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...

In the year when Serbia is marking the centenary of

1914-1918.
... -
the First World War, a group of authors have decided to
publish the monograph entitled Serbia and Branievo
during the Great War, 1914-1918. Its manuscript is the


, 1914-1918.

SERBIA AND BRANICEVO DISTRICT DURING THE GREAT WAR


result of the joint project of the Historical Archive of
Poarevac and the Military Archive. Despite the large
. -


number of historiographic publications dedicated to the -
First World War, not many scientific studies deal with , -
the times of war in Serbia and, at the same time, with its

1914-1918.
repercussions for a small environment like Branievo. This .
is the reason why the monograph Serbia and Branievo
during the Great War, 1914-1918 deserves undivided , 1914-1918.
scientific and readers attention. // . //
The monograph Serbia and Branievo during the
Great War, 1914-1918 was written on the basis of the SERBIA AND BRANICEVO , 1914-1918.
unpublished material from the archives in Serbia and ,
abroad, as well as the published archival material, press DISTRICT DURING , . -
and references. The chapters of the monograph have , -
scientific character; they were written expertly and are THE GREAT WAR .
based on social science methodology. The body of the text
is corroborated by scientific methodology and contains 966 a.
964 footnotes. The chapters were written clearly and in -
fine style, which facilitates tracking of the stated facts and
the understanding of the conclusions in an unambiguous .
manner. The structure of the monograph Serbia and
Branievo during the Great War, 1914-1918 is expertly , 1914-1918.
outlined, easy to follow, // providing a solid basis for . //
further scientific study of military and political history of
the First World War. .
The authors of the monograph did not repeat what had
already been said in the previous publications but rather, ,
they gave new outlooks on the Great War of 1914-1918. 1914-1918.
They focused on a specific aspect of the Great War of 1914- 1914-1918.
1918, using different historical sources, so their works , -
demonstrate a different style and method of research. . -
One valuable quality of this monograph is the fact that ,
it contains new insights and conclusions of each of the .
authors. Owing to such an approach, the monograph
Serbia and Branievo during the Great War, 1914-1918 , 1914-1918.
provides a new perspective on the incidents in Branievo -
and Serbia during the Great War. // . //

An excerpt from the review by


Lieutenant-colonel Slobodan uki, PhD, ,
Docent at the Military Academy in Belgrade

HISTORICAL ARCHIVE POZAREVAC MILITARY ARCHIVE
SERBIA AND BRANICEVO DISTRICT
, 1914-1918. DURING THE GREAT WAR

: Publisher:
Historical Archive Pozarevac
www.arhivpozarevac.org.rs www.arhivpozarevac.org.rs
info@arhivpozarevac.org.rs info@arhivpozarevac.org.rs
, 10 Special edition, book No.10

: Co-publisher:
Military Archive
www.isi.mod.gov.rs www.isi.mod.gov.rs
vojniarhiv@mod.gov.rs vojniarhiv@mod.gov.rs

: For Publisher:
, Ph.D. Jasmina Nikolic, director

: For Co-Publisher:
, Colonel Milorad Sekulovic, director

: Editor in-chef:
Ph.D. Jasmina Nikolic, director

: Editors:
Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic
Ph.D. Jasmina Nikolic

: Authors:
Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic
Ph.D. Danilo Sarenac
Ph.D. Miroljub Manojlovic
Ph.D. Gordan Bojkovic
MSc. Marijana Mraovic
MSc. Dragana Miloradovic
MSc. Nebojsa Djokic
, Jasmina Zivkovic, MA

: Rewiev:
. Ph.D. Momcilo Pavlovic, prof.
. Ph.D. Slobodan Djukic, doc.

: Proofreading:
Ljubica Kostic

: Translation:
. , MA Natasa Ivic, prof.

: Design and layout:


Newpress, Newpress, Smederevo

: 500 Circulation: 500

ISBN: 978-86-84969-58-5

2014. 2014. Historical Archive Pozarevac


All rights reserved

. Publishing of monography enabled by City of Pozarevac.


o onograph published on the occasion
. of the centenary of the First World War

1914-1918.



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42

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95 A. Mitrovi, Prodor na Balkan. Srbija u planovima Austro-Ugarske i
Nemake, 1908-1918, Beograd, 1981, str. 214-217., Erich Hobsbawm, Age ,
of Extremes, The Short Twentieth Century 1914-1991, London, 1994.
, , .98
96 273. 804
450.000 . 163. 557
250.000 , 2. 110 . 97 M. urii, Novi ekonomski i politiki problemi Srbije u ratnoj 1914.
69.022 ., ( godini, Vojnoistorijski glasnik, br. 4, 1964, str. 3-37.
), ( 98
), 3, 470, 2, 7. - ,
. .

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44
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107 - , -
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45

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51
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130 , , 16, 24, 1/1.


- 131 1915-1918, .
. , , 1976, . 187.
. 20. 1915. -
132 ,
: 10 - , I-XXXII , 11, . 18.
133 :
128 . , , . 254. , , -
129 . , , . 257-300. .

52
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--. 1915-1916, , , 1968,
. . 65-75.
, - 137 :
250
, , , ,
134 , , 6, 106, 2, 18/5., , -
, ., . ,
, 03.11.1915. . , -
135 . , , , 1918, . 38. 1980, . 17.

53
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138
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-
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. 26. -
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.
140 ,
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138 , - 141 , , 9, 97, 1, 1/146, 147,
, 1915. , , -
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., ,
1914-1918, - 142 , -
, , 1994, . 178. , I-XXXII , 13, . 116-118, 119-120, 128-129, 136-138.
139 1916-1918, 143 , . 136.
1981, . 257. 144 , . 150.

54
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16.11.1915. ( )

.

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11. 1. 1915. ,
, , 80.000 , .
. ( 220.000 , -
- )

55
( 200.000) -
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56


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57
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146 , 1912-1918, 1977, . 191.
147 , , 148 ,
. 361-362. , I-XXXII , 13, . 362.

58
, -


.

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59
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1915.
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:
;

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: ...
54.
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, 1912-1918, 1977, . 303-304.
--- . 152 , . 252.
153 . . . . , 1915,
150 , , 1967, . 181.
, I-XXXII , 13, 331-334, 359, 368-369. 154 , , 3, 470, . .7.

60
-

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-
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320. .

62
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159 , . - .
(1914-1918), . 165.

63
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28.
1916.
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64
59. ( )

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21. 1916. .161 .

. , 143.000 .
.

160 1914-1918, , 1974, . 273.


161 12.000
15.000 , ,
.
1916. .

65

1914-1916.
,

. -

. , - - .
- , -
. ,
, 1903. .
. ,
-
(1904 - 1905). 1903. -
. ,
-
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1914 - 1915. -
-
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.163 1908-1909.
, ,
. .164
,
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-
. -.165
-. , .
- -
- ,
-
- , 1815- 1941. -
, 2004, 111, 115, 118;
1878. . , -
XX - 1906-1911, 1962.
, - 163 -, -
.162 1903-1914, 1965, 209.
164 , - XX
162 , - , 1992, 303, 342.
, 1878. 1908, 1909, 9; 165 , , 2004, 72.

66
- , , , , -
. 6. .
. , 5. . ,
-,
. 166 -
.168
-
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. . .169 -
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, 1916.
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120 000
.170
,
.171

.

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168 , I, 1924, 166.


60. - , 2. 1914.
( ) 169
,
, , . : , -
, 1994, 130, 137-138; . ,
- -
, , 2, 1967, 236-237.
170 , 1914-1917 -
, 1994, 64.
166 . 171 , . .131.
167 . , . , 67. 172 , , 2010, 207-208.

67
- , , , ,
. , -
, .175
-
.
, ,
- ,
.173 , - .
. -, -
, .
1914. . -
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.176

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1915. .174 1914. -
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-
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-

1912.178
.
, - .

173 , - 175 , 1914, 1990, 87.


1915. ,
1934; , , 176 . , .. 45.
1927. 177 , 56.
174 ozef ofr, Ratni memoari, Beograd 1956, 362-363. 178 , 226.

68
- , ,
. , -
. . , ,
, 1915. . -
, -
.179 - . ,
, . , -
- -
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-
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. - 1915. . -
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, , 1915.
, . 181
.
-
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.180 -
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1915.
- ,
. , .182
. -
- -
, .
. 24. 1915. - -
.

, . . ,
,

179 , , , 181 , -3, -1, 20/1.


1990, 31. 182 ,
180 , 1915. , -
1915. , - , 6, 1986, 234; ,
, 6, 1986, 232. 1915 1917, 2009, 63.

69
.
- (Pierre Victor Fournier),
.
1914. . 1912 - 1913.
-
. 183 .186 ,
-
-. ,
- , -
1915. . - 1915. -
- . 1915. -
, 7. -
, . ,
.
.184 -
.187

, (Auguste Boppe)
1914. -
- .188
, , -
. - -
- , -
, .
. ,
-
- .
. -

. .
.189

, , -
186 ,
. 1915. , -
, 6, 1986, 231; ,
.185 , -
,
- 1914. . .
1914. , 1984, 172189.
183 . 187 .
184 . , . , 218; , . -- 188 .
, 1921, 3-4. 189 Krunoslav Spasi, Boravak srpskih trupa u Albaniji i njihov transport na
185 , , 2004, 91. Krf (decembar 1915 januar 1916), Vojno-istorijski glasnik, 1988, 2, 287.

70
1915. , - ,
, -
(Pau).190 .
, -
, .
- -
. . -
1913. . 193
, -
, . , ,
50 000 . -
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, -
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.191 1914.
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1915. ,
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.
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. . , ,
.195
.192 -
1915. , ,
, - -
. - . -

. .

190 , 232; . , . . 150. 193 Krunoslav Spasi, Boravak srpskih trupa u Albaniji i njihov transport
191 , , 1994, 130, 137- na Krf (decembar 1915 januar 1916), Vojno-istorijski glasnik, 1988,
138; , -3, -81, -6, 11/4; , -3, -72, -3, 10/4; , -3, 2, 287; , .
-81, -6, 11/17. , 1936, 6-8.
192 , 1914-1917 - 194 . , . . 6-8.
, 1994, 46, 218. 195 ,

71
61. 62.
, . .
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-
. -
. -
.
1900. -
. , (Daily Mail).196 -
(, - ,
) , XIX
.

. 196 Margaret MacMillan, The War that Ended Peace, New York 2013, 11.

72
. - -
- . ,
.197 - , -
- .200 (The
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-
. - .201
, ,
, , , -
- -
.198 , 1912 - ,
1913. .
. -
- .
(1853-1856) . , -
- . -
.199
- 1912 - 1913.202
- -
. , , -
- .
, - -
. , . -

. - 1912.
. (Illustration), (-
, , - ). 1914. 1916,
, -
. . -
, -
, 1914. .
.
(Manchester Guardian) .203
, (Louis. Hine), 1915.
1903. .

200 , 1914, 1990, 53.
201 .
197 Laurent Gervereau, Histoire du visual au XX sicle, Paris 2003. 202 , , 1913.
198 Mark Mazover, Balkan. Kratka istorija, Beograd 2003, 40. 203 , (18391940), -
199 Ian Jeffrey, Photography a Concise History, London, 2006. 1993, 64-65.

73
(Donald C. Thomson) , -
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- .208
. , , -
(John Reed) . ,
(Metropolitan Magazine).204 - , .

.205 -
, . -
. , . -

, , -
,
. , -
(New -
York Herald). .
- -
.206 . , -
, ,
. - .
. , , -
.209
-
. ,
-
. . -
, -
. a
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. .
-
I. .
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, .210
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74
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75
64. ;
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, , - .214 -
-
1915. .213 , ,
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,

213 The Man Who Shaped the Destiny of the Balkans, The Great War 214 Defending the Bridge between Europe and Asia, The Great War,
1603. 1604.

76
,
.
,

. -

. ,
, -
, ,
, -
. -

, ,
-
.

, -
.215 -

.

. -

. -

. -
-
,
-
. -
65. The War Illustrated ( )
11 .
, . - .
. -
.216
- . , -
, -
, -
. ,
215 Rebuilding Serbias Manhood, The War Budget, 22nd June 1916.
216 Field -gun Breasting a Bank in the Balkan Front Line, The War .
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77
66. The War Illustrated 2. 1916. ( )



. - -
1915. - .217
. -
, . -

.
. 217 The Huns Warriors Idea of War, The War Budget, 2nd December
1915.

78
, -
.
.

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.
-
-
. ,
-
-
.
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,

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, ,
-
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.

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1916.
67. The War Budget
, 17. 1916. ( )
.218 ,
, - . 219
. , - , -
.
. - . , -
, 1917.
. -

219 Ubavka Ostoji-Feji, Sjedinjene Amerike Drave i Srbija 1914-1918,
218 . , ., 4. Beograd 1994, 92.

79
- 1917. -
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1917. . -
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223 . , 12; . , . , 39. 225 , 59.

80
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1912-1918 (
: -
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., . , , 228 , , 1976,
1932, . 475. IX, . 325.

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3.000 2.000.229

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167
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168
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507 , , , 1986, 73.


509 , , , 1986, 74.
508 Raport sur les Domages causes ala Serbie et au Montenegro presen-
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172
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1919.
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36.336 .515 29. 69.000 .
1915. 600.000 , 518
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21. 1915. - , 1914. -
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, 2006, 236. :.. , -
513 Raport sur les Domages causes ala Serbie et au Montenegro presen- , ,
te a la Commission des Reparations de Dommages, Eca:Delegation
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, , 2006, 230. 1918, , 2014, 123.
514 Raport sur les Domages causes ala Serbie et au Montenegro presen- 518 , 20. , ,
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, , 2006, 230. te a la Commission des Reparations de Dommages, Eca:Delegation
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515 . , , , 2013, 76. Paix, Paris, 1919, 14-15. , 1914-1918,
516 , P3-K56-F4-31-012 , , 2006, 230.

173
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1918. -
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79.000
, 32.000
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522 Raport sur les Domages causes ala Serbie et au Montenegro presen-
, , te a la Commission des Reparations de Dommages, Eca:Delegation
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520 , Paix, Paris, 1919, 14-15. , 1914-1918,
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, , 1997, 50. 523 , , 1914-
521 , , , 1984, 21-24. 1918, , 2014, 247.

174
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150.000 .524 , .527 ,

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1916. . , 150.000 - 150.000
, - 60.000
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1500 3000 4000 .529 -
524 -
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525 , 1914-1918, 527 , ( ,
, , 2006, 230. 6.000 ), , 1936, 45.
526 - 528 , P4/1-K80-F4-D1
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175

, -

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-
1919.
La Serbie,
: 1. 1914. -
1915.
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,

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, , ,
1915. , -
,
531 Clara Sturzenegger, Die Wiederauferstehung Serbiens, seine gor-
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176
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, 40.000 40.000, -
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532 Clara Sturzenegger, Die Wiederauferstehung Serbiens, seine gor- 535 Clara Sturzenegger, Die Wiederauferstehung Serbiens, seine gor-
reichsten und seine dunkelsten Tage Dokument zur Kriegsfuhrung der reichsten und seine dunkelsten Tage Dokument zur Kriegsfuhrung der
vereinigten osterr.-ungarischen, deutschen und bulgarischen Armeen vereinigten osterr.-ungarischen, deutschen und bulgarischen Armeen
nebst einer Anzahl Protographien, Bern-Berlin, 1920,1-72. nebst einer Anzahl Protographien, Bern-Berlin, 1920, 1-72.
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177
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539 . , , , 2004, 95. 543 , .. , -
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178
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547 . , , , , 2004, 125. , 2007, 119.

179
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. . , -
, 551 , 1916. ,
, : 1916. , . 2,
, 2007, 15.
1915.
552 Costa Stoyanovitch, Memoires et Rapportssur les Traites de Paix svec
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553 : http://www.glas-javnosti.rs/clanak/
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180
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554 Raport sur les Domages causes ala Serbie et au Montenegro pre-
sente a la Commission des Reparations de Dommages, Eca: Delega-
tion du Rouyame des Serbres, Croates et Slovences a la Conference
de la Paix, Paris, 1919, 18. , 1914-1918,
, , 2006, 230.
555 , P3-K56-F4-031-013
556 , , 1914-
1918, , 2014, 191
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, 333.
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, 311; , . , . 101. 619 , . 40.
617 , . 38, 39; 620 18. 1915, 9 22 1 1/42.
. , 1915-1918, - 621 , . 41, 169 : . , -
, 1921, . 10. , IX/1991, . 47.

200
, ,
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623 24. , 7. 7 12 , 12 , 3 28 .
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3..1915, 9 22 4 17/4; 9 22 4 17/5; 9 22 627 , . 383.
4 17/6. 628 . , . , . 119.

201

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. 632 () 223 18.IX 1915.
633 , . 225 20.IX 1915.
629 ., , . 1037 634 A.Mitrovi, Prodor na Balkan...,269.
14. 1984. . 635 .. -, -
630 ., ( ), 13. 1915, 1968, 124-132.

202
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. - 636 1915-1916. , 1968, 31-32.

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204



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205
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207
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208

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,
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- VII, .2, 1983, 107-213; A.Mitrovi, Prodor na Balkan, 303-
. - 339, Z.Avramoski, Ratni ciljevi Bugarske i Centralne sile 1914-1918,
Beograd 1985, 173-213.
654 .
652 .itrovi, Prodor na Balkan, 303-339 655 .Avramovski, ., 173-213

209
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210
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, 660 D.orevi, Austrougarski okupacioni sistem u Srbiji i njegov slom
1918. Nauni skup u povodu pedesetogodinjice raspada Austro-
Ugarske monarhije i stvaranja jugoslovenske drave, Zagreb
658 . 1969,220-221.

211
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. 1915.
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. , 1916, -
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1915-1918, 1921,108-149.
661 . , - 663 . , ..., 158, . , ...,
, , II (1975), 149-171; : 149-150.
, 664 D. orevi, . , 200-226, . ,
1914 1918, I 1916-1918. :
(1974) 61-74. ( ) , 1972, 183-199.

212


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1917. , ...669
1918. 63.797 .667 - 1915
- 1918. -
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Paris 1918,1-81, . . , --
. :
- , 1918,1-74.
666 . , ..., 157 (
, , 17, 198 (.15). 669 ., ..., 152. (
:
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668 . , ..., 68. 300-301.)

213
.
-

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1915. .

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.
.

671 . , . , 288; . , . , 78-80.
670 . , . , 79-80; . , 672 , , , 1956, 132; .
, , V, , 1958, 263-315. , . , 81.

214
, , , , -
. 1. 1918, .677 ,
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,
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1916.
. -
.
673 . , . , 292.
674 , 288.
675 . , , 164. 677 . , . , 292.
676 ., 1915-1918, : 678 , 294.
1915-1918, 1989, 568. 679 . , , 159.

215
15. II 1915, . , -
28. 1918. . ( ,
, - )
(Belgrader Nachrichten) (Belgradi
Hirek), -
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, ) ( , ).683
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, 29. 1917, 27 .685
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1916. -
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LVII (2000), 175-181.
680 . , . , 306; . , . , 89. 684 . , . , 570.
681 , , , 1923, 61. 685 . , a, 159.
682 , 1914- 686 . , . , 299.
1918, , 1923, 256. 687 , 300.

216
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: - 17.677 . 694
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meineGrundzuge f die k.u.k. Milltrerverwaltung in den be-
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.691
(Direktiven fr die politische Verweltung im Bereiche des Millitr-
generalgouvernments in Serbien). . , . , 299; .
688 . , , 161; . , . , , -
304. , : , . LV- LVI, 289-305.
689 . , . , 304. 692 . , . . 304.
690 ., 1790-1918, 2, , 1979, 759. 693 ; , 1915
691 1918, , 1919, 125; . , . , 289-291.
: - (Allge- 694 . , ., 302.

217
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, 1914. . - .697
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.696

234. , 235. 1915.


, 1917. ( ) ( )


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,

697 R.A.Reiss, Les Austro/Hongrois en Serbie envahie Raport presente a
.le President du Conseil des Ministres du Royaum de Serbie, Paris
695 . , 1918. 1919.
1970, 445-452, 461-482. 698 . , . . , 18 ( :
696 . , , : (),
--- 1914-1918., (. ), (),
1997, 275-309. , ().

218

1916-1918.
1915.

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,

699 A. Mitrovi, Prodor na Balkan, 317-323, .Avramovski, . ,


213-265. 236. ,
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219
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220
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1915. - .
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1910).
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1916-1918. .
. (. , , 101-102 ), . ,
. - , XXI.

221
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1917. 1918. . , , (?).710 -
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1919. 6/1968, 96-97.
.
709 . , . , 72-73.
. 710 . , , 153.

222
12. 1916.
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3. 1916.
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, .

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1916.

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240.
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711 , 153.
712 . , . , 659; . , 1917, .717
1971, 31-37.
713 , 299-308. 716 . . , -
714 . , . , 67. - , 1987, 35.
715 , 78. ( - 717 . , 1896-1996,
, ). 1996, 41.

223



.

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1916.
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1918.
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719 .
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, ,
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224
...
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-

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,

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1916. -
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.

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724 . , ,
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225

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,
.


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57; ,

16. 1918. -
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1918. . 16. 1918.

;
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ultima ratio
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226
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1919. .)

227
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729 . , ., 75-90; ., , 61.


730 ., . , . , 209-210. ( -
. .

247. ). -
( ..) .

228


. -
, 1917. -
2. 1916. , 1918. 20.
: - .733
. . -
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. , Drang nach Osten
, .
, 1914,
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. 731
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[...]
40.000.000 .736 , -
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[...] 45-75%
[...]
. 733 : . , ..., . 388.
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, :
731 . , 1858-1918, , III, 6, -,
, 2012, . 388. , 2008, . 105.
732 . , 1914 -1918. , 735 . . , . 93.
, 2006, . 184. 736 : ., . , . 92.

229
30% 60%.737 6,16,375 , , ,
, . - . 24.000
, , o, 1.100
324 .739
1910. .
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. 1918.
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, : 83.182,939 , 2.127,152
, 284,962 45.000 ... 739 ., ..., .19.
. 740 : .. , , , -
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19161918. , 1000 -
741 : . , ,
, 371.160 2004, 286.
742 . , . , . 387.
737 . , . , . 95. 743 . , - ,
738 : ., - 1914-1918, , 1919,
, , 2007, . 18-19. . 73.

230
, . 1918. , , ,
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.744 ,
1917. -
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.
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, ,
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... , .
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, , , , , 110, 615,
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220, 50
744 ; II 202/19; II 167/18 18.12.1918. 40 .751
. :
745 , . 23; . - . -
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, : , , - ,
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746 ., ., , 749 : . , . , . 101-103.
.85. 750 . , . , . 197.
747 . , . , . 74. 751 . , .., .388; . ,
748 . , ..., . 388. . , . 79-82.

231
. , , . ,
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.752 ,
1915. , .
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. -
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1918, - . -
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,
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1915:
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1916. -
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248. 754 . , : , : -
1915. ( ) , , , 2007, .
793-794, 42: . , -
1916. 1918. , , 2000, 47.
752 , , 755 , . .
1914-1918, - - , , 2000:
756 , . 783.
2.1.1916 22.9.1918. . 355- 358. 757 . , . , . 783.
753 , . . 758 , , 122 I 1915.

232
,
.
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,
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,
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759 . , . , . 783.
,
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. -
761 . , . , . 783: 25: . , . .763
..., . 49.
762 . , . , . 783: 26: . ,
.., 86. 763 . , ..., . 792-793.

233

. 768 , -
, - ,
, . - -
1914: .769 1916.
- 10 12 , 16, 5,
15 , 15 20 10, 20 .770
.764 -
, - , -
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1915. , -
.766 - . -
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1915. , , - -
. , , - .771 ,
. ,
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. 90% , , -
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-
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, 1916. 1917. -
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, 768 . , . , . 787: 29: . ,
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235
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237
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238
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240
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247
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248
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254
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255


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257
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258
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259
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260
274. , 1914. ( )

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261
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262
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263
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264
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265
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, .

283
Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevi
Institute for Contemporary History

RESUME
The outcome of the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) made On the other hand, Austro-Hungarian military leaders
Austria-Hungary increasingly suspicious about further ac- had already considered that Serbia deserved punishment
tions of the Kingdom of Serbia. Upon entering Bosnia and and that the assassination was an appropriate cause. One
Herzegovina in 1878, the small kingdoms powerful neigh- short campaign was believed to be enough to restore the
bouring country was apprehensive largely about a nation- lost pride after the assassination of the prince. On the other
al uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina and it focused its hand, the war was supposed to return the encouraged Ser-
politics on the Balkans solely on this problem. In Serbia, bia into the political and economic orbit of the Monarchy,
the attitude towards Bosnia became significantly radical- which it had irretrievably left after the dynastic changes,
ised following the Austro-Hungarian annexation in 1908. annexation crisis, the Pig War and the Balkan Wars.
What followed in Serbia was an atmosphere charged with Until the beginning of the war, Austro-Hungarian ulti-
nationalism but also with hatred towards Austria-Hungary. matum played a key role in the mutual relationship. Before
The demonstrations which had taken place in the capital it was presented to Serbian government, there had been
of Serbia between 1908 and 1909 gave birth to a new gen- common sense and caution on Serbian side. The play last-
eration which would lead the fighters at the beginning of ed for about three weeks. After this, Baron Giesl, an Austro-
the Balkan Wars in 1912. Winning those wars sustained the Hungarian envoy in Belgrade, showed up with an ultima-
feeling of nationalist and patriotic euphoria, both in public tum. He demanded a reply within 24 hours. Paragraphs 5
and among authority figures. and 6 demanded the presence of Austro-Hungarian coro-
The visit of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne, was en- ners on the territory of the Kingdom, in order to investigate
visaged as an ambitious demonstration of Viennas attitude the assassins accomplices. These paragraphs were in direct
towards this region. However, it is noticeable that the date opposition to Serbian independence, and Serbian govern-
of the visit to Sarajevo had been chosen quite carelessly. It ment could hardly tolerate this.
was on 15th/28th June 1914, on Vidovdan, the holiday which German military leaders, who forced Austro-Hungarian
was of much historical significance for Serbs. The assassins military leaders to react quickly, counted on Russia to enter
were members of a secret revolutionary organisation Young the war on the Serbian side; they planned the war in July
Bosnia. It is arguable that an entire series of coincidences 1914 having this in mind. It was as if this German initiative
had contributed to the assassination. Even though it was did not count on the involvement and a rather quick inter-
the epoch of assassinations and there had been visits to the vention of France and, especially, Great Britain in the war.
territory where a part of the population was not in favour of Any war plans in the modern history proved to be problem-
the regime, almost no security measures were taken during atic and with an unpredictable outcome. The war in 1914 was
the visit of the heir to the throne. no exception. The inclusion of Great Britain into the war
Although Serbian government was wary of the Hab- made it turn into a World War in the following steps.
sburg Monarchy, they were not expecting a war, and the Austria-Hungary and Serbia both announced general
assassination in Sarajevo was a great surprise and tempta- mobilisation on 25th July, and 28th July 1914 was the first
tion to them. It should be emphasised that, officially, Ser- day of war. What followed was the declaration of war by
bian politicians were not at all responsible for this incident. Austrian emperor Franz Joseph on 28th July. After that,

284
Austro-Hungarian army took first direct action in Belgrade, that Austro-Hungarian army claimed many civilian victims
Serbian capital. On the following day, 29th July, Serbian during their invasion in August 1914. Almost 3,000 civil-
Prince Regent Aleksandar issued his declaration of war. ians were killed, and approximately 1,500 houses and other
Using dramatic words (Our Serbia has been assailed by a buildings were destroyed. Civilians were killed in the most
great evil), he denied the responsibility for the assassina- terrifying ways, without any reason apart from revenge.
tion and called on Serbs to defend with all their strength Serbian victory in the Battle of Cer and the initial in-
their hearth and home and Serbian race. eptitude of Allied armies, Russian and French, resulted in
General Von Hetzendorf, head of Austro-Hungarian the increased pressure on Serbian government to deploy
General Staff, and General Potiorek, commander of the their troops to a demonstrative action against Austro-Hun-
troops appointed to the Balkans, insisted on the offensive garian army. Russia was particularly interested in such an
towards Serbia. Above all, they expected that Serbia had action, for the sake of reducing Austro-Hungarian pressure
been exhausted by the two previous wars and believed that and slowing down the concentrating of their forces on the
a single fast campaign would break the myth about Serbian Eastern Front. This pressure of Allies, especially Russians,
victories in Kumanovo and Bregalnica and meet the threat on Pais Government, provoked the decision of Serbian
from that side with a victory. Moreover, they believed that Supreme Command about launching the offensive on Aus-
fast action and victory over Serbia would draw other, neu- tro-Hungarian territory in the Srem District in September
tral countries to the side of the Central Powers. 1914, which, however, ended unsuccessfully, with the re-
The basic motto of Serbian General Staff in 1914 was treat of the troops to the Serbian side.
simple in definition: Remain defensive until the political Austro-Hungarian army resumed their actions on 8th
and strategic circumstances clear up, and subsequently op- September 1914, this time with greater caution. Serbian
erate according to the situation. Contrary to the expecta- army had already been on their positions, on a long front
tions of Serbian military leaders, Austro-Hungarian army line along the Danube, Sava and Drina rivers. The series
concentrated their troops for the attack in the northeast of of military operations which were carried out in the north-
Bosnia, where they launched the main attack on Serbia. east of Serbia between 6th September and 16th November
On 12th August, at dawn, the troops of the Fifth Army 1914 are known in Serbian military history as the battle of
crossed the River Drina near Loznica and Lenica, while the Drina. A part of this offensive was the famous battle of
the Second Army from the Srem District performed de- Makov kamen in late September. This battle is considered
monstrative operations in order to draw the attention of to be one of the bloodiest battles in Austrian campaigns
Serbian Supreme Command away from their basic direc- against Serbia in 1914. None of the conflicting sides could
tion of movement. The decisive battle took place on Cer have been satisfied with the results of the battles in western
Mountain. Serbian forces managed to break through the Serbia in late September. Austro-Hungarian army did not
front line of the Fifth Army and to force Austro-Hungarian achieve success, whereas Serbian army did not manage to
troops to retreat. Afterwards, on 24th August, there were no chase the aggressor away from their territory completely.
Austro-Hungarian soldiers left in the Kingdom of Serbia, In mid-November 1914, in a new offensive, Austro-
except for the captive ones. The Battle of Cer was the first Hungarian forces pushed Serbian army deeper into central
greater victory of the Allies in the Great Wars, and it made Serbia. Serbian army was in a very poor condition. Weari-
Serbian weapons renowned all over Europe. ness, low morale, a drastic fall in the numbers of available
Serbian army suffered great losses. The price of vic- weapons and equipment all contributed to the severity of
tory was heavy over 16,000 soldiers and non-commis- the situation. For some time, Belgrade was deserted and
sioned officers and 260 officers lost their lives. Particularly occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces. Serbian army and
unexpected and painful for the Serbian side was the fact civilians retreated towards umadija.

285
Upheaval followed. A short break, lasting only two days, Serbia was to liberate and unite all Serbs, Croats and Slo-
made it possible for Serbian troops to rest, eat, become re- venes into a single Yugoslav state.
inforced with manpower and weapons from the existing A period of calm ensued, lasting until the autumn of 1915.
warehouses. On 3rd December, Serbian First Army launched The first eight months of the year were marked by the inter-
a counterattack from the slopes of Suvobor Mountain, and ruption in war operations in Serbian battlefields. At this time,
so did the military forces from Uice, moving in their direc- Serbian army took up strategic positions on the northwestern
tion from the region of Takovo. In the afternoon of the same and northern borders along the Drina, Sava and Danube riv-
day, the Second and the Third Armies carried out an attack ers, in the area of the River Timok towards Bulgaria and the
with the aim of chasing the enemy away across the River main positions on the borderline towards Albania.
Kolubara. A surprise was achieved, which affected the sub- In accordance with the demand of combative activities,
sequent course of operations. The attack was turning into the concentration of Serbian troops was somewhat higher
chasing Austro-Hungarian troops towards the Drina and in the western part of the country. Therefore, a part of the
Sava rivers, and before mid-December they completely left units began relocating to new positions in the beginning of
Serbia. The course of war operations, known in Serbian 1915. On 14th/27th January the first line of the Danube Divi-
military history as the battle of Kolubara, was thus ended. sion already started relocating to the new positions in the
Austrian troops were once again chased out of Serbia. area surrounding Poarevac. The defence plan of Serbian
The losses, however, were heavy, and they were suf- army was based on the Danube as a natural barrier which
fered by all classes of society. Serbian army suffered great was hard to overcome. The troops of the third line of the
losses (163,557 people, 2,110 of whom were officers and Danube Division protruded towards the enemy, whereas
8,074 of whom were non-commissioned officers) and their the troops of the first line were in the depth. Following
reserves were completely exhausted. Nevertheless, Ser- the order of the Commander of the Air Force Command,
bia became extremely admired by its allies. The defeat of two air force departments were formed on 5th/18th Decem-
Austria-Hungary made the ideas about binding with Bul- ber 1914, the one in Belgrade with two aircraft and the one
garia and Turkey unreal. Romania, Greece and Bulgaria in Branievo with one aircraft in Poarevac. The test flight
remained neutral for some more time. The Allies described from the airport in Poarevac started on 19th April/2nd May
Serbia in their countries in a highly positive manner. They 1915. Since January 1915, enemy airplanes flew almost
praised its peoples democratic, rural nature, their persis- daily above Smederevo, Poarevac and other towns along
tence and courage. Among Serbian soldiers there were a the Danube in the direction of Gradite and Golubac. Until
number of women who defended their fatherland with the autumn of 1915 the atmosphere in Poarevac was calm,
shotguns in their hands, because the war was not a matter even relaxed, after the great victories of Serbian army.
concerning men and soldiers only - it spread inexorably, The epidemic typhus which broke out in the end
affecting civilians too, and women understood that their of 1914 in the region of the border made the recovery of
responsibilities overcame the boundaries of their homes, Serbian people very difficult. Upon their retreat over the
houses and families. In the decisive moments, women Danube and Sava rivers, Austro-Hungarian army left their
mothers, sisters, wives, daughters stood equal to men at soldiers infected with typhus in Serbian hospitals, so the
the altar of the fatherland. disease spread to the wounded Serbs as well. The mobility
The victory in the Battle of Kolubara led to a turning of soldiers and the return of refugees to their homes led to
point in Serbian politics. A coalition government had been the further spread of the disease, which reached epidemic
formed earlier, and at the Parliament session held in Ni on proportions in early 1915. Serbian medical service, togeth-
7th December 1914 the Declaration adopted by the govern- er with hospital teams from Allied and neutral countries,
ment was issued, according to which the war objective of worked day and night in order to suppress the epidemic.

286
During the period of calm in 1915, the Central Pow- The situation was especially critical in the southern sec-
ers prepared a great concentric offensive against Serbia in tor of the front line between Serbia and Bulgaria: the Bul-
which they planned to engage the elite units of all three garians managed to crush the resistance of Serbian units,
countries under the command of the German Field Marshal occupy Vranje, put the railway between Ni and Skopje
August von Mackensen. German and Austro-Hungarian out of action and cut the main railway connection between
troops started artillery and landing attacks on 6th October Serbian troops and Thessaloniki, from where Serbian army
1915, and on 7th October they crossed the Sava and Danube received supplies. The order about the retreat through Al-
rivers. The major part of German army forced their way east bania and Montenegro was issued to army commanders by
of Belgrade towards the valley of the River Velika Morava, the Supreme Command on 29th November. The retreat of
while Austro-Hungarian army was directed towards Bel- Serbian army was slower than planned because Serbian ci-
grade due to the moral, political and public significance vilians retreated with them too, afraid that the enemy could
of capturing the capital. The extraordinary bravery of the take revenge on them like in the previous year. The mo-
defenders of Belgrade slowed down the advance of the en- ment of making the decision to retreat was one of the most
emy; nevertheless, on 11th October 1915 German troops en- critical moments for Serbian government and army during
tered Serbian capital. Serbian army managed to slow down the First World War.
the advance of the enemy troops according to the directives As regards the physical strength and morale after their
of the Supreme Command which expected the aid of the arrival to the Adriatic coast, Serbian army was in a poor con-
Allies. Given the fact that there was no significant action of dition. The Allies could not even agree for a long time about
the Allies in this period, on 15th October 1915 the Supreme the location to which they would relocate Serbian army.
Command issued the directive to the commanders of the The efforts of the Supreme Command to solve the prob-
First and Third Armies and the commander of the Defence lems of accommodating, feeding and supplying Serbian
of Belgrade about the directions of the retreat. troops lasted day and night, but at those difficult moments
The defence of Poarevac started on 24th September everything depended on the will and understanding of the
(7 October) 1915. This relocation was defended by Serbian
th
Allies. Numerous special publications offered detailed re-
Third Army, which consisted of the first line of the Danube ports on the progress of Serbian retreat and their suffering
Division, Branievo unit and the first line of the Drina Divi- and on Bulgarian unfaithfulness. The representatives of
sion. As the enemy approached the town, more and more the Allies medical missions attracted special interest.
civilians left their homes and started evacuation towards The main body of Serbian army was evacuated from
Petrovac and Svilajnac. In this general confusion, an agree- Albania and transferred to Corfu up to 21st February 1916.
ment was made that the most prominent citizens should Serbian army spent seven weeks on the Adriatic coast of Al-
stay in the town and surrender. After that, on 1st/14th Octo- bania. According to analyses, over 143,000 Serbian soldiers
ber the citizens gathered in front of the Town Hall capitu- died during the retreat through Albania and Montenegro.
lated to the German commander. The preparations for giving shelter and providing ac-
After Bulgaria had joined the war and two Bulgarian commodation to Serbian troops were not complete in time,
Armies went on the offensive on the eastern borders on 14th owing to the fact that Corfu was chosen to be the evacua-
October 1915, and after the further pressure of German 11th tion site at the last minute. Due to the substantial losses in
Army in the valley of the River Velika Morava, the situa- the course of the war, the Supreme Command was forced
tion began to deteriorate dramatically. At the Government to reorganise the remaining troops after allocating the army
session held in Kruevac on 29th October 1915, presided by in Corfu. Between November 1915 and May 1916, a series of
Prince Regent Aleksandar, the decision to persist with the conferences was held between the Allies in Chantilly and
current politics was adopted. Paris, dealing with strategic issues, the fate of Serbian army

287
and the battlefield in Thessaloniki. The prevailing opinion Bulgarian offensive in the direction from Bitola to Ostrovo,
was that the Thessaloniki front should be sustained and that Serbian army achieved their first success and victory after
Serbian army should be used as an integral military forma- being exiled from their fatherland. This success is consid-
tion with tactical independence and command. The Supreme ered to have affected Romanias decision to join the war on
Command was taken over by French General Sarrail; with a 28th August, and Greece to express their readiness to join
special legal act, Prince Regent Aleksandar had transferred the Entente on 30th August. However, Serbian army paid a
some of his authority as a Commander-in-Chief to Sarrail. heavy price for blocking the offensive.
A comprehensive and demanding job of reorganising Following the initiative of Serbian Supreme Command,
Serbian army was performed with the professional help of the Commander-in-Chief of the Allies, General Sarrail, or-
French officers. Operational army was divided into three dered a counter-offensive in the western sector of the front
Armies, weaker than at the beginning of the war. Essential- line, in Macedonia, on 12th September 1916. After the Bat-
ly, after the change of formation, the three Serbian Armies tles of Gornievo and Kajmakalan, Serbian troops fought
resembled French army organisation, i.e. French corps, the next battles with success, which directly affected the
in terms of the number of soldiers and weapons. Previ- decision of Bulgarian troops to leave Bitola, which they had
ous lines of six divisions were comprised of the manpower entered on 19th November 1916. With the entrance of the
of the former 13 infantry regiments of both lines of divi- Allies into Bitola, the autumn offensive was completed. The
sions. The reorganisation of Serbian army was completed Supreme Command of the Allies did not exploit the success
on 26th April 1916. The Supreme Command received a part of Serbian army any longer. The victory at Kajmakalan it-
of war material necessary for the formation and training self opened the way back to the fatherland and reaffirmed
of the troops in Corfu, whereas the largest part was sent the image of Serbian army to the Allies. Serbian army
to Thessaloniki. Soldiers were trained both in Corfu and claimed many victims to carry out this offensive success-
Thessaloniki, so that in the second half of 1916 they started fully. As many as 33,500 people, 1,000 of whom were offic-
preparing for the transfer to the front line. ers, were put out of action.
Upon the arrival in Corfu, Serbian state was formed in What followed was the entrenching at the lines which
exile, even though without territory. State administration had been reached; for the next two years the war would
functioned without interruption until the end of the First be fought in trenches. In late December 1916 the reorgani-
World War. From Corfu, Serbian Government led and co- sation, i.e. downsizing of Serbian army started, due to the
ordinated international politics of the Kingdom of Serbia losses in the autumn and the impossibility of reinforcement
until the end of war. The Allies acknowledgment of the le- in the form of manpower. The downsizing started in mid-
gitimacy of Serbian Government was essential for the fate January and it lasted, in several stages, until March 1917.
of Serbian state. However, both sides remained defensive until September
In mid-August 1916, Bulgarian military leaders decid- 1918. The only exceptions were occasional attacks among
ed that the possible opening of the front line in the north the infantry, the exchanges of artillery fire, reconnaissance
by Romania should be prevented with a successful offen- and aerial activities from both sides.
sive against the Allies in the south, in Macedonia. Bulgarian In 1917 there was an important political moment which
troops had gone on the offensive and pushed the newly- largely determined the course of history after the end of
arrived Serbian troops before the Allies managed to carry the war. It was the conference in Corfu, held in June and
out the attack they had planned. On 17th August, Bulgarian July, between the representatives of Serbian Government
army carried out two flanking manoeuvres in the east, in and Yugoslav Committee, consisting of the representa-
the lower stream of the River Struma, and in the west, in tives of peoples of Yugoslavia in Austria-Hungary. There
the direction from Bitola to Ostrovo. Having blocked the they agreed that, after the war, a Yugoslav state should be

288
formed on the territory where Yugoslav peoples live, and The occupation of Serbia entailed the prohibition of
that it should be a constitutional and parliamentary monar- all existing forms of public life (all political, professional,
chy, led by the Karaorevi dynasty. In this way, Serbian cultural and sport organisations were dismissed). This was
war goals, proclaimed in late 1914, turned from Serbian followed by mass internment, taking a large number of hos-
into universal, Yugoslav ones. tages, violent behaviour and disarming people. The crimes
The creation of a volunteer division had started even committed by enemy troops in the Military Government
earlier, followed by the creation of Serbian Volunteer can be described as both extremely brutal and large-scale.
Corps, consisting of volunteers prisoners of Serbian, Cro- Plundering was common, both among military and ci-
atian and Slovene nationality in Russia. This was consistent vilian authorities of Bulgarian occupational authorities. It
with the proclaimed goal of creating a new, common, Yu- was done in every opportunity and it was tightly connected
goslav state. At the turn of the years 1917 and 1918, Serbian to requisition. As one of the measures of denationalisa-
army was reinforced by almost 20,000 soldiers from Rus- tion of Serbian population, performed by Bulgaria on the
sia, followed by those who voluntarily applied in America pretext of reinforcing Bulgarian army, a male (aged 18-50)
and were successively admitted to Serbian army during the population census was conducted for the purpose of con-
two years. The volunteers in Serbian army during the Great scription in the end of summer of 1916. The conscription
War fought tenaciously to liberate all South Slavs from was met with the strong resistance of Serbian population,
Austria-Hungary and unite them with Serbia and Monte- especially in the country, and Bulgarian authorities re-
negro. sponded with a brutal revenge on the fugitives and their
In the same year, an uprising took place in Serbia. Fol- families. Taking as a starting point the proclaimed goal that
lowing the breakdown of the Kingdom of Serbia and the the occupied territory of Serbia was purely Bulgarian, they
retreat of its army beyond its borders, the three enemies strove hard to Bulgarise Serbian population and wipe out
of Serbia Austria-Hungary, Germany and Bulgaria the Serbian nation.
reached an agreement about the division and ruling Ser- During the winter of 1916-1917, several campaigns were
bia. Bulgaria was free to occupy what it had been promised, carried out against Serbian insurgents-guerilla fighters.
and it divided that territory into two zones. The territory However, in February 1917, when Bulgarian Government
in the basin of River Juna Morava and east of the River ordered the conscription of Serbian young men to their
Velika Morava were called Military-Inspection Region army, there was a new wave of hiding in forests and the
of Morava, whereas the second one included Macedonia development of militant Serbian nationalist guerilla. The
and was called Military-Inspection Region of Macedonia, uprising was staged in the wider region around the Toplica
with its centre in Skopje. The rest of the occupied territory and Jablanica rivers and around Kopaonik and Jastrebac
fell under the government of Austro-Hungarian Military mountains, it stretched to Vlasenica and it was also felt in
General Government, and it was centred in Belgrade. In some parts of Timok and Kosovo. The uprising in Serbia
the Military-Inspection Region of Morava, Bulgarians in early 1917 lasted for about a month. The number of vic-
formed internal organisation corresponding to the state of tims is imprecise, though it is certain that Bulgarian and
war, but also in harmony with the intention to permanently Austro-Hungarian troops killed tens of thousands of men
adjoin this territory to Bulgaria; therefore, military and and women, old and young, and sent twice or three times as
civilian governing was combined. In this way, the town of many people to internment camps. It was the only uprising
Poarevac changed their occupying forces after the depar- on the continent of Europe, and also the only one on all of
ture of German forces in the end of 1915. Since 2nd January the occupational territories formed in this war.
1916 Poarevac and its surroundings were adjoined to the On 18th June 1918 General Franchet dEsprey became
Bulgarian zone of occupation. the Commander of the Allied Forces on the Thessaloniki

289
front. The French general immediately started analysing The breakthrough of the front line in Macedonia and
the possibilities for the decisive action on the Thessaloniki the elimination of Bulgaria from the war had powerful re-
front. Until the end of June he analysed the possibilities percussions in Europe and the world as a great sensation.
and appropriate places to break through the front line, and The Thessaloniki front was not very significant and it was
the Serbian Regent informed him, on his first day in office, not expected to be the site of the victory which would mark
on the possibility and the advantages of breaking through a turning point in the war. The Supreme Command of the
the front line in the Serbian section. During the two subse- Allies did not stop Serbian army and the French reinforce-
quent summer months, significant work was done concern- ment in their breakthrough to the north any more. The
ing the preparation of this sector for the decisive action. The units of the First Army advanced further to the north to-
commands of Bulgarian and German forces in Macedonia, wards Belgrade. North of Skopje they met and fought Ger-
aware of the previous failed attempts to break through the man and Austro-Hungarian troops, many of whom had ar-
front line, did not believe that the Allied Forces could strike rived hastily as reinforcement from other battlefields. This
a decisive blow. It was believed that the position of Dobro lasted until 1st November, when Serbian troops reached the
Polje was unconquerable, and that the planned direction of former border of the Kingdom of Serbia the Sava and the
the possible attack was through the plain region around Bi- Danube rivers on several borderline sections.
tola. In relations with their allies, the Commander-in-Chief On 6th October 1918 Germans took over the power from
of the Allied Forces, General dEsprey, on one side, and Bulgarians in Poarevac. The commander of Poarevac and
French Government on the other, had problems gaining all German authorities stopped functioning on 27th Octo-
the approval to start the offensive. The approval had to be ber and in the morning of 28th October they left town. The
received from all the Allies which had contingents on that main body of Serbian First Horse Brigade advanced along
front line. the crag between the Morava and Mlava rivers, meeting
Serbian Second Army was grouped on the very sector practically no resistance from the enemy. In the morning
of the front-line breakthrough. The date of starting the ar- of 29th October the main body of the First Horse Brigade
tillery preparation was 14th September. The next day was entered Poarevac and its front parts proceeded towards
the day of the beginning of the breakthrough of Serbian the Danube. Serbian advance elements went to the Danube.
army. Reinforced by French troops, Serbian Second Army The entire region had been cleaned out of enemy soldiers,
performed a tactical break through the front line along who had been chased across the Danube. Patrols were sent
their entire zone of attack. Having made a full-scale attack to Ram, Veliko Gradite and Golubac. On 30th October the
during the first three days of the offensive, Serbian and First Army continued to progress to the north, encounter-
French forces penetrated deeply into the lines of Bulgarian ing few enemies, who still retreated hastily and in dissarray
and German armies, leaving a space which was 30 km wide towatds the Danube and Sava.
and 15 km deep. In the next four days a strategic break- In early November Serbian troops entered the Srem,
through of the enemy front line was performed. The Sec- Banat and Baka Districts. After signing the armistice with
ond Army reached the River Vardar on 21st September. At Austria-Hungary, on 3rd November 1918 the first soldiers
these moments, Serbian army had already cut off the Bul- of Serbian army crossed the Danube. Thus, in mid-Novem-
garians lines of retreat from western Macedonia and they ber, Serbian troops controlled the territory to the line of
could only withdraw through Tetovo and Skopje. The dis- Baja-Subotica to the north, and in the Banat District to the
order in Bulgarian army caused them to retreat in a state east of Vrac, Bela Crkva and further to the line of Or ova-
of disarray at some parts of the front line. Bulgarian army Lugoj-Timi oara. In acordance with the new situation and
capitulated without any soldier of the Allied Forces enter- the armistice with Austria-Hungary, Serbian forces crossed
ing their territory. the River Drina as well and entered Bosnia and Herzegovi-

290
na. In the first half of November, former Serbian prisoners and French armies, compared to the effects it produced.
in several Austro-Hungarian towns formed combat units. In During this operation, all Allied Forces had 16,200 people
Novi Sad, Ljubljana, Maribor and Zagreb these units played put out of action, 4,000 of whom were dead or wounded.
an important role not only in establishing the authority of Serbian army had 4,019 people put out of action, 681 of
the National Council of the State of Serbs, Croats and Slo- whom were dead, 132 missing and 2,206 wounded. The to-
venes, but also in preventing Italian army from breaking tal number of casualties of Serbian army at the Thessalon-
through the territories of Slovenia or Croatia. iki front between 1916 and 1918 was the following: 42,725
According to the previous agreement, reached by the people put out of action, 9,303 of whom lost their lives.
representatives of Serbian Government and the National In conclusion, the consequences of wars and war cir-
Council in Zagreb, on 1st December 1918 Serbs, Croats and cumstances in 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915-1918 went to such an
Slovenes became united into a single state the Kingdom extent that in the period between 1910 and 1918 Serbia lost
of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. 1,900,000 lives, which amounted to 60% of the total popu-
The Thessaloniki offensive is considered to have lation. For such a small country and its nation this was argu-
claimed a relatively small number of victims from Serbian ably a major demographic catastrophe.

291
THE LIST OF BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS

SERBIA DURING THE GREAT WAR


1. The Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand inspects the 18. Report that Austro-Hungarian are retreating (Military Archives)
troops in vicinity of Sarajevo, June 1914. (Military Archives)
19. Chief of the Serbian Supreme HQ, Marshal Putnik, reports that
2. The Archduke and his wife entering their car, prior to the their battle on the Cer was won (Military Archives)
assassination (Military Archives)
20. The images of the Austro-Hungarian atrocities in North-
3. The assassins were taken by the local police (Military Archives) western Serbia, August 1914. (Military Museum)

4. The local authorities telegram-report about the events in 21. The Serbian Government Memorandum on the Austro-
Sarajevo on 28th June 1914. (Military Archives) Hungarian atrocities, August 1914. (Military Archives)

5. The demolition of the Serbian shops in Sarajevo after the Franz 22. Commander of the 2nd Army, General Stepanovic was
Ferdinand assassination (Military Archives) promoted to the rank of vojvoda (Marshal) for the successful
leadership during the battle at Cer Mountain (Military Museum)
6. Telegram with the Austro-Hungarian declaration of war to
Serbia (Military Archives) 23. The Orders for the Serbian Army to launch the offensive in
Srem on Austro-Hungarian territory (Military Archives)
7 10 Personal notebook of the Serbian defemce Minister colonel
Stefanovic, July 1914. (Military Archives) 24. Prince Djordje, the first-born son of the Peter I Karadjordjevic,
took active part in most of the combat as officer and was even
11. Map of the Serbian and Austro-Hungarian forces deployment wounded (Military Museum)
prior to start of the operations (Military Archives)
25. Dash of the Serbian Army into Bosnia: here, the advance
12. The oath of the mobilized 4th Infantry Regiment at Vardiste, party at the crossraods close to Sarajevo, autumn 1914. (Military
West Serbia 1914. (Military Museum) Museum)

13. King Peter I Karadjordjevic (Military Museum) 26. The Exhausted Serbian soldiers after the retreat from the
Gucevo positions (Military Museum)
14. Marshal Radomir Putnik, chief of the Staff, Serbian Supreme
Command in 1914-1915. (Military Museum) 27. Chief of the Serbian Supreme HQ, Marshal Putnik report on the
dramatical situation on the battlefield (Military Archives)
15. Dispatch to the Serbian Supreme HQ that Austro-Hungarian
forces are crossing into Serbia (Military Archives) 28. An infantry regiment in march towards the front lines, autumn
1914. (Military Museum)
16. Typical appearance of the Serbian Army in the first phase of the
War (Military Museum) 29. The retreat of the army and the people in front of the Austro-
Hungarian advance, autumn 1914. (Military Museum)
17. Well-known image of the Serbian horse artillery moving
to another position during one of the battles in 1914. (Military 30. The Austro-Hungarian proclamation to the citizens of the
Museum) occupied Serbia (Military Archives)

293
31. The King Peter observe the operations during the autumn 45. Encrypted dispatch of the Defense Minister, Col. Bojovic, on
1914. (Military Museum) the evacuation of the population, Kragujevac 29/9/1915. (Military
Archives)
32. Report on the Serbian forces entering the Belgrade (Military
Archives) 46. The Notice of General Bojovic to the commander of the Vardar
division 1st call on the evacuation of the Ministry of War in the
33. Commander of the Serbian 1nd Army, General Misic was Aleksinac Kruevac direction, 13/10/1915. (Military Archives)
promoted to the rank of vojvoda (Marshal) after successful
outcome of the battle at Kolubara valley (Military Museum) 47. Report on operations of the Serbian Second Army in the
second period of the war in 1915: Retreat, record of the meeting in
34. The successful fighting against the Austro-Hungarian army
Pec, 16/11/1915. (Military Archives)
was vivid trough the huge numbers of their POWs in the Serbian
captivity (Military Museum)
48. King Peter I Karadjordjevic during the retreat towards Albania,
35. List with the figures of the Austro-Hungarian POWs, 6th 1915, author: Rista Marjanovic (Military Museum)
December 1914. (Military Archives)
49. The withdrawal through Albania, 1915, There wasnt any bread
36. Doctor Archibald Reiss, from Switzerland,was invited from the so tormented and hungry soldiers ate snow, author: Samson
Serbian Government in 1914 to inspect the Austro-Hungarian Chernov (Military Museum)
atrocities (Military Museum)
50. The withdrawal through Albania, 1915, Snow squeaks
37. The list with the ministers of the new Serbian Government underfoot and the wind whipped through the torn clothes
(Military Archives) (Military Museum)

38. - 51. King Peter I and Supreme Command with people crossing
(Military Archives) Viziers Bridge over the Black Drim in Albania, 1915, author: Rista
Marjanovic (Military Museum)
39. 18th Infantry Regiment goes to the Bulgarian border, 1915.
(Military Museum) 52. Notice of the First Army commander representative Col. Milos
Vasic to the Drina Division 2nd call commander about Albanian
40. Field Marshal Stepa Stepanovic War Archive: The Notice to the attacks on soldiers left behind during the retreat, 20/1/1916.
commander of the Timok Division 1st call about the order and (Military Archives)
decision of the Ministerial session on avoiding conflict on the
border with Bulgaria, 13/9/1915. (Military Archives) 53. Serbian army on the coast of Albania during the withdrawal in
1915, author: Samson Chernov) (Military Museum)
41. Defence of Belgrade, Serbian positions in Sava Port, 1915,
author: Jovan Vicentijevic, from the collection D. Janicijevic
54. Sending of Bosniaks to Albania to agitate in favour of the
(Military Museum)
Austro-Hungarian Empire (in Serbian costumes) 31/12/1915.
42. Field Marshal Stepa Stepanovic War Archive: map; Disposition (Military Archives)
of the Timok Division 1st call at the border front from Mt. Midzor
to the right bank of river Nisava, 23/9/1915. (Military Archives) 55. Transportation of Field Marchal Putnik. Crossing a river in
Albania, 1915. (Military Museum)
43. The withdrawal of the Serbian population, Aleksandrovac,
1915, author: Rista Marjanovic (Military Museum) 56. The order of the Supreme Commander on embarkation of
Serbian troops in Medovo (Albanian: Shngjin) and Durres,
44. Field Marshal Stepa Stepanovic War Archive: The List of 24/12/1915 (Headquarters of the First Army submitted a copy of
Bulgarian PoW, 5/10/1915. (Military Archives) the order to the Drina Division 2nd call) (Military Archives)

294
57. The Order of the Commander of Timok Army, General Ilija 71. Report of the Commander of Lazaretto island, Lt. Col. D.
Gojkovic, to evacuate the Serbian troops around Shkodra and Mihailovic, on the conditions of the army at the island (Military
Lezha to the vicinity of Valone, 8/12/1915. (Military Archives) Archives)

58. The Order of Prince Alexander issued in Durres, 16/1/1916 72. Notice of the Commander representative of the First Army, Col.
(copy)) (Military Archives) Milos Vasic, to the Drina Division 2nd call Commander on lodging
troops in Corfu, 29/1/1916. (Military Archives)
59. Field Marchal Misic and French General Henri) (Military
Museum) 73. The removal of dead Serbian soldiers to burial in the Blue
Graveyard, Vido island, 1916, author: Miloje Igrutinovic (Military
60. Excerpts from the Serb-Greek military convention, 2nd of June Museum)
1914 (Military Archives)
74. The consecration of the monument in memory of died Serbian
61. Report of the Serbian General Mihailo Rai dedicated to soldiers on the island of Vido built by the American Red Cross
the newly appointed Head of the French Army of Staff, General delegation, 1/4/1916. (Military Archives)
Debbonet, 3th of July 1917. (Military Archives)
75. Division camps in Corfu (Military Archives)
62. (British ministry of defense had appointed major H. J. Solomon
as liaison officer between the Serbian and the British High 76. The Drina Mountain Artilery Regiment First-Aid, Aghios
Command. 12th July 1916. (Military Archives) Mateos, Corfu, 1916, author: Chaplain Risto Suskovic (Military
Museum)
63. A special issue of the British magazine The Great War dedicated
77. The camp of the Machine gun squad 2nd Battalion 5th
to Serbian action during the First World War (the Historical Archive
Regiment at Corfu, March 1916, Aghios Mateos (Military Museum)
of Poarevac)
78. Prince Regent Aleksandar Karadjordjevic at the consecration
64. British artillery in the defence of Belgrade; Admiral Ernest
of the Drina Division Cemetery at Aghios Mateos, Corfu, 4th May
Troubridge and Captain Kerr with British and Serbian gunners; The 1916. (Military Museum)
War Illustrated (the Historical Archive of Poarevac)
79. Serbian soldiers bathing in the sea in Govino, 1916. (Military
65. The War Illustrated (the Historical Archive of Poarevac) Museum)
66. (The War Illustrated report on the liberation of Bitola on 2nd 80. The Protocol of the Conference of the Allied Armies
December 1916 (the Historical Archive of Poarevac) Representatives in Chantilly 24/6/1915. (Military Archives)
67. The War Budget report on the remarkable recovery of Serbian 81. Records from the Conference held in the French Supreme
army, 17th August 1916 (the Historical Archive of Poarevac) Command Headquarters between French and Serbian
representatives in Corfu regarding the reorganization of Serbian
68. The centre spread of Iskra, featuring the images of the army, 14/3/1916. (Military Archives)
suffering of Serbian army in 1914 and 1915, with the call for aid
delivering through the Serbian Orthodox Church (Historical 82. The letter of General Jean de Montdsir, the Head of the French
Archive of Pozarevac) (Military Archives) Military Mission in Corfu, to General Bojovic on preparations
for the official welcome of Prince-Regent Aleksandar in Corfu,
69. First day at Corfu, 1916. (Military Museum) 15/4/1916. (Military Archives)

70. Serbian soldiers immediately upon arrival at Corfu, January 83. Military attach in France, Col. Dusan P. Stefanovic, sends to
1916, author: reserve Captain Dragisa M. Stojadinovic (Military Defense Minister: Notice on Restructuring of Serbian Army from
Museum) French Supreme Command, 22/1/1916. (Military Archives)

295
84. Military attach in France, Col. Dusan P. Stefanovic, to Defense 98. Miss Harley with members of Scotish Women Hospital (SWH)
Minister: reports on sending The Project on Restructuring of near of motor ambulances 1915. (Military Museum)
Serbian Army, 21/1/1916. (Military Archives)
99. Serbian military authorities praised the auto section of Scottish
85. Chief of Staff of the Department of Transportation of the women, under the direction of Miss Dillon, for having the courage
Supreme Command, Col. Milan Dj. Nedic, on maintaining to rescue the wounded during the war, 1919. (Military Archives)
connections between English and Serbian Supreme Commands,
12/7/1916, Thessaloniki). (Military Archives) 100. The declaration of Serbian Relief Fund and the call for help to
the people of Serbia at War, 1916. (Private collection)
86. Transport of units from Corfu to Thessaloniki, 30/4/1916.
(Military Archives) 101. Dr Louise Paget, head of the hospital Serbian relief fund in
Skopje, 1915.(RTS Archives)
87. The Yugoslav Committee delegation with the Serbian
Government at Corfu, July 1917, author: Samson Chernov (Military 102. The nurse of foreign medical mission, Miss Dick, with the
Museum) wounded in the hospital yard, 1918. (RTS Archives)

88. Notice of the Third Army Headquarters: The entire area in the 103. The wounded from Kumanovo during treatment at the
southern part of the Balkans determined for battlefield, 5/8/1916. military hospital in Belgrade, during the First World War, 1914-
(Military Archives) 1918. (RTS Archives)

104. Wounded changing top f military regiment in Tekeris,


89. The doctors surgeons from Greece to help Serbian military
September 1914. (Military Museum)
hospitals in 1914. (Military Archives)
105. The order of the reorganization Serbian-English hospitals in
90. Foreign medical mission in Serbia during the First World War
Voden, Greece, 1917. (Military Archives)
(RTS Archives
106. The opening of the first surgical military hospital for
91. Hospital of Anglo-American mission in Serbia during the First operational units in Vasilika nera Thessaloniki, 1916. (Military
World War (RTS Archives) Archives)
92. Members of the Serbian Red Cross in London, preparing 107. The wounded Serbs at an English hospital in London, 1917.
humanitarian aid by the Serbian Volunteers (RTS Archives) (RTS Archives)
93. The order issued by the Serbian Supreme Command for the 108. The celebration of Christmas in an English childrens hospital
commendation of nursing volunteers of the French medical in Thessaloniki in 1917.(Military Museum)
mission in Serbia, 1918. (Military Archives)
109. An excerpt from the list of the allied armies soldiers of the
94. Preparations for the reception of wounded and sick soldiers in who were treated at the Third dressing station of the Danube
the Valjevo military hospital, 1914. (Military Archives) division, 1916. (Military Archives)

95. Military Hospital in Krusevac, 1915. (RTS Archives) 110. Distribution of medical supplies to military hospitals - help of
the Red Cross from Russia, 1916. (Military Archives)
96. Memorandum of Subsidiary of Scottish women in Glasgow,
with an appeal for assistance to the Serbian army in 1918. (Military 111. The evacuation of the wounded Serbian, Thessaloniki, 1917.
Archives) (Military Museum)

97. Dr Elsie Inglis, Head of Scottish women Mission in Serbia, 1914- 112. The numerical data about the staff and conscript nurses of
1915.(Private collection) the reserve millitary hospital in Cacak, 1916. (Military Archives)

296
113. Medical staff and patients during the First World War (RTS 129. The look of the Serbian front-lines in 1916. (Military Museum)
Archives)
130. Deployment of the troops at Macedonian Front, December
114. Military Hospital in Bizerte, 191. (Private collection) 1916. (Military Archives)

115. The order of Serbian military command for the 131. The reports of the Austro-Hungarian local military command
reorganisation of the Serbian-English hospital No. 2 in on the Serbian uprising in Toplica area 1917 (Military Archives)
Thessaloniki, 1917. (Military Archives)
132. Life at the front-line in 1917 became routine. Here, delivery of
116. The Italian forces arriving at the Macedonian Front 1916. the food rations to the Serbian forces (Military Museum)
(Military Museum)
133. The Serbian patrol overlooks the frontlines from the Kozuh
117. The Allied plan for the operations at the Macedonian front mountain caves (Military Museum)
December 1915. (Military Archives)
134. Manuscript of the Archibald Reiss titled Theatre at the Front
118. The embankment of the Serbian forces from the Corfu island (Military Archives)
towards the Thessaloniki (Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum)
135. The aerial look of the front-lines in 1917. (Yugoslav
119. The Serbian Army heads for the front line, Thessaloniki spring Aeronautical Museum)
1916. (Military Museum)
136. The Serbian Government in exile at the Corfu island 1916-
1917. (Military Museum)
120. Typical outlook of the Serbian soldier equipped with French
uniform, equipment and armament (Military Museum)
137. The target of the controversial trial at Thessaloniki: Colonel
Dimitrijevic-Apis, leader of so-called secret organization Black
121. Prince Alexander, the Supreme Commnander oft eh Serbian
hand (Military Museum)
Army inspects the French unit at the front 1916. (Yugoslav
Aeronautical Museum) 138. The official correspondence of the military authorities on
womens participation in the first year of the Great War, 1915.
122. The artillery of the Drinska Division in action at Macedonian (Military Archives)
front, 1916. (Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum)
139. Serbian Joan of Arc, Milunka Savic during medical treatment
123. The camp of the Serbian Army at Mikra, near Thessaloniki, in the French military hospital in Algeria (RTS Archives)
1916. (Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum)
140. Laudable features to Milunk Savic for having the courage to
124. The report of the Second Army on the operations on the front fight in 1917. (Military Archives)
(Military Archives)
141. The commendation of Milunka Savi for the bravery
125. Combat situation on 17th September 1916. (Military Archives) demonstrated in combat, 1917 (Military Archives)

126. The report of the Fifth Infantry Regiment on the fights 142. Our Englishwoman - England nurse Flora Sands uniformed
between 17th and 21st September 1916 (Military Archives) Serbian soldiers (RTS Archives)

127. A scene from Kajmakalan following the fights in 1916 143. Excerpt from Cardboard personal and official relations officer
(Yugoslav Aeronautical Museum) for the Serbian army in the name of Flore Sends (Military Archives)

128. The order of General Sarrail on the seizure of Bitola (Military 144. Peasant Woman gives water a wounded Serbian soldier,
Archives) Guevo, 1914. (Military Museum)

297
145. The distribution of aid to the families of fallen warriors of the 160. The Serbian infantry after the heavy fighting, relaxes below
contributions collected by Mabel Grujic, 1919. (Military Archives) the front-lines, 1917. (Military Museum)

146. Serbian painter Nadezda Petrovic as a volunteer nurse at the 161. Life at trenches in 1918: here two Serbian officers belonging
front, 1915. (RTS Archives) to the 15th Infantry Regiment celebrating the Resurrection (from
the collection of ivan Petrovi, Military Museum)
147. Sisters of Charity in Serbia - a nurse during the First World War
(RTS Archives) 162. Marshall Stepanovic plan for the forthcoming offensive in the
Macedonian Front (Military Archives)
148. The command that is to be commended and distinguished
163. The first order of the new Serbian Defense Minister, General
Erin Maceio and Olivia King, volunteer nurses of foreign medical
Rasic issued on 27th June 1918. (Military Archives)
mission in Serbia, 1917. (Military Archives)
164. Seen during the preparation for the final offensive at the
149. Serbian women in homesteads in wartime, 1914-1918. (RTS front-lines: Prince Alexander, Marshall D Esparait supreme Allied
Archives) Commander, Marshall Misic, Chief of the Generalstaff Serbian
Army and General Bojovic commander of the 1st Army. (Military
150. Statement on going on a volunteer unit of the Serbian army, Museum)
1916. (Military Archives)
165. The Allied Supreme Commanders order for launching the
151. Russian help to 1st Serbian Volunteer Division with soldiers, offensive at Dobro Polje area. (Military Archives)
military equipment and life needs, 1916. (Military Archives)
166. The logistics support of the Allied troops was organized with
152. Scheduling Report about Officer Volunteer Battalion in lorries and trains from the Thessaloniki to the front lines (Military
Marseilles, 1917. (Military Archives) Museum)

153. Completing the operational Army by volunteers from the 167. The French Colonial troops supported the Serbian forces in
United States, 1916. (Military Archives) the critical moments of the front-line break-trough. Here, Marshall
Misic awards an Colonial cavalry unit (Military Museum)
154. The Serbian Army unit raised from the volunteers in the
United States, 1917. (Military Museum) 168. The Serbian artillery rushes towards the new positions
(Military Museum)
155. Officers of the Serbian Volunteer Corps, 1916. (RTS Archives)
169. The order of the Serbian Suprem Commander for the
156. The ceremonial handover of the flag of the Russian volunteers offensive which should be organized in late August or beginning
of the September 1918. (Military Archives)
to Staff Volunteer Corps of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1917.
(Military Archives)
170. The artillery preparation was the critical for the offensive
launched on the 14st September 1914. (Military Museum)
157. The Serbian volunteers from the 1st Division heading to the
front, February-March 1918. (Military Museum) 171. The Serbian Cavalry Division during the preparation for the
offensive (Military Museum)
158. The 4th Regiment of the 1st Serbian Volunteer Division at
Suetz, March 1918, prior their deployment to the Macedonian 172. One of the French armored cars Peugeot, seen in Macedonian
front (Military Museum) city of Veles, September 1918. (Military Museum)

159. General Guillaume commendation to the Serbian Army, April 173. For the successful offensive which have outcome the
1918. (Military Archives) liberation of the Kingdom of Serbia, the Commander of the 1st

298
Army, General Bojovic was promoted to the rank of Vojvoda/ 184. Atrocities in Macva by the Austro-Hungarian Army - killed
Marshal (Military Museum) children of 14-15 years in the village Grui near Sabac, 2 August
1914.(Military Museum)
174. The Military Convention which regulates the cease-fire
between the Allied Powers and Bulgaria (Military Archives) 185. Except from the review of losses in the Serbian army in 1914,
1915.(Military Archives)
175. Telegram with the information to the Serbian troops that
peace with Bulgaria was negotiated (Military Archives) 186. Detail from written testimonies Dr Archibald Reiss on the
suffering of Serbian civilians during World War I, 1919.(Military
176. The orders of the Serbian Supreme HQ for the troops to rest, Archives)
after they reach the old boundaries of the Kingdom of Serbia
(Military Archives) 187. Suspension of Serbian civilians by the Austro-Hungarian
army in Uzice, 1916.(Military Museum)
177. The map of the daily operations of the Serbian Army, after the
break through the front line until the complete liberation of the 188. The funeral of deceased Serbian prisoners in Asahi, Austria,
Kingdom fo Serbia (Military Archives) 1917.(Military Archives)

178. Special orders for the Allied troops under the command of 189. Data on the Serbian soldiers who were suffering, cured
the General Hanris to cross into Austro-Hungary (Military Archives) or died in the Danube Division 1st field hospital, 1916.(Military
Archives)
179. The Serbian Army crossed into South-Slav parts of the
Austro-Hungary. Here, troops seen at the Vinkovci railway station, 190. The funeral service for victims of the First World War in
November 1918. (Military Museum) Guevo (RTS Archives)

180. Materials for the Peace conference 1919: Projected borders of 191. Serbian soldier of dead comrade (RTS Archives)
Yugo-Slavia (Military Archives)
192. Serbian war invalids during the First World War (RTS Archives)
181. The Serbian Army at the parade at Paris, held on 14th July
1919 (Military Museum) 193. Dead Serbian soldiers were taken in boats, to be burried in
The Blue Tomb, 1916. (Military Museum)
182. A local report on the Bulgarian atrocities against the civil
population to the 1st Serbian Army (Military Archives) 194. The devastation and destruction of Serbian peoples property
during First World War, 1914/1918 (Military Museum)
183. Soldiers return (Military Museum)

299
BRANICEVO DURING THE GREAT WAR
195. Having been called up for the mobilisation, the recruits from 207. From Poarevac, 5th January 1915, the first line of the Danube
the village of Aleksandrovac near abari headed for the Regional Division delivered to the Commander of the first line of the Eighth
Command in Poarevac, in October 1914. (Military Museum) Infantry Regiment the order concerning shooting at aircraft.
(Military Archives)
196. In Belosavci, 14th January 1915, the Commander of the
Danube Division delivered the command to the Commander of 208.From Luica (the village near Poarevac), 17th April 1915,
the first line of the Ninth Infantry Regiment for the transfer of the Ninth Infantry Regiment King Nikola I delivers to the subordinate
Division to Poarevac (Military Archives) units the report on the combat between Serbian and enemy
aircraft (Military Archives)
197. A shoeing-smiths workshop in Ostrovo, 1st August 1915.
(Military Museum) 209. May 15th 1915 the first line of the Danube Division delivers
to the Commander of the first line of the Ninth Infantry Regiment
198. From Majilovac, 31st May 1915, the first line of the Eighth a copy of the outcomes of the air patrol, conducted from 10th to
Infantry Regiment delivers the order to the Commander of the 17th April 1915. (Military Archives)
First, Second and Third Battalion for the beginning of action at the
positions in Ram (Military Archives) 210. Bleriot aircraft at the Poarevac airport, in 1915. (Historical
Archive of Pozarevac)
199 In Poarevac, 11th June 1915, the first line of the Danube
Division delivered the order to the Commander of the first line 211. The Oluj aircraft with armament at the Poarevac airport, in
of the Eighth Infantry Regiment for accelerating the process of 1915. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
fortification on the river Djurakovac (Military Archives)
212. From Kragujevac, 19th June 1915, Ninth Infantry Regiment
200. Poarevac, 2nd June 3rd July 1915. The order delivered King Nikola I delivers to the Commander of the Secind and Third
by the first line of the Danube Division to the Commander Battalion the report on the enemy forces on the Serbian front in
of the Eighth Infantry Regiment for establishing the position the first half of June (Military Archives)
near Poarevac, together with the Commanders reply (Military
Archives) 213. From Poarevac, 30th June 1915, Ninth Infantry Regiment
King Nikola I delivers to the subordinate units the list of the
201. The mobilisation of the third line of the Eighth Regiment in aircraft in our squadron (Military Archives)
Poarevac (Military Museum)
214. The pilots and officers in front of the Oluj aircraft at the
202. Flight mechanics taking care of an aircraft engine at the Poarevac airport, in 1915. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
Poarevac airport, in 1915. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
215. Pilot Tomi preparing for takeoff from the Poarevac airport,
203. The students of the pilot training shool in Poarevac at the in 1915. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
aircraft Bleriot XI Penguin, in 1915 (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
216. Pilots Tomi and Mihajlovi at the Poarevac airport, in 1915.
204. The first visit of French pilots to Serbian aviators (Historical (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
Archive Pozarevac)
217. The Headquarters of Serbian Third Army: the Commander
205. Farman MF11 with French crew at the Poarevac airport, in General Pavle Jurii turm, the Chief of Staff of the Headquarters
1915. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac) Colonel Duan Pei, the Commander of the first line of the Drina
Division Colonel Nikola Stevanovi, the Commander of the first line
206. Checking the itinerary with French colleagues at the of the Danube Division Colonel Milivoje Anelkovi Kajafa (Military
Poarevac airport, in 1915. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac) Museum)

300
218. Part of the Headquarters of Serbian Third Army in Poarevac: 228. The announcement of the Commander-in-Chief of German
Colonel Panta Gruji, the Commander of Branievo unit, Colonel and Austro-Hungarian army, addressing the people of Serbia and
Ivan Pavlovi, the Commander of Engineer Corps Colonel ure Montenegro (the National Library of Serbia)229. German troops
Lazi, the Commander of the Third Army Artillery Colonel Milo entering bombarded Poarevac, 28th October 1915. The Grand
Milojevi (Military Museum) Hotel in flames (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)

219. The general map of the war operations between 14th October 230. The evacuation of the village abari near Poarevac, 11th
and 22nd November 1915 (Military Museum) October 1915. Photograph (taken by Rista Marjanovi; Military
Archives)
220. The map representing the state of the Third Serbian and the
11th German Armies before the crossing (Military Museum) 231. The declaration of Commander-in-Chief of Austro-Hungarian
army in the occupied Serbia on the registration of male
221. The map of the German Field Marshal August von Mackensen population, aged 16-60 (the National Library of Serbia)
who commanded German armies on the Eastern Serbian front
during the First World War. The German 11th Army, consisting of 3 232. Austro-Hungarian Army hanging Serbian civilians in Uzice,
corps (seven divisions), had the task of crossing the river Danube 1916. (Military Museum)
and operate along the Velika Morava. The enemy was facing the
Third Serbian Army, which defended the front from Golubac to 233. The palace in Belgrade, devastated during the retreat of
Grocka (National Museum Pozarevac) Austro-Hungarian and German armies in October 1918 (Military
Museum)
222. From Kragujevac, 25th September 1915, Colonel Pavlovi
234. Tabaka arija, the trading centre of Poarevac, during the
informed a delegate in Paris that on 25th September at noon the
occupation in 1917. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
enemy had crossed the Danube in Kostolac. The enemy troops
that had crossed the river at other locations had been immobilised
235. Austro-Hungarian head office in Poarevac in 1915 (Historical
(Military Archives)
Archive Pozarevac)
223. From Kragujevac, 29th September 1915, Colonel Pavlovi 236. Bulgarian occupation zone, Military-Inspection Region
informed a delegate in Paris that, due to the strong enemy Morava (author: Dragan aler, Military Archives)
pressure on the left wing of Poarevac section, in the direction
of the villages of Breane and irikovac, and to the attack of an 237. A Bulgarian propaganda leaflet addressing Serbian people in
enemy column at the deep end of the left wing, the Third Army the region of Morava (National Library of Serbia)
headed in the direction of Anatema Bubuinac. Serbian troops
would retreat to the third line of defence Bubuinac Poarevac 238. A Bulgarian propaganda leaflet (6th October 1915), appealing
and the village of ivica (Military Archives) to Macedonians to join Bulgarian army. (National Library of Serbia)

224. From Kragujevac, 30th eptember 1915, Colonel Pavlovi 239. Poarevac municipal building during the Bulgarian
informed a delegate in Paris that there were 13 divisions of Geman occupation. (Historical Archive Pozarevac)
Army on our territory. (Military Archives)
240. The front page of the book by Aleksandar Pavlov (property of
225. The queues of people and horse-drawn carts on a village road the author)
(Programme Archive of Radio-Television of Serbia)
241. A Bulgarian satirical magazine Balkanski Papagal from 1917
226. A coloumn of howitzers on he road to Pozarevac (Military conveyed Bulgarians view of the situation in the First World War.
Museum) (National Library of Serbia)

227. Poarevac, 28th October 1915 German and Austro-Hungarian 242. A Bulgarian satirical magazine Balkanski Papagal from 1917.
soldiers entering Poarevac (Historical Archive Pozarevac) Bulgarians view of the situation in the First World War

301
243. A Bulgarian satirical magazine Balkanski Papagal from 1917. 258. Women in front of the camp gates, waiting to see their loved
(National Library of Serbia) ones who were held prisoners (Historical Archive Pozarevac)

244. A Bulgarian satirical magazine Balkanski Papagal from 1917. 259. POW camp in Bulgaria: Lazar Stanojevi from Melnica, the first
(National Library of Serbia) on the left (Collection Rade Obradovic)

245. A Bulgarian satirical magazine Balkanski Papagal from 1918. 260. Sofia, 20th April 1916. Serbian POW from Poarevac in Sofia
(National Library of Serbia) (Historical Archive Pozarevac)
246. A Bulgarian satirical magazine Balkanski Papagal from 1918. 261. THE GREAT SERBIA (LA GRANDE SERBIE): The newspaper is
(National Library of Serbia) issued every afternoon- Thessaloniki, 12th June 1916. (Historical
Archive of Pozarevac)
247. The map of Bulgarian crimes in Serbia (according to A. Reiss data)
262. The priting office where The great Serbia newspapers were
248. The shops in the centre of Poarevac served as shelters for
the horses of German troops, during October-November 1915 printed in Corfu in 1916. (Programme Archive Radio-Television
(Historical Archive of Pozarevac)) Serbia)

249. The misery in the devastated country at the end of the First 263. EN AVANT 1er Avril 1916, Bizerte, ? 21 (At the front, 19th
World War (Programme Archive of Radio-Television of Serbia) March 1916, Bizerte, ? 21). The newspaper with the news from the
battefield on the front page (Historical Archive Pozarevac)
250. A busy day on the Small Market in Sindjelieva Street in
Poarevac during the occupation (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)) 264. Children selling newspapers (RTS Archives)

251.Belgrade, People in lines waiting for aid after the liberation of 265. Sofia, 1916. A photograph sent from a war prisoner: To my
Belgrade in October 1918. (Programme Archive Radio-Television Aunt, for remembrance, Mita. 20th April 1916 (Historical Archive
Serbia) Pozarevac)

252. Bulgarian soldiers in Kasidol near Poarevac, near Dragutin 266. abari, 15 March and 3rd June 1917. The postcards addressed
Stevis threshing machine (Historical Archive of Pozarevac) to Radovan Mili in the POW camp in Stara Mitrovica. (Historical
Archive Pozarevac)
253. The war interrupted their childhood (Historical Archive
Pozarevac) 267. A photograph from the period of occupation of Poarevac,
with the panorama of the town in the bakground (Historical
254. The wedding certificate from the church in agubica, Vidin
Archive Pozarevac)
Eparchy, Poarevac District, the area of agubica written in
Bulgarian, 25th November 1917. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
268. 22nd December 1918 the Government of the Reka-Zvid
255. Poarevac, 1917. The students of Poarevac Grammar School district in Kucevo, informed, with a confidential document, the
with their Bulgarian teacher (Historical Archive Pozarevac) Government of Poarevac district about the atrocities committed
by Bulgarians in their district (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
256. A Poarevac Grammar School students grade book in 1917.
(Historical Archive of Pozarevac) 269. Upon the return from the exile in the garden of the
demolished house (RTS Archives)
257. The excavation of the cemetery of the victims of Bulgarian mass
Murder in Bele Vode near Petrovac na Mlavi, 10th January 1919. The 270. The flag for the liberators embroidered by the members of
excavated cemetery and the dead bodies of 58 people murdered by the Circle of Serbian Sisters from Poarevac during the occupation.
Bulgarians on 27th August 1917 (Historical Archive of Pozarevac) (Private collection)

302
271. The central square in Dumaja. Bulgarian soldiers, with two of 280. The excerpt from The Medical Workers Book NO II the
them being Aromuns (Private collection) doctors from the Pozarevac district who participated in the First
World War, 1916-1918. (Military Archives)
272. The funeral of Penelopa Parciu in Poarevac in 1918. (Private
collection) 281. The Albanian testimonial, given by King Aleksandar to Stanoje
Milosevic, for the loyality to the fatherland in 1915 (Historical
273. Poarevac, 1st May 1918. The exiled Greeks in Poarevac Archive Pozarevac)
(Private collection)
282. The soldiers from Dragovac near Poarevac fighting on the
274. Schedule of troops and position Branievskog Squad, 1914. Thessaloniki front (Historical Archive Pozarevac)
(Military Archives)
283. Poarevac, 16th (29th) October 1918. French troops entering
275. Numerical strength of men and livestock in refugee camps, the liberated Poarevac (Historical Archive Pozarevac)
1916. (Military Archives)
284. Colonel Colovi, the commander of the cavalry, next to
276. Headquarters Staff of the Danube division on the Salonika the flag for the liberators, 16th October 1918 in Poarevac (the
front was located in Sorovic, 1916. (Military Archives) Historical Archive of Poarevac)

277. Data for biography of Vojislav S. Pavlovic, Serbian army 285. The adorned liberators of Pozarevac, 16th (29th) October
colonel, who was born in Pozarevac and died on the Salonika front, 1918. (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
1916. (Military Archives)
286. The celebration at the centre of Poarevac welcoming the
278. Order on praise and honors veterans from Pozarevac district Liberators, 16th (29th) October 1918. (Historical Archive of
for bravery in the battles on the Salonika front, 1917. (Military Pozarevac))
Archives)
287. The liberators entering Poarevac in 16th October 1918.
279. Milorad Petkovic from Zagubica marked the family patron (Historical Archive of Pozarevac)
saint of the military hospital in Thessaloniki, 1918. (Private
collection)

303
304
CONTENTS

Ph.D. Jasmina Nikolic and


5 Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic
A WORD FROM THE EDITORS

I I
SERBIA DURING THE GREAT WAR
Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic
9 THE BEGINNING OF THE WORLD WAR
1914. AND SERBIAN ARMY OPERATIONS IN 1914

MSc. Marijana Mraovic


43 WARTTIME SERBIA AND ITS ARMY
1915. IN 1915

Ph.D. Danilo Sarenac


1914-1916.
66 THE ALIES AND SERBIA FROM 1914 TO 1916

MSc. Marijana Mraovic


THE REHABILITATION AND REORGANISATION

82 OF THE ARMY OF THE KINGDOM OF SERBIA IN
CORFU

, Jasmina Zivkovic, MA
96 THE ALLIES MEDICAL MISSIONS

Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic


117 SERBIAN ARMY AT THE THESALONIKI
1916-1917. FRONT
, Jasmina Zivkovic, MA

135 THE HEROINES OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

, Jasmina Zivkovic, MA and Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic


145 THE VOLUNTEERS IN SERBIAN ARMY AND
THEIR ARRIVAL AT THE THESSALONIKI FRONT

Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic


153 THE BREAKING OUT OF THE THESSALONIKI
1918. FRONT

, Jasmina Zivkovic, MA
172 THE LOSSES OF SERBIAN ARMY IN
THE FIRST WORLD WAR

II II
BRANICEVO
DURING THE GREAT WAR
Ph.D. Gordan Bojkovic
185 SERBIAN ARMY IN THE REGION OF BRANICEVO
1915. PRIOR TO MACKENSENS OFFENSIVE

MSc. Dragana Miloradovic


193 THE AVIATION COMMAND IN POZAREVAC
1915. IN 1915

Ph.D. Miroljub Manojlovic


202 MACKENSENS OFFENSIVE AND THE
1915. OCCUPATION BRANICEVO IN 1915
Ph.D. Miroljub Manojlovic
209 OCCUPYING ADMINISTRATION IN SERBIA
1916-1918. 1916-1918

Ph.D. Miroljub Manojlovic


219 BULGARIAN OCCUPATION IN THE REGION OF
1916-1918. POAREVAC, 1916-1918

MSc. Dragana Miloradovic


229 THREE DIFFICULT WAR YEARS IN POAREVAC

Ph.D. Miroljub Manojlovic


256 GREEK EXILES DURING THE BULGARIAN
, 1916-1918. OCCUPATION IN POAREVAC, 1916-1918

, Jasmina Zivkovic, MA
VIII 260 BRANICEVO UNIT AND THE FIGHTERS OF THE
8TH REGIMENT ON THE THESSALONIKI FRONT

MSc. Nebojsa Djokic


1918. 271 THE LIBERATION OF POZAREVAC AND
SURROUNDING AREAS

Ph.D. Bojan Dimitrijevic



276 SUMARY

293 THE LIST OF BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS


CIP -
,

94(497.11)1914/1918
94(497.11 )1914/1918


1914-1918. / [ ...
[ .]. - :
=Historical Archive Pozarevac ; :
=Military Archive,
2014 ( : Newspress). - 303 . :
. ; 23x23 cm

. . . - .
- 500. - . 5-6: / ,
. - . -
Resume.

ISBN 978-86-84969-58-5
1. , , 1968- []
[] [ ] 2. , , 1980- [] 3.
, , 1946- [] 4. , ,
1971- [] 5. , a, 1974- [] 6. ,
, 1964- [] 7. , , 1959- [] 8.
, , 1964- []
a) - 1914-1918 b) -
1914-1918 COBISS.SR-ID 210289420