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5.

1 Mitosis

The meaning and significance of mitosis Trial Kedah 2008 Trial selangor 2010

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(a) State three importance of mitosis to living organism 3m
P1- mitosis increases the number of cells in organism (during growth process) 1
P2- mitosis important for replacing dead / worn out / damaged cells. 1
P3- Injured organ can be repaired 1
P4- Some organism can regenerate lost parts of their bodies/ reproduction through Mitosis 1
P5- mitosis ensures that new cells that are formed will have exactly the same genetic 1 3
information and characteristic as it parent cell.
(b) Explain the important of the process (mitosis) to the living thing Essay & Structure
F1-increase the number of cells(during growth process) 1
P1-replacing dead cell/repair the damaged tissue/organ 1
P2-for growth/development in living organism 1
F2-to produce genetically identical for daughter cells 1
P3-asexual reproduction (for unicellular organism) 1
P4-maintain the chromosomal number (of daughter cells) any 2 F+P 1 2
(c) Give two significant of mitosis
P1-Mitosis allow a zygote to produce more cell in order to grow into a a multicellular organism 1
P2-Mitotic cell division allows damaged cells to be repaired replaced and regenerated 1
P3-Mitosis is the basis for asexual reproduction in unicellular organism 1 3

(d) Where do processes (mitosis) occur in an animal?/ Name the type of cell in human where
mitosis take place
Somatic cells 1 1
(e) Give three example of cells named in (c)
Muscle cells 1
Connective cells //blood cell/nervous cells 1 3

Chromosomes and chromosomal number Selangor 2008

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(a) Trial Johor 2011

State the chromosomal number of each daughter cell produced at the end of the division shown
in diagram 3 1 1
12chromosomes
(b) Trial Johor 2011
Based on your biological knowledge, give a reason for answer
E2-During meiosis, the cell undergoes two nuclear division but the chromosomes/DNA of each 1
chromosomes only replicates once
E3-each daughter cell receives half the number of chromosomes from the parent cell 1 2
Any one E
(c) The chromosome number in somatic cell of this organism is 12 state the chromosome number
in each of the daughter cell in Z
A-Six(chromosomes) 1
R-(during meiosis) the daughter cell/ n receive half the daughter chromosome from the parent 1 2
cells/2n//daughter cell haploid/n, daughter cell haploid/2n

The cell cycle Trial Johor 2010 Trial Melaka 2009 Trial PP 2012

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(a)

Phase V

Name phase U and V


Phase U: Interphase
Phase V: Mitotic cell division/M phase 1
1 2
(b) Phase U is further divided into three sub phases, X, Y and Z. Describe what
Happens at sub phases X, Y and Z.
X : Cell synthesizes protein / new organelles formed 1
Y : DNA is synthesized / is replicated / 2 sister chromatids formed 1
Z : Cell accumulates energy / synthesize energy / prepare forcell division 1 3
(c) The number of chromosomes present in the nucleus of a somatic cell is 6.
Diagram 2.2 shows a stage of cell division to produce gametes.
Complete the diagram to show the chromosomes for a daughter cell produced
at the end of sub-phase Q 2
1
1
1 3
No. of chromosomes are haploid / 3 chromosomes
Types of chromosomes/ non homologous
New genetic combination any 2
(d)

Name stage Q
1 1
Interphase
(e) Explain the importance of stage Q 2/State what happen in cell during U phase
F1-Replication of DNA occurs 1
P1-to produce two genetically identical sister chromatids 1
F2-Synthesis ATP //accumulate energy 1 2

Interphase

Interphase Marking scheme Marks


G1

Name phase P and state the process that occurs in this phase 2
P1-G1/growth phase 1 1
P2-synthesis of new protein /organelles occurs in the cell 1 2
S phase Describe what happens at S phase
DNA is synthesized / is replicated / 2 sister chromatids formed 1 1
G2 Describe what happens at G2
Cell accumulates energy / synthesize energy / prepare for cell division 1 1
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(a) What is meant by Mitosis
P1-The division of cell nucleus forms two daughter cell 1
P2-Each with same chromosome number and type of chromosome as the parent 1 2
(b) State the type cell division involved in the cell cycle/ What type of nuclear division is
Mitosis/Mitotic cell division 1 1
(c) State one reason for your answer(refer to the question got answer there) e.g. mitosis occur in
root cell /somatic cell
P1-has 4 phase : prophase /metaphase/anaphase/telophase 1
P2-Only 2 daughter cells are formed / produced 1
P3- Chromosome number in the daughter cells are same as parents 1 3
(d) State two characteristic of daughter cell when parent cell undergoes P(mitosis)
P1-The daughter cell has a similar number of chromosome to the parent cell 1
P2-The daughter cell has similar genetic content to the parent cell 1 2
(e)

In diagram 2 which chromosomes labeled A,B,C,D is homologous to chromosomes x 1 1


E
(f) Explain why root tip is used for preparing slide to shows this cell cycle2m
F :Root tip is growing region/root tip has meristem 1
P: the cell are actively dividing by mitosis 1 2
(g)

Arrange the stages in Diagram 1 according to the correct sequence of events during
cell division.
L, N, K and M 1 1
(h) State one organs where this type of cell division occurs
Ovary//testis 1 1

Phase Marking scheme Marks


Trial Kedah 2008 Name the stages labeled L/ What stage of nuclear division is
Prophase 1 1
State the characteristic of the of phase (prophase)
P1-the chromosome become shorter and thicker 1
P2-Each chromosome consists of two identical thread called chromatids 1 2
Explain what happen at stage L
P1-chromosomes thicken and shorten 1
P2-the nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear 1
P3-The spindle fibres form 1 3

Name the stages labeled N/ What stage of nuclear division is


Metaphase 1 1
Explain the behavior of chromosomes during stages K and N./ Give a
reason for your answer
Homologous chromosomes line up / align at metaphase plate 1 1

Explain the chromosomal behavior in stage Q


F-Q is metaphase 1
E1-Chromosome align at metaphase plate/equator of the cell 1
E2-spindle fibres fully formed 1
E3-Attach to centromere of the chromosome Any 2 1 2
For a plant cell where 2n=4, draw three separate diagram to show
Metaphase, mitosis

D- Chromosome are line up on the spindle fibre


1 1
State the important of the chromosomal behavior in mentioned in (b) (i)
P1-to ensure new cells produced are identical in chromosomal number 1
P2-to ensure the sister chromatids can separate /move to the opposite side 1 2
Name the stages labeled K/ What stage of nuclear division is
Anaphase 1 1
Explain the behavior of chromosomes during stages K and N.
K : Sister chromatids separate and move towards the opposite poles 1 1
Name the stage Y
Early telophase 1 1

Trial selango 2010


Trial Kedah 2008 Name the stages labeled M / What stage of nuclear division is
Telophase 1 1

Draw the chromosomes in daughter cell I and daughter cell II produced


1 1
through mitosis

Draw a daughter cell of cell P after both cells have completed the cell
division. in the boxes provided below 2

1
NOTE : Number of chromosome ,n = 2. 1
1 2
The type (colour) of chromosomes 1
State the number of daughter cells and number of chromosomes
(i) Number of daughter cells 4

(ii) Number of chromosomes 2


Cytokinesis
No Marking scheme Marks

(a) Structure v is form during cytokenesis bur in animal cell, actin filament in cytoplasm contract
to pull a ring of the plasma membrane inward forming a groove. Name the groove
Cleavage furrow 1 1
(b) Explain the process (cytokinesis) occurs (plant cell)
F-Cytokinesis,which is the division of cytoplasm 1
P1-A cell plate is formed at the cell equator, that enlarged and eventually combines with the 1
plasma membrane
P2-A new cell wall is formed
1 2
(c) Describe how cytokinesis occurs in plant and animal cells to produce two daughter cells.
F-process of cytoplasmic division 1
P1-begins before nucleus division is complete / during telophase to form two daughter cells 1
P2-in animal cells, actin filaments in the cytoplasm contracts 1
P3-to pull a ring of the plasma membrane inwards 1
P4-forming a groove called a cleavage furrow 1
P5-the cleavage furrow pinches at the equator of the cell and deepens progressively until two 1
daughter cells are separated
1
P6-in plants cells, the membranous vesicles are formed along the equator between the two
nuclei 1
P7-the vesicles fuse to form a cell plate 1
P8-the cell plate grows outwards until its edges fuse with the plasma membrane of the parents 1
cell 1
P9-at the end of cytokinesis , cellulose fibres are produced by the cells to strengthen the new 1
cell walls
10
Cytokinesis takes place both in animal cell and plant cell
State two similarity and one different between the cytokinesis in animal cell and plant cell
during mitosis 1
Similarity-F1-Both involved the division of the cytoplasm to produce two daughter cells
1
F2-Both produced two nuclei each with an identical chromosomes
Differences F1-Inanimal cells cytokinesis occurs ny formation of cleavage furrows/actin
filament while in plant cell cytokinesis occurs by formation of cell plate 1 3
What is chromosome?

a) The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes


b) Each chromosomes consists of a long DNA molecule which carry genes
c) The number of chromosomes or the chromosomal number of a certain species is
constant but varied from one species to another
d) In humans, the nucleus in the somatic cell has 46 chromosomes ( 23 pairs or 2n).
the gametes have a haploid number of chromosomes ( 23 )
e)
Stages of mitosis Diagram Explanation
Prophase The chromosomes condense ( shorten
and thicken)
They consists of sister chromatids
joined together at the centromere
The spindle fibres begin to form
The nucleolus disappears
The nuclear membrane disintegrates
Metaphase The chromosomes line up on the
metaphase plate
The spindle fibres are fully formed

Anaphase Centromere splits


Spindle fibre contracts
Chromosome moves to the opposite
poles

Telophase Chromosomes reached the oppose


poles.
Chromosome become thin and long
Nuclear membrane reappear
Nucleolus reappear
Spindle fibre disappear