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1a) Compare and Contrast

SBQ

1 Compare and Contrast (10 marks)

1st Para

S: (why)- issue centered statement

Sources A and B are similar with regard to ________________ (the origins of


Cold War) because/as _________________(Both sources show that Soviet
Union was embarking on an expansionist policy).

E- Evidence

For example/instance, in Source A, it states ..(relevant to


your statement). Similarly, in Source B, .. (relevant to your
statement)

E- Elaboration (explain the evidence and link back to the question)

From the evidence, the reason for the origins of Cold War was due to (Explain
the evidence) the deliberate Soviet desire to expand the influence of
Communism to other parts of the world outside of the European Continent, which
provoked the Western world, thus causing a response that led to the Cold War.

2nd Para

S: (why)- issue centered statement

Sources A and B are different with respect to ________________ (the origins of


Cold War) because/as _________________(Both sources differ on the nature of
USAs economic policies on the Soviet Union and the causation of the eventual
Cold War).

E- Evidence

For example/instance, in Source A, it states ..(relevant to


your statement). Similarly, in Source B, .. (relevant to your
statement)
E- Elaboration (explain the evidence and link back to the question)

From the evidence, the reason for the origins of Cold War was due to (Explain
the evidence) the deliberate USA economic imperialism that made the Soviet
Union perceive the USA as attempting to buy over the loyalty of other countries
with their wealth, thus causing the USSR to feel insecure and to embark on
measure to protect their security, which then led to the Cold War.

3rd Paragraph another agree issue or disagree issue

S: (why)- issue centered statement

Sources A and B, nonetheless, are still largely similar with regard to


________________ (the origins of Cold War) because/as
_________________(Both sources still show that Soviet Union was so paranoid
about security, which then led to them breaking their agreement on Eastern
Europe in the Yalta Conference, hence leading to the West becoming suspicious
of the USSR.)

E- Evidence

For example/instance, in Source A, it states ..(relevant to


your statement). Similarly, in Source B, .. (relevant to your
statement)

E- Elaboration (explain the evidence and link back to the question)

From the evidence, the reason for the origins of Cold War was due to (Explain
the evidence) the deliberate Soviet desire to expand the influence of
Communism to other parts of the world outside of the European Continent, which
provoked the Western world, thus causing a response that led to the Cold War.
b)To what extent was the UN unable to uphold human rights from 1945-2000?
(30 marks)
SBQ template
No need for introduction. Go for L2 and L3 straightaway

Paragraph 1: Get LEVEL 2


S- Statement
Simply state which sources support or do not support hypothesis
Eg The following sources show that the UN was ineffective in.
.
E- Evidence
Use a combination of quotations from as many sources as possible;
together with paraphrasing.
Eg For instance, in source A, ... We can also see in Source B that the
General Assembly had been slow to respond to the situation because
.
There is no need for explanation and further analysis here

Paragraph 2: Get LEVEL 3


S- Statement
Simply state the counter- argument to L2
E- Evidence
Use a combination of quotations from as many sources as possible;
together with paraphrasing.
There is no need for explanation and further analysis here

Paragraph 3: Get LEVEL 4


S Statement
Now, you must be ISSUE SPECIFIC. Do not simply give generic topic
sentences. Examiner wants to see whether you can draw out the main
key issues and ideas. You must go beyond face value.
Eg The UN could not uphold consistent standards in the promotion of
human rights because of the clash of personal interests of the more
powerful members in the Security Council. Their interference prevented
a common and united approach.
OR
The UN showed that it was effective in passing resolutions that laid the
basic framework for international co-operation in the passing of human
rights laws. Also, the UN worked well in tandem with Non Governmental
Organisations in propagating good practices that promoted human
rights.

E Evidence
Cross reference with discernment. Use specific sources that support
the ISSUE you have raised in your statement. Do not quote
indiscriminately. Otherwise, you will simply be repeating the L2 and L3
skills.
Eg For instance, Sources C shows how America .. Also, this is further
reinforced by in Source E.

E Explanation
Good to have elaboration to show analysis and to LINK back to the
question.
Eg From these sources, it can be seen that the America wanted to promote
its economic and strategic interests in the Cold War. USSR also wanted
to propagate its influence in the Third world countries. This clash of
interests of the more prominent member states of the Security Council
paralysed the UN in the implementation of consistent human rights
standards.
OR
From these sources, the UN was effective particularly in the drafting of
proposals and resolutions that gave countries the legal power and
legitimacy to promote human rights in the political and economic arena.
Also the strong cohesive partnership between the UN and NGOs fortified
the overall effectiveness of the passing of human rights
recommendations.

Paragraph 4: Get Higher LEVEL 4 through Contextual Knowledge (if


possible)
S Statement
You can bring in contextual knowledge to back up your claims in the
previous paragraph. Bear in mind that the example must deal with the
issue you have examined previously. The example can prove or disprove
the issue raised.
Eg The events with regard to the UN in this particular incident in 1950 also
showed that the clash of personal interests between the superpowers
hindered the effective application of human rights standards
OR
This particular episode in 1969 actually corresponds with the Sources in
showing that the UN was effective in

E Evidence
Simply provide some concrete details about the example you have
raised from contextual knowledge.
Eg For example, in that particular episode, the UN. And the more
dominant members of the Security Council

E Explanation
Good to have brief elaboration to show analysis and to LINK back to the
question.
Eg This incident, together with the content information from the Sources,
agree strongly with the hypothesis as
OR
This incident seems to contradict the evidence in the sources in this
particular aspect. This is because

Paragraph 5: Get Higher LEVEL 4 through reliability (optional;


dependent on sources and provenance)
SE Statement merged with Evidence to save time
You can point out the various aspects of the provenance that deal with
the time frame, origin and possible affiliations of the source
Eg When you look at the fact that Source C was written twenty years after
the event, the credibility of the source is questionable.
OR
This report was commissioned by the UN Human rights Committee, and
it was probably written in defence of international criticism. This makes
its claims more potentially biased and less objective.

Paragraph 6: Get Higher LEVEL 5 (same repertoire of skills employed in


L4, but with different point of view)

Note: While there is no need for introduction, bear in mind that your main
stand will be reiterated in the conclusion later. Must make your main
argument and stand as obvious as possible in the midst of your SBQ
response before you conclude.

Conclusion (to get L6)


a) Show clearly that the sources tend to point towards one point of view in
agreement or disagreement with the hypothesis..
Base argument on evidence gathered from ALL the sources.

Eg In conclusion, Sources A, C and E all indicate strongly that the UN was


more ineffective then effective in the implementation of human rights.
This was due to the.(draw out the main issues you have raised)
In contrast, Sources B and D only portray UNs successes in human
rights as limited in scope and impact because of (draw out the main
issues you have raised)

OR
b) You can modify your hypothesis if there is no clear indication that one
stand is more prominent.
From contextual knowledge, the Universal Declaration of Human rights
was signed by the General Assembly to set out basic rights but it was
not a legally binding document in anyway. This meant that the UN
members had problems giving legal force to the principles espoused. It
was only a norm and a widely recognised standard. Hence, the UN could
be considered as successful only to the extent of setting international
standards to be observed. However, when it came to implementing these
standards, the UN was hindered as there was no proper machinery to
examine complaints of abuse of human rights. The hypothesis should be
modified as such- To what extent was the UN empowered to effectively
implement human rights?.

c) Most recommended approach:


You can combine both (a) and (b) together. While you recognise that the
sources tend to point towards one particular point of view, yet you are
conscious of the fact that the question does not fully capture the exact
nature of the issues raised in the sources; which then leads you to
modify the hypothesis.