / perception of pain mild1 [aI]/ dull2 []/ moderate / intense or machende) Schmerzen5
sharp3 / acute4 pain disabling or debilitating5 / severe3 / intolerable6 / violent unertrgliche Schmerzen6
[aI] or killing7 / excruciating [uS] or exquisite or agonizing8 [aIz]/ unresolved rasende Schmerzen7
qualvolle Schmerzen8 9
pain pain (intensity) score

site [saIt] or loc(aliz)ation of pain Schmerzlokalisation


Could you point to the spot where it hurts most. Owing to referred pain patterns and diffus(e Schmerzen)1 Tiefen-
schmerz2 oberflchlicher Schmerz3
the complex regional anatomy of the head and neck, dentists and patients easily can
be fooled into thinking that orofacial pain is odontogenic in nature when, in fact, the ausstrahlende Schmerzen4
origin of the pain is another source. Vague1, poorly localized1, continuous facial pain wandernder Schmerz5 Synalgie,
is characteristic of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. bertragener Schmerz6 projizierter
Use deep(-seated)2 / superficial3 / (moderately well-) localized / diffuse1 / radiating4 Schmerz7 orale Schmerzen, S. im
[eI] pain spreading [e]/ migratory5 [aI]/ generalized / non-specific / referred6 Mundbereich8 Zahnfleischschmer-
[] / projected7 pain (intra)oral8 / periodontal9 / jaw / maxillary (sinus) pain zen9 retroorbitale Schmerzen10
craniomandibular / zygomatic / retro-orbital10 / pre-auricular pain phantom11 / Phantomschmerz11
myofaziale Schmerzen12 10
intracapsular / myofacial12 / donor site / temporomandibular joint pain

tender adj clin sim sore1 [sr], painful adj inf & clin (druck)schmerzhaft,
sensitive2 or painful as a result of pressure or contact which normally does not cause druckempfindlich, -dolent
discomfort wund, entzndet1 empfindlich2
tenderness3 n clin non-tender adj soreness n painfulness n rare Druckschmerz, Schmerzhaftigkeit3
Trauma to a tooth may provoke inflammation of the periodontal membrane, render- Stufenbildung4 schmerzhafter Kno-
ten5 Perkussionsschmerz6 Bewe-
ing it tender to touch. Palpate the mandible for tenderness, swelling and step-off
discrepancy4. Do you wake up with sore, stiff muscles around your jaws? gungsschmerz7 beraus starker
Use slightly / mildly / acutely / exquisitely tender tender point / teeth / gums / Druckschmerz8 lokalisierter
(mandibular) swelling / mass5 / cheek / area tender(ness) to palpation / to Schmerz9 Punktschmerz10 apikale
percussion6 / to motion7 / over the injury to check for / local / gingival / Druckdolenz11 Halsschmerzen12
extraoral / TMJ / marked / exquisite8 tenderness diffuse / focal9 / point or Muskelschmerzen, -kater13 emp-
pencil10 / localized9 / apical11 tenderness to feel sore sore mouth / throat12 findliches/ entzndetes Zahn-
[oU]/ tongue / muscles13 / gums14 / spot facial / pressure15 / denture / oozing16 fleisch14 Druckulkus, (Prothesen)
[u]/ crusting sore local muscle / joint soreness Druckstelle15 leicht blutende
16 wunde Stelle16 11

wince [wIns] v & n syn flinch [flIntS] v rare (vor Schmerz) zusammen-
to move back, tighten1 [aIt] the muscles because of pain or make a pained face2 zucken; Zucken
He winced as the dentist touched his broken tooth. "Ouch3," [aUtS] he said with a anspannen1 schmerzverzerrtes
Gesicht2 au (weh)3 daher4
wince. The pain may be so intense that the patient winces, hence4 the condition is
Tic(k), Muskelzucken5 12
termed tic5.

stitch [stItS] n & v syn twinge [twIndZ] n, pangs n inf, usu pl Stich, (kurzer) stechender
sharp pain of short duration, e.g. a stitch in the side1 which is due to excessive physical exercise Schmerz; stechen
She gritted her teeth at the stitches of pain. When I don't take extra calcium I have Seitenstechen1 (ungewhnliche)
Essensgelste2 neigen zu3
mood swings, hunger pangs, and food cravings2.
Have you noted an occasional
twinge when eating ice cream? If you are prone [oU] to3 stitches1 do your exercise mit leerem Magen, nchtern4
with an empty stomach4. stechende Brustschmerzen5
13
Use episodic / breast5 [e]/ growth / hunger pangs

paroxysm [pQrksIzm] n clin & term sim attack1 n MeSH & genE Anfall, Paroxysmus
recurrent bouts2 [aU] of sharp pain or symptoms, e.g. fever and chills3 [tS] or cramps that are Anfall, Attacke1 wiederkehrende
sudden in onset4 Anflle2 Schttelfrost3 pltzlich
paroxysmal5 adj auftretend4 anfallsartig, paroxys-
mal5 paroxysmale Schmerzen,
Certain maneuvers [u] (esp. yawning) triggered paroxysms of pain. His infection Schmerzattacken6 paroxysmale
was characterized by paroxysms of chills, fever, and sweating [e].
Kopfschmerzen7 Hustenanflle8
Use paroxysmal (facial) pain6 / symptoms / headaches7 / trigeminal neuralgia /
paroxysmale Hemikranie9
cough8 [kf] / hemicrania9 / nocturnal dyspnea [dIspni] (abbr PND)/ positional
Schwindelanflle10
vertigo10 [] (abbr PPV)/ attack spasmodic11 paroxysm bacterial / plaque /
anfallsartiger Muskelkrampf11 14
transient ischemic [i] (abbr TIA)/ heart attack

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Orofacial Pain CLINICAL TERMS 73

headache [hedeIk] n MeSH & clin syn cephalgia n MeSH & term, Kopfschmerz(en), Kopfweh
rel migraine1 [maIgreInmi] n term & clin Migrne1 Lichtscheu2
migrneartig, Migrne-3
pain occurring [] in the cranial region which may be caused by emotional distress, or harmless
tensions in the neck and scalp muscles or a manifestation of a wide variety of headache Migrne-Patient(in)4
disorders, esp. if associated with vertigo, nausea [], photophobia2 [oU], and other neurologic Spannungskopfschmerz5
abnormalities dumpfe Kopfschmerzen6
migrainous3 [aI] adj term migraineur4 [migrnr] n rasende Kopfschmerzen7
There is a large overlap between headache and facial pain. Photophobia is prominent pochende Kopfschmerzen8
Histamin-, Cluster-Kopfschmerz,
with migraine headache but occurs also with meningitis [dZaI]. Rhinorrhea [i] and
lacrimation during headache typify the cluster variant of migraine and are ipsilate- Bing-Horton-Neuralgie,
ral to the pain. Cluster headaches9 frequently awaken patients from sleep. Myalgia Erythroprosopalgie9
[maIQldZ(I)] of posterior neck muscles often accompanies tension [tentSn] head- stressbedingte Kopfschmerzen10
aches5. wiederkehrende Kopfschmerzen,
Use to have/cause or produce/give sb./develop a headache acute / chronic / mild / Wiederkehrkopfschmerzen11
dull6 []/ severe or bad or intense / splitting7 headache daily / episodic / Kopfschmerzen u. beranstren-
morning / persistent / throbbing8 []/ intractable headache (retro)ocular / gung d. Augen12
unilateral / bilateral / orthostatic / temporomandibular joint (abbr TMJ)/ cluster9 Kopfschmerzen u. allgem.
headache frontal / occipital [ksI]/ generalized / stress-related10 / recurrent11 Unwohlbefinden13
headaches tension5 / vascular / posttraumatic / brain tumor headache head- Kopfschmerzen u. Schttelfrost14
ache and neck stiffness / eyestrain12 [eI]/ dizziness / malaise13 [mleIz] head- einer Migrne hnlich sein15
ache and flushing []/ chills14 [tS]/ disorientation / vomiting to precipitate/mi- Migrneanflle16
mic15/alleviate [i] or ameliorate [i] /be associated with migraine migraine Migrne mit Aura17
(-like) headache(s) [eIk]/ attacks16 migraine sufferer4 []/ pattern / with aura17 Basilarismigrne18
[r] classic / common / ophthalmoplegic [idZ] migraine cortical / basilar18 / Migraine ophthalmique,
ophthalmic19 migraine familial hemiplegic20 / disabling [eI]/ childhood migrai- Hemicrania ophthalmica19
ne migrainous neuralgia9 / episodes16 / syndrome [I] familire hemiplegische
Migrne20 15

neuralgia [n(j)UrQldZ(I)] n MeSH syn nerve [] pain n clin, Neuralgie, Nervenschmerz
rel neuropathy1 n MeSH Neuropathie, Nervenleiden1
stechend2
sharp pain that is throbbing or stabbing2 in character in the course or distribution3 of one or
more nerves Versorgungsgebiet3
neuralgisch4
neuralgic4 adj term neuropathic adj -algia comb
schliet... aus5
Detection of a sensory abnormality or cranial nerve dysfunction rules out5 trigemi-
trizyklische Antidepressiva6
nal [aIdZe] neuralgia as the cause of pain. Tricyclics6 [saI] are of particular value in
postherpetische Neuralgie7
the management of neuropathic pains such as postherpetic neuralgia7. Acute jaw
Gesichtsneuralgie8
[dZ] or throat pain after therapy may be due to glossopharyngeal [-fQrIndZil]
neuralgia.
Glossopharyngeusneuralgie9 16
Trigeminusneuralgie10
Use cranial [eI]/ facial8 [eIS]/ glossopharyngeal9 [dZ]/ trigeminal10 / nasociliary / post-
idiopathische Neuralgie11
operative / idiopathic11 / zoster-associated neuralgia neuralgic pain neuro-
neuropathische Schmerzzustnde12
pathic pain (states)12 / arthropathy13 / deficit / ulcer []/ joint disease13 cranial /
Arthropathia neuropathica13
optic / autonomic / acute motor axonal (abbr AMAN)/ peripheral neuropathy
Muskelschmerzen, Myalgie14
(multi)focal / motor / sensory neuropathy ischemic [ki]/ traumatic / toxic
Otalgie, Ohrenschmerzen15
neuropathy poly(radiculo)/ mono/ adrenomyeloneuropathy masticatory
Kausalgie16 16
my14 [aI]/ (referred) ot15/ (facial/ dental) caus16/ dent/ facial arthralgia

paresthesia(s) [pQresTiZ] n MeSH rel pins-and-needles1 phr clin subjektive Missempfindung,


abnormal sensation such as tingling [Ng] pain2, numbness3 [nmns], prickling4 or burning Parsthesie
paresthetic [e] adj term dysesthesia(s)5 n MeSH hyper/hyp(o)esthesia6 n Kribbeln, Ameisenlaufen1
schmerzhaftes Brennen2
Severe pain, numbness, paresthesia and coldness developed. Ten patients suffered
taubes Gefhl3 Prickeln4
from paresthesia after implant placement in the mandible. A 70-year-old man pre-
Dyssthesie, schmerzhafte Wahr-
sented to his dentist with a pins-and-needles sensation in his face and a toothache
nehmung v. Berhrungsreizen5
in the left mandible.
Hypsthesie, verminderte (Berh-
Use to develop/experience paresthesias general / lingual (nerve) / facial / lower lip /
rungs)Empfindlichkeit6
intraoral / circumoral or perioral7 paresthesias painful / temporary / persisting /
periorale Parsthesien7
postinjection / residual / unexplained paresthesia tactile / thermal8 hyperesthe-
Thermhypersthesie8
sia malar9 [eI] / corneal / transitory10 hypesthesia
Hypersthesie der Wange9
vorbergehende Hypsthesie10 17

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74 CLINICAL TERMS Orofacial Pain

pain threshold [TreSHoUld] n term Schmerzschwelle


rel pain tolerance1 n Schmerztoleranz(grenze)1
empfinden2
the threshold of pain refers to the smallest intensity of pain the patient is able to appreciate2
[iS], while pain tolerance is the maximum (s)he can endure3; the unit of pain intensity is dol (Schmerzen) ertragen3
abklren4
Assess4 joint swelling, functional activity, and the patient's pain tolerance. Due to Schmerzen verspren5
their anxiety and fear these dental patients develop a lower pain threshold.
Schmerzen verursachen6
Use low / high / increased / decrease in / pressure pain threshold to assess / heat-
sich mit den Schmerzen abfinden7
pain tolerance to appreciate5/induce6/produce6 pain to bear3 [be]/endure/
18
put up with7 pain

pain relief [rIlif] n MeSH & clin sim pain control1 n, Schmerzlinderung,
rel palliative therapy2 n MeSH Schmerzbeseitigung
to deaden pain3 [e] and obtund [], dull [] or blunt [] sensation4 Schmerzkontrolle1
Palliativtherapie2
relieve5 v clin palliate5 v term palliation6 n palliative7 adj & n
Schmerz stillen3
How do you get relief? The pain was well controlled. Radiotherapy for palliation of Sensibilitt herabsetzen4
pain significantly improves the quality of life of patients suffering from incurable
(Schmerzempfindung) mildern,
malignancies. The drug failed to relieve suffering. Paracetamol 1000 mg provides up
lindern5
to 4 hours of pain relief after third molar surgery. Pain control is a key issue in
Linderung6
dental treatment for children.
palliativ, lindernd; Palliativum7
Use to relieve [-iv] or ease [iz] or soothe [suD] or alleviate [i] or mitigate8 / abolish /
Schmerz lindern8
suppress pain pain subsides [aI] or resolves9 to provide/achieve/report pain
Schmerz lsst nach9
relief facial / postoperative / non-prescription / poor pain relief dental /
Palliativum10 Palliativoperation11
(intra)oral / pharmacologic pain control palliative needs / care / drug10 / meas-
19
ures [eZ]/ surgery11

analgesic [QnldZisIk] n & adj MeSH syn pain killer n inf & jar schmerzstillendes Mittel,
(n) drug to render a patient pain-free1 without clouding [aU] of consciousness2 Analgetikum; schmerz-
(adj) deadening pain sensation stillend, analgetisch
analgesia3 [QnldZizI] n term ? U47-7 hyperalgesia n term
Patient(in) schmerzfrei machen1
We recommend that you take a pain killer before the numbness of the local anes- Bewusstseinstrbung2
Aufheben der Schmerzempfindung,
thetic wears off. Will this kill the pain, doc? The patient required very large amounts
of analgesics for relief. Analgesie3
Use to obtund / dull / blunt pain sensation pain receptor / sensitive pathways4 Schmerzbahnen4
pain-transmission neurons [U] analgesic ladder / effect / efficacy / receptor / Analgetika-Nephropathie5
nephropathy5 / drug / regimen non-steroidal / (non-)opioid / narcotic / oral /
20
local / systemic / postoperative analgesic
16
allodynia [QldInI] n term Allodynie
pain resulting from stimuli, such as light, a slight touch or even a light breeze1, which do not leichter Luftzug1
normally provoke pain auslsende Faktoren2
allodynic adj term -dynia comb odyn(o)- comb Hyperalgesie, gesteigerte
Schmerzempfindlichkeit3
The relevant clinical features of neuropathic pain are precipitating factors2 such as mechanische Allodynie4
trauma or infection, pain that is frequently described as having burning, paroxys-
Desmodont, Wurzelhaut5
mal, and lancinating or sharp qualities, and physical examination indicative of
Klteallodynie6
hyperalgesia3, allodynia and sympathetic hyperfunction. Mechanical allodynia4 is
Wrmeallodynie7
an essential diagnostic feature of inflammation of the periodontal ligament5. The
taktil evozierte Allodynie8
pain of trigeminal [aIdZe] neuralgia [nUQldZ(I)] has been shown to be essentially
allodyner Schmerz9
allodynic.
Zungenschmerz, Glossodynie10
Use mechanical4 / cutaneous / thermal / cold6 / heat / warm7 / tactile8 / head allo-
Arthralgie, Gelenkschmerz11
dynia allodynic pain9 / migraine (patient) glosso10/ arthro11/ chondro12/ teno13
Chondrodynie, Knorpelschmerz12
[tendInI]/ carotidynia odynophagia14
Sehnenschmerz, Ten(d)odynie,
Tenalgie13
Odynophagie, schmerzhaftes
Schlucken14 21

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Craniofacial Fractures CLINICAL TERMS 75

Clinical Phrases
Doctor, I have an awful pain in my shoulder. Herr Doktor, ich habe schreckliche Schmerzen in der
Schulter. When did you first notice this pain? Wann traten diese Schmerzen erstmals auf? What
brings it on? Wodurch werden sie ausgelst? Did it come on suddenly? Sind die Schmerzen
pltzlich aufgetreten? Does anything make it worse? Werden sie durch irgendetwas verstrkt?
Did you notice pins and needles? Sprten Sie ein Kribbeln? He won't feel the pain. Er wird keine
Schmerzen haben. I've had this pain on and off for the past three months. Ich hatte diese Schmer-
zen immer wieder in den letzten 3 Monaten. How much are you bothered by the constant head-
aches? Wie sehr fhlen Sie sich durch die stndigen Kopfschmerzen beeintrchtigt? Take care to
avoid any skin irritation. Hautreizungen sollten Sie nach Mglichkeit vermeiden. He went on to
suffer multiple relapses. Er hatte immer wieder einen Rckfall. She had been suffering from facial
and TMJ pain for several months. Sie hatte schon mehrere Monate Gesichts- und Kiefergelenkschmer-
zen. Also try gargling with warm salt water to soothe the pain. Zur Schmerzlinderung knnten Sie
auch mit warmem Salzwasser gurgeln. She is without pain now. Sie ist jetzt schmerzfrei. Freedom
from pain was achieved on postoperative day 5. Schmerzfreiheit bestand ab dem 5. postoperativen
Tag.

Unit 17 Craniofacial Fractures


Related Units: 3 Injuries, 46 Radiology, 29 Fracture Management, 45 Maxillofacial Surgery

fracture [frQktS] v term ? U3-20 syn break [eI] - broke - broken v irr, (Knochen) brechen/
sim crack1 v & n clin frakturieren
to cause a break in the continuity of a bone (zer)brechen; e-n Sprung bekom-
men; Riss, (Knochen)Fissur1
fracture2 n MeSH, abbr Frx refracture3 v & n fractured4 adj
(Knochen)Fraktur, -bruch2
Direct root [u] compression may be relieved by reduction5 [] of the dislocation or
erneut brechen; Refraktur3
by removal of fractured bone or disrupted disk. The majority of fractures of the
gebrochen, frakturiert4
mandible are managed by closed reduction. Oblique [-ik] views are best suited for
Einrichtung, Reposition5
evaluating fractures of the condylar and coronoid processes, the body, ramus, and
Unterkiefer-, Gonionwinkel6
angle of the mandible6.
sich den Kiefer brechen7
Use to fracture a bone / one's jaw7 to sustain/present with/suspect/detect/palpate/
geschlossene Fraktur8
reduce a fracture simple / closed8 / isolated [aI]/ (in)complete9 / subperiosteal /
(un)vollstndige/ (in)komplette
pathologic10 / spiral11 [aI] / longitudinal / transverse12 / oblique13 [i] / indirect
Fraktur9 pathologische Fraktur,
fracture (sub)trochanteric [k]/ supracondylar / growth plate or epiphyseal [I]/
(intra)articular14 / (un)stable [eI] / microfracture (mid/ maxillo)facial / nasal
Spontanfraktur10 Dreh-, Spiral- 17
bruch, Torsionsfraktur11
(bone) or nose / temporal bone / orbito-cranial / zygomaticomaxillary complex or
Querfraktur12 Schrgfraktur13
tripod / mandibular (condylar) / (dento)alveolar fracture fracture of the zygo-
Gelenkfraktur14 Knochenbruch-,
matic arch / orbital floor / alveolar process fracture site / line / patient
Frakturheilung15 Bruchspalt16
exposure of / motion at / separation at the fracture site fracture healing15
Zahnfraktur17
[i]/ repair / reduction / fixation / cleft16 fractured jaw / facial bone / segments
Schdelbasisbruch18 1
/ tooth17 / nose / base of skull18

fragment n term sim chip1 [tSIp] n, splinter2 n & v clin (Knochen)Fragment,


fragmentation3 n term fragment4 v to chip (off)5 v clin Bruchstck
(Knochen)Splitter, -fragment1
The free tooth fragment is depicted in the axial CT scan. A cartilage [-IdZ] was Splitter; (zer)splittern2
chipped and fragments floated in the joint. If the bones are fragmented the fracture
Fragmentation, Zersplitterung3
is said to be comminuted.
in Stcke brechen, fragmentieren4
Use (nasal) bone / fracture / cartilage6 / osteochondral [k] fragment bone or bony /
absplittern, -sprengen5 Knorpel-
tooth / articular / cortical7 / (extruded) disk fragment devascularized / necrotic /
fragment6 kortikales Fragment7
grossly displaced8 / free fragment (cancellous [kQns-]) bone9 / grafted chips
stark verschobenes/ disloziertes
chip fracture10 chipped teeth / cartilage / bone bone / intracranial / buried11
Fragment8 Spongiosaspne9
[e]/ occult / wooden splinter splinter wound / forceps
Absprengungs-, Abrissfraktur10
eingewachsener Splitter11 2

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76 CLINICAL TERMS Craniofacial Fractures

closed fracture n MeSH sim simple fracture1, geschlossener Bruch


opposite open or compound [aU] fracture2 n MeSH einfacher Bruch1 offener Bruch2
Zerreiung3 Schiene4 im Rntgen
bone fracture that is not associated with a break or laceration3 [s] in the overlying skin
nicht nachgewiesene Fraktur5
Open fractures require operative reduction, but closed fractures should be managed stumpfe (Schdel)Verletzung6
with a splint4. As occult [] fracture5 is a common underlying cause, arthrocentesis
geschlossene Reposition/ Einrich-
for posttraumatic joint effusions might result in a compound fracture.
tung7
Use closed (skull/ condylar/ uncomminuted) fracture / disruption / (head) injury6 /
offene Trmmerfraktur8
reduction or manipulation7 open (mandibular/ contaminated/ comminuted)
offene Luxation9
fracture8 / dislocation9 compound dislocation9 / depressed skull fracture10 /
Schdelimpressionsfraktur10
left mandibular body fracture / facial fractures / wound11 [u] 3
offene Wunde11

(sub)luxation [] or dislocation n MeSH (Teil)Verrenkung,


rel displacement1n MeSH, angulation2 n term ? U3-20 (Sub)Luxation
displacement of a bone from its articulation Verschiebung, Dislokation,
Fehlstellung1
luxate3 [] v term dislocate4 v (non-)displaced adj subluxated5 adj
Achsenknickung, -fehlstellung2
redisplacement6 n angulate7 v angular8 adj
verrenken, luxieren3
Small elevators9 were used to carefully luxate10 the teeth to be extracted. Fracture-
verschieben, dislozieren4
dislocations involving the zygomatic bone are the third most common fractures of
subluxiert5 neuerliche Verschie-
the facial skeleton.
bung6 einen Winkel bilden7
Use fracture-11 / partial12 [S]/ closed / open / (in)complete / acute / traumatic / habit-
Winkel-, Achse betreffend8
ual13 / recurrent / pathologic14 [dZ]/ long-standing / temporomandibular joint
Hebel9 heraushebeln10
(abbr TMJ) dislocation dislocation of the condyle / TMJ / distal fragment
Luxationsfraktur11
fracture / mandibular or jaw15 / TMJ hypermobility / (crystalline) lens16 / atlanto-
Teilverrenkung12
axial / chronic subluxation subluxated joint / teeth / mandible / condyle
habituelle Luxation13
displaced fracture17 / tooth / (TMJ) disc / forward / posteriorly (in)significant /
Spontanluxation14
(un)acceptable18 / 10-degree / late angulation angulated condylar neck frac-
Kiefergelenksubluxation15
ture19 / position / lesion [iZ] angular displacement2 / deformity / stress
Linsensubluxation16
dislozierte Fraktur17 (nicht)
tolerierbare Achsenknickung18
verschobene Collumfraktur/ tiefe
Kiefergelenkfortsatzfraktur19 4

avulsion [vlSn] (chip fracture) n MeSH ? U44-9 Ab-, Ausrissfraktur,


rel disruption1 [] n term ? U3-18 kncherner Ausriss
Ruptur, Riss1
17 fracture that occurs when soft tissue (joint capsule, ligament, muscle insertion or origin) is
ab-, ausreien2
pulled away from the bone; fragments of the bone may come away with it
avulse2 v term avulsed3 adj disrupted4 adj ab-, ausgerissen3
zer-, (auf)gerissen4
Isthe left maxillary central laterally luxated, intruded, extruded, or completely
Ausrissverletzung5
avulsed from its alveolar socket? If the tooth is avulsed from the socket, PDL cells
ausgeschlagene/ luxierte Zhne6
on the root surface will remain viable if they are hydrated. When a fracture occurs,
Knochenabsprengung7
not only is the continuity of the bone disrupted, but there is damage to the perios-
Knochenbruch8
teum, the blood vessels, and to a varying degree, the soft tissue.
Klaffen d. Wunde,
Use traumatic / tooth or dental / facial skin / scalp / minor [aI] / partial / near-avul-
Wunddehiszenz9
sion avulsion (flap) injury5 / wound avulsed teeth6 / (bone) fragment7
Weichteilzerreiung10
traumatic / bone8 / articular / wound9 [u] disruption ligamentous / (soft)
Intimaruptur11
tissue10 / salivary gland / laryngotracheal / orbital (floor) / lacrimal / intimal11
Muskelriss12
disruption disrupted muscle12 [msl]/ cortical bone / nerve / membrane /
gestrte Okklusion13 5
occlusion13 / operative wound / sleep

impacted fracture n term ? U44-3 sim compression fracture1 n MeSH Stauchungsbruch


fracture with one of the fragments driven into the cancellous tissue2 of the other fragment Kompressionsfraktur1
Spongiosa2
impaction3 [impQkSn] n MeSH impact4 n
Impaktion, Einkeilung3
Fractures involving the ethmoids or the mandibular condyle are more confidently
Auswirkung, Einfluss4
revealed by X-rays, esp. impacted and undisplaced stable fractures are easily missed
impaktierter Zahn5
clinically. Most surgeons prefer to use internal fixation for impacted fractures. Closed
Zeruminalpfropf, Cerumen
manipulation is justifiable [aI], but if possible impaction or locking of the fragments
obturans6
is desirable [aI].
stabile Kompressionsfrakturen7
Use medially / labially / severely / firmly / marginally impacted impacted nasal
Retention/ Impaktion von Speise-
pyramid / tooth5 / maxilla / condylar fracture / foreign [frIn] bodies / cerumen6
resten8
[sIrumn] lateral / multiple / stable7 [eI] compression fractures dorsal / food8
6
impaction

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Craniofacial Fractures CLINICAL TERMS 77

comminuted fracture n MeSH sim splinter(ed) fracture1 n term Trmmerfraktur, -bruch


fracture in which the bone is crushed [S] or broken into several fragments Splitterbruch1
Zertrmmerung, -splitterung2
comminution2 n term non/uncomminuted adj splinter3
v&n
zersplittern; Splitter3
A coronal approach offers wide exposure including the orbital rims, zygomatic
Ausma4 Frakturlinie5
arches and nasal root for reduction and microplate fixation of comminuted frac-
starke Zertrmmerung6,
tures. First the severity4 [e] of comminution and magnitude4 of the displacement
Spiral-, Torsionsfraktur,
were determined by x-rays. Often the fracture line5 will splinter to reach the medial
Spiralbruch7
[i] wall of the inner ear.
Use to check for comminution comminuted bone fragments minor [aI]/ extensive
/ severe6 [I] / facial / fracture comminution oblique / spiral or torsion7 fracture
7
splintered bone / to pieces / fragments / jaw (bone)

skull [] fracture n MeSH & clin syn cranial [eI] fracture n term Schdelbruch, -fraktur
break of the cranium [eI] resulting from trauma [] which may be associated with injury to nasale Liquorrhoe1
underlying brain Sternfraktur, sternfrmige Fraktur2
These skull fractures may also injure [IndZ] cranial nerves that course [] through Schdelbasisbruch3
Impressionsfraktur4
the skull base. Basal skull fractures may be recognized by the presence of CSF
rhinorrhea1 [raInri] or otorrhea. Berstungsfraktur5
Use simple / closed / open / linear / stellate2 [eI] skull fracture basal [eI] or basilar3 / Schdeldach-, Kalottenfraktur6
depressed4 / expressed5 / compound / comminuted / skull fracture fracture of Schlfenbeinfraktur7
the skull vault6 [vlt]/ base [eI] of the skull3 temporal 7 / occipital / ethmoid8 / Siebbeinbruch, -fraktur8
8
sphenoid (bone) fracture

fracture by contrecoup [ktrku] n term syn contrecoup fracture n term Contrecoup-Fraktur,


fracture of the skull at a point opposite to where the blow1 [oU] was received Gegenstofraktur
Deceleration [s] of the brain against the inner skull causes contusions [tJu], either Schlag, Sto1
Stoherd2
under a point of impact2
(coup lesion) or in the antipolar area (contrecoup lesion).
Use contrecoup lesion [liZn] / injury [IndZi]/ (skull) fracture / contusion3 / hemor- Contrecoup-Kontusion,
Contrecoup-Hirnprellung3 9
rhage

orbital fracture n MeSH sim (orbital) blow-out fracture1 n MeSH, Orbitafraktur,


rel midface or (mid)facial fracture2 n term? U45-1 Augenhhlenbruch
break in the orbit portion of one or more of the six bones forming the orbit (the maxilla, Orbitawandbruch, berdruck-,
zygoma, frontal, ethmoid, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones); in blow-out fractures, which are Blow-out-Fraktur1
produced by a blow on the globe that suddenly increases the intraocular pressure, the orbital Mittelgesichtsfraktur,
rim remains intact transfaziale Fraktur2
Orbital roof fractures most commonly coexist with other craniofacial injuries. As the stumpfes Trauma3 17
orbital floor is the weakest portion of the orbit, it is not surprising that blow-out Orbitabodenfraktur, Berstungsfrak-
fractures are mostly directed inferiorly. The conventional wisdom is to not trans- tur d. Kieferhhlendaches4
nasally intubate a patient with a suspected midface fracture. In orbital blow-in Blow-in Fraktur, Orbitadachfraktur
fractures, which are typically produced by blunt trauma3 against the frontal bone m. intraorbitaler Einsprengung
or the maxilla, the fracture fragments are characteristically displaced toward the kncherner Fragmente5
orbital space. Tripod-Fraktur6
Use orbital floor4 / left / medial (orbital) / isolated blow-out fracture nasal bone /
lateral orbital rim / blow-in5 / zygomaticomaxillary (abbr ZMC) or tripod6 / ma-
10
xillary sinus / Le Fort fracture central / centrolateral / complex midface fracture

fissure(d) [fIS] or hairline or linear fracture n term Fissur, Haarbruch


rel crack1, cleft2 n clin Riss, Fissur1
Spalt2
fracture in which there is a crack in the cortex but not through the entire [aI] bone
gespalten, rissig3
fissure1 n term fissured3 [fISd] adj
Frakturauslufer4
A fissure fracture can be treated by immobilization [aIz] in plaster for 3 weeks. Gesichtsspalte5
Fractures of small bones may be manifested by a crack, by comminution, or by Gaumenspalte6
impaction. Linear fractures usually extend from the point of impact toward the
base of the skull.
Use multiple [] fissure fractures linear skull fracture (MeSH) direction / obliter-
ation / extension4 / configuration of the fracture cleft widened [aI]/ oblique
11
[-ik]/ facial5 [feISl]/ palatal6 cleft crack fracture1

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78 CLINICAL TERMS Craniofacial Fractures

greenstick fracture n term sim bending fracture1 n term Grnholzfraktur


bending of a bone with incomplete fracture involving the cortex Biegungsfraktur1
on the convex side (typically seen in children)
The boy sustained a greenstick fracture of the left inferior orbital rim. If angulation
of a greenstick fracture exceeds [i] 15 degrees, reduction should be carried out.
Use to create a / minor greenstick fracture outward / three-point bending fracture
12
bent1 fracture

fatigue [ftig] fracture n MeSH syn stress fracture n MeSH, Ermdungsbruch,


sim insufficiency fracture1 n term Stressfraktur
mostly transverse crack in bones, implants or prostheses that are subjected to excessive or Insuffizienzfraktur1
unusual endogenous [dZ] stress punktuelle Druckschmerz-
Since living bone is self-repairing, a fatigue fracture results only when the fatigue haftigkeit2
Implantatermdungsbruch3
process proceeds at a faster rate than the remodeling rate. It can be difficult to
differentiate stress fractures from bone contusion. Patients with fatigue fractures pathologische Fraktur4
typically have pain and point tenderness2 but do not always have a history of
dramatically increased activity.
Use implant3 / metal / bone plate fatigue fracture fatigue fracture surface / resis-
tance fatigue-induced failure / crack (growth/ propagation) pathologic4 stress
13
fracture stress fracture line / site / pattern / incidence / imaging / healing

crepitation n term syn crepitus, crepitance n term ? U38-5 (i) Krepitation, Crepitatio,
(i) crackling sound or sensation produced by the grating1 [eI] of the fragments at a fracture site2 Reibegerusch
(ii) sound heard on auscultation [] over areas of consolidation in lung inflammation (ii) Knisterrasseln
Fracture is suggested [dZe] by crepitance or palpably mobile bony segments. Did you Reiben1
note any tenderness, crepitation, or movement of the fractured bones on palpation? Bruchstelle2
Use temporomandibular joint (abbr TMJ)3 / localized / severe / leathery [e] crepita- Krepitation im Kiefergelenk3
tion subcutaneous [eI]/ soft tissue / joint4 [dZ]/ marked5 / bony6 crepitus Gelenkreiben4
deutliches Reibegerusch5
ossre Krepitation6 14

bone or bony union n clin Knochen-, Frakturheilung


rel callus [kQls] formation1 n MeSH Kallusbildung1
bindegewebiger Kallus2
growing together of the ends of fractured bone as fibrous [aI] callus2 forms
between the fragments vereinigt3
kalls; schwielig4
(un/ mal/ cross)united3 adj MeSH callous4 [kQls] adj callosity5 n
17 A persisting fibrous callus forming between fractured bone is termed fibrous union.
Callositas, Schwiele5
Knochen ist verheilt6
The callus holding the break [eI] firm until new bone is remodeled eventually turns
Frakturheilung7
into bone. Callus bridging a fracture may deform plastically and angulate if the
Frakturheilung in Fehlstellung8
fracture is loaded too early.
verzgerte Heilung9
Use to be in (direct)6 union bone formation / healing7 [i] postfracture bone7 /
Pseudarthrose10
fibrous / faulty [] or abnormal8 / delayed9 [eI]/ stable [eI] union cartilaginous
berschieende Kallusbildung,
[QdZ]/ advancing [Q]/ mal8/ non10-union good / normal / exuberant11 [u] callus
Callus luxurians11
formation (sub)periosteal / endosteal / bony / fibrocartilaginous / provisional12
provisorischer Kallus,
/ definitive13 callus malunited fracture8 to avoid/treat/repair [e] nonunion
Intermedirkallus12
complete / partial [Sl]/ infected14 nonunion nonunion site [aI]/ of bone / of the
kncherner Kallus, Sekundr-
fracture10
kallus13
Infektpseudarthrose,
infizierte Pseudarthrose14 15

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Therapeutic Intervention CLINICAL TERMS 79

Unit 18 Therapeutic Intervention


Related Units: 19 Pharmacologic Treatment, 20 Surgical Treatment, 28 Wound Healing,
29 Fracture Management, Part 5 DENTISTRY

treatment [i] n clin & MeSH, abbr Tx Behandlung, Therapie


syn therapy [Terpi] n, management n MeSH behandeln1
behandelbar2
care for the sick or injured [IndZd] by conservative measures [eZ], medical treatment,
surgical intervention, etc. symptomatisch behandelt3
sich e-r Behandlung unterziehen4
treat1 v manage1 v manageable2 adj treatable2 adj
in Behandlung sein5
Root caries is a common finding in patients who have been treated for periodontal Behandlung absetzen6
problems. Treatment of dental infections consists of removal of the source of infec-
Behandlung der Wahl7
tion, systemic antibiotics, and area drainage. Many of these patients will gradually
Primrbehandlung8
improve without treatment. Following a history of endodontic treatment, retreat-
medikamentse Behandlung9
ment, and periapical surgery, the patient complained of tooth mobility and sponta-
Kur, Behandlungszyklus10
neous bleeding. This does not require further treatment. The patient was managed
Notfallversorgung11
symptomatically3. The patient refused to submit to treatment4.
Therapieversagen12
Use to be under5/start/initiate [IS]/discontinue6/interrupt []/undergo4 treatment for
ambulant behandeln13
a disease preferred7 / primary [aI] or first-line8 / definitive / long-term treat-
stationr behandeln14
ment life-long / operative / gold standard / multimodality / drug9 treatment a
wegen/auf Pulpitis behandeln15
course [] of10 / emergency11 []/ post/ self-/ overtreatment treatment of
lokal behandelt16
choice7 / of sepsis / failure12 [eI]/ center / room / plan / alternative / option
laut Indikation behandeln17
dental / endodontic / restorative / implant / (pre)prosthetic / prosthodontic
intensiv behandelt18
treatment to treat on an outpatient basis13 / at an early stage / in hospital14
vorbehandelt19
treated for 2 weeks / for pulpitis15 [aI] / acutely / topically16 / for mandibular
prklinische Versorgung20
edentulism treated conservatively or medically / surgically / adequately treat-
husliche Pflege21
ed with 0.45% saline [eI]/ with cold compresses / by fixation / by a physician / as
indicated17 vigorously18 [Ig]/ promptly / successfully / previously19 / placebo-
1
treated prehospital20 / patient / dietetic / home21 management

cure [kjU] v & n heilen; Behandlung, Heilung,


sim heal1 [hil] v ? U28-4 Kur, Heilmittel
(v) to restore health by treating successfully (ab-, ver)heilen1
(n) a promising drug or course of treatment2 (also at a spa3) Kur2 Kurort3
curative4 adj term (in)curable5 adj clin curability6 n healing7 adj & n MeSH kurativ, heilend4
(un)heilbar5
Physicians should attempt to achieve a cure at least in some patients, relieve symp- Heilbarkeit6
toms as often as possible and always comfort8 the patient. This is a promising new
heilsam, heilend; Heilung7
drug which may cure 60-80% of patients in first remission9. There is no cure for
beruhigen8
18
herpes simplex. The outlook for cure10 remains poor for children with high-grade
Remission, vorbergehende
gliomas [aI]. Excision of the primary tumor may be curative.
Besserung9
Use to effect a11/be treated with intent to/have a chance of cure clinical / complete /
Heilungsaussichten10
permanent / natural / definitive cure cure rate12 curative approach [oUtS]/
Heilung bewirken11
care / intent13 / resection / treatment14 curable disease / cancer15 / by surgery
Heilungsrate12 Heilungsabsicht13
kurative Behandlung14
heilbarer Krebs15 2

treatment or therapeutic [ju] modality n term Behandlungsmethode,


sim tool1 [u], rel option2 [pSn] n clin & jar Behandlungsmodalitt
the drug(s), operation, or approach chosen to treat a patient (Hilfs)Mittel, Instrument1
Wahl, Mglichkeit2
Ever since the concept of osseointegration has been known, prosthodontists have besser, berlegen3
accepted titanium endosseous implants as an innovative treatment modality for
bevorzugte Behandlungsmethode,
edentulism. No therapeutic modality has been shown to be superior3 [I].
Methode der Wahl4
Use restorative / orthodontic / promising / viable / preferred4 / innovative / accepted
Kombinationstherapie5
treatment modality imaging / chemotherapeutic [i] modality combined
Behandlungsmglichkeiten6 3
modality therapy5 treatment6 options

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80 CLINICAL TERMS Therapeutic Intervention

therapy [Terpi] n MeSH Therapie, Behandlung


any of the various treatment modalities, e.g. immunotherapy, genetic, operative therapy, etc. Therapeut(in)1
therapeutisches Fenster2
therapeutic [ju] adj term therapist1 n -therapy comb
Wurzelbehandlung3
It was determined that splint therapy would assist in diagnosing her TMJ problems, medikamentse Zusatztherapie,
orthodontic needs and bite therapies required. Since warfarin has a narrow thera-
adjuvante Therapie4
peutic window2 and has been associated with many drug-drug and drug-food inter-
Parodontalbehandlung, -therapie5
actions, patient counseling is crucial.
Therapiereserve6
Use dental / (non-)surgical / laser / periodontal / endodontic or root canal3 / TMJ /
hochdosierte Therapie7
conservative / maintenance / antiviral [aI]/ smile / physical [I]/ speech therapy
Therapie einleiten8
cancer / adjuvant4 [QdZ]/ periodontal5 noninvasive / radiation / hormone /
Behandlung absetzen9
standby6 / high-dose7 therapy to institute8/discontinue9 therapy therapeutic
therapeutischer Ansatz10
approach10 / strategy / dose / effect / guidelines / procedure / value dental /
Verhaltenstherapeut(in)11
radiation / behavior11 / rehabilitation nurse12 / home / speech13 [spitS] therapist
Krankengymnast(in)12
physio/ chemo14 [i]/ radiotherapy
Logopde/in13 Chemotherapie14 4

regimen [redZImn] n MeSH sim course1 [krs] in clin, protocol2 n MeSH therapeut. Manahme(n),
systematic course of treatment (esp prescribed medication, diet, exercise, change in life-style) Dit, Behandlung(sschema)
Progress in drug therapy has resulted in the development of curative chemotherapy Kur, Behandlung(szyklus)1
Behandlungsplan, -protokoll2
regimens for several tumors. A protocol or treatment plan is an outline of care.
Use oral hygiene / tongue deplaquing / brushing / flossing / limited jaw motion / Sequenztherapie3
dietary / special food regimen treatment / split course3 / prescribed4 / (multi) verordnete Behandlung4
drug / perioperative analgesic regimen combination / dosage5 [IdZ] / initial / Dosierungsschema5
curative6 / preparative7 / recommended regimen 2-dose / low-dose / 5-day / kurative Behandlung6
3-drug / alternate [] day regimen regimen of drugs / for herpes a course of Vorbehandlung, vorbereitende
antibiotics8 five-appointment / controlled loading / immediate fixture place- Manahmen7
ment protocol prosthodontic / standard / surgical / treatment / follow-up pro- Antibiotikatherapie8
tocol
5
Note: Sometimes incorrectly referred to as regime.

prophylactic [pIflQktIk] adj & n term & clin syn preventive adj clin prophylaktisch, vorbeugend,
(adj) preventing the onset or spread [e] of disease (preventive medicine1) or pregnancy prventiv; vorbeugende
prophylaxis2 n MeSH prevention2 [prIvenSn] n MeSH Manahme; Kondom
Broad-spectrum antibiotics3 should never be given for prophylaxis. Routine or pro- Prventivmedizin1
Prophylaxe, Prvention,
phylactic use of penicillins is not required. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment was
Vorbeugung2
18 begun the day before surgery and continued for 7 days postoperatively.
Breitbandantibiotika3
Use to require/receive prophylaxis prophylactic administration4 / measures5 [eZ]/
agent / antibiotics / use effective for / used as / postexposure6 [oUZ]/ antibiotic7 / prophylaktische Verabreichung4
long-term prophylaxis oral / periodontal / caries8 / chemo9 [i]/ single-dose vorbeugende Manahmen5
prophylaxis prevention of microbial colonization / gingival hyperplasia / bone postexpositionelle Prophylaxe6
loss preventive dentistry / implant therapy Antibiotikaprophylaxe7
Kariesprophylaxe8
Chemoprophylaxe9 6

surveillance [sveIlns] n MeSH syn watchful waiting, Beobachtungsstrategie,


expectant therapy n term Surveillance, berwachung
active observation and ongoing monitoring of a patient without actual treatment; abwartende Strategie1
a wait-and-see strategy1 strenge berwachung2
Continuous surveillance for long-term complications is neccessary. The postoperative stndige berwachung3
immunologische berwachung4
management options include either surveillance or two cycles of adjuvant chemo-
therapy. Wundkontrolle5
Use to be kept under / close2 / ongoing3 / cancer / immune4 surveillance (surgical)
7
wound5 [u]/ perioperative / endoscopic / postdischarge surveillance

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Therapeutic Intervention CLINICAL TERMS 81

adjuvant [QdZvnt] n & adj MeSH syn adjunct [QdZNkt] n & adj clin & inf Zusatztherapie, Adjuvans;
(n) additional treatment to increase the efficiency of primary therapy, adjuvant
e.g. chemotherapy following surgery Neoadjuvans, neoadjuvant1
neoadjuvant1 n & adj term adjunctive2 adj untersttzend2
Because of its accuracy in reproducing anatomic detail CT has become a valuable gro, raumfordernd3
adjuvante Strahlentherapie4
adjunct in dental implantology. Cytokine [aI] immunotherapy has shown promise as
an adjunctive measure. Regimens that are not effective against bulky3 [] tumors zustzliche hyperbare Sauerstoff-
may be curative when used in an adjuvant setting. therapie5
Use adjuvant regimen / chemotherapy / irradiation4 treatment / pharmacologic6 medikamentse Zusatztherapie6
adjunct adjunctive (preprosthetic) treatment / hyperbaric oxygen therapy5 / untersttzende Manahme7
8
medication6 / diagnostic aid / measure7 / management

palliative [Q] adj & n MeSH opposite curative1 [kjUtIv] adj clin & term palliativ, lindernd; Palliativum
(adj) supportive treatment alleviating2 [i] or relieving2 [i] symptoms kurativ1 lindern, erleichtern2
without curing the underlying [aI] disease3 Grundkrankheit, zugrunde
palliate2 v term palliation4 n liegendes Leiden3
Linderung4
A smooth [u] transition5 in treatment goals6 [oU] from curative to palliative is
flieender bergang5
difficult to achieve in all cases.
Behandlungsziele6
Use palliative (home) care7 / needs / procedure / drugs / surgery8 to provide / pain /
palliative (husliche) Pflege7
effective / long-term palliation curative measure / dose9 / approach or intent10
Palliativoperation8
kurative Dosis9
kurativer Ansatz10 9

indication [eI] n term opposite contra-indication1 n MeSH (i) Indikation


(i) diagnostic basis for initiation2 of a therapeutic course or for performing (ii) (An)Zeichen
a clinical investigation Kontraindikation, Gegenanzeige1
(ii) sign Einleitung, Beginn2
indicate3 v indicative (of)4 phr (contra-)indicated5 adj indicator6 n anzeigen, indizieren3
The most important and promising indication for oral implants is the atrophic hinweisen(d) auf4
(kontra)indiziert5 Indikator6
edentulous7 mandible. Cement lines within the bone particles are indicative of active
bone formation. These wounds [u] are not a contraindication for transfer8. unbezahnt7 Transport, Transfer8
Use clear9 / clinical / vital10 [aI]/ excellent / principal11 / emergency indication major eindeutige Indikation9
/ compelling or absolute12 / relative contraindication to be (contra)indicated in Vitalindikation, vitale Indikation10
patients with / in unstable fractures diagnostic / prognostic indicator Hauptindikation11
absolute Kontraindikation12 10

18
response n MeSH Ansprechen, Reaktion
(i) reaction of the patient's body to therapy ansprechen (auf), reagieren1
(ii) reaction to stimuli [aI], viruses [aI], questions, etc. Responder2
respond (to)1 v term (non)responder2 n (un)responsive(ness)3 adj/n ansprechend; Ansprechen3
sprachen nicht an auf4
Fifty percent of patients failed to respond to4 this regimen. The tumor was found to
Absetzen von Tamoxifen5
shrink in response to tamoxifen withdrawal5 [-l]. His internal disc derangement6
Diskusverlagerung6
was unresponsive to conservative treatment.
Teilreaktion7
Use clinical / (durable) complete / poor / partial7 [S]/ reflex / the patients response
Immunantwort, -reaktion8
immune8 / inflammatory / gingival / osseous response response rate / to bio-
gut ansprechen9
materials to respond well9 / poorly / inadequately / partially placebo10 [si]
Plazeboresponder10 11
responder to be responsive to treatment

morbidity n MeSH ? U13-2, U14-9 Morbiditt


undesirable1 [aI] consequences and complications resulting from treatment unerwnschte1
betrchtliche Morbiditt2
Morbidity is lower if grafting is performed before the patient is critically ill. Open Langzeitmorbiditt3
harvesting usually results in a long scar and considerable morbidity2.
Sptmorbiditt4
Use high / low / increased / minimal / long-term3 / late4 morbidity donor site /
sepsisbedingte Morbiditt5 12
perioperative / septic5 / infective / (facial/ donor) nerve morbidity

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82 CLINICAL TERMS Pharmacologic Treatment

refractory adj term syn intractable, resistant, recalcitrant [kQlsI] adj term refraktr, (therapie)resistent,
showing little or no response to treatment hartnckig
intractability1 n term refractoriness1 n resistance1 n (Therapie)Resistenz1
auffllige Merkmale2
Refractory periodontitis refers to continued attachment loss in spite of adequate
Refraktrzeit3
treatment and proper oral hygiene. Notable features2 [fitSz] of this tumor include
therapieresistente Schmerzen4
refractoriness to cytotoxic agents. If the proliferative responses become intractable it
unstillbares Nasenbluten5
may be necessary to radically modify the denture prosthesis.
therapieresistent6
Use refractory cases / symptoms / period3 / apical periodontitis / anemia [i]/ chronic
Arzneimittelresistenz7
sinusitis intractable pain4 / oral ulcer / ascites [saItiz]/ epistaxis5 / insomnia /
to treatment6 torsional / wear / drug7 resistance recalcitrant disease / case /
13
lesion [iZ]

aftercare [Qftke] n MeSH sim followup1 [floUp] n term ? U25-15 Nachsorge, -behandlung
management (treatment, help, supervision2 [IZ]) of a patient in the postoperative or convales- Nachuntersuchung, Verlaufs-
cent [es] period3 kontrolle1
Arrangements for suitable aftercare must be part of the emergency treatment. Many berwachung2
Rekonvaleszenz, Genesungszeit3
oral and maxillofacial surgeons spend a lot of routine follow-up visits with patients
after third molar removal4. Extraktion von Weisheitszhnen4
Use aftercare treatment / plan5 / needs surgical / post-therapeutic / long-term6 / Nachbehandlungsplan5
prosthetic aftercare followup period7 / examination8 / radiograph / assessment Langzeitnachbetreuung6
/ findings / data / results followup at 6 months postoperatively9 / report / study Nachuntersuchungszeitraum7
/ visit Kontroll-, Nachuntersuchung8
postop. Verlaufskontrolle nach
6 Monaten9 14

(patient) compliance [kmplaIns] n MeSH sim adherence1 [I] n clin (Patienten-)Compliance


consistency2 and accuracy3 with which a patient follows the prescribed4 treatment regimen Befolgung, Einhaltung1
Konsequenz, Bestndigkeit2
(non)compliant5 adj term noncompliance n (un)cooperative5 adj
Genauigkeit3 verordnet4
Surgery in the oral and maxillofacial region under local anesthesia is commonly (nicht) kooperativ5
restricted by limited patient compliance. The importance of adherence to the recom-
Compliance sicherstellen6
mended regimens for oral hygiene should be stressed. Patient compliance is essential
Compliance berwachen7
if surveillance is to work.
mangelnde Einhaltung/
Use to ensure6 [SU]/monitor7 compliance patient / long-term / lack of / poor8 /
Compliance8
strict9 compliance adherence to treatment10 / the recommended protocol
genaue Befolgung9
compliance with therapy10 / rate 15
Therapietreue10

19

Unit 19 Pharmacologic Treatment


Related Units: 5 Drugs & Remedies, 20 Pharmacologic Agents, 48 Types of Anesthesia & Anesthetics

prescribe [aI] v term sim order1, schedule2 [skedjulSed-] v clin verschreiben, verordnen
ordering (in writing) the preparation, dispensing3 and/or administration4 of medication or an-, verordnen1
treatment for a particular patient; some medications are available only on prescription5 others planen, ansetzen2
without (over-the-counter6 [aU]) Zubereitung, Abgabe3
prescription7 n MeSH, abbr Rx nonprescription6 adj Verabreichung4
Prescriptions include the sign Rx (i.e. take), the names and quantities of the drugs auf Rezept, rezeptpflichtig5
rezeptfrei6
ordered, directions8 for compounding9 [aU] the ingredients10 [i] and designation of
the form (pill, powder, solution, etc.) in which the drug is to be made, directions for Verordnung, Rezept7
the patient regarding the dose, route [uaU] of administration and times of taking Anleitungen8
the drug. Drugs are effective only if the patient takes them as prescribed11. (ver)mischen9
Use to prescribe (anti-inflammatory) drugs / chlorhexidine rinses12 / a diet [daIt]/ Bestandteile10
exercises prescribed treatment / medication / dose / regimen [edZ] or course [] nach Vorschrift, vorschriftsmig11
of therapy13 to write out a14 prescription vitamin / dietary15 / complete Chlorhexidinsplungen
denture prescription prescription drugs or medications16 / preparation / error verordnen12
verordnete(s) Therapie(schema)13
Note: Common abbr for the dosage and administration of drugs include: Rezept ausstellen14
b.i.d. [biaIdi] (twice a day), q.d. (every day), t.i.d. (3 times/day), q.i.d. (4 Ditvorschrift15
times/day), q.h. or o.h. (every hour), p.r.n. or qrs. or q.l. or q.p. (at will, as rezeptpflichtige Medikamente16
needed), a.c. (before meals [i]), o.n. or h.s. (every night), alt.noct. (every
other night) and q4 (every 4 hs). These may also be written in upper case
1
letters, e.g. PRN.

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Pharmacologic Treatment CLINICAL TERMS 83

proprietary [prpraIterI] adj term opposite non-proprietary1, patentrechtlich geschtzt


generic1 [dZnerIk] adj term generisch, allgemein1
geschtzte Handelsnamen/
proprietary drug names are protected brand names or trademarks2
(e.g. Zovirax)
while generic
drug names3 (e.g. acyclovir) are those recognized by official organizations and recommended Warenzeichen2
for general use Freinamen3
The entire assembly was coated with a proprietary waterproofing sealant4. wasserfester Versiegelungslack4
Generika5
Use proprietary medicinal products / anesthetic / dental devices [aI] / compound
2
generic drugs5 / medication / name

administration n term sim application1 n term Verabreichung, Gabe


the act of giving a patient medication Anwendung, Applikation1
verabreichen2
administer2 v term apply3 [plaI] v applicator4 n
applizieren, anwenden, auftragen3
These preparations can be swallowed whole5 [hoUl] or chewed [tSud] or administe- Applikator4
red as a patch6 or paste [eI] via the transdermal route7. Heparin is administered to
unzerkaut geschluckt5
patients with an increased risk of bleeding complications. This drug must be admi-
Pflaster6
nistered under close supervision [Z] of a physician.
perkutan, transkutan7
Use to administer an analgesic8 / a local anesthetic / a sedative administered by
ein Schmerzmittel verabreichen8
infusion / the parenteral route9 / inhalation / jet [dZet] nebulizer10 administered
parenteral verabreicht9
at full dose / in doses of acute / chronic / continuous11 / lifelong11 / long-term /
mit Dsenaerosolgert
simultaneous [eI] administration oral / systemic / oxygen / once-daily / self-/
verabreichen10
patient-administration for ease12 [iz]/ safest route13 / preferred method14 /
Dauermedikation11
frequency / timing of administration application of gel / low-concentration
zur leichteren Anwendung12
fluoride / topical ointment
sicherste Applikationsart13
bevorzugte Applikationsart14
Note: Common abbr for the route of administration include: p.o.15 (by
peroral15
mouth), i.m. (intramuscular), i.v. (intravenous), i.a. (intra-arterial) and sub-q
or s.c. (subcutaneous). These abbr may also be written in upper case letters,
3
e.g. IV.

drug delivery n MeSH sim drug targeting1 [g], rel drug release2 [i] n term Applikation(sart)
(i) route of supplying or providing therapeutic agents Drug targeting (gezielte Konzentr.
(ii) transport of substances to the target tissue3 e-s Arzneistoffes am Wirkort)1
deliver4 v term target5 v release6 v Arzneistoff-, Wirkstofffreisetzung2
Wirkort, Zielgewebe3
Since implants cannot be scaled or root planed, subgingival delivery of an antimi-
zufhren, applizieren4
crobial agent such as chlorhexidine may be a desirable treatment modality. Drugs
abzielen auf5 freisetzen6
for transdermal delivery7 must have suitable skin penetration characteristics and
transdermale Applikation7
high potency8. Clonidine diffusion through a membrane provides controlled drug
Wirkungsstrke8
19
delivery over a period of 1 wk.
therapeut. System9
Use drug delivery system9 / device [aI] slow-release drug10 histamine / metallic
Depot-, Retardprparat10 4
ion [aIn] release

topical adj term opposite systemic1 adj term topisch, lokal


applied or restricted to a specific area (usually the skin) systemisch, generalisiert1
stark, (hoch)wirksam2
Newer, very potent2
topical corticosteroids [I] may be applied less often.
topische/ lokale Anwendung3
Use topical application3 / agents [eI]/ fluorides / antimicrobials / anesthetic4 / steroids
Lokalansthetikum4
/ ointments5 systemic health (problems) / disease / fluoride / effect
Salben zur lokalen Anwendung5
Note: Topical creams [i], ointments, etc. are applied to the skin, while oral, IV
5
drugs, etc. are administered.

discontinue v term sim withdraw1 [wI_Ddr] - drew [u] - drawn v irr term absetzen, -brechen
to stop the administration of a drug, treatment or regimen entziehen, absetzen1
Abbruch, Unterbrechung2
discontinuation or discontinuance2 n term
Medikament wechseln3
First nonessential medication should be discontinued. Whether to discontinue or allmhlich reduziert4
switch [ItS] a drug3 depends on the severity [e] of the skin eruption []. The dose
medikamentse Behandlung ab-
is gradually tapered4 [eI] and discontinued over several days. Discontinuation of
setzen5
bisphosphonate therapy did not improve healing.
Nahrungsaufnahme einstellen6
Use to discontinue drug therapy5 / all oral intake6 / application of heat / prosthesis
Intensivtherapie absetzen, lebens-
use / the candy habit discontinuation of therapy / life support7
erhaltende Manahmen ein-
stellen7 6

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84 CLINICAL TERMS Pharmacologic Treatment

dose [doUs] v & n MeSH syn dosage [doUsIdZ] n MeSH Dosis, Dosierung, Gabe;
n (i) quantity [] of medication to be taken at a time (ii) radiation administered or absorbed dosieren
overdose1 n & v MeSH, abbr OD dose-dependent2 adj dosimeter n berdosis; berdosieren1 dosis-
abhngig2 Dosis-Wirkungs-Kurve3
The dose-effect curve3 of a drug results from its potency (location of curve along the
Wirkungsmaximum4 Steilheit d.
dose axis), peak [i] efficacy or ceiling [i] effect4 (greatest attainable response),
Dosis-Wirkungs-Kurve5 Dosisqui-
slope5 (change in response per equivalent dose6), and biologic variation of response
valent6 Dosis anpassen7 vergessene
among tested individuals.
Einnahme8 Toleranzdosis (radio-
Use to adjust [] the7 dosage oral / missed8 / minimal effective / tolerance9 / adult /
log.)9 kurative Dosis D cur10 Ein-
pediatric dose daily / cumulative / induction / curative [kju] or therapeutic10
zelgabe, -dosis11 Anfangs-, Initial-
[ju]/ recommended dose single11 / initial12 [IS]/ maintenance13 / lethal14 [i]
dosis12 Erhaltungsdosis13 letale
(abbr LD) dose dose fractionation / calculation / distribution /-response curve3
Dosis14 hochdosierte Therapie15
high dose therapy15 liberal / in divided16 doses drug / fluoride / radiation
in Teildosen16
dosage dosage recommendations / adjustments / reduction / requirements /
7
schedule / form

action [QkSn] n term sim activity1, effect2 n term Wirkung


It is important to better understand the mechanism [k] of action3
of these new Wirksamkeit, Wirkung1 Effekt,
(Aus)Wirkung2 Wirkungsmecha-
drugs. These cephalosporins [s] have good activity against most gram-positive
4
cocci [kaIksaI]. These drugs reach their peak action in 4 h. Each agent possesses nismus3 maximale Wirkung4
a distinct5 pharmacodynamic profile of action6. charakteristisches5
Use bactericidal [saI]/ broad spectrum of7 / gram-positive / in vitro activity onset of8 pharmakodynam. Wirkprofil6
/ pharmacologic / germicidal [aI] action selective / cytoprotective [saItoU-]/ breites Wirkungsspektrum7
hypotensive9 action Wirkungseintritt8
blutdrucksenkende Wirkung9 8

potency [poUtnsi] n term sim efficacy1 [efIksi] n term (i) Wirksamkeit,


(i) pharmacological effectiveness of a drug Wirkungsstrke
(ii) opposite of sexual impotence (ii) sexuelle Potenz
potent2 adj term low-/ high-potency3 adj Effektivitt, Wirksamkeit1
Unfortunately the potency of inhaled steroids is not measurable [eZ] by improve- stark, wirksam2
hochwirksam, -potent3
ments in asthma [Qzm] activity. Levorphanol has good oral potency. This patient
must not be placed on high potency agents. Nitroglycerin [aI] loses potency unless (luft)dicht verschlossen4
stored in a tightly [aIt] sealed4 [i] light-resistant5 container. lichtundurchlssig5
Use clinical / carcinogenic [dZen]/ antibacterial potency highly / moderately6 potent Medikamente mittlerer
drugs clinical / analgesic / long-term efficacy Wirkungsstrke6
9
19
bioavailability [baIoU-] n MeSH sim rate of absorption1 n term Bioverfgbarkeit,
extent and rate at which a given amount of a drug is absorbed biologische Verfgbarkeit
and made available to the target tissue Resorptionsgeschwindigkeit1
bioavailable2 adj term biologisch verfgbar2
The concept of bioavailability relates to the efficiency [IfISnsi] of the dosage formu- Bioquivalenz3
Krperkreislauf, groer Kreislauf4
lation as an extravascular drug delivery system and permits comparison of drug
products for relative availability or bioequivalence3. Although bioavailability gen- geringe Bioverfgbarkeit5
erally refers to the extent of input only, it includes consideration of both the amount
and rate of absorption into the systemic circulation4 [sr] following extravascular
administration.
10
Use level of bioavailability low5 / high / reduced / decreased / poor5 bioavailability

drug interactions n MeSH, usu pl sim cross-reaction1 n MeSH (Arzneimittel)Wechsel-


harmful2 or desirable3[aI] pharmacological effects of drugs interacting with other drugs or wirkungen, -interaktionen
themselves, (non)physiologic chemical agents, components of the diet4 [daIt], etc. Kreuzreaktion1 schdliche2 er-
interact with5 v cross-react v term cross-reactivity n wnschte3 Nahrungsstoffe4 s. ge-
Unwanted interactions can cause adverse [] drug reactions6 or therapeutic failure7 genseitig beeinflussen5 Nebenwir-
kung(en)6 Therapieversagen7 Re-
[eI]. Pharmacokinetic interactions are mainly due to alteration of absorption, dis-
tribution, metabolism, or excretion [iS], which changes the amount and duration of zeptorstellen8 Arzneiform9 nicht
a drug's availability at receptor sites8. If a formulation9 has the potential to interact mit Mahlzeiten eingenommen
with food the drug should be administered apart from meals10. werden10 Wechselwirkung zw.
Use drug-drug / drug-food / nutrient-drug11 / pharmacokinetic12 / pharmacodynamic Nahrungsmitteln u. Medikamen-
interactions adverse drug interaction cross-reaction /-reactive antigen ten11 pharmakokinetische Inter-
aktionen12 11

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Pharmacologic Treatment CLINICAL TERMS 85

tolerate v term & clin vertragen


able to endure or resist the action of a drug, poison1, radiation [eI] or food without untoward Gift1 schdliche Auswirkungen2
[ntwrd] effects2 (Un)Vertrglichkeit, (In)Toleranz3
(in)tolerance3 n MeSH cross-tolerance4 n (in)tolerable5 adj Kreuztoleranz4 (un)vertrglich5
Chinidin6 max. vertrgliche Dosis7
Parenteral quinidine6 [kwIn] is generally well tolerated by most patients. The patient
nach Vertrglichkeit8
developed unacceptable symptoms despite medical therapy to its tolerable limits7.
gut vertragen, vertrglich9
The initial dosage of 2 mg tid is increased as tolerated8.
nicht vertragen, unvertrglich10
Use well9 / better / poorly / not10 tolerated drug / short-term11 / acquired12
kurzfristige Vertrglichkeit11
[kwaId] tolerance drug13 / food / glucose / cold intolerance minimal /
Toleranzentwicklung12
organ14 / tissue tolerance dose tolerance test15 / level / to opioids intolerable
Arzneimittelunvertrglichkeit13
pain / side effects
Organtoleranzdosis (radiol.)14
Toleranztest15 12

toxic level or range [reIndZ] n term toxischer Wirkungsbereich


opposite therapeutic [ju] range1 n term therapeutische Breite1
(liegt) ber2
dosage of any substance that is beyond2 the maximal therapeutic dose and
produces overdosage3 toxicity berdosierung3
ohne toxische Wirkung, ungiftig4
nontoxic4 adj term toxicity5 [tksIsIti] n MeSH toxicology n
Toxizitt, Giftigkeit5
This dosage produces a toxic response on chronic administration. Overdosage tox- toxische Nebenwirkungen6
icity is the predictable toxic effect that occurs with dosages in excess of2 the thera-
Toxizitt von Chlorhexidin7
peutic range for a particular patient. These drugs are particularly toxic to the organ
Lebertoxizitt8
of Corti.
Intoxikationszeichen9
Use drug / side-effect6 / chlorhexidine7 / local / systemic / hepatic8 / long-term toxic-
toxikologischer Test10
ity highly toxic toxic dose / reaction / manifestations9 / shock / agent /
(side-)effects toxicity test10 / study recommended / narrow / within the
13
therapeutic range

adverse [] drug reaction n MeSH, abbr ADR unerwnschte Arzneimittel-


syn side or untoward effect n clin & MeSH wirkung, Nebenwirkung
secondary effects of a drug not normally seen in the therapeutic range that may cause minor1 gering(fgig)1
[aI], significant and even life-threatening2 [e] morbidity lebensbedrohlich2
Serious3 [I] adverse reactions are uncommon. Adverse effects should be discussed ernsthaft, schwer(wiegend)3
vor d. Absetzen der Medikamente4
with patients to encourage [] them to mention them to the physician [fIzISn] prior
[aI] to stopping medication4. Nebenwirkungen auslsen5
Use to cause or provoke5 [oU] develop/experience/have/minimize/ adverse effects starke Nebenwirkungen6
unerwnschte Reaktion auf7
serious / severe6 / unexpected adverse effects adverse response to7 / effect on
Nebenwirkungen8
19
adverse8 / deleterious9 / undesirable / intolerable / major / minimal / severity [e]

schdliche Nebenwirkungen9 14
of side effects

drug-induced [us] adj clin sim iatrogenic1 [aI-] adj ? U13-9, arzneimittelinduziert,
rel nosocomial2 [koU] adj term -bedingt
resulting from the administration of a drug, e.g. a drug rash, psychosis, or liver disease iatrogen, durch d. Arzt verursacht1
nosokomial, Krankenhaus-2
About 90% of patients with drug-induced dry mouth3 respond to pilocarpine with arzneimittelbedingte Mund-
immediate benefits. Iatrogenic malocclusion can occur from improper dental resto-
trockenheit/ Xerostomie3
rations and appliances or improper fixation of jaw fractures.
iatrogene Erkrankung4
Use drug-induced disease / swelling / gingivitis / ulceration / bone loss / xerostomia3
drug-fast or -resistant /-related fever /-associated /-free iatrogenic illness4 /
iatrogene Verletzung/ Schdigung5
iatrogene Infektion6
fracture / factors / injury5 / infection6 / complications / lesion / trauma noso-
Hospitalkeime7
comial pathogens7 / transmission / gram-negative organisms / wound infection /
nosokomiale Superinfektion8 15
superinfection8

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86 CLINICAL TERMS Pharmacologic Agents

Unit 20 Pharmacologic Agents


Related Units: 5 Drugs & Remedies, 19 Pharmacologic Treatment, 48 Types of Anesthesia & Anesthetics

pharmacology [fArmkldZi] n MeSH Pharmakologie, Arznei-


sim pharmaceutics1 [-sutIks] n term mittellehre
science of natural and synthetic medicinal substances, including pharmacognosy2, pharmaco- Pharmazie, -zeutik1
kinetics3, pharmacodynamics4 [aI], pharmacogenetics5 [dZ], pharmacotherapy and toxicology Pharmakognosie2
pharma(co)- comb pharmacologic adj pharmacopeia6 [pi] n, BE -poeia Pharmakokinetik3
Pharmakodynamik4
Pharmacokinetics is the study of the activity of drugs within the body, particularly
Pharmakogenetik5
their rates of absorption, distribution7, binding [aI], biotransformation and elimi-
Arzneibuch, Pharmakopoe6
nation8.
Verteilung7 Elimination, Ausschei-
Use clinical / biochemical / applied / dental / pain pharmacology pharmacologic
dung8
effect / action / properties9 / prophylaxis / intervention / treatment / agent /
pharmakologische Eigenschaften9
history10 pharmaceutical chemistry11 /cologist12 US / British / International13
Arzneimittelanamnese10 pharma-
/ European pharmacopeia pharmacotherapy /dynamics /kinetics
zeutische Chemie11
Pharmakologe/in12
internat. Arzneibuch13 1

agent [eIdZnt] n MeSH Mittel, Wirkstoff, Agens,


broad term for any substance capable [eI] of triggering1 a chemical, physical [fI] or biological Erreger
[aI] effect (e.g. drugs, bacteria, chemical substances, contrast media2 [i] etc.) auslsen, hervorrufen1
Not all preparations and agents are approved3 [u] for this indication. Treatment Kontrastmittel2 zugelassen3
consists of adding bulk [] agents4. Proteus species [spiSiz] are common causative Ballaststoffe4 (Krankheits)erreger5
[] agents5. The risk of toxicity of some commonly prescribed [aI] dental agents Hmostatikum6 Antipsychotikum,
increases with age. Neuroleptikum7 Cholinergikum8
Use therapeutic / rapidly acting / oral / antiplaque / hemostatic6 agent anxiety-con- Desinfektionsmittel,
trol / antipsychotic7 [saIk]/ antiulcer [ls]/ antiangina [dZaI]/ cholinergic8 keimttendes Mittel9 Alkylans10
[klInrdZIk]/ antimicrobial / germicidal9 [saIdl] agent alkylating10 / embed- Entschumer, Antischaummittel11
ding / foamy [oU]/ antifoaming11 / immunosuppressive agent orthodontic bond- schleimlsendes Mittel12
ing / sclerosing / mucolytic12 [I]/ contrast2 / infectious13 [InfekSs] agent Infektionserreger13 2

pharmacologic activity n term syn bioactivity, action, effect n term Arzneimittelwirkung, biologi-
activate1 v term activator2 n activation3 n activating adj active adj sche Aktivitt/ Wirkung
aktivieren, anregen1 Aktivator2
The balance between cholinergic and dopaminergic activity4 in the basal ganglia
Aktivierung, Anregung3
is improved. Additive effects occur when the use of two drugs leads to enhanced
20 pharmacologic activity.
dopaminerge Wirkung4
maximale Wirkung5
Use synergistic [dZI]/ specific / in vitro / peak5 [i]/ serotonergic6 activity activated
Serotoninaktivitt6 Aktivkohle,
charcoal7 [tS]/ carbon double / antibacterial / mode of / site of8 / sustained9
Carbo medicinalis7 Wirkort8
action anticaries / extension of10 / local / synergistic / additive / adverse or
anhaltende Wirkung9
side / carcinogenic effect bioactive materials / coatings / implants / glass cer-
Wirkungsverlngerung10 3
amics

biotransformation [aI] n MeSH sim biodegradation1 n MeSH ? U43-17 Biotransformation


successive2 biochemical changes a substance undergoes as it is metabolized3 in the body biologischer Abbau1
aufeinanderfolgende2 abgebaut,
biodegradable4 [eI] adj term
umgewandelt, metabolisiert3
The precise kinetics of metallic substances depend on their diffusibility5,
biologisch abbaubar4
rate of biotransformation6, availability of intracellular ligands7 [aII], etc. By day 60
Diffusionsvermgen5
biodegradation of the screw implant was still incomplete.
Biotransformationsrate6
Use accelerated / reduced / slow / oxidative biotransformation 4
Liganden7

pharmacologic half-life [hQf laIf] n MeSH sim biologic half-life1 n MeSH pharmakolog. Halbwertszeit
time required for half the administered dose of a drug or radioactive substance to be eliminated biologische Halbwertszeit1
by normal metabolic processes2 Stoffwechselprozesse2
Due to the age-related decrease in renal function, elderly patients are more likely to Eliminationshalbwertszeit3
Halbwertsbreite4
have a prolonged half-life and decreased clearance of drugs. Multiple daily doses are
required because of the drug's short half-life.
Use absorption / elimination3 / cellular / serum [I]/ functional half-life half-life
5
range4 [reIndZ]

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Pharmacologic Agents CLINICAL TERMS 87

antagonist n MeSH opposite agonist1, synergist2 [sIndZIst] n MeSH Antagonist


agent (also physiologic structure or process) neutralizing [u] or impeding3 [i] Agonist1
the action or effect of other agents Synergist2
(ant)agonistic adj term antagonism n synergistic adj synergism4 n hemmen3 Synergismus4
sowohl ... als auch5
Some opioid antagonists have mixed5 agonist/antagonist activity.
kompetitiver Antagonist6
Use orally active / histamine / calcium / competitive6 / enzyme [zaI]/ folic acid7 /
Folsureantagonist7
narcotic / NMDA receptor antagonist potent8 / partial / moderate antagonists
hochwirksamer Antagonist8
antagonist action9 / activity9 / properties to act synergistically
antagonistische Wirkung9 6

blocking agent or blocker n MeSH syn inhibitor n MeSH Hemmstoff, Hemmer, Blocker,
(i) agent that interferes with1 [I] or retards2 chemical, physiologic, or enzymatic [enzImQtIk] Inhibitor
activity (ii) nerve which on stimulation represses activity hemmen, stren1 verzgern2
Protease inhibitors have been shown to be effective in preventing periodontal Beta-(Rezeptoren)blocker3
pathogens from invading endothelial cells. Patients with beta-blocker3 [eIi] or ACE ACE-Hemmer4
inhibitor4 intolerance should be considered for surgery. Ganglienblocker, Ganglioplegikum5
Use angiotensin converting enzyme (abbr ACE)4 / monoamine oxidase [eIz] Kalziumantagonist, -blocker,
(abbr MAO) inhibitor alpha / ganglionic5 / calcium channel6 [tSQnl] blocker Calciumantagonist6 7

cholinergic [klnrdZIk] adj & n MeSH cholinerg; Cholinergikum


opposite anticholinergic or parasympatholytic1 [I] adj & n MeSH anticholinerg, Anticholinergikum,
Parasympatholytikum, -lytisch1
(n) agent affecting2 the regulation of the autonomic nervous system3
beeinflussen2
Unlike4 phenothiazines [finoUTaIzinz] (anticholinergic) the drug has powerful
autonomes Nervensystem3
peripheral cholinergic effects. Anticholinergics are beneficial, if not essential, for
im Gegensatz zu4
awake fiberoptic intubation where salivation is a problem.
cholinerge (Nerven)Fasern5
Use cholinergic stimulation / blocking agent / fibers5 [aI]/ receptor / drug poisoning
anticholinerge Wirkung6 8
anticholinergic potency6 [oU]/ preparations / premedication

antibiotic [QntIbaItIk] n & adj MeSH syn antimicrobial/-bacterial agent n, Antibiotikum; antibiotisch
sim antiviral [aI] agent1 n MeSH Virostatikum, antivirales Mittel1
Schimmelpilz2
(n) drug produced from a mold2 [oU] or similar bacterium which inhibits the proliferation3 of
other micro-organisms Wachstum, Proliferation3
Breitbandantibiotika4
Broad spectrum antibiotics4 have a wide range of activity against both Gram-po- bakterizide Antibiotika5
sitive and Gram-negative organisms. Before invasive dental procedures, patients
erworbene Antibiotikaresistenz6
with heart valve problems were advised to take antibiotics in order to prevent
antibiotische Abschirmung,
bacterial endocarditis.
Use broad-spectrum / bactericidal5 [-saIdl]/ oral / IV / dental / toothache / acquired
Antibiotikaprophylaxe7 20
antibiotische Salbe8
[kwaI] resistance to6 / prophylactic7 antibiotics antibiotic-associated bleeding /
Antibiotikum der Wahl9
side effects / diarrhea [daIri] antibiotic use / regimen / prophylaxis or
Antibiogramm10
coverage7 / solution / rinses antibiotic ointment8 / of choice9 / support /
9
sensitivity test10 / resistant organism

penicillin [penIsIlIn] n MeSH Penizillin, Penicillin


(i) antibiotic substance obtained from cultures of molds Penicillamin1
(ii) natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid Penizillinase, Beta-Laktamase2
penicillamine1 [i] n term penicillinase2 n penicillin-allergic adj oral applizierbares Penizillin,
Oralpenizillin3
Penicillins are mainly bactericidal in action (especially active against Gram-positive wasserlsliches Penizillin4
organisms). Erythromycin [aIs] may be used in penicillin-allergic individuals. The
penizillinresistent5
patient was placed on 1 g of oral penicillin two hours prior to surgery.
Penizillinderivat6
Use oral3 / systemic / aqueous4 [eIkwIs]/ acid-stable penicillin penicillin B / G / O /
Penizillinallergie7 10
N / V /-sensitive /-fast5 / derivative6 / allergy7

anti-inflammatory drugs n MeSH Antiphlogistika, entzn-


drugs such as glucocorticoids or aspirin capable of indirectly reducing inflammation1 by dungshemmende Mittel
metabolic activity2 Entzndung1
All NSAIDs are analgesic [dZi], antipyretic3
[aI] and anti-inflammatory in a dose- Stoffwechsel(prozesse)2
dependent fashion. Vitamin D may reduce susceptibility to gingival inflammation fiebersenkend3
through its anti-inflammatory effects. nichtsteroidale Antiphlogistika,
Use non-steroidal4 anti-inflammatory drugs (abbr NSAIDs) anti-inflammatory NSA4
11
activity / properties / cytokine

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88 CLINICAL TERMS Pharmacologic Agents

emetic n & adj MeSH opposite antiemetic1 n & adj MeSH, Emetikum; emetisch
antivomiting drug1 n clin Antiemetikum; belkeit und
Erbrechen verhindernd1
(n) agent such as ipecac syrup2 that induces vomiting; used mainly after
ingestion3 [dZe] of noxious [kS] substances4 Brechwurzelsirup2
Einnahme3
Despite its emetic effects, nitrous oxide provides several advantages. The antiemetic schdliche Substanzen4
can be delivered5 IM or by rectal suppository6. Propofol is considered an anesthetic
appliziert5
suitable to dental treatments of the mentally handicapped because it has an anti-
Zpfchen, Suppositorium6
emetic effect and seldom leads to postoperative agitation.
leichtes Antiemetikum7
Use centrally acting emetic intraoperative / ectopic / effective / weak7 antiemetic
emetic response / episode antiemetic preparation1 / medication1 / effect /
12
efficacy / regimen / therapy / properties

laxative [Qks] n & adj MeSH syn stool [u] softener n clin, Abfhrmittel, Laxans, Laxati-
opposite antidiarrheal1 [aI] n & adj term vum; abfhrend, laxierend
(n) drug stimulating bowel [aU] movement2 and/or softer or bulkier [] stools3 (ranging from Antidiarrhoikum, stopfendes
mild aperients4 [I] to strong purgatives [prg] or cathartics5 such as Castor oil6 Mittel1 Stuhlentleerung2
Epsom salt7 is used in constipation8 for its purgative properties9. Antidiarrheals may voluminsere Sthle3
schwache Abfhrmittel, Aperitiva4
delay absorption of clindamycin [aI] and reduce its activity against oral aerobes.
Use chronic / osmotic / rapid-acting / oily / saline [eI] / oral / mild4 laxatives Purganzien, Kathartika5
laxative tablet / abuse10 /-induced diarrhea antidiarrheal agent / medication Rizinusl6 Bittersalz7
/ dietary supplement Verstopfung, Obstipation8
abfhrende Wirkung9
Laxanzienabusus10 13

inhalant [eI] n term syn aerosol [esl] n MeSH Aerosol, Inhalat(ionsmittel)


(i) aerosolized (combinations of) medication taken by inhalation with nebulizers1 or metered Handzerstuber, Nebulisator1
[i] dose inhalers2 (ii) generally, any substance that is inhaled, esp. allergens and irritants3 Dosierinhalator2
inhalation4 [eI] n term inhale5 [eI] v inhaler6 n Irritanzien, Reizmittel3
Inhalation, Einatmung4
Nitrous oxide is a colorless gas commonly used in dentistry as a sedative inhalant. In
einatmen, inhalieren5
adults sympathomimetic bronchodilators7 [k] should be given in aerosol form.
Inhalator6
Use inhalant anesthetic / steroid / (ab)use / sensitivity / dependence water / par-
Broncholytika, -dilatatoren7
ticulate8 aerosol aerosol inhalation / generator1 [dZe]/ delivery / therapy / cloud
Trocken-, Staubaerosol8 14
/-laden air / contamination bronchoaerosol

expectorant n & adj MeSH syn phlegm [flem] loosener [u] n clin, Expektorans, Sekretolytikum;
mucolytic [I] n & adj MeSH schleimlsend
20 agent promoting bronchial [k] secretion [i] and expulsion1 [] of mucus2 from Auswerfen1
the respiratory tract Schleim2
expectorate3 v term expectoration4 n aushusten, expektorieren3
Aushusten, Expektoration4
Aerosolized mucolytics and oral expectorants are widely used, but few data support
15
their efficacy.

anticoagulants n MeSH syn antihrombotic (agents) n, Antithrombotika, Antikoagu-


rel thrombolytic (agents)1 n MeSH lanzien, Gerinnungshemmer
anticlotting2 drugs that can suppress or delay3 [eI] coagulation Fibrino-, Thrombolytika1
gerinnungshemmend2
coagulate4 [koUQgjleIt] v term coagulation5 n
verzgern3 koagulieren, gerinnen4
The patient is on anticoagulants for coronary thrombosis. Streptokinase [aI] and Koagulation, (Blut)Gerinnung5
urokinase are thrombolytics capable of disintegrating6 thrombi [aI]. 16
auflsen6

vasodilators [veIzoUdaIleItz] n MeSH Vasodilatanzien, -dilatatoren,


opposite vasoconstrictors or vasopressors1 n MeSH geferweiternde Mittel
agents causing dilation2 of the blood vessels; often used for their antihypertensive3 effect Vasokonstringenzien, gefver-
engende Mittel1
vasodilat(at)ion4 n term vasoconstriction5 n vasoconstrictive adj
Erweiterung2
Alpha-adrenergic agonists are used as nasal decongestants6 [dZe] orally and as
blutdrucksenkend3
vasodilators conjunctivally7 [kndZNktaI-]. Dentists should keep a vasodilator
Vasodilatation, Geferweiterung4
such as nitroglycerin spray ready in case of a medical emergency. Vasopressors are
Vasokonstriktion, Gefverengung5
commonly used in dental office emergencies.
abschwellende Mittel6
Use arterial / venous [i]/ arteriolar / peripheral8 / cerebral / pulmonary [U] vasodi-
bei konjunktivaler Applikation7
lators topical / (intra)nasal vasoconstrictor vasoconstrictive effect / action
peripher wirksame
Vasodilatanzien8 17

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Pharmacologic Agents CLINICAL TERMS 89

antiarrhythmic [QntIeIrITmIk] n & adj MeSH Antiarrhythmikum


syn antiarrhythmic agent n MeSH lindern, vermindern1
Rhythmusstrungen, Arrhythmien2
medication that can prevent or alleviate1 [i] cardiac arrhythmias2
Herzversagen3
For patients taking antiarrhythmic agents, the dental management may have to be Chinidin4
altered. In patients with heart failure3 quinidine4 [kwInIdin] and other antiarrhyth-
18
mics had a proarrhythmic effect.

antispasmodic n & adj MeSH syn spasmolytic [I] n & adj MeSH Spasmolytikum; spasmo-
agent that prevents or relieves spasms, esp. of smooth [u] muscles1 in the arteries lytisch, krampflsend
Chamomile2 is used to treat everything from mouth ulcers to burns but its most glatte Muskulatur1
Kamille2
widespread uses are as an antispasmodic and a sedative. It exerts3 a direct anti-
spasmodic effect on smooth muscle1. haben, ausben3
Use topical / systemic / muscular4 / bronchial antispasmodics antispasmodic action myotrope Spasmolytika4
19
/ effect / medications spasmolytic agent

anticonvulsive or -ant [] n & adj MeSH syn antiepileptic n & adj MeSH Antikonvulsivum, -epilepti-
agent reducing the severity1 [e] of convulsions2 and epileptic seizures3 [siZz] kum; krampflsend,
Patients on4 anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital [i] and phenytoin may develop antiepileptisch
osteomalacia [eIS]. A well-known side effect of dilantin sodium, a commonly used Schwere(grad)1 Krampfanflle2
anticonvulsive agent, is hyperplasia of gingival tissues5. The anticonvulsant proper- epileptische Anflle3
ties of hydantoin [aI] derivatives are attributed to6 their stabilizing effect on the cell behandelt mit4
membrane. Gingivahyperplasie5
Use to be on / tricyclic / long-term anticonvulsants anticonvulsive agent / drug / zugeschrieben6
property7 krampflsende Eigenschaft7 20

diuretics [daIjretiks] n MeSH syn water pills n inf & clin, Diuretika, wassertreibende
opposite antidiuretics1 n term Mittel
agents that increase urinary excretion2 [iS] (by increasing cardiac output3, Antidiuretika1 Harnausscheidung,
renal perfusion4 or decreasing reabsorption) Diurese2 Herzminutenvolumen3
diuresis2 [i] n term diuretic5 [e] adj Nierendurchblutung4
diuresefrdernd, harntreibend5
Antihistamines and diuretics dry the oral mucosa and cause xerostomia6 [z]. Hypo-
Mundtrockenheit, Xerostomie6
kalemia [i] may occur in hypertensives taking potassium-wasting diuretics7.
Saluretika7 Schleifendiuretika8
Use to administer diuretics cardiac / (in)direct / rapidly acting / loop8 [u]/ injectable
Thiaziddiuretika9
/ thiazide9 [TaIzaId]/ K+ sparing10 [e] diuretics antidiuretic hormone11 (abbr
kaliumsparende Diuretika10
ADH) / response / therapy
antidiuret. Hormon, Adiuretin,
Vasopressin11 21 20

antihistamines n MeSH Antihistaminika, Histamin-


drugs used in the treatment of allergic reactions for their antagonistic action on histamine antagonisten
Following the sinus lift procedure the patient was placed on antibiotics, antihis- H1-Rezeptorenblocker,
H1-Antihistaminikum1
tamines, and nasal decongestants. Use a symptom-sign-directed approach including
an H1 antihistamine1 for the pruritus2 [aI]. Hautjucken, Pruritus2
Use nonsedating3 / IV / oral / OTC4 / topical antihistamines nicht sedierende Antihistaminika3
rezeptfreie Antihistaminika4 22

psychoactive [saIkoU-] substances n MeSH syn psychotropic agents n MeSH Psychopharmaka, psycho-
agents that act on the mind or behavior and are used to treat emotional disorders; these include trope Substanzen
antidepressants, neuroleptics1, antianxiety [QNgzaI] agents2, stimulants3, sedatives4, tranquil- Neuroleptika1
izers5 [aIz], and hypnotics [I] or sleeping aids6 Anxiolytika, angstlsende Mittel2
Pain control methods should be carefully considered and discussed with dental Stimulanzien3
patients who are dependent on psychoactive substances. Mental illness may com- Sedativa, Beruhigungsmittel4
promise dental health from the direct effect of psychoactive medication on the oral Tranquilizer5
condition. Discontinuation7 of psychotropic or anti-Parkinson drugs8 should be con- Hypnotika, Schlafmittel6
sidered9. Absetzen7 Antiparkinsonmittel8
in Betracht ziehen9 23

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Aus Friedbichler, I., M. Friedbichler: Fachwortschatz Zahnmedizin Englisch (ISBN 9783131249432) 2008 Georg Thieme Verlag KG, Stuttgart
90 CLINICAL TERMS Pharmacologic Agents

antidepressants n MeSH opposite barbiturates1 n MeSH, Antidepressiva


downers2 [aU] n jar & inf Barbiturate1
Beruhigungsmittel2
agents relieving symptoms of depression (e.g. tricyclic [traIsaIklIk] antidepressants3
and MAO inhibitors4) trizyklische Antidepressiva3
Women have a higher frequency of adverse drug reactions5 to antidepressants and Monoaminooxidasehemmer,
-inhibitoren4
anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepine [aIQ] overdosage potentiates the respiratory de-
Nebenwirkungen5
pressive effects of barbiturates. Premedication with local anesthesia for extraction
Ataraktikum, Anxiolytikum,
can vary from a barbiturate or ataraxic drug6 taken by mouth in the waiting room
Beruhigungsmittel6
to an IM injection of a synthetic narcotic or an IV injection of a barbiturate given
when the patient is in the chair.
24

anxiolytic n & adj MeSH syn ataraxic or ataractic drug n MeSH ? U47-10 Anxiolytikum, Ataraktikum,
drug used to control or reduce stress, anxiety1 or tension without impairing alertness2; some- angstlsendes Mittel;
times also referred to as anti-anxiety agent or minor [aI] tranquilizer anxiolytisch, angstlsend
In low doses nitrous oxide3 is a successful anxiolytic, the anti-anxiety4 [aI] effect of Angst(gefhl), ngstlichkeit,
which can be partially reversed by benzodiazepine receptor antagonists. Are ata- Unruhe, Beklemmung1
ractic drugs the answer to all problems of managing the apprehensive5 dental pa- Aufmerksamkeit, Wachheit2
tient? Lachgas, Distickstoffoxid3
Use benzodiazepine / nonsedating anxiolytics anxiolytic agent / properties / effect / angstlsend4
antidepressant / substitute ngstlich, besorgt5 25

antifungal [fNgl] n & adj MeSH syn antimycotic [aI] n & adj, Antimykotikum;
sim fungicide1 [-saId] n MeSH antimykotisch
agent that destroys fungi2 [fNgaI] and suppresses their growth and reproduction fungizides Mittel, Fungizid
(Schdlingsbekmpfungsmittel)1
fungal adj term fungicidal3 adj fungistatic4 adj
Pilze, Fungi2
When chronic maxillary sinus [aI] pain and infection persist after sinus-elevation
fungizid3
surgery, the presence of aspergillosis5 should be considered, and proper antifungal
fungistatisch4
therapy should be instituted. Cutaneous [eI] candidiasis6 [aI] responds well to
Aspergillose5
topical application of an antifungal agent.
kutane Candidose6
Use systemic / topical7 / oral / broad-spectrum antifungal antifungal drugs / solu-
topisches Antimykotikum7
tion / lotion / mouthwash antifungal antibiotics / activity / prophylaxis / ther-
26
apy

sympathomimetics [sImpToU] or adrenomimetics n MeSH Sympathomimetika


opposite sympatholytic (agents)1 n MeSH Sympatholytika1
20 nachahmen, imitieren2
agents that mimic2 the action of the sympathetic nervous system, esp epinephrine3 and
norepinephrine4 Adrenalin3
Noradrenalin4
Vasoconstriction with a topically applied sympathomimetic amine may facilitate5 erleichtern5
removal of the foreign body in the nose. Patients with infrequent symptoms should
bei Bedarf6
be given an inhaled sympathomimetic PRN6. Some of these patients benefit from7
profitieren von7 27
sympatholytic drugs such as methyldopa.

opioid n & adj MeSH sim opiate1 n & adj, Opioid; opioidhaltig
rel narcotic2 n & adj MeSH ?U47-5 Opiat, Opiumprparat;
opiumhaltig1
a synthetic form of opiates (e.g. morphine3, heroin, and codeine4) containing or derived from
opium which induces sleep and alleviates pain; opioids include substances such as oxycodone5, Narkotikum; narkotisch2
fentanyl, and methadone6; opiates and opioids are narcotics capable of producing or sustaining Morphium, Morphin3
addiction similar to cocaine and heroin Kodein, Codein, Methylmorphin4
Although opioids are generally effective dental pain relievers, some commonly used Oxycodon5 Methadon6 Prparate7
formulas7 show poor efficacy for dental pain. As opioids are commonly prescribed for Zahnschmerzen vortuschen8
relief of dental pain, addicted individuals may feign dental pain8 in order to get a endogenes/ krpereigenes Opioid9
prescription. lokal wirksames/ appliziertes
Use endogenous9 / exogenous / local10 / kappa-11 / long-acting opioid opioid recep- Opioid10 Kappa-Opioid11
tor / agonist / antagonist (activity) / premedication / analgesic12 / side effects / Opioidanalgetikum12
addiction oral / fast-acting / prescription opiate opiate-free /-based pain Opiatdetoxifikation13
reliever / detoxification13 / abuser / withdrawal symptoms14 Opiatentzugserscheinungen14 28

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Pharmacologic Agents CLINICAL TERMS 91

antacid [QntQsId] n & adj MeSH Antazidum; antazid,


agent reducing or neutralizing [u] acidity1, e.g. of the gastric juice2 [dZus] in surebindend
peptic ulcer3 [ls] Aziditt, Suregrad1
A recent study has shown that common antacids could help keep gingivitis at bay4. Magensaft2
Neutralize acids in the mouth by dissolving sugar-free antacid tablets, particularly Ulcus pepticum3
after an intrinsic or extrinsic acid challenge. unter Kontrolle halten4
Use effervescent5 / fast-acting / high-dose / liquid / contact6 / magnesium-containing brausefrmiges Antazidum5
[i] antacid antacid tablet / action / combinations / preparation schleimhautprotektives
Antazidum6 29

emollient [Imljnt] n & adj MeSH erweichendes Mittel,


sim demulcent1 [dImlsnt] n & adj term Emollienzium; lindernd,
agent (e.g. mucilage2 [mjuslIdZ], oil) used to soothe3 [suD] and relieve irritation, esp of the beruhigend
mucous [mjuks] layer4 Demulzenzium, einhllendes/
White petrolatum5 [eI] and other topical emollients may be used if the itching6 [tS] milderndes Mittel; lindernd1
skin is dry. The FDA recognizes glycerin as an oral demulcent that soothes sore gums Schleim, Mucilago2 lindern3
and mouth irritations. Schleimhaut4 weie(s) Vaselin(e),
Use topical / nasal / lip / petrolatum / occlusive emollient emollient (dental) paste Vaselinum album5 juckend6
[eI]/ cream / lip balm / dressing7 demulcent healing agent / herbs8 / expectorant feuchtwarmer Umschlag7
lindernde Kruter(essenzen)8 30

antineoplastic [i] or cytostatic agents n MeSH Zytostatika, antineoplastische


sim antitumor antibiotics1 n MeSH Substanzen
various groups of agents (e.g. antimetabolites2, alkaloids, or antihormones3) used in chemo- zytostatische Antibiotika1
therapy [ki] for their inhibiting effect on the maturation and proliferation4 of cancerous cells5 Antimetaboliten2
Although little is known about distribution of antineoplastic agents into breast-milk, Antihormone, Hormon-
antagonisten3
breast-feeding6 [e] is not recommended during chemotherapy. Of the many antican-
cer drugs available, only methotrexate, bleomycin, and cisplatin have shown consis- Wucherung4
tent antitumor activity against oral cancers. Krebszellen5 Stillen6
Use antineoplastic activity / (chemo)therapy / adjunct7 well-tolerated / potent / adjuvante zytostatische Therapie7
lymphotropic cytostatic agent antitumor response / activity / chemotherapy / Antitumorimmuntherapie8
31
immunotherapy8

cytotoxic [saItoUtksIk] adj term sim cytostatic1 adj & n MeSH zytotoxisch, zellschdigend
harmful or destructive to cells; used esp to refer to antitumor drugs that selectively destroy zytostatisch; Zytostatikum1
dividing cel