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Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller for a High Performance Induction Motor Drive

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4. JULYIAUGUST 1991 92 1

on a Macintosh +, and proved to be fast and easy to understand and fuzzy controller is developed and used in the speed control feedback

implement. loop to obtain good dynamic rotor speed response. The fuzzy algorithms

in the proposed controller are systematically found from the intuition

and experience about the motor drive systems. The experimental results

ACKNOWLEDGMENT indicate that good dynamic speed performance can be achieved by the

proposed controller. Moreover, since the rotor parameters are not needed

The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to the Editor, in the implementation of the drive system, and due to the inherent

Dr. Andrew P. Sage, and three referees for their exhaustive review feature of high adaptive capability possessed by the fuzzy controller, the

and valuable comments and suggestions that were very helpful in performance of the controlled drive system is rather insensitive to the

parameter and operating condition changes.

improving this paper.

REFERENCES I. INTRODUCTION

Analysis, Flight Test & Evaluation of Honeywell, McDonnell-Douglas Today, the field-oriented control method [ 11-[7] has made pos-

& RCA Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS), U.S. Dept. sible the application of induction motor drives in high performance

Transport., FAA, Washington, DC, Rep. No. FAA-RD-76-17. industrial applications where only dc motor drives were previously

M. A. Fischetti and T. S. Perry, Our burdened skies, IEEE Spectrum, available. In a perfect field-oriented induction motor, the coupling

vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 36-37, 1986. between the d and q axes is eliminated, hence, high performance of

V. L. Golich, Airline deregulation: economic boom or safety bust,

Transport. Quart., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 159-179, 1988. drive can be obtained. However, the decoupling characteristic of the

W. H. Harmon and R. S. Kennedy, TCAS I1 Design and Validation of field-oriented induction motor drive depends on the motor parameter

the high-traffic-density surveillance subsystem, Project Rep. ATC 126, changes [l],[ 2 ] , [7]. Thus without applying more sophisticated con-

Lincoln Lab, MIT Rep. No. DOT/FAA/PM084/5, Feb. 12, 1985. trol techniques, such as, adaptive control, variable structure system

V. R. Hunt and A. Zellwegger, Strategies for future air traffic control

systems, Computer, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 19-32, 1987. control, robust control, etc., very good performance with parameter

V. R. Hunt and G. V. Kloster, The FAAs advanced automation insensitive property still cannot be achieved.

program, Computer, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 14-17, 1987. In this paper, a quick response induction motor drive using a

T. G. Lombardo, Collision-proof airspace, IEEE Spectrum, vol. 17, fuzzy controller is presented. In the proposed drive system, a ROM

no. 9, pp. 85-87, 1980. table [8] is used to select the prescribed optimal switching pattern

M. Mizumachi and T. Ohmura, Separation and collision risk in air

traffic control, Electron. Commun. in Japan, vol. 60-B, no. 11, pp. for the PWM inverter. Selection of switching pattern is based on

86-93, 1977. limit-cycle control technique, such that under the preset constant

T. S. Perry and P. Wallich, A matter of margins, IEEE Spectrum, vol. flux condition, a very fast torque response can be achieved with

23, no. 11, pp. 38-50, 1986. minimized switching frequency. Although this drive system has the

A. Pool, Historical development of collision risk models in en-route

air traffic, Int. J. Aviation Safety, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 447-457, 1984. novel feature of possessing very fast torque response, good dynamic

D.A Rossman and R. J. Kirchoff, Ground based collision avoidance speed response is not easy to achieve. The chief reason is that

function for the 1980 air traffic control system, IBM Corp., Fed. Syst. accurate dynamic drive model is difficult to obtain, and hence, the

Div., 1980. controller design based on mathematical derivation is quite difficult

Summary user evaluation report on the traffic alert and collision to perform. To overcome this difficulty, a speed controller based on

avoidance system (TCAS 11) limited installation program, Oct. 1988,

Bendix/King Air Transport Avionics Division, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. the fuzzy control algorithms [9]-[ 131 is developed and implemented,

H. M. Toong and A. Gupta, Automating air-traffic control, Technol. such that good dynamic responses both in the speed following the

Rev., vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 41-54, 1984. regulation characteristics can be achieved. The fuzzy algorithms

T. Williamson and N. E. Spencer, Development and operation of the adopted in the proposed controller are systematically found according

traffic alert and collision avoidance System (TCAS), Proc. IEEE, vol.

77, no. 11, 1989, pp. 1735-1744. to intuition and experience about the motor drive systems. Having

L. B. Zarrelli, Analysis of active BCAS alert rates and protection based testing the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller by computer

on actual aircraft tracks, MTR-80W267, The MITRE Corp., Feb. 1982. simulation, the hardware of the drive system is implemented, and the

software realization of the fuzzy control algorithms is carried out

using a PC-386 personal computer. The experimental results indicate

that good dynamic speed response can be achieved by the proposed

controller. Moreover, since the rotor parameters are not needed in the

implementation of the drive system, and due to the inherent feature

Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller

of highly adaptive capability possessed by the fuzzy controller,

for a High Performance Induction Motor Drive the performance of the controlled drive system is quite robust and

Chang-Ming Liaw and Jin-Biau Wang insensitive to the parameter and operating condition changes.

Abstract-A limit-cycle controlled induction motor drive with a fuzzy 11. THE LIMITCONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTORDRIVE

controller is designed and implemented. The torque and flux of the The configuration of the power circuit used in the proposed drive

proposed drive system are regulated by the limit-cycle control technique.

It follows that very quick torque response can be achieved. Since the system is shown in Fig. 1, which is composed of two sets of three-

dynamic model of this type of drive system is not easy to obtain, a phase inverters, an open-delta connected induction motor, and a three

serially connected inductor ( L Ofor

) reducing the zero phase sequence

Manuscript received October 6, 1990; revised March 23, 1991.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National current in the motor. The input to the inverter is a fixed magnitude

Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30043, Taiwan, R.O.C. dc voltage E. If U,, t b , and vc represent the line-to-he terminal

IEEE Log Number 9101210. motor voltages supplied by the inverter, the d - q voltage vector in

922 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

TABLE I

THE REDUNDANCY

CHAUCTERISTICS

OF THE SWITCHING

VOLTAGE

VECTORS

dq voltage Terminal

vector voltage

groups vectors Switching modes

Group v, ( v a ?v b . v c ) ( ( S l a , S Z a ) , ( S l b r SZb). (Slcr S2c)

IG

( E ,0,- E )

(0,E . - E )

(-E. E,O)

( - E , 0,E )

(0,-E. E )

( E .-E. 0)

LG

( E .-E, - E )

( E ,E . - E )

r/,5 (-E, E, -E)

LG2 (-E. E. E )

v17 ( - E , -E, E )

v18 ( E ,-E. E )

complex form can be expressed by group (IG,Vl - Vi) and the large group ( L G , & - V I E )Each .

distinct d - y voltage vector class is composed of a different

number of terminal voltage vectors and switching modes. Table I lists

these redundancy characteristics for reference. The different terminal

voltage vectors in each equivalence d - q voltage vector class can be

selected to minimize the zero phase sequence current in the motor.

Also, the different switching modes in each terminal voltage vector

can be used to equalize the switching frequencies of two inverters.

Although 26 = 64 different switching modes are produced by

Fig. 2 shows the combined three d - q voltage vector groups and the

the operations of inverter switches, only 27 (Va,V b , V,) terminal

12 switching areas, where the ith area is identified by using a area

voltage combinations and 19 distinct d - y equivalent voltage vector

index B,, which is defined as

classes can be generated, since some switching modes yield the same

terminal voltage vectors, and some terminal voltage vectors result

in the same d - q voltage vector. According to their amplitudes, 0, : (i - l ) ( ~ / 6 <

) CY <i(~/6), i = 1,2,...,12 (2)

these d - y voltage vector classes VO- VIS can be divided into

three groups, namely the zero group (ZG:Vo), the intermediate

~

923

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

1

i

I I I.

loop 1

loop. 2

L _______-_-

- --

Inverter 1

(T*-T)

Fig. 1. The configuration of power circuit used in the proposed drive system.

V (E,-E,-E)

13

ii

++io- h i 0

o i *

Fig. 3. The hysteresis index generating schemes. (a) Flux index. (b) Torque

index. (c) Current index.

A. Flux Control

The stator voltage vector I., in (3) supplied by the inverter is

constant at each switching interval. If R, is neglected, the flux linkage

Fig. 2. The equivalent d - q voltage vector groups and switching areas. at a particular switching interval can be expressed as

$8 =Kt + @so. (4)

components of flux linkage that is calculated by

The stator flux linkage is regulated by the limit-cycle control tech-

nique such that its amplitude is forced to track the setting value l @ s l *

within a hysteresis band lAdSJ:

2 (5)

where R, is the stator resistance, and pSo is the initial value of Os

The switching condition of 143I can be identified by a flux index $ t ,

at the beginning of the switching interval. It is worth mentioning

i = 0.1; ($0, $ 1 ) = (0. 1).The status 0 and status 1 denote that

that some problems arise from the integration operation at very

the flux linkage needs to be increased and decreased, respectively. The

low velocity regions. The reason for this is that the operation of

flux index can be generated using a hysteresis comparator shown in

integrators cannot be done perfectly at near zero velocity because of

Fig. 3(a).

the small induced electromotive force in the motor, so that control of

os might be unstable when R, deviates from the correct value. These

problems can be negligible at relatively high velocities such as above

B. Torque Control

2 Hz. However, another calculation of @ 9 must be employed below In order to force the generated torque T to track the command

2 Hz [8]. T* within a desired hysteresis band with minimum response time, a

The objectives of switching mode selection are 1) giving quick four-loop hysteresis five-level comparator shown in Fig. 3(b) is used

torque response under constant flux level; 2) reducing zero phase for choosing the d - q voltage vector. In general, at low speed or

sequence current; and 3) minimizing and equalizing the switching a steady-state operating condition, the voltage vectors in IG and ZG

frequencies of inverters. The algorithms [8] for switching mode are selected, i.e., operating in loop 2. Now if the command T is

selection are described as follows. increased letting I(T* - T)I > AT2/2, this will cause the control

924 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

stays in LG. When the generated torque increases to let IT* - TI <

AT1/2(AT2 > ATl), the switching will change to loop 2. However,

if I(T* - T ) J < (AT2/2), due to command change or disturbance,

the voltage vector will be selected back from loop 2 to loop 1. The

present torque can be calculated by

Based on the previous analyses, the torque index t , ( i = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 . 4 )

used to identify the present torque condition can be obtained from

Fig. 3(b) as

( t o , t l . t 2 , t 3 3 t 4 ) = (-2, -1,o. 1, 2)

(CCW LG, CC\V IG, ZG, CW IG, CW LG)

(7)

where CW and CCW denote clockwise and counter clockwise re-

spectively.

is determined first. Then the torque index t , and the flux index dt

Fig. 4. The configuration of the proposed drive system.

are obtained from the comparators of Fig. 3(b) and (a). According to

these three indexes, the dq voltage vectors, and hence, the switching

modes at all conditions can be determined. However, since the pattern, without considering the frequency coordination, is programed

induction motor is open-delta connected, the neutral points of the and stored in a ROM circuit. The 10-b address of the ROM is

motor are not isolated and zero phase sequence current io exists. constructed by using the torque index (3 b), flux index (1 b), zero

It is known that the change of io is dependent on the magnitude current index (2 b), and area index (4 b). The outputs from the ROM

and polarity of VO Va & + + V, developed by the inverter. By circuit are processed by the equalizing circuits to yield the actual

supposing that io A i, + +

ib i, is calculated from the measured switching signals for the inverter transistors.

phase current, the hysteresis loop with three-level comparator shown

in Fig. 3(c) can be used to yield the current index I * ,which is defined

as 111. THE PROPOSED FUZZY CONTROL ALGORITHMS FOR

MOTOR DRIVES

Iz= IO = 1. if io > Ai0 Generally, the requirements for a high performance motor drive

I , = I1 = 0, if - Ai0 < io < Ai0 system are: 1) fast tracking of set point changes without overshoot;

2) the maximum speed dip and the restore time due to step load

I , = 12 = -1, if io < -Aio. (8)

change must be kept small as much as possible; and 3) the stead-state

According to the identified current index I , and using the equivalence errors both in the command tracking and load regulation cases must be

set concept of Table I, the terminal voltage vector is changed such zero. In order to achieve these requirements, the outer feedback loops

that io is reduced, but the d - q equivalence voltage vector is not for controlled variables of the drive system must be added. Since the

altered. dynamic drive system model is not necessary for the fuzzy controller

design, and the performance of the fuzzy controller is insensitive

D. Switching Frequency Coordination of the Inverter to the parameter changes, it is very suitable in this application.

Having determined the terminal voltage vectors at every instant Theoretic bases of the fussy set theory have been introduced in

many literatures [9]-[ 131. However, unfortunately, there is no mature

using the limit-cycle control algorithms for torque, flux and zero

phase sequence current, the switching modes can be determined. guidance for fuzzy control algorithm determination. In the following,

the development of the fuzzy controller for the motor drive system

However, the switching frequencies of the two inverters may not be in

is described in detail.

balance. Table I shows that when the terminal voltage V,(z = a , b , c)

equals to E or - E , the switching mode ( S I ~ ,isS uniquely

~~)

determined as (1,O) and (0, l), respectively. However, for the case A. Dynamic Signal Analysis

of Vr = 0, the switching modes (Sir, SzZ) = (0,O) and (1,l) can For convenience of incorporating the intuition and experience into

be selected alternately to equalize the switching frequencies of the the fuzzy control algorithms, the behavior of the dynamic rotor speed

two inverters. response is first investigated. The speed error and the speed error

change of the drive system are defined as

E. Implementation of the Switching Mode Generation Mechanism

e ( k ) w:(k) - w l r ( k ) (9)

The configuration of the whole drive system is shown in Fig. 4, Ae(k) A e ( k ) - e ( k - 1)

in which block 1 is the power circuit; block 2 shows the torque

(10)

and flux estimating circuits; the switching mode generating scheme where d J : ( k )is the speed command in kth sampling interval, d r ( k )

is shown in blocks 3 and 4; and block 5 denotes the proposed is the speed response in kth sampling interval, e ( k ) is the speed error

fuzzy controller, which is realized digitally using a PC-386 personal in kth sampling interval, and Ae(k) is the speed error change in kth

computer. According to the above analyses, the switching mode sampling interval.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO, 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991 925

The general waveforms of the drive rotor speed response and the

command are drawn in Fig. 5(a). According to the magnitude of e

and the sign of Ae, the response plane is roughly divided into four

areas. The index used for identifying the response area is defined as

VI

vi

0

a, : e > O and Ae < 0 , up: e <O and Ae < O C

Lz

(11)

I I I I t time

For further increases in the resolution of the behavior representation,

the response around the set point and the extremes in Fig. 5(a) are

(a)

emphasized in Fig. 5(b) and (c), respectively. The crossover index

e, for identifying the slope of the response across the set point is

defined as

c1 : ( e > 0 -+ e < 0) and Ae <<< 0

s e t point

c2: (e > O + e < O ) and Ae<O C

c4: (e < 0 + e > 0 ) and Ae>O time

cg : (e < 0 -+ e > 0) and Ae >>> 0. (12)

1

and undershoot is defined as

VI

0

VI

m2: Ae-0 and e<O L

6l

m4: AeEO and e>O time

m6 : Ae - 0 and e >>> 0. Fig. 5. The dynamic drive speed response behavior.

TABLE I1

THESTATEPLANEOF ERRORAND ERROR

CHANGE

B. Linguistic Control Rules

Ae e NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

The three types of indexes previously mentioned can be combined

and shown in the state plane of Table I1 for reference, where the NB .... .... . . .: c1 :... .... ....

qualitative statements are quantized by using the linguistic set defined NM a2 . c2 . a1

as NS 1 c3 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

{NB. N h l , NS, ZE, PS. PM, PB} (14)

ZE m6 mj m4 ZE m3 m2 mi

where N is negative, P is positive, 3 is big, M is medium, S is small, PS . . . . . . . . . . . .. c4 :... ........

and ZE is zero. PM , c5 . a4

a3 :

The linguistic control rules defined according to Fig. 5 and Table I1 PB . C6 .

are listed in Table 111. The conditional rules are implied in the table, ............ . . . . . . . . . . . .

~~~ ~

see for example, the element of the first row and seventh column

that implies TABLE 111

IF e is P B a n d A e is NB THEN t h e control input is P B . THE LINGUISTIC

CONTROLRULES

(15) l e e NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

~~ ~

NB ZE PS PS PM PM PB PB

NM NS ZE PS PS PM PM PB

NS NS NS ZE PS PS PM PM

C . Membership Functions NS ZE PS PS PM

ZE NM NS

Having defined the fuzzy linguistic control rules, the membership PS NM NM NS NS ZE PS PS

functions corresponding to each element in the linguistic set must PM NB NM NM NS NS ZE PS

PB NB NB NM NM NS NS ZE

be defined. Depending on particular applications, many types of ~~ ~

functions shown in Fig. 6 are proposed, where the universes of

discourse of the error and error change are -1.2 V (the scaling Ae are shown in Table IV. The control input is also quantized into

factor is 1 V to 360 r/min) to 1.2 V (-6. - 5 . . 5,6) and -0.3 to

s., thirteen levels. It is obvious that the membership functions shown in

0.3 V (-6, -5,. . . , 5 , 6 ) . respectively. The quantizations of e and Fig. 6 can also be mathematically expressed as:

926 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

6 2 x > 2 NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

2/3(x + 0.5) + 1, - 112 2 x > -2

- 0, - 2 > ~ > - 6

02xC-G

1.5 2 x >0

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

2.5 2 x > 1.5

+

- 2 / 3 ( ~ 2.5) + 1. 4 2 .Z > 2.5 Fig. 6. The membership functions

TABLE IV

-0, 2 2 ~ > - 6 QUANTIZED ERROR

AND ERROR

CHANGE

2 / 3 ( ~- 3.5) + 1, 3.5 2x > 2 error e (mV) error change Ae (mV) quantized level

PM: f = 1, 4.5 2 x > 3.5 -1200 -300 -6

- 1000 -250 -5

- 2 / 3 ( ~- 4.5) + 1, 6 2 x > 4.5 -800 -200 -4

-600 - 150 -3

- 0, x>6 -400 - 100 -2

-200 -50 -1

0 0 0

200 50 1

400 100 2

600 150 3

800 200 4

1000 250 5

1200 300 6

OF THE FUZZY CONTROLLER

-4 < x 5 -2.5 Generally, the fuzzy controller that is based on the decision table of

Table V, cannot lead to excellent performances both in the transient

- 6 < ~ 5 - 4 and static periods. Since the quantization level is too coarse, the

- 0, -2<x<6 overshoot and hunting around the set point in the static period may

result. To solve this problem, the fine decision tables are usually

+

- 2 / 3 ( ~ 3.5) + 1, - 3.5 <x 5 -2 used to replace the coarse table when the error falls within a preset

NM:f= - 4.5 < x 5 -3.5 limit. However, this increases the complexity of the system and

1,

thus the process time is increased. To solve this problem, a fuzzy

2/3(x + 4.5) + 1, -6 <x 5 -4.5 controller for the motor drives is proposed in Fig. 7, in which an

integral controller is used to replace the fine tables. When the error

- 0, x < -6 falls within a specified region (i.e., le1 < E ) , the fuzzy controller

- 4 < ~ < 6 is disconnected (but the final control input contributed by the fuzzy

controller is memorized by an integrator), and the integral controller

- 5.5 < x 5 -4 remains for eliminating the error in steady state. Since the integral

-6 5x < -5.5. action must be dominated in the static period, and the overshoot in

the tracking case must be avoided, a simple integral control having

(16) the ability of error adaptation is proposed by setting

The parameters of Iirs and Iirp are chosen as 15 and 20, respectively,

D. Decision Looku~Table in this case.

The parameters G, and Gd in Fig. 7 are used to adjust the

With the control rules shown in Table 111 and the membership

sensitivity of the quantization of error and error change. Although

functions defined in Fig. 6, many sets of control inputs exit for a

these parameters can be tuned according to the particular applications,

pair of error and error change. A lot of approaches [9-131 have been

they are all set to unity here for simplicity. On the other hand, contrary

proposed to synthesize the final control action. The most commonly

to that of the integral controller, the design of Go is emphasized in the

used is perhaps the center-of-gravity method. Using this method, the

improvement of transient response speed. It follows that the output

tracking decision table can be constructed from Table I11 and (16),

gain Go is set as

which is shown in Table V. The ioutine for constructing the lookup

decision table is listed in the Appendix. Go = IC,, + I<,, ( e l (18)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991 921

TABLE V

THE LOOKUPDECISIONTABLE

n e e -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-6 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 6

-5 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6 6

-4 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6

-3 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5

-2 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4

-1 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 4

0 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3 4

1 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2 3

2 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2 2

3 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2 2

4 -6 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1 2

5 -6 -6 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0 1

6 -6 -6 -6 -5 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -2 -2 -1 0

Computer- !-Drive

, lnduction +

motor

; + load

I I sw oDen

decision

w ration

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

with li,, = 5 , I<,, = 0.5. It is obvious from (18) that the output In order to improve the response, the proposed controller is applied.

gain can be kept high in the transient period and then automatically Fig. 8(a) and 8(b) shows, the unit-step speed tracking and unit-

reduced when it enters the static period. Accordingly, the output gain step load regulation responses. The effectiveness of the proposed

also has the error adaptive capability. controller can be observed by comparing the results shown in Fig. 8

Before implementing the proposed controller, the computer simu- and that of above. The dynamic rotor speed responses obtained by

lation is first carried out. Since the dynamic model of this proposed the conventional PI controller with lip= 5, K I = 5 are also shown

drive system is rather difficult to find by the analytical derivation, in Fig. 8(a) and (b). The results indicate that the proposed controller

the stochastic modeling technique developed in [14] is applied to gives better performances both in the tracking and the regulation

estimate the continuous model of the proposed drive system. With characteristics. For testing the robustness of the proposed controller,

the white noise superimposed on-line to a constant torque command Fig. 8(c) shows the rotor speed response when the model of (19) is

equal to 3 V (corresponding to 37.5% rated torque), the rotor speed suddenly changed to

signal and the noise input signal are recorded, filtered, and sampled

by a data acquisition system. The continuous model shown in Fig. 7

estimated from the sampled data is

at t = 2 s. The result shows that the response is insensitive to the

1.1781 parameter changes.

H p ( s )= s + 1.7167'

Without the proposed controller and from this estimated model, the V. EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

dynamic speed responses of the drive system to a unit-step torque To further test the effectiveness of the proposed drive system,

command and to a unit-step load torque disturbance show that (the the hardware implementation of the drive system and the soft-

scaling is 1-V torque signal is 0.5 "/rad, 1-V speed signal=360 ware realization of the proposed fuzzy controller using a PC-386

r/min): personal computer are performed. The motor used in this drive

1) response time t,, = 1.3 s; system is a 3-phase 60-Hz open A-connected 4-pole 220-V 1-

2) steady-state error of tracking = 0.314 V (113 r/min); Hp induction motor. Fig. 9(a) shows the dynamic speed responses

3) maximum dip Addm = 0.686 V (246 r/min); and due to a step speed command (Aw: = 180 r/min) applied when

4) steady-state error of regulation = -0.686 V (-247 r/min). the motor was operated at ( w . 0 = 360 r/min, RL = 18.7 0) and

928 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991

I A

540rpm 900rpm

360rpm 72Orpm

m

(RL=ls.757) :,5sE (RL=18.7R) 0.5k

z A: Proposed c o n t r o l l e r

B: P I c o n t r o l l e r

5

amm

0.0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

time (sec.)

o*on

Load t o r q u e a p p l i e d

Fig. 9. The measured dynamic speed responses of the drive system with

?/

the proposed controller. (a) Step tracking response. (b) Step load regulation

characteristics.

m

m A: Proposed c o n t r o l l e r

5 B: PI c o n t r o l l e r

U

a -0.05 following and load regulation characteristics are achieved. Moreover,

m

APPENDIX

m

a,

1-5 t P l a n t p a r a m e t e r s changed

THE

begin

ROUTINGFOR CONSTRUCTING THE

DECISIONTABLE

LOOKUP

g

m

1.0 IL for il = 1 . . . . . n 1 do

ai for i z = 1 n 2 do

begin

0.5 sum := 0;

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 weight sum := 0:

time (sec.) for each liguistic rules j = 1 . . . .. n do

begin

a [ j ] := min{R21(il). RZ2(i2)}:

Fig. 8. The simulation results. (a) Unit-step tracking response. (b) Unit-step b ( j ] := wJ * a [ j ] :

load regulation characteristic. (c) Unit-step tracking response with plant model

changed from H p ( s ) to H p l ( s ) at t = 2 s.

sum := sum + a[j];

weightsum := weightsum +

b[j]:

end

( d T o = 720 r/min, R L = 18.7 a), respectively. The results indicate applied the center of gravity method

that good speed following responses are obtained. As to the load table [ i l ] [ i 2 :=

] weightsum/sum;

regulation characteristics, a permanent magnet dc generator with end

switched resistors is used as the dynamic load of the proposed end

drive system. Fig. 9(b) shows the dynamic speed responses due where

to step load changes at two different operating conditions. Good . .

t l indexes denote the quantization levels of error e and

, ~

speed regulation characteristics are also observed from the results

error change Ae.

in Fig. 9(b). Moreover, the control performances of the proposed

R,1. RI2 membership functions,

controller are rather insensitive to the operating condition changes.

w J

element in the universe discourse.

VI. CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

The control system design and implementation of a high per-

formance induction motor drive have been presented in this paper. B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC Drives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Based on the limit-cycle control technique, very fast torque dynamic Prentice Hall, 1986.

response under constant flux condition is achieved. To further obtain B. K. Bose, Technology trends in microcomputer control of electrical

good dynamic speed responses both in the following and load distur- machines, IEEE Trans. Indust. Electron., vol. 35, pp. 160- 177, 1988.

F. Blaschke, The principle of field orientation as applied to the new

bance regulation characteristics, a fuzzy controller and a systematic transvector closed-loop control system for rotating field machine,

design procedure for forming the fuzzy algorithms are proposed. The Simens Rev., vol. 34, pp. 217-220, 1972.

algorithms are systematically constructed based on the experience S. Ogasawara, H. Akagi, and A. Nabae, The generalized theory of

about the motor drive system. Having tested the performance of the indirect vector control for ac machines, IEEE Trans. Indust. Electron.,

vol. 35, pp. 470-478, 1988.

proposed controller by simulations, the implementations of the drive R. D. Lorenz, Tuning of field-oriented induction motor controllers

system and the proposed controller are performed. The experimental for high-performance applications, ZEEE Trans. Indust. Appl., vol. 22,

results show that good dynamic speed responses in both the command pp. 293-297, 1986.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. 21, NO. 4, JULYIAUGUST 1991 929

[6] G.T. Kim, K. S. Kim, M.H. Park, C.Y. Won, and D. S. Ahn, Time ling process, in Fuzzy Computing: Theory and Hardware Application.

optimal control for induction motor servo system, in IEEE PESC Rec., Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Sciences, 1988, pp. 355 -364.

1988, pp. 1053-1062. [ll] A. Ollero and A. J. Garcia-Cerezo, Direct digital control, auto-

[7] H. Suimoto and S. Tamai, Secondary resistance identification of tuning and supervision using fuzzy logic, Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 30,

an induction motor applied model reference adaptive system and its pp. 135-153, 1989.

characteristics, IEEE Trans. Indust. Appl., vol. IA-23, pp. 296-303, [12] C.C. Lee, Fuzzy logic in control system: Fuzzy logic controller-

1987. Part 1, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. vol. 20, pp. 404-418, 1990.

[SI I. Takahashi and Y. Ohmori, High-performance direct torque control of [13] C.C. Lee, Fuzzy logic in control system: Fuzzy logic controller-

an induction motor, IEEE Trans. Indust. Appl., vol. 25, pp. 257-264, Part 2, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. vol. 20, no. 2, pp, 419-436,

1989. 1990.

191 M. Braae and D . A . Rutherford, Selection of parameters for a fuzzy [14] C.M. Liaw, M. Ouyang, and C.T. Pan, Reduced-order parameter

logic controller, Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 2, pp. 185- 199, 1979. estimation for continuous system from sampled data, Trans. ASME,

[lo] X.-T. Peng, S.-M. Liu, T. Yamakawa, P. Wang and X. Liu, Self- J. Dynamic Syst., Meas. Control, vol. 112, pp. 305-308, 1990.

regulating PID controller and its application to a temperature control-

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