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A Comparison of the

Various Methods Used To


Enhance Sprint Speed
Matthew J. Behrens, MS1 and Shawn R. Simonson, EdD, CSCS2
1
Track and Field Coaching Staff, Borah High School, Boise, Idaho; and 2Department of Kinesiology, Boise State
University, Boise, Idaho

SUMMARY components that are essential for in- beyond the current capability of the
creasing sprinting speed (10). The vari- athlete (3) and to train the neuromus-
IN TODAYS ATHLETICS, SPEED IS
ous training methods used to improve cular system to maintain these high
BECOMING A MORE IMPORTANT
speed can be divided into 2 groups: those rates without assistance (7). Examples
FACTOR. SPEED, STRIDE FRE-
designed to improve stride frequency of assisted sprinting are towing, down-
QUENCY MULTIPLIED BY STRIDE and those used to improve stride length. hill sprinting, and high-speed treadmill
LENGTH, IS THE ABILITY TO High-speed treadmill sprinting, elastic- sprinting. Although the main goal is to
ACHIEVE MAXIMUM VELOCITY. THE cord towing, and downhill sprinting are improve stride frequency, this type of
PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE IS TO examples of overspeed training that are training forces the athlete to take
EXPLORE AND COMPARE THE intended to improve stride frequency. both faster and longer strides (22,7).
VARIOUS METHODS FOR EN- The training method used to improve Although there are other methods, this
HANCING SPRINT SPEED. THE stride length is resisted training that paper will focus on the most prevalent
GOAL IS TO PROVIDE INFORMA- includes the following: resisted sled forms of assisted sprinting: elastic-cord
TION TO PRACTITIONERS ABOUT training, weighted vest, uphill sprinting, towing, downhill sprinting, and high-
THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS strength training, and plyometrics. Next speed treadmill sprinting.
FOR ENHANCING SPRINT SPEED. to strength and endurance, speed is the Research has shown that stride length
most difficult component of physical will eventually reach a plateau and stride
training to improve (26). Although frequency may continue to increase
n todays athletics, the face of

I
improving speed is difficult, it is an when approaching maximal sprinting
the game is changing. Not only important component of sport and well speed; therefore, attention should be
do teams require their athletes to worth the time and effort. focused on improving stride frequency
become bigger and stronger, but speed
Although it is true that many other (10). Supramaximal sprinting, or over-
is also becoming an ever-more impor-
factors besides speed determine the speed training, has the potential to
tant aspect of the game because it may
outcome in most sports (talent, agility, enhance neuromuscular adaptations
give an athlete the edge over the rest of
strength, power, and mental toughness), through prolonged training, with the
the competition. Sprinting speed, stride
the purpose of this paper is to focus on result being an increase in stride fre-
frequency multiplied by stride length, is
the different training methods used to quency (18). By creating an overspeed
the ability to achieve high velocity (21).
enhance speed. A description is provided environment, the stretch-shortening cy-
To improve an athletes speed, one or
for each method along with evidence of cle (SSC) of the neuromuscular system
both parts of this equation must be
its ability to enhance speed. There are can improve the efficiency of the ground
improved (7,9). In addition, an athlete
2 sections, assisted and resisted sprinting, contact phase. This leads to the muscles
must have the ability to efficiently accel-
and within each section, the methods are being able to tolerate greater stretch loads
erate and reach his or her maximal
ranked based on their effectiveness at and possibly storing more elastic power
velocity quickly (8,30). By implementing
improving speed. In conclusion, recom- by increasing the stiffness of the muscle in
training focused on improving both
mendations are made for the methods the eccentric phase of the SSC (10).
components of sprinting, stride length
that are the most beneficial.
and stride frequency, an athletes speed
will be enhanced to the fullest potential. ASSISTED SPRINTS
KEY WORDS:
sprint; speed; assisted; resisted; speed
The goal of speed training is to increase The main purposes of assisted sprint- enhancement
the physical, metabolic, and neurological ing are to achieve higher velocities

64 VOLUME 33 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2011 Copyright National Strength and Conditioning Association
Assisted Towing However, high-speed treadmill sprint- increased braking effect (3). These
Assisted towing is a method of assisted ing is not perfect. It is difficult to create conflicting data demonstrate a problem
sprinting where the athlete focuses not the smooth and consistent acceleration with downhill sprinting: there are
on increasing stride length but on patterns generated during a sprint race many recommendations on the degree
increasing his or her stride frequency. (14). Also, there are possible changes in of slope; however, there is also evi-
Towing with an elastic tube or band kinetics because of the belt moving and dence that contradicts these recom-
can involve 2 people from a fixed the athletes not having to propel their mended slopes.
position. Partner towing involves one mass forward, which does not increase
Assisted Sprints Recommendation
person who is towing the other. The kinetic energy (10). The increase in hip
Of the 3 forms of assisted sprinting
person being towed is the athlete who extensor and knee flexor torques is
presentedassisted towing, high-speed
will be focusing on overspeed training. because of a higher muscle activation
treadmill sprinting, and downhill sprin-
This method of assisted sprint training to enhance stride frequency. Although
tingthe best training method would be
allows the athlete to achieve speeds there is an enhanced stride frequency,
assisted towing. Downhill sprinting,
beyond his or her unassisted capability. the moving ground of the treadmill
although inexpensive, presents several
The purpose of towing is to force the may change the amount of kinetic
problems: finding the proper slope,
athlete to take faster steps without energy the athlete would have to create
braking effect, and discrepancies as to
a change in running form. During if sprinting on a normal surface. The
which slope is most effective. High-
assisted towing, the athlete must not kinetic energy generated during high-
speed treadmill sprinting would be
allow himself or herself to be pulled. speed treadmill training might possibly
a viable option, but this training method
This implies that the athlete needs to be less than that generated during
may be too costly for most athletes.
increase his or her stride frequency normal sprinting.
Assisted towing is the best method
rather than not putting forth an effort because of the sport-specific character-
and allowing the elastic tubing to Downhill Sprinting istics. With assisted towing, the athlete
perform the work. Distances should Downhill sprinting is the most popular still experiences an acceleration phase,
not cover more than 3040 m (3). (22), efficient, and cost-effective method with a transition to the maximal
Running mechanics are difficult to of assisted sprint training (8). The velocity phase. With high-speed tread-
control with assisted towing (10); purpose of downhill sprinting is to also mill sprinting, it is difficult to achieve the
therefore, athletes should not achieve improve stride frequency, and the athlete acceleration phase, and with downhill
speeds greater than 106110% of their uses his or her body mass, the acceler- sprinting, it would be difficult to control
maximum running speed (3,10,22). It is ation because of gravity, and the down- this phase because of the forward lean
important for the coach to observe and hill slope to increase sprint speed beyond on a downhill slope.
ensure that the athlete is maintaining normal level ground sprinting (15).
proper form when using towing. RESISTED SPRINTS
There are discrepancies in the recom-
Resisted sprinting is a form of sprint
High-Speed Treadmill Sprinting mended degree of slope that is optimal
training designed to increase the strength
This form of assisted sprinting involves for downhill sprinting. One recom-
of the hip extensors, thus sprinting
treadmills that can adjust running mendation is that the slope should not
velocity, without substantial changes in
speed beyond the current capability exceed an angle of 23 to prevent
running form (1,2,11). It is a common
of the athlete. The sprint kinematics of changes in mechanics (3), although
practice to include resisted sprint training
high-speed treadmill sprinting are very another study found that a slope of 5.8
to improve the athletes ability to
similar to overground sprinting, and as was faster than those of 2.1, 3.3, and
accelerate and enhance maximum sprint
velocity increases, the stride frequency 4.7, which were faster than level
speed. It is believed that through resisted
increases and flight time and stance ground and a slope of 6.9 (8). Dinti-
sprint training, more muscle fibers will be
phase decrease (14). During high- man and Ward (7) recommended
recruited via a greater neural activation
speed incline, treadmill sprinting adap- a slope of 12.5% to prevent braking
and result in an improved stride length
tations in stride frequency are created effect. Klinzing (15) suggested a slope
(13,11,19,22,30). Examples of resisted
by increases in muscle activation of the of 5, and Plisk (22) suggested slopes
sprint training include towing, weighted
lower extremitywhich also produces varying from 3 to 7 for the optimum
vests, uphill sprinting, and sprinting in
a larger mechanical load on the downhill angle.
sand or water. The focus here will be on
hamstringsand through increases in Although downhill sprinting is the the most popular forms of resisted
joint angular velocities (10,20). After most popular method to improve stride sprinting: towing and uphill sprinting.
treadmill sprinting, significant in- frequency, there are problems that
creases in peak hip extensor and knee arise when using this method. Declines Resisted Towing
flexor torques were recorded (10). An greater than 3% may lead to excessive Resisted towing is one of the most
increased hip extensor torque can stride lengths, with no increase in popular resisted sprint training exer-
result in a greater stride length. stride frequency, and will result in an cises and can involve pulling a tire, sled,

Strength and Conditioning Journal | www.nsca-lift.org 65


Enhancing Sprint Speed

or any other device that offers re- Even though there was only an im- than 3% is beneficial for developing hip
sistance (19). Training with a weight provement in acceleration, for a number extensor strength (11).
sled may be the most effective method of sports such as football, the athletes Uphill sprinting also has drawbacks.
for improving maximum sprint speed may accelerate but never reach maxi- Studies indicate that uphill sprinting is
because the weight can easily be mum velocity. ineffective possibly because of the
changed. Resisted towing increases Coaches using towing as a method to angle of slope being too small or uphill
muscular force output at the hip, knee, enhance speed must be aware of sprinting not resembling training on
and ankle, leading to a potential in- certain tendencies of this method to a flat surface. One obvious problem
crease in stride length that can result in change the athletes running form. It is with uphill sprinting is finding a suitable
an improvement in acceleration me- suggested that towing eliminates the hill with the correct slope angle. The
chanics (2,27). This type of training can pulling action of the hamstrings (26). other drawback in uphill sprinting is
be considered sport specific because it Proper sprinting mechanics must again that it is not sport specific to most
develops strength in the muscles used be reinforced (3,7). If the athlete is not sports. Most sports are played on
in sprinting, and with the proper able to maintain proper mechanics, the a level playing surface, and the wrong
weight used, the kinematics are the weight being towed may be too heavy slope may lead to a change in sprint
same as unresisted sprinting. for that athlete. The location of the kinematics (decreasing the eccentric
Finding the proper load for each athlete harness is also crucial. The harness phase before foot strike and increasing
is necessary to produce the proper should be worn on the hips. The higher the concentric phase of push off ),
training stimulus without altering sprint the harness is above the hips, the which can alter the transfer to a level
form. There are several recommenda- greater the lean, and too much lean surface.
tions for the amount of weight to be negatively affects sprinting kinematics
towed because a weight that is too light by increasing the knee joint angle of STRENGTH TRAINING
may not produce a training stimulus the support leg (2). A correction for The goal of strength training is to
and a weight that is too heavy can alter this is that the athlete should focus on increase the size of the muscle fibers
mechanics. For example, towing driving his or her legs when there is and strength of the athlete, which
a weight of 5 kg resulted in no a loss of stride length instead of improves the ability to generate power.
improvement in maximum speed from focusing on increasing his or her stride Strength training has been used for
20 to 50 m for pre- and posttest (3.54 frequency (16). years by a wide variety of athletes to
and 3.55 seconds, respectively) (26). improve their athletic performance.
However, towing too much weight Uphill Sprinting Through new research, we have the
alters sprint kinematics by increasing The next form of resisted sprint ability to train our athletes more
ground contact time, decreasing stride training is uphill sprinting. It is the efficiently and prescribe them training
length (1,19), and not allowing the hips most popular and most cost-effective programs that focus on the muscles
to extend (3,7,16,19,22). Spinks et al. method of resisted sprint training (22). necessary for enhancing sport-specific
(27), Young (29), and Harrison and It is used to increase the strength of the speed. The principle of specificity
Bourke (13) recommended 10, 12.5, and hip extensors by forcing the body to states that for an exercise to be
13% of the athletes body mass, re- overcome the positive slope and use effective, it must contain similar char-
spectively, for towing. Alcaraz et al. (1) the hip extensor muscles to propel the acteristics to the sport (1).
developed an equation for a synthetic moving mass uphill. Research has Sport-specific weight training has the
track surface (different friction coeffi- shown that the uphill grade results in greatest potential for transfer from the
cient from other surfaces) to determine a shortened eccentric phase and an weight room to the playing field. Bio-
the specific load for each athlete: %body extended concentric phase for propul- mechanically, a coach must know
mass = (20.8674 3 %maximum veloc- sion (22). One study showed trends to which muscles are the most important
ity) + 87.99. Whatever the optimum increase maximum sprinting speed for the particular sport being trained.
amount of resistance is, it should not (1.0%), step length (1.6%), and contact Sprinting is a unilateral and mainly
slow the athlete down more than 10% time (2.4%), but these differences were a horizontal movement. For example,
(3) or the horizontal velocity should not not statistically significant (21). during ground contact, only one leg is
fall below 90% of the athletes maxi- There are several recommendations as loading the muscles to propel the bodys
mum velocity (1). to what angle of slope is best for uphill mass forward, while the other leg is in
Towing with a sled may have a greater training so that running form is not the swing phase preparing for ground
impact on the acceleration phase than altered (16). Dintiman and Ward (7) contact. To meet specificity of training,
maximum sprint speed: in a study con- suggested a steep angle of 8 for starting more unilateral and horizontal exercises
ducted using rugby athletes, there was ability and acceleration and angles of 1, are needed for sprinters (29). For
improvement during the acceleration 2.5, and 3 for speed enhancement and example, exercises such as squats and
phase but not maximum velocity (13). speed endurance. An incline greater single leg squats will help improve short

66 VOLUME 33 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2011


sprints and starting ability, and reverse most important aspect is to keep the is 34 times the body mass in a fraction
hyperextensions, and Romanian dead- knees on the ground and do not allow of a second on the balls of the feet (19).
lift (RDL) or single leg RDLs that any flexion or extension of the hips. High-intensity low-velocity movements
strongly activate the gluteal and ham- The exercise is performed by extension can enhance speed but not to the same
string muscle groups are more specific of the knee, which is the eccentric effect high-velocity movements can. So
to maximum-speed sprinting (28). phase of the hamstrings, followed by coaches need to find the proper exer-
Biomechanical research suggests that a flexion of the knee, which is the cises that fit the profile of sprinting.
the musculature around the hip is more concentric phase. During this exercise, Strength training movements such as the
important in sprinting than that around the athlete can slowly let his or her clean and jerk and snatch are explosive
the knee (12). The power generated body mass drop slowly, allowing more in nature, and the power generated from
from the muscles around the hip acts as eccentric stress to be placed on the the exercise is more similar to that from
a kinetic chain. The hip flexors assist in hamstrings. sprinting speed. These explosive exer-
pulling the leg forwarda faster flexion Understanding the components, forces cises allow heavy loads to be lifted, with
of the hip and leg recovery allows for and velocities, of sprinting is important high velocities producing some of the
a faster stride frequency (28). The hip when designing the resistance training highest power outputs in human perfor-
extensors (gluteals and hamstrings) program. During the acceleration phase, mance (7,17). Strength training has been
drive the body forward and perform the athlete is using power to overcome shown to improve sprint speed from
concentric and eccentric actions dur- inertia. After the acceleration phase, 5.19 to 5.38 m/s over a distance of 10 m
ing the ground contact phase (12). which can last up to 6 seconds (10), the (27). There is also a correlation (Pearson
It was found that elite sprinters had athlete achieves maximum velocity, and correlation coefficients, r = 20.56
superior hip extension velocities the movements become high-velocity to 20.66) between jump squats and
compared with subelite sprinters (10). movements. speed for distances of 5, 10, and 30 m (5).
As hip strength improved, speed Thus, implementing the correct exer-
improved (13). The hip extensors Even with this understanding of the cises that are sport specific and focus
produce the greatest muscle moments forces and velocities of sprinting, there is on the proper velocities and intensities
during sprinting (11) and are active still no clear consensus as to which load enhances sprint speed.
during the start of the sprint and intensity is most beneficial during re-
sistance training (4). The relationship Additional exercises specific to sprinting
increase activity as running speed in- can also enhance speed. For example,
creases (28). Although the hamstrings between speed and maximal leg strength
tends to be nonsignificant because of the a front lunge contains movements that
play a more important role than the closely resemble sprinting form, and this
gluteals (28), they are many sprinters squat exercise having a different veloc-
ity/acceleration profile than sprinting exercise strengthens the quadriceps,
weakest link (7). gluteals, and hamstrings. In addition,
(5,29). Power is the amount of work
Because the hamstrings have signifi- divided by the time to complete the because much emphasis is placed on the
cant potential to limit sprint perfor- work, and many sprinters train low- musculature around the hips, exercises
mance, they should receive resistance high-velocity movements to such as multi-hip, glute ham raises,
considerable amount of attention when train at the optimum power output of hyperextensions, and reverse hyperex-
training. The hamstrings undergo the approximately 30% of maximal volun- tensions should also be included in
greatest amount of force during the tary contraction (7,17). A combination of a speed development program.
eccentric contraction of the swing high-resistance low-velocity and low- Although the main focus is on the
phase and are most prone to injury. resistance high-velocity training showed lower body, an athletes body should
Therefore, exercises such as hamstring improved speed performance as well be trained so that there are no weak-
curls focusing on a rapid eccentric (4,29). For example, it was found that nesses. Upper-body and core exercises
component and hamstring dips with low-velocity exercises such as squat, hip should be included as well because the
a partner should be included to de- extension, and flexion improved 20-m whole body is involved in sprinting.
velop the eccentric strength necessary acceleration time by 2.9% and the high- The Table shows a sample workout,
to prevent injury. To perform the velocity exercises improved 20-m accel- which is designed to target muscles
eccentric hamstring curls, the athlete eration time by 4.3% (4). However, necessary for speed enhancement.
can slowly let the weight down and squats have hormonal and muscular
prolong the eccentric phase or can benefits and can serve as a solid base of PLYOMETRICS
move through the concentric and strength, but the velocity of the squat Plyometrics began appearing in train-
eccentric phases rapidly to mimic the movement is much too slow to replicate ing routines in the 1960s. Yuri Ver-
velocities of sprinting. The hamstring a sprinting action. For a squat exercise, khoshansky suggested that individuals
dips (Norwegian hamstrings) (Figure) the time for the force to be applied may could significantly improve jumping
can be a partner exercise, or if there is be 12 seconds directly across the whole and sprinting ability by progressive
a device that locks the ankles in, the foot, whereas during sprinting, the force jumping techniques (24), and Olympic

Strength and Conditioning Journal | www.nsca-lift.org 67


Enhancing Sprint Speed

sprint champion Valeri Borzov sub- single-leg hops, hurdle hops, and to improve stride frequency. Weight
stantiated those statements by winning sandpit jumps have the greatest ability training and plyometric training can
the 100 m at the 1972 Olympics. to transfer to performance (11). improve power, which is necessary for
Plyometric exercises are used to de- Plyometrics place a large amount of acceleration and enhancing stride
velop maximum force in a short strain on the body, and a high-frequency length. Sport-specific exercises result
amount of time (7) by training the training plan may push the body beyond in the best transfer, and sprint-specific
SSC (15). During the eccentric con- its limit; thus, a solid base of weight movements lead to the greatest im-
traction, elastic energy is generated and training is recommended before starting provement. For example, a combination
stored for the concentric contraction. a plyometric training program (15). It is of sprint and plyometric exercises
The elastic energy stored during the suggested that an athlete be able to leg results in a specific replication of
eccentric phase is then released during press 2.02.5 times or back squat 1.5 the dynamic movements involved in
the concentric phase (23). The faster times his or her body weight before sprinting, which leads to an improved
the eccentric loading, the more power- starting lower-body plyometrics and be sprinting velocity (25).
ful the concentric contraction (7). The capable of doing 5 consecutive clapping The information presented for assisted
objective of plyometric training then is push-ups or bench press 1.0 times his or and resisted sprinting, strength training,
to achieve a maximum eccentric con- her body weight before starting upper- and plyometrics gives the coach or
traction, which loads the muscle, and body plyometrics (23,14). practitioner some insight and knowl-
then rapidly switch to a concentric edge about appropriate methods to
contraction (7). These exercises are TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS enhance speed in his or her athletes.
beneficial for sports that require explo- Speed involves 2 componentsstride There is no one best method as sprint
sive movements and jumping enhance- length and stride frequency. Resisted training programs that use a combina-
ment and develop strength and power sprinting is used to improve stride tion of modalities have been shown to
to improve stride length (6). length, and assisted sprinting is used increase running velocity by 78%
Research supports combining plyo-
metric training with weight training,
as evidenced by enhanced physical
performance beyond weight training
alone (22), and has a greater impact in
the first 10 m (25). Enhancement in
20-m sprint time was seen more with
a low- to moderate-frequency training
plan than with a high-frequency train-
ing plan (6). Training at a low to
moderate frequency reduces the
number of repetitions (reps) being
performed compared with a high fre-
quency, which would be the greatest
amount of reps. Again, the evidence of
improvement in the short distances
show that plyometrics at a low-re-
sistance high-velocity movement result
in generating more power, which
transfers to starting ability and maxi-
mum velocity.
Specificity of training applies to plyo-
metrics also. Sprinting is a horizontal
movement and requires movement in
the horizontal plane (25). The plyo-
metric exercises that involve muscle
velocities that closely resemble those of
sprinting and emphasize forward mo-
tion with minimum vertical motion
will have the greatest transfer to
sprinting ability (25). Exercises such
as alternate leg bounding, double- and Figure. Hamstring dip (Norwegian hamstrings).

68 VOLUME 33 | NUMBER 2 | APRIL 2011


Table
Sample resistance training program

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4


Monday
Power clean 5 3 4 at 80% 1RM 5 3 3 at 85% 1RM 5 3 3 at 90% 1RM 5 3 2 at 95% 1RM
Front lunge 3 3 10 3 3 10 338 338
Reverse hyperextensions 3 3 10 3 3 10 338 338
Incline flyes 3 3 10 3 3 10 338 338
Chin-ups 3 3 maximum 3 3 maximum 3 3 maximum 3 3 maximum
Front delt raise 3 3 10 3 3 10 338 338
Front and side planks 2 3 45 s 2 3 45 s 2 3 60 s 2 3 60 s
Wednesday
Jump squat 435 435 435 435
Hang clean and jerk 436 436 434 434
Romanian deadlift 438 438 436 436
Dumbbell bench press 3 3 12 3 3 12 338 338
Barbell row 3 3 12 3 3 12 338 338
V-ups 2 3 15 2 3 15 2 3 20 2 3 20
Friday
Back squat 5 3 4 at 80% 1RM 5 3 3 at 85% 1RM 5 3 3 at 90% 1RM 5 3 2 at 95% 1RM
Norwegian hamstrings 3 3 10 3 3 10 3 3 10 3 3 10
4-way hip 3 3 10 3 3 10 3 3 10 3 3 10
Incline press 3 3 12 3 3 12 338 338
Seated row 3 3 12 3 3 12 338 338
Posterior deltoid raise 3 3 10 3 3 10 338 338
Weighted sit-ups 2 3 15 2 3 15 2 3 10 2 3 10
RM = repetition maximum.

compared with 45.5% for sprint the optimum slope that should be used. For strength training, the musculature
training alone (25). Also, it is difficult to find the proper around the hips and the hamstrings is
Because most sports are played on slope with a suitable training surface. the most important for developing
a level playing field, resisted sled The kinematics of uphill and downhill speed. Increased strength levels do
sprinting are also different compared allow for greater force production;
training and assisted towing would be
with sprinting on level ground. High- however, evidence has shown that
the most sport-specific training meth-
speed treadmill training has been a combination of high-resistance
ods to improve sprint speed. Both demonstrated as an effective method; low-velocity and low-resistance high-
methods are performed on a flat surface however, research has shown that there velocity movements results in the
where sprint form should remain the may also be changes in kinematics. In greatest increases in sprint speed (27).
same if all guidelines for each method addition, there may be a difference in Also, explosive weightlifting exercises
are followed. The problems with uphill kinetics because the ground is moving which are high-resistance high-velocity
and downhill sprinting are the discrep- and the athlete does not have to propel movements result in increases in
ancies in selecting and the availability of himself or herself. sprint speed. The use of all 3 training

Strength and Conditioning Journal | www.nsca-lift.org 69


Enhancing Sprint Speed

techniques can ultimately produce 10. Faccioni A. Assisted and resisted methods
Matthew J. for speed development: Part 1. Mod
the best enhancement of sprint speed.
Behrens is Athlete Coach 32: 36, 1994.
The use of standard resistance exer-
a sprint coach at 11. Faccioni A. Assisted and resisted methods
cises can build a base of strength, and
the Borah High for speed development: Part 2. Mod
weightlifting will develop the power
School. Athlete Coach 32: 812, 1994.
needed for sprinting and starting
ability, and low-resistance high-veloc- 12. Guskiewicz K, Lephart S, and Burkholder R.
The relationship between sprint speed and
ity movements can produce power and
hip flexion/extension strength in collegiate
speed, which transfer to performance.
athletes. Isokinet Exerc Sci 3: 111116,
For example, a sprinter can include 1993.
back squat for strength, hang clean for Shawn R.
13. Harrison AJ and Bourke G. The effect of
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The use of plyometric exercises has
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