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Synopsis

Title Object Avoiding Robot using Ultrasonic

Features
1. Wide range objects detection using ultrasonic waves.
2. Two ultrasonic modules for left and right object detection.
3. Geared DC Motor for robot for higher torque.
4. Low power consumption.
5. Compact due to use of microcontroller.
6. Simple and low cost.

Block Diagram

Receiver

Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic
sensor
sensor MOTOR
Left MOTOR
Left ATMEL89C51 DRIVER
ATMEL89C51 DRIVER
Microcontroller
Microcontroller
Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic
sensor
sensor
Right
Right

LEFT RIGHT
LEFT RIGHT
MOTOR MOTOR
MOTOR MOTOR
12V
Rechargeable
Battery

Description

Micro controller-AT89C51

The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-
system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density
nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry- standard 80C51 instruction set and
pinout.
Features:
4K Bytes of Programmable Flash Memory
Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
32 Programmable I/O Lines
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz

Vital role of micro controller in Object avoiding robot using ultrasonic


The micro controller is programmed to object detection signal through ultrasonic sensor and activates
the corresponding geared motor through DC motor driver.

Ultrasonic sensor detects the objects from wide range and distance. The logic high signal is sent to
microcontroller whenever the object is detected.

Geared DC motor are requires high current, hence which are driven by DC motor drivers.

In order to do all the activities a program (sequence of instruction) must be written for the
microcontroller. This program is called firmware. In order to execute the program,
Microcontroller requires basic configuration like 5V regulated power supply, clock, and reset
circuit.

Microcontroller and ICs requires 5V regulated power supply, which is obtained from 230V
AC by using step down transformer , rectifier, filter and regulators.

Regulated Power supply:


The microcontroller and other devices get power supply from AC to Dc adapter through 7805, 5
volts regulator. The adapter output voltage will be 12V DC non regulated. The 7805/7812 voltage
regulators are used to convert 12 V to 5V/12V DC.

Vital role of power supply in Object avoiding robot using ultrasonic


The adapter output voltage will be 12V DC non regulated. The 7805/7812 voltage regulators are used
to convert 12 V to 5V/12V DC.

PROJECT CYCLE
1. Specification of the Project.
2. PCB Layout.
3. Device Test.
4. Code Implementation.
5. Program Test.
6. Pilot Run.
7. Documentation.

SOFTWARES USED:
Embedded C.
Keil uVision
ATMEL Programmer

Tools for schematic design


1. CAPTURE CIS (ORCAD)

Hardware

1. ATMEL AT89C51 controller,

2. ULTRASONIC SENSOR,

3. GEARED DC MOTOR,

4. MOTOR DRIVER,

5. POWER SUPPLY AND PCB.

6. MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY.

Working Principle

Ultrasonic sensor detects the objects, which sends the detection signal to microcontroller. The
microcontroller activates the corresponding motor to avoid the objects.