You are on page 1of 9

~

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4. JULYIAUGUST 1991 92 1

on a Macintosh +, and proved to be fast and easy to understand and fuzzy controller is developed and used in the speed control feedback
implement. loop to obtain good dynamic rotor speed response. The fuzzy algorithms
in the proposed controller are systematically found from the intuition
and experience about the motor drive systems. The experimental results
ACKNOWLEDGMENT indicate that good dynamic speed performance can be achieved by the
proposed controller. Moreover, since the rotor parameters are not needed
The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the Editor, in the implementation of the drive system, and due to the inherent
Dr. Andrew P. Sage, and three referees for their exhaustive review feature of high adaptive capability possessed by the fuzzy controller, the
and valuable comments and suggestions that were very helpful in performance of the controlled drive system is rather insensitive to the
parameter and operating condition changes.
improving this paper.

REFERENCES I. INTRODUCTION

Analysis, Flight Test & Evaluation of Honeywell, McDonnell-Douglas Today, the field-oriented control method [ 11-[7] has made pos-
& RCA Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS), U.S. Dept. sible the application of induction motor drives in high performance
Transport., FAA, Washington, DC, Rep. No. FAA-RD-76-17. industrial applications where only dc motor drives were previously
M. A. Fischetti and T. S. Perry, Our burdened skies, IEEE Spectrum, available. In a perfect field-oriented induction motor, the coupling
vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 36-37, 1986. between the d and q axes is eliminated, hence, high performance of
V. L. Golich, Airline deregulation: economic boom or safety bust,
Transport. Quart., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 159-179, 1988. drive can be obtained. However, the decoupling characteristic of the
W. H. Harmon and R. S. Kennedy, TCAS I1 Design and Validation of field-oriented induction motor drive depends on the motor parameter
the high-traffic-density surveillance subsystem, Project Rep. ATC 126, changes [l],[ 2 ] , [7]. Thus without applying more sophisticated con-
Lincoln Lab, MIT Rep. No. DOT/FAA/PM084/5, Feb. 12, 1985. trol techniques, such as, adaptive control, variable structure system
V. R. Hunt and A. Zellwegger, Strategies for future air traffic control
systems, Computer, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 19-32, 1987. control, robust control, etc., very good performance with parameter
V. R. Hunt and G. V. Kloster, The FAAs advanced automation insensitive property still cannot be achieved.
program, Computer, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 14-17, 1987. In this paper, a quick response induction motor drive using a
T. G. Lombardo, Collision-proof airspace, IEEE Spectrum, vol. 17, fuzzy controller is presented. In the proposed drive system, a ROM
no. 9, pp. 85-87, 1980. table [8] is used to select the prescribed optimal switching pattern
M. Mizumachi and T. Ohmura, Separation and collision risk in air
traffic control, Electron. Commun. in Japan, vol. 60-B, no. 11, pp. for the PWM inverter. Selection of switching pattern is based on
86-93, 1977. limit-cycle control technique, such that under the preset constant
T. S. Perry and P. Wallich, A matter of margins, IEEE Spectrum, vol. flux condition, a very fast torque response can be achieved with
23, no. 11, pp. 38-50, 1986. minimized switching frequency. Although this drive system has the
A. Pool, Historical development of collision risk models in en-route
air traffic, Int. J. Aviation Safety, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 447-457, 1984. novel feature of possessing very fast torque response, good dynamic
D.A Rossman and R. J. Kirchoff, Ground based collision avoidance speed response is not easy to achieve. The chief reason is that
function for the 1980 air traffic control system, IBM Corp., Fed. Syst. accurate dynamic drive model is difficult to obtain, and hence, the
Div., 1980. controller design based on mathematical derivation is quite difficult
Summary user evaluation report on the traffic alert and collision to perform. To overcome this difficulty, a speed controller based on
avoidance system (TCAS 11) limited installation program, Oct. 1988,
Bendix/King Air Transport Avionics Division, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. the fuzzy control algorithms [9]-[ 131 is developed and implemented,
H. M. Toong and A. Gupta, Automating air-traffic control, Technol. such that good dynamic responses both in the speed following the
Rev., vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 41-54, 1984. regulation characteristics can be achieved. The fuzzy algorithms
T. Williamson and N. E. Spencer, Development and operation of the adopted in the proposed controller are systematically found according
traffic alert and collision avoidance System (TCAS), Proc. IEEE, vol.
77, no. 11, 1989, pp. 1735-1744. to intuition and experience about the motor drive systems. Having
L. B. Zarrelli, Analysis of active BCAS alert rates and protection based testing the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller by computer
on actual aircraft tracks, MTR-80W267, The MITRE Corp., Feb. 1982. simulation, the hardware of the drive system is implemented, and the
software realization of the fuzzy control algorithms is carried out
using a PC-386 personal computer. The experimental results indicate
that good dynamic speed response can be achieved by the proposed
controller. Moreover, since the rotor parameters are not needed in the
implementation of the drive system, and due to the inherent feature
Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller
of highly adaptive capability possessed by the fuzzy controller,
for a High Performance Induction Motor Drive the performance of the controlled drive system is quite robust and
Chang-Ming Liaw and Jin-Biau Wang insensitive to the parameter and operating condition changes.

Abstract-A limit-cycle controlled induction motor drive with a fuzzy 11. THE LIMITCONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTORDRIVE
controller is designed and implemented. The torque and flux of the The configuration of the power circuit used in the proposed drive
proposed drive system are regulated by the limit-cycle control technique.
It follows that very quick torque response can be achieved. Since the system is shown in Fig. 1, which is composed of two sets of three-
dynamic model of this type of drive system is not easy to obtain, a phase inverters, an open-delta connected induction motor, and a three
serially connected inductor ( L Ofor
) reducing the zero phase sequence
Manuscript received October 6, 1990; revised March 23, 1991.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National current in the motor. The input to the inverter is a fixed magnitude
Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30043, Taiwan, R.O.C. dc voltage E. If U,, t b , and vc represent the line-to-he terminal
IEEE Log Number 9101210. motor voltages supplied by the inverter, the d - q voltage vector in

0018-9472/91$01.00 0 1991 IEEE


922 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

TABLE I
THE REDUNDANCY
CHAUCTERISTICS
OF THE SWITCHING
VOLTAGE
VECTORS

dq voltage Terminal
vector voltage
groups vectors Switching modes
Group v, ( v a ?v b . v c ) ( ( S l a , S Z a ) , ( S l b r SZb). (Slcr S2c)

IG

( E ,0,- E )
(0,E . - E )
(-E. E,O)
( - E , 0,E )
(0,-E. E )
( E .-E. 0)
LG
( E .-E, - E )
( E ,E . - E )
r/,5 (-E, E, -E)
LG2 (-E. E. E )
v17 ( - E , -E, E )
v18 ( E ,-E. E )

complex form can be expressed by group (IG,Vl - Vi) and the large group ( L G , & - V I E )Each .
distinct d - y voltage vector class is composed of a different
number of terminal voltage vectors and switching modes. Table I lists
these redundancy characteristics for reference. The different terminal
voltage vectors in each equivalence d - q voltage vector class can be
selected to minimize the zero phase sequence current in the motor.
Also, the different switching modes in each terminal voltage vector
can be used to equalize the switching frequencies of two inverters.
Although 26 = 64 different switching modes are produced by
Fig. 2 shows the combined three d - q voltage vector groups and the
the operations of inverter switches, only 27 (Va,V b , V,) terminal
12 switching areas, where the ith area is identified by using a area
voltage combinations and 19 distinct d - y equivalent voltage vector
index B,, which is defined as
classes can be generated, since some switching modes yield the same
terminal voltage vectors, and some terminal voltage vectors result
in the same d - q voltage vector. According to their amplitudes, 0, : (i - l ) ( ~ / 6 <
) CY <i(~/6), i = 1,2,...,12 (2)
these d - y voltage vector classes VO- VIS can be divided into
three groups, namely the zero group (ZG:Vo), the intermediate
~

923
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

1
i
I I I.

loop 1

loop. 2
L _______-_-
- --
Inverter 1
(T*-T)

Fig. 1. The configuration of power circuit used in the proposed drive system.

V (E,-E,-E)
13

ii
++io- h i 0

o i *

Fig. 3. The hysteresis index generating schemes. (a) Flux index. (b) Torque
index. (c) Current index.

A. Flux Control
The stator voltage vector I., in (3) supplied by the inverter is
constant at each switching interval. If R, is neglected, the flux linkage
Fig. 2. The equivalent d - q voltage vector groups and switching areas. at a particular switching interval can be expressed as
$8 =Kt + @so. (4)
components of flux linkage that is calculated by
The stator flux linkage is regulated by the limit-cycle control tech-
nique such that its amplitude is forced to track the setting value l @ s l *
within a hysteresis band lAdSJ:

(Iol - !y)< l@sl +<. , , I ( lAdS1> .


2 (5)
where R, is the stator resistance, and pSo is the initial value of Os
The switching condition of 143I can be identified by a flux index $ t ,
at the beginning of the switching interval. It is worth mentioning
i = 0.1; ($0, $ 1 ) = (0. 1).The status 0 and status 1 denote that
that some problems arise from the integration operation at very
the flux linkage needs to be increased and decreased, respectively. The
low velocity regions. The reason for this is that the operation of
flux index can be generated using a hysteresis comparator shown in
integrators cannot be done perfectly at near zero velocity because of
Fig. 3(a).
the small induced electromotive force in the motor, so that control of
os might be unstable when R, deviates from the correct value. These
problems can be negligible at relatively high velocities such as above
B. Torque Control
2 Hz. However, another calculation of @ 9 must be employed below In order to force the generated torque T to track the command
2 Hz [8]. T* within a desired hysteresis band with minimum response time, a
The objectives of switching mode selection are 1) giving quick four-loop hysteresis five-level comparator shown in Fig. 3(b) is used
torque response under constant flux level; 2) reducing zero phase for choosing the d - q voltage vector. In general, at low speed or
sequence current; and 3) minimizing and equalizing the switching a steady-state operating condition, the voltage vectors in IG and ZG
frequencies of inverters. The algorithms [8] for switching mode are selected, i.e., operating in loop 2. Now if the command T is
selection are described as follows. increased letting I(T* - T)I > AT2/2, this will cause the control
924 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

to switch from loop 2 to loop 1, and furthermore, the switching


stays in LG. When the generated torque increases to let IT* - TI <
AT1/2(AT2 > ATl), the switching will change to loop 2. However,
if I(T* - T ) J < (AT2/2), due to command change or disturbance,
the voltage vector will be selected back from loop 2 to loop 1. The
present torque can be calculated by

T = d'dsiqs - @qsids. (6)


Based on the previous analyses, the torque index t , ( i = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 . 4 )
used to identify the present torque condition can be obtained from
Fig. 3(b) as

( t o , t l . t 2 , t 3 3 t 4 ) = (-2, -1,o. 1, 2)
(CCW LG, CC\V IG, ZG, CW IG, CW LG)
(7)
where CW and CCW denote clockwise and counter clockwise re-
spectively.

C. Zero Phase Sequence Current Reduction ~ ~~~

At any instant, using the measured variables, the area index 8,


is determined first. Then the torque index t , and the flux index dt
Fig. 4. The configuration of the proposed drive system.
are obtained from the comparators of Fig. 3(b) and (a). According to
these three indexes, the dq voltage vectors, and hence, the switching
modes at all conditions can be determined. However, since the pattern, without considering the frequency coordination, is programed
induction motor is open-delta connected, the neutral points of the and stored in a ROM circuit. The 10-b address of the ROM is
motor are not isolated and zero phase sequence current io exists. constructed by using the torque index (3 b), flux index (1 b), zero
It is known that the change of io is dependent on the magnitude current index (2 b), and area index (4 b). The outputs from the ROM
and polarity of VO Va & + + V, developed by the inverter. By circuit are processed by the equalizing circuits to yield the actual
supposing that io A i, + +
ib i, is calculated from the measured switching signals for the inverter transistors.
phase current, the hysteresis loop with three-level comparator shown
in Fig. 3(c) can be used to yield the current index I * ,which is defined
as 111. THE PROPOSED FUZZY CONTROL ALGORITHMS FOR
MOTOR DRIVES
Iz= IO = 1. if io > Ai0 Generally, the requirements for a high performance motor drive
I , = I1 = 0, if - Ai0 < io < Ai0 system are: 1) fast tracking of set point changes without overshoot;
2) the maximum speed dip and the restore time due to step load
I , = 12 = -1, if io < -Aio. (8)
change must be kept small as much as possible; and 3) the stead-state
According to the identified current index I , and using the equivalence errors both in the command tracking and load regulation cases must be
set concept of Table I, the terminal voltage vector is changed such zero. In order to achieve these requirements, the outer feedback loops
that io is reduced, but the d - q equivalence voltage vector is not for controlled variables of the drive system must be added. Since the
altered. dynamic drive system model is not necessary for the fuzzy controller
design, and the performance of the fuzzy controller is insensitive
D. Switching Frequency Coordination of the Inverter to the parameter changes, it is very suitable in this application.
Having determined the terminal voltage vectors at every instant Theoretic bases of the fussy set theory have been introduced in
many literatures [9]-[ 131. However, unfortunately, there is no mature
using the limit-cycle control algorithms for torque, flux and zero
phase sequence current, the switching modes can be determined. guidance for fuzzy control algorithm determination. In the following,
the development of the fuzzy controller for the motor drive system
However, the switching frequencies of the two inverters may not be in
is described in detail.
balance. Table I shows that when the terminal voltage V,(z = a , b , c)
equals to E or - E , the switching mode ( S I ~ ,isS uniquely
~~)
determined as (1,O) and (0, l), respectively. However, for the case A. Dynamic Signal Analysis
of Vr = 0, the switching modes (Sir, SzZ) = (0,O) and (1,l) can For convenience of incorporating the intuition and experience into
be selected alternately to equalize the switching frequencies of the the fuzzy control algorithms, the behavior of the dynamic rotor speed
two inverters. response is first investigated. The speed error and the speed error
change of the drive system are defined as
E. Implementation of the Switching Mode Generation Mechanism
e ( k ) w:(k) - w l r ( k ) (9)
The configuration of the whole drive system is shown in Fig. 4, Ae(k) A e ( k ) - e ( k - 1)
in which block 1 is the power circuit; block 2 shows the torque
(10)
and flux estimating circuits; the switching mode generating scheme where d J : ( k )is the speed command in kth sampling interval, d r ( k )
is shown in blocks 3 and 4; and block 5 denotes the proposed is the speed response in kth sampling interval, e ( k ) is the speed error
fuzzy controller, which is realized digitally using a PC-386 personal in kth sampling interval, and Ae(k) is the speed error change in kth
computer. According to the above analyses, the switching mode sampling interval.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO, 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991 925

The general waveforms of the drive rotor speed response and the
command are drawn in Fig. 5(a). According to the magnitude of e
and the sign of Ae, the response plane is roughly divided into four
areas. The index used for identifying the response area is defined as
VI
vi
0
a, : e > O and Ae < 0 , up: e <O and Ae < O C

as: e < O and Ae > O . a4: e > O and Ae > 0. a


Lz

(11)
I I I I t time
For further increases in the resolution of the behavior representation,
the response around the set point and the extremes in Fig. 5(a) are
(a)
emphasized in Fig. 5(b) and (c), respectively. The crossover index
e, for identifying the slope of the response across the set point is
defined as
c1 : ( e > 0 -+ e < 0) and Ae <<< 0
s e t point
c2: (e > O + e < O ) and Ae<O C

c3: (e > O + e < O ) and Ae<O


c4: (e < 0 + e > 0 ) and Ae>O time

cj : (e < 0 + e > 0) and Ae >> 0


cg : (e < 0 -+ e > 0) and Ae >>> 0. (12)
1

Also, the magnitude index for representing the extent of overshoot


and undershoot is defined as
VI
0
VI

rn1 : Ae N 0 and e <<< 0 8 point


m2: Ae-0 and e<O L
6l

m3: Ae-0 and e<O


m4: AeEO and e>O time

m j : Ae-0 and e>>O


m6 : Ae - 0 and e >>> 0. Fig. 5. The dynamic drive speed response behavior.

TABLE I1
THESTATEPLANEOF ERRORAND ERROR
CHANGE
B. Linguistic Control Rules
Ae e NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
The three types of indexes previously mentioned can be combined
and shown in the state plane of Table I1 for reference, where the NB .... .... . . .: c1 :... .... ....
qualitative statements are quantized by using the linguistic set defined NM a2 . c2 . a1
as NS 1 c3 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
{NB. N h l , NS, ZE, PS. PM, PB} (14)
ZE m6 mj m4 ZE m3 m2 mi
where N is negative, P is positive, 3 is big, M is medium, S is small, PS . . . . . . . . . . . .. c4 :... ........
and ZE is zero. PM , c5 . a4
a3 :
The linguistic control rules defined according to Fig. 5 and Table I1 PB . C6 .
are listed in Table 111. The conditional rules are implied in the table, ............ . . . . . . . . . . . .
~~~ ~

see for example, the element of the first row and seventh column
that implies TABLE 111
IF e is P B a n d A e is NB THEN t h e control input is P B . THE LINGUISTIC
CONTROLRULES

(15) l e e NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
~~ ~

NB ZE PS PS PM PM PB PB
NM NS ZE PS PS PM PM PB
NS NS NS ZE PS PS PM PM
C . Membership Functions NS ZE PS PS PM
ZE NM NS
Having defined the fuzzy linguistic control rules, the membership PS NM NM NS NS ZE PS PS
functions corresponding to each element in the linguistic set must PM NB NM NM NS NS ZE PS
PB NB NB NM NM NS NS ZE
be defined. Depending on particular applications, many types of ~~ ~

membership functions can be defined. For simplicity, the trapezoidal


functions shown in Fig. 6 are proposed, where the universes of
discourse of the error and error change are -1.2 V (the scaling Ae are shown in Table IV. The control input is also quantized into
factor is 1 V to 360 r/min) to 1.2 V (-6. - 5 . . 5,6) and -0.3 to
s., thirteen levels. It is obvious that the membership functions shown in
0.3 V (-6, -5,. . . , 5 , 6 ) . respectively. The quantizations of e and Fig. 6 can also be mathematically expressed as:
926 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

6 2 x > 2 NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

- 2 / 3 ( ~- 0.5) + 1, 2 2 x > 0.5 1 jf

ZE: f = 1, 1/2 2 x > -0.5


2/3(x + 0.5) + 1, - 112 2 x > -2

- 0, - 2 > ~ > - 6
02xC-G

1.5 2 x >0
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
2.5 2 x > 1.5
+
- 2 / 3 ( ~ 2.5) + 1. 4 2 .Z > 2.5 Fig. 6. The membership functions

TABLE IV
-0, 2 2 ~ > - 6 QUANTIZED ERROR
AND ERROR
CHANGE

2 / 3 ( ~- 3.5) + 1, 3.5 2x > 2 error e (mV) error change Ae (mV) quantized level
PM: f = 1, 4.5 2 x > 3.5 -1200 -300 -6
- 1000 -250 -5
- 2 / 3 ( ~- 4.5) + 1, 6 2 x > 4.5 -800 -200 -4
-600 - 150 -3
- 0, x>6 -400 - 100 -2
-200 -50 -1
0 0 0
200 50 1
400 100 2
600 150 3
800 200 4
1000 250 5
1200 300 6

NS: f = 1 1 , - 2.5 < x 5 -1.5 Iv. DESIGNAND IMPLEMENTATION


OF THE FUZZY CONTROLLER
-4 < x 5 -2.5 Generally, the fuzzy controller that is based on the decision table of
Table V, cannot lead to excellent performances both in the transient
- 6 < ~ 5 - 4 and static periods. Since the quantization level is too coarse, the
- 0, -2<x<6 overshoot and hunting around the set point in the static period may
result. To solve this problem, the fine decision tables are usually
+
- 2 / 3 ( ~ 3.5) + 1, - 3.5 <x 5 -2 used to replace the coarse table when the error falls within a preset
NM:f= - 4.5 < x 5 -3.5 limit. However, this increases the complexity of the system and
1,
thus the process time is increased. To solve this problem, a fuzzy
2/3(x + 4.5) + 1, -6 <x 5 -4.5 controller for the motor drives is proposed in Fig. 7, in which an
integral controller is used to replace the fine tables. When the error
- 0, x < -6 falls within a specified region (i.e., le1 < E ) , the fuzzy controller
- 4 < ~ < 6 is disconnected (but the final control input contributed by the fuzzy
controller is memorized by an integrator), and the integral controller
- 5.5 < x 5 -4 remains for eliminating the error in steady state. Since the integral
-6 5x < -5.5. action must be dominated in the static period, and the overshoot in
the tracking case must be avoided, a simple integral control having
(16) the ability of error adaptation is proposed by setting

The parameters of Iirs and Iirp are chosen as 15 and 20, respectively,
D. Decision Looku~Table in this case.
The parameters G, and Gd in Fig. 7 are used to adjust the
With the control rules shown in Table 111 and the membership
sensitivity of the quantization of error and error change. Although
functions defined in Fig. 6, many sets of control inputs exit for a
these parameters can be tuned according to the particular applications,
pair of error and error change. A lot of approaches [9-131 have been
they are all set to unity here for simplicity. On the other hand, contrary
proposed to synthesize the final control action. The most commonly
to that of the integral controller, the design of Go is emphasized in the
used is perhaps the center-of-gravity method. Using this method, the
improvement of transient response speed. It follows that the output
tracking decision table can be constructed from Table I11 and (16),
gain Go is set as
which is shown in Table V. The ioutine for constructing the lookup
decision table is listed in the Appendix. Go = IC,, + I<,, ( e l (18)
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991 921

TABLE V
THE LOOKUPDECISIONTABLE

n e e -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-6 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 6
-5 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6 6
-4 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6
-3 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5
-2 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4
-1 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4
0 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4
1 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3
2 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2
3 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2
4 -6 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2
5 -6 -6 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1
6 -6 -6 -6 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0

Computer- !-Drive
, lnduction +
motor
; + load

I I sw oDen

decision

w ration

I
I
I
I

I
I
I

Fig. 7. The block diagram of the proposed fuzzy controller

with li,, = 5 , I<,, = 0.5. It is obvious from (18) that the output In order to improve the response, the proposed controller is applied.
gain can be kept high in the transient period and then automatically Fig. 8(a) and 8(b) shows, the unit-step speed tracking and unit-
reduced when it enters the static period. Accordingly, the output gain step load regulation responses. The effectiveness of the proposed
also has the error adaptive capability. controller can be observed by comparing the results shown in Fig. 8
Before implementing the proposed controller, the computer simu- and that of above. The dynamic rotor speed responses obtained by
lation is first carried out. Since the dynamic model of this proposed the conventional PI controller with lip= 5, K I = 5 are also shown
drive system is rather difficult to find by the analytical derivation, in Fig. 8(a) and (b). The results indicate that the proposed controller
the stochastic modeling technique developed in [14] is applied to gives better performances both in the tracking and the regulation
estimate the continuous model of the proposed drive system. With characteristics. For testing the robustness of the proposed controller,
the white noise superimposed on-line to a constant torque command Fig. 8(c) shows the rotor speed response when the model of (19) is
equal to 3 V (corresponding to 37.5% rated torque), the rotor speed suddenly changed to
signal and the noise input signal are recorded, filtered, and sampled
by a data acquisition system. The continuous model shown in Fig. 7
estimated from the sampled data is
at t = 2 s. The result shows that the response is insensitive to the
1.1781 parameter changes.
H p ( s )= s + 1.7167'
Without the proposed controller and from this estimated model, the V. EXPERIMENTAL
RESULTS
dynamic speed responses of the drive system to a unit-step torque To further test the effectiveness of the proposed drive system,
command and to a unit-step load torque disturbance show that (the the hardware implementation of the drive system and the soft-
scaling is 1-V torque signal is 0.5 "/rad, 1-V speed signal=360 ware realization of the proposed fuzzy controller using a PC-386
r/min): personal computer are performed. The motor used in this drive
1) response time t,, = 1.3 s; system is a 3-phase 60-Hz open A-connected 4-pole 220-V 1-
2) steady-state error of tracking = 0.314 V (113 r/min); Hp induction motor. Fig. 9(a) shows the dynamic speed responses
3) maximum dip Addm = 0.686 V (246 r/min); and due to a step speed command (Aw: = 180 r/min) applied when
4) steady-state error of regulation = -0.686 V (-247 r/min). the motor was operated at ( w . 0 = 360 r/min, RL = 18.7 0) and
928 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

I A
540rpm 900rpm
360rpm 72Orpm

m
(RL=ls.757) :,5sE (RL=18.7R) 0.5k

z A: Proposed c o n t r o l l e r
B: P I c o n t r o l l e r
5
amm
0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
time (sec.)

o*on
Load t o r q u e a p p l i e d
Fig. 9. The measured dynamic speed responses of the drive system with

?/
the proposed controller. (a) Step tracking response. (b) Step load regulation
characteristics.
m
m A: Proposed c o n t r o l l e r
5 B: PI c o n t r o l l e r
U
a -0.05 following and load regulation characteristics are achieved. Moreover,
m

APPENDIX

m
a,
1-5 t P l a n t p a r a m e t e r s changed
THE
begin
ROUTINGFOR CONSTRUCTING THE

off line calculated decision table


DECISIONTABLE
LOOKUP

g
m
1.0 IL for il = 1 . . . . . n 1 do
ai for i z = 1 n 2 do
begin
0.5 sum := 0;
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 weight sum := 0:
time (sec.) for each liguistic rules j = 1 . . . .. n do
begin
a [ j ] := min{R21(il). RZ2(i2)}:
Fig. 8. The simulation results. (a) Unit-step tracking response. (b) Unit-step b ( j ] := wJ * a [ j ] :
load regulation characteristic. (c) Unit-step tracking response with plant model
changed from H p ( s ) to H p l ( s ) at t = 2 s.
sum := sum + a[j];
weightsum := weightsum +
b[j]:
end
( d T o = 720 r/min, R L = 18.7 a), respectively. The results indicate applied the center of gravity method
that good speed following responses are obtained. As to the load table [ i l ] [ i 2 :=
] weightsum/sum;
regulation characteristics, a permanent magnet dc generator with end
switched resistors is used as the dynamic load of the proposed end
drive system. Fig. 9(b) shows the dynamic speed responses due where
to step load changes at two different operating conditions. Good . .
t l indexes denote the quantization levels of error e and
, ~
speed regulation characteristics are also observed from the results
error change Ae.
in Fig. 9(b). Moreover, the control performances of the proposed
R,1. RI2 membership functions,
controller are rather insensitive to the operating condition changes.
w J
element in the universe discourse.

VI. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
The control system design and implementation of a high per-
formance induction motor drive have been presented in this paper. B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC Drives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Based on the limit-cycle control technique, very fast torque dynamic Prentice Hall, 1986.
response under constant flux condition is achieved. To further obtain B. K. Bose, Technology trends in microcomputer control of electrical
good dynamic speed responses both in the following and load distur- machines, IEEE Trans. Indust. Electron., vol. 35, pp. 160- 177, 1988.
F. Blaschke, The principle of field orientation as applied to the new
bance regulation characteristics, a fuzzy controller and a systematic transvector closed-loop control system for rotating field machine,
design procedure for forming the fuzzy algorithms are proposed. The Simens Rev., vol. 34, pp. 217-220, 1972.
algorithms are systematically constructed based on the experience S. Ogasawara, H. Akagi, and A. Nabae, The generalized theory of
about the motor drive system. Having tested the performance of the indirect vector control for ac machines, IEEE Trans. Indust. Electron.,
vol. 35, pp. 470-478, 1988.
proposed controller by simulations, the implementations of the drive R. D. Lorenz, Tuning of field-oriented induction motor controllers
system and the proposed controller are performed. The experimental for high-performance applications, ZEEE Trans. Indust. Appl., vol. 22,
results show that good dynamic speed responses in both the command pp. 293-297, 1986.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991 929

[6] G.T. Kim, K. S. Kim, M.H. Park, C.Y. Won, and D. S. Ahn, Time ling process, in Fuzzy Computing: Theory and Hardware Application.
optimal control for induction motor servo system, in IEEE PESC Rec., Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Sciences, 1988, pp. 355 -364.
1988, pp. 1053-1062. [ll] A. Ollero and A. J. Garcia-Cerezo, Direct digital control, auto-
[7] H. Suimoto and S. Tamai, Secondary resistance identification of tuning and supervision using fuzzy logic, Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 30,
an induction motor applied model reference adaptive system and its pp. 135-153, 1989.
characteristics, IEEE Trans. Indust. Appl., vol. IA-23, pp. 296-303, [12] C.C. Lee, Fuzzy logic in control system: Fuzzy logic controller-
1987. Part 1, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. vol. 20, pp. 404-418, 1990.
[SI I. Takahashi and Y. Ohmori, High-performance direct torque control of [13] C.C. Lee, Fuzzy logic in control system: Fuzzy logic controller-
an induction motor, IEEE Trans. Indust. Appl., vol. 25, pp. 257-264, Part 2, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. vol. 20, no. 2, pp, 419-436,
1989. 1990.
191 M. Braae and D . A . Rutherford, Selection of parameters for a fuzzy [14] C.M. Liaw, M. Ouyang, and C.T. Pan, Reduced-order parameter
logic controller, Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 2, pp. 185- 199, 1979. estimation for continuous system from sampled data, Trans. ASME,
[lo] X.-T. Peng, S.-M. Liu, T. Yamakawa, P. Wang and X. Liu, Self- J. Dynamic Syst., Meas. Control, vol. 112, pp. 305-308, 1990.
regulating PID controller and its application to a temperature control-