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Rabah Djekidel , Djillali Mahi


University Amar Telidji - Department of Electrical Engineering - Laghouat -Algeria (1+2)

Calculation and analysis of inductive coupling effects for HV


transmission lines on aerial pipelines
Abstract. Because of the continuous growth of electric energy consumption and the trend with electric lines of high voltages energy transport and
metal pipelines which compose the transport of the fluids and liquid or gas hydrocarbons in the same corridor, the parallelism and the proximity of
the power lines and the metallic pipelines become increasingly common. Consequently, it was an increasing concern about the possible dangers
resulting from the influence of the power lines on the metallic pipelines. Algeria is a country where the problem is increasing due to the existence of a
large transport of natural gas and oil. The induced voltages generated in the pipeline should be quantified in order to avoid security problems for the
agents working on the pipeline and pipeline equipment. This paper aims at studying inductive coupling between overhead transmission 275 KV lines
and an aerial parallel pipeline in steady state conditions and the factors affecting this coupling, modelling and analysis of the coupling is discussed
using the mutual impedances of Carson's equation.

Streszczenie. In this place the editor of journal inserts Polish version of the abstract. Please leave three lines for this abstract. Of course Polish
language Authors are requested to prepare also Polish "Streszczenie". All papers should have two sets: title, abstract, keywords - Polish and
English. (Przygotowanie artykuu do Przegldu Elektrotechnicznego - polski tytu na kocu streszczenia - Polish tittle at the end).

Keywords: inductive coupling, induced voltage, Carson, aerial pipeline.


Sowa kluczowe: in the case of foreign Authors in this line the Editor inserts Polish translation of keywords.

Introduction Inductive Coupling Calculation


Energy transport in high voltage level is causing major For calculating the induced voltage appearing on the
disturbances. The electric fields and magnetic created by high pipeline due to magnetic field created by the transmission
voltage overhead power transmission lines induce voltages line, we normally should go through two steps. First,
and currents in metallic pipelines running in close proximity to determination of the electromotive forces induced along the
these lines on long distances. This electromagnetic pipeline, and then the potential difference between the
interference is present both during normal conditions and pipeline and the earth, resulting from these induced EMF's, is
during faults; three types of basic interference between the calculated. In case of perfect parallelism between the power
electric systems of the high voltage and the metal line and the above ground metallic pipeline, under steady
pipelines can exist. The first is the electrostatic coupling state conditions, the induced have been calculated using
where the pipeline acts as one side of a capacitor to the simple power system concepts; this approach is is based on
ground; this is only a concern when the pipeline is above the mutual impedances between phase conductors and the
ground. Secondly the electromagnetic coupling which may pipeline presented by Carson [6, 7, 8]
occur when the pipeline is either above or below ground, in
this case, the pipeline acts as a secondary circuit of a
transformer core. Finally, a resistive coupling is caused by the
fault current of the power line; the each interference induced Power line
I
adverse effects on the pipeline. These side effects can pose a
risk of electric shock for the operator of maintenance of the
pipelines, direct risks to the pipeline, such as corrosion,
damage to the pipeline coating and perforation of the steel. Vc
They can also threaten the integrity of the equipment used for Pipeline
cathodic protection and counting. Many publications have i
been made to calculate the voltages induced by the inductive
coupling created by lines of power transmission. In most
cases, they are interested to the buried pipeline [1-5]; the
Fig.1. Inductive coupling between a pipeline and a power line
publications concerning the aerial pipelines are few [6, 7].
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the inductive
interference from power lines during steady state operation In figure 2, the total longitudinal electromotive forces
near the metal aerial pipelines, and factors influencing the induced on the pipeline due to the three phase currents and
interference, using the equations of CARSON. This evaluation the earth wire current can be found by the following equation:
is usually done for personnel safety reasons coming into
contact with the pipeline and equipment connected to the (1) E p = I 1.Z p1 I 2 .Z p 2 I 3 .Z p 3 I g .Z pg
pipeline, a purpose of ensuring that the induced voltages are
within the limits of safety standards.
Where: Ep the longitudinal EMF induced on the pipeline,
I1, I2 and I3 the phase currents, Ig current in the earth wire.
Inductive coupling
Zp1, Zp2, Zp3 and Zpg the Carson mutual impedance term
The inductive interference is the result of the magnetic
between phase conductor, earth wire and pipeline.
field generated by the power lines (Fig. 1). Aerial and
Assume that the voltage drop across the earth wire
underground pipelines running parallel to or in close proximity
conductor is zero; the current in the earth wire is given by the
to transmission lines are subjected to induced voltages by the
equation:
time varying magnetic fields produced by the transmission
line currents. The induced electromotive forces (EMF) cause
currents circulation on the pipeline and voltages between the
pipeline and the surrounding earth.
(2)
1
Ig =
Z gg
( I 1 .Z g 1 + I 2 .Z g 2 + I 3 .Z g 3 )
Substituting this value into equation (1), we obtain the
equation of the induced electromotive force:
Z pg Z pg Z pg V
(3) Ep =I1.(Z p1 Zg1) I 2.(Z p2 Zg 2 ) I 3.(Z p3 Zg3) (1 0 ) IR =
p
Zgg Zgg Zgg ZT
Where: ZT the total impedance in the circuit, the total
The mutual impedance between the pipeline and an magnitude of impedance can be found by the following
overhead line phase or earth wire conductor, with earth equation:
return, is calculated using Equation (4) as follows:

( 2 .R ) + (Z )
2
ZT =
2
0 . . D (1 1) pp
(4 ) Z pi = + j . 0 . ln e

8 2 . D pi

Where : Dpi the distance between the centre of the pipeline Y
and line conductor, the angular power frequency (rad/s),
De the depth of equivalent earth return conductor (Fig. 3)
can be found using equation (5):

Zp1 Zp2 Zpg Zp3


(5) D e = 658.87
f

Where: the earth resistivity, 0 the permeability of free Pipeline


space, f system frequency. The self-impedance of earth x
wire conductor with earth return is given by:

0 . 0 . 1 De Fig.2. single-circuit overhead line with above pipeline


(6) Z gg = R gg + + j. . + log e
8 2. 4 R GM Conductor

Where: Rggthe earth wire conductor ac resistance, RGMthe Dpi


geometric mean radius of the earth wire conductor. The Pipeline
induced voltage on the pipeline can be found by the following
equation:

(7) V p = E p .L
D
De
Where: L length of the pipeline in meter.
The shock current that passes through a human body Fig.3. Equivalent distances between conductor and Pipeline
touching the pipeline is limited by the total impedance of the
line Zpp plus that of the ground return path Rg and the The grounding of the pipeline is an effective measure to
resistance of the human body Rc. The shock current is given reduce the induced voltage. The resistance of the electrode
by the expression [9]: from the ground should be chosen to ensure a voltage drop of
less than 50V. Under the condition, the pipeline is grounded
V with electrodes R1 = R2 = R. According to figure 4, we have
=
p
(8 ) I
+ R + Rc
p
Z pp g
the following relationship:

Vp
Where: Vp the induced voltage, Zpp the impedance in the (12 ) IR =
circuit, the impedance of the pipeline with earth return is the 4 + ( Z pp R )
2

series impedance that consists of the internal impedance and


external impedance. According to the American standard
IEEE 80:2000, the overall resistance of the human body is HVTL
usually taken equal to 1000 [10]. IR
For pipelines installed above ground, the series
impedance with earth return is given by [1]: ZPP
Vp
V R1 R2 V
p .p . 3.7 .1.1

. 0
.
(1+ j ) + + j 0 .log
p 0
(9) Z pp =
2. 2..rp 8 2. 2.rp

Fig.4. Pipeline and electrode resistance circuit
Where: rp the pipelines radius, p the relative permeability
of the pipelines metal, p the pipelines resistivity.
Inductive Coupling validation
Most national regulations insist that safety measures have
to be taken when the voltage on the pipeline exceeds 50 or For demonstrating the validity of the proposed method, the
calculation results of the induced voltages due to inductive
65V under steady-state conditions [1,6].
By earthing the pipeline with two electrodes at each end of coupling on the pipeline are compared with those obtained by
the pipeline, this can reduce the voltages due to inductive the Passive Loop Conductor.
coupling. The current flowing to an earth electrode can be The basic principal of the induced voltage due to high
voltage power lines in the passive loop can be calculated
calculated from the residual potential of the pipeline at the
installation point and the earth resistance [6,7]. through Faradays Law. This law explains that magnetic fields
that change with time will induce electromotive forces in a on the value of the induced voltage. Because of its location
pipeline. The total flux t due to all the currents carrying above the phase conductors, it slightly increases the induced
conductors into the pipeline is calculated as a surface integral voltage of 1 to 2%, on the pipeline. In this study, the induced
as shown in [11]. voltage value on the pipeline obtained during the simulation is
67. 22 V, this value is above than the safety limit.
(1 3) t = B
s
t . ds
Radius
11.2 mm Radius
10 m 14.31 mm
Where: Bt the flux density, S the total surface area. The
pipeline conductors form a loop and are located at (xp, yp) and
(xp, -yp-De) (fig.5), applying the coordinates of the phase
conductors and the pipeline as shown in: 0.4m

( x p + x i ) + ( y p + De + y i )
2 2
. L. n
(14) t = 0 I i ln 20 m
(x p + x i ) + ( y p y i )
12 m
4. i =1 2 2

30 m
Using the total flux found in the previous step and making 1m
use of Faradays law, the induced voltage on the pipeline can
be found.
Fig.6. Single circuit horizontal configuration with ground wire
and above pipeline
t
(15) V ind =
t 8m
10 m 10 m
Combination of equations 14 and 15 gives equation 16
which may be used to calculate the voltage induced in the 8m
10 m 10 m 12 m
circuit:
12 m
(16) V p = j . . t 12 m 12 m
a b c
1
y
Fig.7. Different geometrical configurations for transmission
overhead lines (a) horizontal, (b) vertical, (c) delta
(xi,yi) Vp
100
Pipeline Without ground wire
With ground wire
90
(xp,yp) x
80
X: 30
Y: 67.22
70
Induced voltage [V]

60 X: 30
Y: 65.19

(xp,-yp-De) 50

Fig.5. the passive inductive loop conductors 40

30

Case study 20
For the present study, we consider a single-circuit 275 KV
10
horizontal overhead transmission line with one earth wire and -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]
an above ground insulated metal pipeline in the vicinity; the
Fig.8. Induced voltage profile on the pipeline with and without
geometrical data of the overhead line circuit and pipeline are
the ground wire (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)
shown in figure 6. The pipeline is parallel to the axis of the
power line at a distance of 30 m, it has an outer radius of 0.3 80
m and its height above ground is 1 m. The length of parallel
60 X: 0.01374
exposure of the pipeline and power line is 4 km. The three- X: 0.007273
Y: 65.19 Y: 67.22

phase currents on the power line have been assumed under 40


Induced Voltage(V)

balanced operation with the magnitude of 500 A. The earth is


20
assumed to be homogeneous with a resistivity of 100 .m.
Nominal frequency f =50 Hz. 0

-20
Results and Discussions
-40

Induced voltage due to inductive coupling on the pipeline -60 Without ground wire
located at different distances from the midpoint of the line with With ground wire
-80
and without the ground wire is shown in figure 8. As can be 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
Time(S)
seen in this figure, the induced voltage is almost negligible at
the central point of the transmission line and maximum where Fig.9. Temporal variation of the instantaneous value
the pipeline is located at separation distance equal to 15 m, of the induced voltage
and then it decreases progressively as the transverse position
of the pipeline increases. We can also see from this figure As can be seen from figure 9, the variation of the
that the presence of a ground wire practically has no influence instantaneous value of the transverse induced voltage
corresponding to the same example for the point in space (dp, As we see in figure 13, the variation of the induced voltage
hp) = (30, 1) [m] is presented for a time interval of [0- (1/ f)], in with the height of the conductors above the ground, the
function of the module and the phase angle of the induced increase in height of the conductors seems the most effective
voltage. method to reduce the induced voltage on the pipeline.
The relation between the induced voltage on the pipeline 72
and its height above ground is shown in figure 10, if the height
of the pipeline is increased above the ground a vertical 71

distance hp, it is noted that the induced voltage increases 70

Induced voltage [V]


slightly with approximate direct proportion.
From the figure 11 is clearly noticed as the radius of the 69

pipeline increases, the amplitude of the induced voltage on


68
the surface of the pipeline remains constant for the entire X: 12
Y: 67.22
length of parallelism. 67

74 66

73
65
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
72 Height of phase conductors above the ground hc [m]
Induced voltage [V]

71 Fig.13. Variation of the induced voltage by varying the height of


the conductors from the ground
70

69
We can see in figure 14 the effect of soil resistivity on the
induced voltage in a pipeline exposed to the parallel
68 X: 1
Y: 67.22
transmission line. For a separation distance from the point of
67 symmetry of the line about 30 m, it seems that the induced
voltage is insensitive to the resistivity of the soil. But beyond
66
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 this distance along the transverse axis, the influence of the
height of the pipeline hp [m] resistivity is marginal on the induced voltage. In other words,
Fig.10. Relation between the induced voltage and the height of the the voltage increases slightly with increasing soil resistivity.
pipeline (xp=30 m)
100
rho=100 ohm.m
68.5
90 rho=500 ohm.m
rho=1000 ohm.m
80
68
Induced voltage [V]

70
Induced voltage [V]

X: 30
60 Y: 67.22
67.5 X: 0.3
Y: 67.22
50

67 40

30

66.5 20

10
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
66
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]
Radius of the pipeline rp [m] Fig.14. Variation of Induced voltage with the soil resistivity
Fig.11. Relation between the induced voltage and the radius of the (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)
pipeline (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)
As can be seen in figure 15, a non-linear relation between
85
the effective values of the induced voltage with the soil
80 resistivity, starting from point of symmetry as distances less
75 than 15 metre (y=5 m) , the graph is a horizontal line with a
X: 10
70 constant slope, outside the zone (y=30 m) the slope of the
Induced voltage [V]

Y: 67.22

65 graph becomes very low.


60
The induced voltage level depends on the pipeline length
exposed to the transmission line. For a parallelism between
55
the pipeline and HV power line, figure 16 shows the induced
50
voltage along the pipeline for different length of a parallel
45
section. As the parallel section increases, the induced voltage
40 on pipeline increases with the exposure length.
35
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
It can be seen from figure 17 a proportional linear
Distance between conductors dc [m] relationship between the Induced voltage on the pipeline and
the exposure length of parallel sections.
Fig.12. Variation of the induced voltage by varying the distance
A comparison of induced voltages for all the three single
between conductors (hc=12 m)
circuit configurations (horizontal, vertical, delta) (see fig. 7), it
Using the geometry of figure 6, we vary the distance can be seen from figure 18 that the induced voltage on the
between the phase conductors and check the effect on the pipeline for a separation distance between the centre of
value of the induced voltage, shown in figure 12, as the power line and the pipeline equal to 30 m, the vertical
distance between the conductors phases is high, the induced configuration produces the lower magnitude of induced
voltage on the pipeline increases. voltage than the horizontal and delta configurations, the
horizontal configuration caused the height magnitude of
induced voltage for the same distance of separation of the It is worth noting that the effect of the earth wire of the
pipeline. transmission line in the state of balance is to slightly increase
Figure 19 shows the shock current pass through the the induced voltage on the pipeline.
human body. The distribution results are similar to the
250
induced voltages; it can be found that from 0 to 15m of the L=4 Km

Induced voltage of different length of pipeline [V]


pipeline position, the shock current increases until it reaches L=7 Km
L=10 Km
a maximum value (peak value of current). From this point, the 200

currents start decreasing gradually. It is interesting to note


that if the voltages are higher, the currents are higher 150
because the currents flowing through the human body
determined from the ratio of voltage induced to the total
longitudinal impedance of the circuit with the contact 100

resistance. In this example, the shock current magnitude is


equal to 50 mA. This high intensity is considered as an 50
unacceptable safety risk. The mitigation technique can be
applied in order to reach a negligible value of shock current.
0
Figure 20 shows the induced voltage in the electrode. In order -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]
to achieve a safe induce voltage (50 V), it is required to install
the pipeline section between two electrodes, the earth
Fig.16. Variation of Induced voltage with the length of
electrode resistance value less than 1.012 ohms. parallelism (dp=30 m, hp=1 m)
Figure 21 shows the resistance value for the electrode
according to the separation distance of the pipeline in order to 300
reduce the pipeline potential to the safety limit. x=30 m
x=5 m
As can be seen from figure 21, the earthing resistance 250
decreases to a minimum value then it increases to reach a
maximum value. For a beach of separation distance going of - 200

Induced voltage [V]


6 m to 6 m, the pipeline does not require an earthing
resistance because the induced tension is under the safe 150
voltage limit.
To validate the simulation results in this paper for the same 100
line geometry, the calculated of the induced voltages on the
pipeline due to inductive coupling from Carson's equations 50
method were compared with the results obtained from the
Passive loop conductor method. Figure 22 shows the 0
simulation results for the inductive interference on the 0 5 10
Length of parallelism between pipeline and power line[Km]
15

pipeline, the induced voltages obtained for two different


methods are compared; the analysis of results has shown that Fig.17. Relation between the induced voltage and separation
there is a good agreement. distance of the pipeline (dp=30 m, d=5 m ,hp=1 m)

100
70 Horizontal configuration
Vertical configuration
90 Delta configuration
x=30 m
x=5 m 80
65
X: 30
70 Y: 65.19
Induced voltage [V]
Induced voltage [V]

60
60
50

40
55 X: 30
Y: 41.4
30

20 X: 30
Y: 25.46
50
10

0
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
45
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]
soil resistivity [Ohm.m]
Fig.18. Induced voltage on the pipeline for various phase
Fig.15. Relation between induced voltage and the soil resistivity
(dp=30 m, d=5 m ,hp=1 m) configurations

The induced voltage vary with the pipeline heights from


ground surface, when the altitude of the pipeline is increased
Conclusion to the level of the conductors of the power line, the amplitude
In this paper, the inductive interference of high voltage of the induced voltage in the pipeline increases slowly.
transmission lines on the nearby pipelines have been Induced voltage on the pipeline is calculated at different
computed pipeline using the mutual impedances between pipeline radius, the variation of the radius has no significant
phase conductors and the pipeline ( Carson's equations), with effect on the voltage induced. The effect of varying the
the effects of various parameters on the generated separation distance between the conductors was studied,
interference. increasing the distance of separation between lines. The
The separation distance and the length of parallelism induced voltage increases. Regarding, the effect of the
between the HV transmission line and the pipeline are increasing the height of conductors above the ground, the
important factors that affect the level of the induced voltage. induced voltage decreases as the height of the conductors
This is reduced by increasing the separation distance and increases.
increases linearly with increasing the length of exposure.
The effect of soil resistivity on the induced voltage is the configuration has a significant effect on the amplitude of
practically negligible. If the soil resistivity is changed, that the induced voltage in the pipeline. For the electric shock
does not seem to have any significant effect on the induced current, it was found by this calculation that important
voltage. currents flowing through the body by the inductive effect,
70
causing various effects of an electric shock. To attenuate
the induced voltage on the pipeline under the safe touch
60
X: 30
voltage, an effective technique suggested is to install the
Y: 50.9 two ends of the pipeline with the grounding electrodes. The
50
results presented by the calculation methods used in this
Current [mA]

40
study are also compared to results obtained with the results
obtained through another numerical method. The
30 comparison shows a good agreement that confirms the
validity of the proposed methods.
20

10 REFERENCES
[1] CIGRE, Guide Concerning Influence of High Voltage AC Power
0
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
Systems on metallic Pipelines, CIGRE Working group 36.02
Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m] 1995.
Fig.19. Shock current passing through the human body [2] J. AL-GAHTANI, Electromagnetic Interference Caused by a high
voltage Transmission network on Buried Pipelines and
communication cables Master of Science (M.S.) degree in
X: 1.012
Y: 50 Electrical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum &
50 Minerals. January, 2009. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
Safe limit
[3] Abhishek Gupta,A Study on High Voltage AC Power
40 Transmission Line Electric and Magnetic Field Coupling with
Nearby Metallic Pipelines, Master of Science (Engineering),
Voltage [V]

30
Faculty of Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore-
August 2006, India.
[4] D.Markovic, V.Smith, S.Perera, S.Elphick, modelling of the
20
interaction between gas pipelines and power transmission lines in
shared corridors,Australasian Universities Power Engineering
10 Conference (AUPEC 2004), 26-29 September 2004, Brisbane,
Australia.
0 [5] M. H. Shwehdi, A Practical Study of an Electromagnetic
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Interference (EMI) Problem from Saudi Arabia accepted for
Resistance [Ohm]
presentation at Large engineering Systems Conference on Power
Fig.20. Electrode voltage Engineering LESCOPE04, pp 162 169, July 28-31, 2004,
1.1
Halifax, Canada.
[6] Australian/New Zealand Standard 4853:2000, Electrical
Hazards on Metallic Pipelines, Standards Australia/Standards
1.05
X: 30
Y: 1.012
New Zealand.
[7] Nassereddine M, Hellany A, Nagrial M, Analysis of the impact of
Resistance [Ohm]

1
the OHEW under full load and fault current International Jurnal of
Energy and Environment (IJEE), Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 727-736.
0.95
2010.
[8] Ahmed Hossam-Eldin, Wael Mokhtar, Ehab Mohamed Ali,
0.9 Effect of Electromagnetic Fields from Power Lines on Metallic
Objects and Human Bodies, International Journal of
0.85 Electromagnetics and Applications 2012, 2(6): 151-158
[9] IEEE Standards Board, IEEE Guide to Grounding During the
0.8 Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors, IEEE Std
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m]
524a-1993, Supplement to IEEE Guide to the Installation of
Overhead Transmission Line Conductors, Approved December 2,
Fig.21. Earth electrode resistance of the pipeline 1993..
[10] SafeGrid Earthing Design Software Comparison of substation
100
safety criteria given by the American (IEEE) and European (IEC)
Faradays Law Standards, ElectroTechnik Pty Ltd..
90 Carsons equation
[11] Transmission Line Reference Book. 345kV and Above (UHV)
80 Second Edition.Electric Power Research Institute, 34 12. Hillview
X: 30
Avenue, Palo Alto, California
Induced voltage [kV]

Y: 67.33
70

X: 30
60 Y: 67.22 Authors: Mr Rabah Djekidel, Laboratory of studies and Development
50
of Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, LeDMaScD University
Amar Telidji - Laghouat, Algeria., E-mail dje_rabah@yahoo.fr. Pr
40
Mahi djillali, Laboratory of studies and Development of
30 Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, LeDMaScD,University Amar
Telidji of Laghouat, E-mail mahidjillali@yahoo.fr
20

10
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
The correspondence address is:
Pipeline position from the center of transmission line [m] e-mail: dje_rabah@yahoo.fr
Fig.22. Comparison of induced voltages between the
Carson's Formulae and the Faradays Law

The Effect of configuration of the phases conductors (the


phases arrangement), it has been found that the variation of