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Original Title: Calculation and Analysis of Inductive Coupling Effects

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University Amar Telidji - Department of Electrical Engineering - Laghouat -Algeria (1+2)

transmission lines on aerial pipelines

Abstract. Because of the continuous growth of electric energy consumption and the trend with electric lines of high voltages energy transport and

metal pipelines which compose the transport of the fluids and liquid or gas hydrocarbons in the same corridor, the parallelism and the proximity of

the power lines and the metallic pipelines become increasingly common. Consequently, it was an increasing concern about the possible dangers

resulting from the influence of the power lines on the metallic pipelines. Algeria is a country where the problem is increasing due to the existence of a

large transport of natural gas and oil. The induced voltages generated in the pipeline should be quantified in order to avoid security problems for the

agents working on the pipeline and pipeline equipment. This paper aims at studying inductive coupling between overhead transmission 275 KV lines

and an aerial parallel pipeline in steady state conditions and the factors affecting this coupling, modelling and analysis of the coupling is discussed

using the mutual impedances of Carson's equation.

Streszczenie. In this place the editor of journal inserts Polish version of the abstract. Please leave three lines for this abstract. Of course Polish

language Authors are requested to prepare also Polish "Streszczenie". All papers should have two sets: title, abstract, keywords - Polish and

English. (Przygotowanie artykuu do Przegldu Elektrotechnicznego - polski tytu na kocu streszczenia - Polish tittle at the end).

Sowa kluczowe: in the case of foreign Authors in this line the Editor inserts Polish translation of keywords.

Energy transport in high voltage level is causing major For calculating the induced voltage appearing on the

disturbances. The electric fields and magnetic created by high pipeline due to magnetic field created by the transmission

voltage overhead power transmission lines induce voltages line, we normally should go through two steps. First,

and currents in metallic pipelines running in close proximity to determination of the electromotive forces induced along the

these lines on long distances. This electromagnetic pipeline, and then the potential difference between the

interference is present both during normal conditions and pipeline and the earth, resulting from these induced EMF's, is

during faults; three types of basic interference between the calculated. In case of perfect parallelism between the power

electric systems of the high voltage and the metal line and the above ground metallic pipeline, under steady

pipelines can exist. The first is the electrostatic coupling state conditions, the induced have been calculated using

where the pipeline acts as one side of a capacitor to the simple power system concepts; this approach is is based on

ground; this is only a concern when the pipeline is above the mutual impedances between phase conductors and the

ground. Secondly the electromagnetic coupling which may pipeline presented by Carson [6, 7, 8]

occur when the pipeline is either above or below ground, in

this case, the pipeline acts as a secondary circuit of a

transformer core. Finally, a resistive coupling is caused by the

fault current of the power line; the each interference induced Power line

I

adverse effects on the pipeline. These side effects can pose a

risk of electric shock for the operator of maintenance of the

pipelines, direct risks to the pipeline, such as corrosion,

damage to the pipeline coating and perforation of the steel. Vc

They can also threaten the integrity of the equipment used for Pipeline

cathodic protection and counting. Many publications have i

been made to calculate the voltages induced by the inductive

coupling created by lines of power transmission. In most

cases, they are interested to the buried pipeline [1-5]; the

Fig.1. Inductive coupling between a pipeline and a power line

publications concerning the aerial pipelines are few [6, 7].

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the inductive

interference from power lines during steady state operation In figure 2, the total longitudinal electromotive forces

near the metal aerial pipelines, and factors influencing the induced on the pipeline due to the three phase currents and

interference, using the equations of CARSON. This evaluation the earth wire current can be found by the following equation:

is usually done for personnel safety reasons coming into

contact with the pipeline and equipment connected to the (1) E p = I 1.Z p1 I 2 .Z p 2 I 3 .Z p 3 I g .Z pg

pipeline, a purpose of ensuring that the induced voltages are

within the limits of safety standards.

Where: Ep the longitudinal EMF induced on the pipeline,

I1, I2 and I3 the phase currents, Ig current in the earth wire.

Inductive coupling

Zp1, Zp2, Zp3 and Zpg the Carson mutual impedance term

The inductive interference is the result of the magnetic

between phase conductor, earth wire and pipeline.

field generated by the power lines (Fig. 1). Aerial and

Assume that the voltage drop across the earth wire

underground pipelines running parallel to or in close proximity

conductor is zero; the current in the earth wire is given by the

to transmission lines are subjected to induced voltages by the

equation:

time varying magnetic fields produced by the transmission

line currents. The induced electromotive forces (EMF) cause

currents circulation on the pipeline and voltages between the

pipeline and the surrounding earth.

(2)

1

Ig =

Z gg

( I 1 .Z g 1 + I 2 .Z g 2 + I 3 .Z g 3 )

Substituting this value into equation (1), we obtain the

equation of the induced electromotive force:

Z pg Z pg Z pg V

(3) Ep =I1.(Z p1 Zg1) I 2.(Z p2 Zg 2 ) I 3.(Z p3 Zg3) (1 0 ) IR =

p

Zgg Zgg Zgg ZT

Where: ZT the total impedance in the circuit, the total

The mutual impedance between the pipeline and an magnitude of impedance can be found by the following

overhead line phase or earth wire conductor, with earth equation:

return, is calculated using Equation (4) as follows:

( 2 .R ) + (Z )

2

ZT =

2

0 . . D (1 1) pp

(4 ) Z pi = + j . 0 . ln e

8 2 . D pi

Where : Dpi the distance between the centre of the pipeline Y

and line conductor, the angular power frequency (rad/s),

De the depth of equivalent earth return conductor (Fig. 3)

can be found using equation (5):

(5) D e = 658.87

f

space, f system frequency. The self-impedance of earth x

wire conductor with earth return is given by:

(6) Z gg = R gg + + j. . + log e

8 2. 4 R GM Conductor

geometric mean radius of the earth wire conductor. The Pipeline

induced voltage on the pipeline can be found by the following

equation:

(7) V p = E p .L

D

De

Where: L length of the pipeline in meter.

The shock current that passes through a human body Fig.3. Equivalent distances between conductor and Pipeline

touching the pipeline is limited by the total impedance of the

line Zpp plus that of the ground return path Rg and the The grounding of the pipeline is an effective measure to

resistance of the human body Rc. The shock current is given reduce the induced voltage. The resistance of the electrode

by the expression [9]: from the ground should be chosen to ensure a voltage drop of

less than 50V. Under the condition, the pipeline is grounded

V with electrodes R1 = R2 = R. According to figure 4, we have

=

p

(8 ) I

+ R + Rc

p

Z pp g

the following relationship:

Vp

Where: Vp the induced voltage, Zpp the impedance in the (12 ) IR =

circuit, the impedance of the pipeline with earth return is the 4 + ( Z pp R )

2

external impedance. According to the American standard

IEEE 80:2000, the overall resistance of the human body is HVTL

usually taken equal to 1000 [10]. IR

For pipelines installed above ground, the series

impedance with earth return is given by [1]: ZPP

Vp

V R1 R2 V

p .p . 3.7 .1.1

. 0

.

(1+ j ) + + j 0 .log

p 0

(9) Z pp =

2. 2..rp 8 2. 2.rp

Fig.4. Pipeline and electrode resistance circuit

Where: rp the pipelines radius, p the relative permeability

of the pipelines metal, p the pipelines resistivity.

Inductive Coupling validation

Most national regulations insist that safety measures have

to be taken when the voltage on the pipeline exceeds 50 or For demonstrating the validity of the proposed method, the

calculation results of the induced voltages due to inductive

65V under steady-state conditions [1,6].

By earthing the pipeline with two electrodes at each end of coupling on the pipeline are compared with those obtained by

the pipeline, this can reduce the voltages due to inductive the Passive Loop Conductor.

coupling. The current flowing to an earth electrode can be The basic principal of the induced voltage due to high

voltage power lines in the passive loop can be calculated

calculated from the residual potential of the pipeline at the

installation point and the earth resistance [6,7]. through Faradays Law. This law explains that magnetic fields

that change with time will induce electromotive forces in a on the value of the induced voltage. Because of its location

pipeline. The total flux t due to all the currents carrying above the phase conductors, it slightly increases the induced

conductors into the pipeline is calculated as a surface integral voltage of 1 to 2%, on the pipeline. In this study, the induced

as shown in [11]. voltage value on the pipeline obtained during the simulation is

67. 22 V, this value is above than the safety limit.

(1 3) t = B

s

t . ds

Radius

11.2 mm Radius

10 m 14.31 mm

Where: Bt the flux density, S the total surface area. The

pipeline conductors form a loop and are located at (xp, yp) and

(xp, -yp-De) (fig.5), applying the coordinates of the phase

conductors and the pipeline as shown in: 0.4m

( x p + x i ) + ( y p + De + y i )

2 2

. L. n

(14) t = 0 I i ln 20 m

(x p + x i ) + ( y p y i )

12 m

4. i =1 2 2

30 m

Using the total flux found in the previous step and making 1m

use of Faradays law, the induced voltage on the pipeline can

be found.

Fig.6. Single circuit horizontal configuration with ground wire

and above pipeline

t

(15) V ind =

t 8m

10 m 10 m

Combination of equations 14 and 15 gives equation 16

which may be used to calculate the voltage induced in the 8m

10 m 10 m 12 m

circuit:

12 m

(16) V p = j . . t 12 m 12 m

a b c

1

y

Fig.7. Different geometrical configurations for transmission

overhead lines (a) horizontal, (b) vertical, (c) delta

(xi,yi) Vp

100

Pipeline Without ground wire

With ground wire

90

(xp,yp) x

80

X: 30

Y: 67.22

70

Induced voltage [V]

60 X: 30

Y: 65.19

(xp,-yp-De) 50

30

Case study 20

For the present study, we consider a single-circuit 275 KV

10

horizontal overhead transmission line with one earth wire and -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]

an above ground insulated metal pipeline in the vicinity; the

Fig.8. Induced voltage profile on the pipeline with and without

geometrical data of the overhead line circuit and pipeline are

the ground wire (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)

shown in figure 6. The pipeline is parallel to the axis of the

power line at a distance of 30 m, it has an outer radius of 0.3 80

m and its height above ground is 1 m. The length of parallel

60 X: 0.01374

exposure of the pipeline and power line is 4 km. The three- X: 0.007273

Y: 65.19 Y: 67.22

Induced Voltage(V)

20

assumed to be homogeneous with a resistivity of 100 .m.

Nominal frequency f =50 Hz. 0

-20

Results and Discussions

-40

Induced voltage due to inductive coupling on the pipeline -60 Without ground wire

located at different distances from the midpoint of the line with With ground wire

-80

and without the ground wire is shown in figure 8. As can be 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

Time(S)

seen in this figure, the induced voltage is almost negligible at

the central point of the transmission line and maximum where Fig.9. Temporal variation of the instantaneous value

the pipeline is located at separation distance equal to 15 m, of the induced voltage

and then it decreases progressively as the transverse position

of the pipeline increases. We can also see from this figure As can be seen from figure 9, the variation of the

that the presence of a ground wire practically has no influence instantaneous value of the transverse induced voltage

corresponding to the same example for the point in space (dp, As we see in figure 13, the variation of the induced voltage

hp) = (30, 1) [m] is presented for a time interval of [0- (1/ f)], in with the height of the conductors above the ground, the

function of the module and the phase angle of the induced increase in height of the conductors seems the most effective

voltage. method to reduce the induced voltage on the pipeline.

The relation between the induced voltage on the pipeline 72

and its height above ground is shown in figure 10, if the height

of the pipeline is increased above the ground a vertical 71

slightly with approximate direct proportion.

From the figure 11 is clearly noticed as the radius of the 69

68

the surface of the pipeline remains constant for the entire X: 12

Y: 67.22

length of parallelism. 67

74 66

73

65

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

72 Height of phase conductors above the ground hc [m]

Induced voltage [V]

the conductors from the ground

70

69

We can see in figure 14 the effect of soil resistivity on the

induced voltage in a pipeline exposed to the parallel

68 X: 1

Y: 67.22

transmission line. For a separation distance from the point of

67 symmetry of the line about 30 m, it seems that the induced

voltage is insensitive to the resistivity of the soil. But beyond

66

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 this distance along the transverse axis, the influence of the

height of the pipeline hp [m] resistivity is marginal on the induced voltage. In other words,

Fig.10. Relation between the induced voltage and the height of the the voltage increases slightly with increasing soil resistivity.

pipeline (xp=30 m)

100

rho=100 ohm.m

68.5

90 rho=500 ohm.m

rho=1000 ohm.m

80

68

Induced voltage [V]

70

Induced voltage [V]

X: 30

60 Y: 67.22

67.5 X: 0.3

Y: 67.22

50

67 40

30

66.5 20

10

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

66

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]

Radius of the pipeline rp [m] Fig.14. Variation of Induced voltage with the soil resistivity

Fig.11. Relation between the induced voltage and the radius of the (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)

pipeline (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)

As can be seen in figure 15, a non-linear relation between

85

the effective values of the induced voltage with the soil

80 resistivity, starting from point of symmetry as distances less

75 than 15 metre (y=5 m) , the graph is a horizontal line with a

X: 10

70 constant slope, outside the zone (y=30 m) the slope of the

Induced voltage [V]

Y: 67.22

60

The induced voltage level depends on the pipeline length

exposed to the transmission line. For a parallelism between

55

the pipeline and HV power line, figure 16 shows the induced

50

voltage along the pipeline for different length of a parallel

45

section. As the parallel section increases, the induced voltage

40 on pipeline increases with the exposure length.

35

6 7 8 9 10 11 12

It can be seen from figure 17 a proportional linear

Distance between conductors dc [m] relationship between the Induced voltage on the pipeline and

the exposure length of parallel sections.

Fig.12. Variation of the induced voltage by varying the distance

A comparison of induced voltages for all the three single

between conductors (hc=12 m)

circuit configurations (horizontal, vertical, delta) (see fig. 7), it

Using the geometry of figure 6, we vary the distance can be seen from figure 18 that the induced voltage on the

between the phase conductors and check the effect on the pipeline for a separation distance between the centre of

value of the induced voltage, shown in figure 12, as the power line and the pipeline equal to 30 m, the vertical

distance between the conductors phases is high, the induced configuration produces the lower magnitude of induced

voltage on the pipeline increases. voltage than the horizontal and delta configurations, the

horizontal configuration caused the height magnitude of

induced voltage for the same distance of separation of the It is worth noting that the effect of the earth wire of the

pipeline. transmission line in the state of balance is to slightly increase

Figure 19 shows the shock current pass through the the induced voltage on the pipeline.

human body. The distribution results are similar to the

250

induced voltages; it can be found that from 0 to 15m of the L=4 Km

pipeline position, the shock current increases until it reaches L=7 Km

L=10 Km

a maximum value (peak value of current). From this point, the 200

that if the voltages are higher, the currents are higher 150

because the currents flowing through the human body

determined from the ratio of voltage induced to the total

longitudinal impedance of the circuit with the contact 100

equal to 50 mA. This high intensity is considered as an 50

unacceptable safety risk. The mitigation technique can be

applied in order to reach a negligible value of shock current.

0

Figure 20 shows the induced voltage in the electrode. In order -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]

to achieve a safe induce voltage (50 V), it is required to install

the pipeline section between two electrodes, the earth

Fig.16. Variation of Induced voltage with the length of

electrode resistance value less than 1.012 ohms. parallelism (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)

Figure 21 shows the resistance value for the electrode

according to the separation distance of the pipeline in order to 300

reduce the pipeline potential to the safety limit. x=30 m

x=5 m

As can be seen from figure 21, the earthing resistance 250

decreases to a minimum value then it increases to reach a

maximum value. For a beach of separation distance going of - 200

6 m to 6 m, the pipeline does not require an earthing

resistance because the induced tension is under the safe 150

voltage limit.

To validate the simulation results in this paper for the same 100

line geometry, the calculated of the induced voltages on the

pipeline due to inductive coupling from Carson's equations 50

method were compared with the results obtained from the

Passive loop conductor method. Figure 22 shows the 0

simulation results for the inductive interference on the 0 5 10

Length of parallelism between pipeline and power line[Km]

15

methods are compared; the analysis of results has shown that Fig.17. Relation between the induced voltage and separation

there is a good agreement. distance of the pipeline (dp=30 m, d=5 m ,hp=1 m)

100

70 Horizontal configuration

Vertical configuration

90 Delta configuration

x=30 m

x=5 m 80

65

X: 30

70 Y: 65.19

Induced voltage [V]

Induced voltage [V]

60

60

50

40

55 X: 30

Y: 41.4

30

20 X: 30

Y: 25.46

50

10

0

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

45

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]

soil resistivity [Ohm.m]

Fig.18. Induced voltage on the pipeline for various phase

Fig.15. Relation between induced voltage and the soil resistivity

(dp=30 m, d=5 m ,hp=1 m) configurations

ground surface, when the altitude of the pipeline is increased

Conclusion to the level of the conductors of the power line, the amplitude

In this paper, the inductive interference of high voltage of the induced voltage in the pipeline increases slowly.

transmission lines on the nearby pipelines have been Induced voltage on the pipeline is calculated at different

computed pipeline using the mutual impedances between pipeline radius, the variation of the radius has no significant

phase conductors and the pipeline ( Carson's equations), with effect on the voltage induced. The effect of varying the

the effects of various parameters on the generated separation distance between the conductors was studied,

interference. increasing the distance of separation between lines. The

The separation distance and the length of parallelism induced voltage increases. Regarding, the effect of the

between the HV transmission line and the pipeline are increasing the height of conductors above the ground, the

important factors that affect the level of the induced voltage. induced voltage decreases as the height of the conductors

This is reduced by increasing the separation distance and increases.

increases linearly with increasing the length of exposure.

The effect of soil resistivity on the induced voltage is the configuration has a significant effect on the amplitude of

practically negligible. If the soil resistivity is changed, that the induced voltage in the pipeline. For the electric shock

does not seem to have any significant effect on the induced current, it was found by this calculation that important

voltage. currents flowing through the body by the inductive effect,

70

causing various effects of an electric shock. To attenuate

the induced voltage on the pipeline under the safe touch

60

X: 30

voltage, an effective technique suggested is to install the

Y: 50.9 two ends of the pipeline with the grounding electrodes. The

50

results presented by the calculation methods used in this

Current [mA]

40

study are also compared to results obtained with the results

obtained through another numerical method. The

30 comparison shows a good agreement that confirms the

validity of the proposed methods.

20

10 REFERENCES

[1] CIGRE, Guide Concerning Influence of High Voltage AC Power

0

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

Systems on metallic Pipelines, CIGRE Working group 36.02

Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m] 1995.

Fig.19. Shock current passing through the human body [2] J. AL-GAHTANI, Electromagnetic Interference Caused by a high

voltage Transmission network on Buried Pipelines and

communication cables Master of Science (M.S.) degree in

X: 1.012

Y: 50 Electrical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum &

50 Minerals. January, 2009. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Safe limit

[3] Abhishek Gupta,A Study on High Voltage AC Power

40 Transmission Line Electric and Magnetic Field Coupling with

Nearby Metallic Pipelines, Master of Science (Engineering),

Voltage [V]

30

Faculty of Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore-

August 2006, India.

[4] D.Markovic, V.Smith, S.Perera, S.Elphick, modelling of the

20

interaction between gas pipelines and power transmission lines in

shared corridors,Australasian Universities Power Engineering

10 Conference (AUPEC 2004), 26-29 September 2004, Brisbane,

Australia.

0 [5] M. H. Shwehdi, A Practical Study of an Electromagnetic

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Interference (EMI) Problem from Saudi Arabia accepted for

Resistance [Ohm]

presentation at Large engineering Systems Conference on Power

Fig.20. Electrode voltage Engineering LESCOPE04, pp 162 169, July 28-31, 2004,

1.1

Halifax, Canada.

[6] Australian/New Zealand Standard 4853:2000, Electrical

Hazards on Metallic Pipelines, Standards Australia/Standards

1.05

X: 30

Y: 1.012

New Zealand.

[7] Nassereddine M, Hellany A, Nagrial M, Analysis of the impact of

Resistance [Ohm]

1

the OHEW under full load and fault current International Jurnal of

Energy and Environment (IJEE), Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 727-736.

0.95

2010.

[8] Ahmed Hossam-Eldin, Wael Mokhtar, Ehab Mohamed Ali,

0.9 Effect of Electromagnetic Fields from Power Lines on Metallic

Objects and Human Bodies, International Journal of

0.85 Electromagnetics and Applications 2012, 2(6): 151-158

[9] IEEE Standards Board, IEEE Guide to Grounding During the

0.8 Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors, IEEE Std

-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]

524a-1993, Supplement to IEEE Guide to the Installation of

Overhead Transmission Line Conductors, Approved December 2,

Fig.21. Earth electrode resistance of the pipeline 1993..

[10] SafeGrid Earthing Design Software Comparison of substation

100

safety criteria given by the American (IEEE) and European (IEC)

Faradays Law Standards, ElectroTechnik Pty Ltd..

90 Carsons equation

[11] Transmission Line Reference Book. 345kV and Above (UHV)

80 Second Edition.Electric Power Research Institute, 34 12. Hillview

X: 30

Avenue, Palo Alto, California

Induced voltage [kV]

Y: 67.33

70

X: 30

60 Y: 67.22 Authors: Mr Rabah Djekidel, Laboratory of studies and Development

50

of Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, LeDMaScD University

Amar Telidji - Laghouat, Algeria., E-mail dje_rabah@yahoo.fr. Pr

40

Mahi djillali, Laboratory of studies and Development of

30 Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, LeDMaScD,University Amar

Telidji of Laghouat, E-mail mahidjillali@yahoo.fr

20

10

-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

The correspondence address is:

Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m] e-mail: dje_rabah@yahoo.fr

Fig.22. Comparison of induced voltages between the

Carson's Formulae and the Faradays Law

phases arrangement), it has been found that the variation of

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