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ABSTRACT

Total Suspended Solids (TSS) is solid materials either organic or inorganic which are
suspended in water column. The studies of TSS in river and ocean are important
because they are useful in determining the water quality. TSS can be one of the
factors of water quality at water body. High concentration of TSS value gives
negative effects of marine environment. The study area of TSS conducted around the
Kuala Terengganu River and Coastal Area. The objectives of the study are to identify
the concentration of Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Land Use Type at along Kuala
Terengganu River and Coastal Area using satellite imagery and then to determine
the relationship between Total Suspended Solids concentration and Land Uses
Types and to generate Map of TSS and Land Uses along Kuala Terengganu River
and Coastal Area. The Landsat 7 ETM+ image was use for this project and ERDAS
Imagine 2011 and ArcGis Software were used to perform image processing and
producing map needed for water quality map and type of land use map. The
methodology and procedure involve during this project were processing including
merge of layer of band, image subset, image re-project, extraction information of TSS
algorithm and image classification, clump, eliminate, recode and accuracy
assessment. The results that will be produce TSS Map and Types of Land Use Map.
The regression analysis between Total Suspended Solids concentration and Land
Uses Types shows that R2 is 0.8531. The objective for this study was achieved.

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ABSTRAK

Kajian Jumlah Pepejal Terampai (TSS) adalah bahan pepejal sama ada organik atau
bukan organik yang terampai di dalam air. Kajian Jumlah Pepejal Terampai dalam
sungai dan laut adalah penting kerana ia adalah berguna dalam menentukan kualiti
air. Jumlah Pepejal Terampai boleh menjadi salah satu faktor kualiti air di badan air.
Kepekatan yang tinggi nilai Jumlah Pepejal Terampai memberi kesan negatif kepada
alam sekitar marin. Kawasan kajian Jumlah Pepejal Terampai dijalankan di Sungai
Kuala Terengganu dan Kawasan Pantainya. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk
mengenalpasti kepekatan Jumlah Pepejal Terampai (TSS) dan Jenis Guna Tanah di
sepanjang Sungai Kuala Terengganu dan Kawasan Pantainya menggunakan imej
satelit dan kemudian untuk menentukan hubungan antara kepekatan Jumlah Pepejal
Terampai dan Jenis Kegunaan Tanah dan menghasil Peta Jumlah Pepejal Terampai
dan Jenis Kegunaan Tanah di sepanjang Sungai Kuala Terengganu dan Kawasan
Pantainya. Landsat 7 ETM + imej adalah digunakan untuk projek ini dan Perisian
ERDAS Imagine 2011 dan ArcGIS digunakan untuk memproses imej dan peta. Bagi
menghasilkan peta kualiti air dan jenis penggunaan tanah peta. Kaedah dan
prosedur terlibatkan dalam projek ini telah memproses termasuk menggabungkan
lapisan band, subset imej, projek semula imej, pengekstrakan maklumat Jumlah
Pepejal Terampai menggunakan algoritma dan pengelasan imej, rumpun,
menghapuskan, kodkan semula dan penilaian ketepatan Keputusan akan
menghasilkan Peta Jumlah Pepejal Terampai dan Peta Jenis Penggunaan Tanah.
Analisis regresi antara Jumlah Pepejal Terampai dan Kegunaan Tanah Jenis
menunjukkan bahawa R2 adalah 0.8531.Objektif untuk kajian ini telah dicapai

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Bismillahirahmanirahim

Alhamdulillah, thank to Allah SWT, who has given full blessing for me to this Final
Year Project which is Distribution of Total Suspended Solid (TSS) at Kuala
Terengganu River and Coastal Area Using Satellite Imagery. This final year project
report was prepared for Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, University
Technology Mara Perlis (UiTM PERLIS), basically for student in final year to
complete the undergraduate program that leads to the Diploma in Geomatic Science.
This report is based on the method given by the university.

First of all, special thanks to my family for giving me moral supports financial
supports, ideas and motivation in order to complete my project. Their valuable
guidance is very useful to me and I will not forget it.

Besides that, I would like to thank to my supervisor Dr. Razak Bin Zakariya for his
precious guidance, advice and support throughout the completion of this thesis
successfully. I also like to express my appreciation to my former lecturer who is also
a student at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Encik Fazly Amri Bin Mohd for his
invaluable guidance and advice in helping me to complete my project.

Lastly, not forget to Lab Remote Sensing and GIS Staff, Encik Yuzwan and my fellow
practical friends who always support and care during practical sessions. Thanks to
Department of Geomatic Science UiTM PERLIS, and also my supervisor, Miss Siti
Nor Maizah Binti Saad, for great commitment and cooperation during my studied and
especially for my completion of this final year project. I would like to say dedicate my
appreciation to those who are involved directly and indirectly in helping me to
complete this project. Thank you.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

SUPERVISOR APPROVAL AWARD

AWARD

CANDIDATES DECLARATION

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ABSTRACT i

ABSTRAK ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS iv

LIST OF FIGURES ix

LIST OF TABLES xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Company Background 2

1.1.1 Company Logo 3

1.1.2 Organization Chart 5

1.1.3 List of Personal 7

1.1.4 School of Marine Science and Environment 8

1.1.5 Objectives of School of Marine Science and Environment 9

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1.2 Project Background 10

1.2.1 Title of Project 10

1.2.2 Introduction of Project 10

1.2.3 Study Area 11

1.2.4 Data 12

1.2.5 Aim 12

1.2.6 Objective 12

1.2.7 Mission 12

1.2.8 Scope of work 13

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction 14

2.1 River 15

2.1.1 Parameters of River Water 16

2.2 Total Suspended Solid (TSS) 20

2.2.1 Sources of TSS 22

2.2.2 Total Suspended Solids at Coastal Area and River 22

2.3 Remote Sensing 23

2.3.1 Concepts of Remote Sensing 23

2.3.2 Elements of Remote Sensing 24

2.3.3 Techniques of Remote Sensing 25

2.4 Landsat 7 26

2.5 Measurement of Total Suspended Solids 29


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2.5.1 Conventional Methods 29

2.5.2 Total Suspended Solids Detected by Using


Remote Sensing 29

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction 32

3.1 Study Area 33

3.2 Data Acquisition 34

3.3 Software Used 35

3.3.1 ERDAS IMAGINE 2011 35

3.3.2 ArcGIS 10.1 36

3.4 General of Methodology 37

3.4.1 Layer Stacking 39

3.4.2 Image Processing 41

3.4.3 Re-project Image 41

3.4.4 Image Subset 43

3.4.5 Modeler Maker 45

3.4.6 Digital Numbers to Spectral Radiance Conversations 45

3.4.7 Total Suspended Solid Modeler 49

3.4.8 Image Masking 52

3.4.9 Image Classification 52

3.4.10 Supervised Classification 53

3.4.11 Unsupervised Classification 54

3.4.12 Clump 55

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3.4.13 Eliminate 56

3.4.14 Recode 56

3.4.15 Accuracy Assessment 57

3.4.16 Map Production 58

CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.0 Introduction 60

4.1 Analysis of Image 61

4.2 Image Re-project 62

4.3 Image Subset 63

4.4Digital Number to Spectral Radiance Conversions 64

4.5 Total Suspended Solids Modeler 65

4.5.1 Total Suspended Solids Analysis at Water Area 66

4.5.2 Image Masking 69

4.5.3 Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Concentration Map at


Coastal Water and River of Kuala Terengganu 70

4.6 Supervised Classification 72

4.7 Unsupervised Classifications 73

4.8 Recode 74

4.9 Accuracy Assessments 76

4.10 Land Use Types Analysis 77

4.10.1 Land Use Map of Kuala Terengganu 78

4.10.2 Land Use Types Percentage 79

4.11 Analysis of Relationship between Total Suspended Solids and


Land Uses Types 80

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CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION

5.0 Introduction 86

5.1 Conclusion of Project 87

5.2 Comments Industrial Training 88

5.3 Recommendation 88

BIBLIOGRAPHY 89

APPENDICES 90

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE TITLE PAGE

1.1 Map of UMT 2

1.2 UMT Logos 3

1.3 UMT Organizations Chart 5

1.4 PPSMS Organizations Chart 6

1.5 Student Practical Organizations Chart 7

1.6 Map of Kuala Terengganu 11

2.1 Element of Remote Sensing 24

3.1 Study Area 33

3.2 Landsat 7 ETM+ Imagery 34

3.3 ERDAS Imagine 2011 Software 35

3.4 ArcGIS 10.1 Software 36

3.5 Flow Chart of Methodology 38

3.6 Flow Chart of Layer 39

3.7 Process to Merge All Bands 40

3.8 Image after Layer Stacking 40

3.9 Re-project Image 42

3.10 The Projection, Spheroid, and Datum Used 43

3.11 Process of Subset Image 44

3.12 Process of Subset Image 44

3.13 Model to Convert Digital Number to Radiance 46

3.14 Radiance Conversion Model 47

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3.15 Layer Stack Process 48

3.16 Total Suspended Solids Algorithm 49

3.17 Total Suspended Solids Model 50

3.18: Masking Process 52

3.19: Signature Editor of Supervised Classification 53

3.20 Supervised Classification 53

3.21 Unsupervised Classification 54

3.22 Clump 55

3.23 Eliminate 56

3.24 Recode 57

3.25 Setup Recode 57

3.26 Accuracy Assessment 58

3.27 Map Production 59

4.1 Landsat 7 ETM+ 61

4.2 Forest Area and Urban Area 62

4.3 Result of Re-project Image 63

4.4 Result Subset Image 63

4.5 Result of Total Suspended Solids 66

4.6 Value of Total Suspended Solids 66

4.7 Result of Image Masking 69

4.8 Map of TSS Concentration 70

4.9 Result of Supervised Classification with the Attributes 72

4.10 Result of Unsupervised Classification with the Attributes 73

4.11 Result of Recode 74


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4.12 Attributes Table Before and After Recode Process 75

4.13 Result of Accuracy Assessment 76

4.14 Land Use Types Map 78

4.15 Percentage of Land Use Type at Kuala Terengganu 79

4.16 Comparison of TSS Value at Different Land Use Type 80

4.17 Relationship Graph between TSS Value and Land Use Type 81

4.18 Relationship Graph between TSS Value and Sea 82

4.19 Relationship Graph between TSS Value and Coastal Area 83

4.20 Relationship Graph between TSS Value and River Estuary 84

4.21 Relationship Graph between TSS Value and River Headwaters 85

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE PAGE

2.1 Table of Characteristics of Landsat 7 ETM+ 27

2.2 Table of Characteristics Band of Landsat 7 ETM+ 28

2.3 Table of Suspended Solids Linear Model 31

3.1 The images Boundaries of Landsat 7 ETM+. 34

3.2 The Coordinates of Image Corners 44

3.3 Parameters Taken For Radiance Conversions 46

3.4 Data of Digital Numbers to Radiance Conversion 47

3.5 Data Extraction of Total Suspended Solids 51

4.1 The Corners Coordinate of the Image 64

4.2 Information Before and After Radiance Conversion 64

4.3 Result Selected Points of TSS Value on Image 67

4.4 Area of Land Use Type 77

4.5 Mean of TSS Value at Different Land Use Type 81

4.6 Slope Classification Analysis Statement 54

4.7 Slope Classification Colour Indicator 58

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

TSS Total Suspended Solids

Mg/l Milligrams Per Liter

DO Dissolved Oxygen

ERDAS Earth Resource Data Analysis System

UITM Universiti Teknologi Mara

RSO Rectified Skew Orthomorphic

ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus

TM Thematic Mapper

WGS World Geodetic System

GIS Geographical Information System

KM Kilometers

MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

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