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ABSTRACT

This is the design and construction of a wireless football scoreboard system use to

show the various scores of teams in a football match or any outdoor game by

sending and control its display using a wireless remote control which makes it

easy for controlling a larger display from a distance without touching the board.

Different technology has being adoptable over the years to help keep the use of

large score board system in use, as a result of the recent made large sizes the use

of buttons to cure in scores into the display is not easy so controlling it wirelessly

was the best option for a large displays scoreboard system.

This devices can be found in different zones where outdoor games are well

recognized and this has it most efficient use in high places like large stadiums to

display large data that can be view from a very far distance.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

A scoreboard is a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game.

(www.wikipedia.com].
Most levels of sport from high school and above use at least one

scoreboard for keeping score, measuring time, and displaying statistics.

Scoreboards in the past used a mechanical clock and numeral cards to display the

score. When a point was made, a person would put the appropriate digits on a

hook. Most modern scoreboards use electromechanical or electronic means of

displaying the score. In these, digits are often composed of large dot-matrix or

seven-segment displays made of incandescent bulbs, light-emitting diodes, or

electromechanical flip segments. An official or neutral person will operate the

scoreboard, using a control panel.

This is design and construction of a wireless electronic scoreboard system using a

microcontroller RF remote to transmit or controller the outputs of a scoreboard

led display by typing and sending data to the scoreboard while at a distance; this

system makes it able to the commentators to edit scores in a very large football

score display system. This system is made up of a microcontroller (Atmel89s52),

an RF modem (100 m 30 MHz 5V), a keypad for numerical data entering, and an

LED seven segment display.

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This device is use in many places for display scores for but football system and

other forms of outdoor game.

1.1 Background study


Developing a very larger score board system is one the major uses of

electronic score board this design as large as it is cannot be controlled using

manual means, for this reason wireless system has to be developed to help

send and edit score board systems from a distance.


1.2 Statement of problem
Technology has gone far and wide and now need system that will help reach

the highest point but still can be controlled easily without distorting the data

involved.
Wireless system has helped in many aspect of technology because it has help

in controlling but the small designs and large designed without stress. The

design and implementation of wireless scoreboard has help to control large

score board system use in stadiums to show number of goals of the individual

opponents.

1.3 Aim and objectives


The aim of this project is to design and implement a wireless score board

system, which is used to control scoreboard display and edit its data from a

distance without controlling the scoreboard manually rather changing its data

from the wireless remote.

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This system made it possible to even control large display use in football

stadium which going near the display.

1.4 Scope of the project


In this project, a student should understand the basic knowledge of a wireless

system and how it works; knows the different application of wireless systems,

how it can be used in interfacing scoreboard display and also the design and

implementation of a score board display with a wireless RF remote controller.

1.5 Project limitations


The constraint of this project is its inability to send data above the frequency

of the RF module used which its frequency is 1MHz and can easily be

obstructed by a stronger high frequency modulating devices.

1.6 Significance
It is a fast way of sending data
It has low power limitations as it frequency helps to minimize power lost
It makes work easy and faster
It is safer and has now error reports

1.7 Project report organizations

Chapter one carries the introduction, aim and objective, scope of study, limitation

of the work, significance and the project report organization of the work. Chapter

two carries the literature review of the work along with other reviews of the

project. Chapter three carries the project design methodology and steps which

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lead to the construction of the project. Chapter four testing the project design,

observation and Bill of engineering. Chapter five carries summary and conclusion.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIWE

2.1 Origin of the project

Technology

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Wrigley Field uses a hand operated scoreboard, but added a video board at the

bottom of it in 2004.

Prior to the 1980s most electronic scoreboards were electro-mechanical. They

contained relays or stepping switches controlling digits consisting of incandescent

light bulbs. Beginning in the 1980s, advances in solid state electronics permitted

major improvements in scoreboard technology. High power semiconductors such

as thyristors and transistors replaced mechanical relays, light-emitting diodes first

replaced light bulbs for indoor scoreboards and then, as their brightness

increased, outdoor scoreboards. Light-emitting diodes last many times as long as

light bulbs, are not subject to breakage, and are much more efficient at converting

electrical energy to light. The newest light emitting diodes can last up to 100,000

hours before having to be replaced. Advances in large-scale integrated circuits

permitted the introduction of computer control. This also made it cost effective to

send the signals that control the operation of the scoreboard either through the

existing AC wires providing power to the scoreboard or through the air. Powerline

modems permit the digital control signals to be sent over the AC power lines. The

most common method of sending digital data over power lines at rates less than

2400 bits per second is called frequency shift keying (FSK). Two radio frequencies

represent binary 0 and 1. Radio transmission such as FSK sends data digitally. Until
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recently radio transmission was subject to short range and interference by other

radio sources. A fairly recent technology called spread spectrum permits much

more robust radio control of scoreboards. Spread spectrum, like the name implies,

distributes the signal over a wide portion of the radio spectrum. This helps the

signal resist interference which is usually confined to a narrow frequency band.

Scoreboards in various sports

North American football

A scoreboard for American high school football, which also features tenths timing

to facilitiate track and field event timing.

In both the United States and Canadian football codes, the minimum details

displayed are the time and score of both teams. A typical high school scoreboard

will additionally display the down, the yardage of the line of scrimmage, the yards

to go until a first down, the team with the possession (usually signified with the

outline of a football in lights next to the possessing team's score) and the quarter.
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Higher levels will also include play clocks and the number of time outs left for

each team. American football scoreboards may include a horn to signal the end of

a quarter, but they are not used in larger venues. In those cases, the referee or

public address announcer denotes the termination of a quarter vocally via the PA

system; formerly quarter ends were denoted with the firing of a starting pistol in

the era before digital timing.

Basketball

A basketball scoreboard will at the minimum display the time left in the period

and both team's scores. The last minute of each quarter is usually displayed with

tenths of a second, which is required in FIBA, NBA (since 1989), and NCAA (since

2001). Most high school scoreboards also include a display of the number of team

fouls, the number of the last player to commit a personal foul (with the total

number of personal fouls for that player), the period, and indicators of which

team is in the team foul penalty situation, and possession (with a separate

possession arrow display at half-court; not used in the NBA). College basketball

scoreboards include shot clocks and the number of time outs left for each team.

Larger scoreboards include statistics on the players in the game. Basketball

scoreboards must include a horn or buzzer to signal the end of a period, fouls, and

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substitutions; the shot clocks have their own buzzer system to avert any confusion

with the game clock system.

In some multipurpose venues where ice hockey and basketball are played, the

scoreboard unit which shows penalties will be used to display the player on the

court, number of fouls, and points scored in the game. The team fouls are usually

placed in the same position as shots on goal in hockey games. In some university

arenas, the scorer's table, which has traditionally been used for displaying

physically scrolling advertising boards along its face, may also feature either a

traditional mechanical scoreboard, or a scoreboard display within a LED display on

the front of the table which also functions with virtual scrolling advertisements.

Since 1991, the NBA has mandated that each shot clock carry a duplicate readout

of the time left in the period in addition to the shot time. Since 2011, the shot

clock also shows tenths of a second past five seconds left on the shot clock. Many

college and even some high-school shot clocks (in states where a shot-clock rule is

in effect for high-school basketball) now also include a game timer.

Three-sided game shot clocks became a trend in the 1990s, and after a

controversial series of calls during the 2002 NBA Playoffs, the NBA instituted a

new game shot clock rule in 2002, requiring specific visibility of the game and shot

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clock time for instant replay purposes. FIBA installed a similar three-sided rule in

2004. The rule was further changed in 2005 by permitting a new Daktronics see-

through model (one on top of the basket, one on the end of the basket unit) that

has gained popularity as many OES and Daktronics venues have adopted the

system.

Daktronics recently introduced a technology called ColorSmart, which denotes the

trailing team's score numbers with red lighting, while the leading team is in green.

However this technology has yet to be utilized in a game settings as the bylaws of

the major basketball sanctioning bodies and many of the high school athletic

bodies decree that both scores must display in the same color; the rule came into

effect in 1994 after Spectrum Scoreboards introduced an earlier version of the

concept. This is used almost exclusively in recreation leagues.

Baseball

Ray Fisher Stadium baseball scoreboard, University of Michigan

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For baseball the scoreboard will at the minimum show both team scores, as well

as the current inning. In addition the number of balls, strikes and outs is

represented by digits or individual lights. Larger scoreboards offer an inning-by-

inning breakdown of the scores, hits, errors, pitch count and the time of day.

There may also be another display either separate or combined with the

scoreboard listing the radar gun reading of the last pitch thrown in miles per hour.

Almost all Major League facilities have a video board as a scoreboard or a matrix

display. Usually these scoreboards are controlled via programs that keep statistics

and not just the score. Usually the official scorer will operate this program. Then

all the information the official scorer will enter will automatically be outputted to

the scoreboard. Currently, the largest scoreboards are located at Progressive Field

in Cleveland, Ohio, and Kansas City, Missouri's Kauffman Stadium. There is also a

very large scoreboard at Citizens Bank Park home of the Philadelphia Phillies.

Manually operated scoreboards are still found frequently in baseball, particularly

at older venues. Well-known examples of manual scoreboards, using numbers

painted on metal sheets hung by people working inside the scoreboard, include

Fenway Park in Boston and Wrigley Field in Chicago.

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In some stadiums since 2005, LED boards which are the full height of the outfield

wall have been installed to either replace a manual scoreboard or enhance an

existing wall, are considered in play, and are durably constructed to withstand the

impacts of fielders colliding with the wall, along with the impact of a baseball

against the panel. Examples of this type of scoreboard display are seen in

Milwaukee's Miller Park, Rogers Centre in Toronto, New Yankee Stadium in The

Bronx, and Kauffman Stadium in Kansas City. In all three cases, the walls display

the current game state of out-of-town games (often down to pitch count for the

current at-bat and runners on base), statistics for the current batter or pitcher, and

promotional messages.

The scoreboard at the Adelaide Oval

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The Thwaites Scoreboard at Edgbaston, Birmingham

Cricket

For cricket a scoreboard will as a minimum display the batting team's score,

wickets fallen, the opposition's totals. Most county-standard scoreboards will also

display each batsman's score, overs remaining, extras, the bowlers currently on

and details of the last wicket to fall. Australian state scoreboards will usually

contain more detailed information.

Ice hockey scoreboard in Helsinki Ice Hall.

Ice hockey

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An ice hockey scoreboard will at the minimum display the time left (in North

America) or played (in Europe), the number of goals scored by each team as well

as any penalties currently being served. Additional information such as shots on

goal may be shown on smaller scoreboards located in the arena. Tenths of a

second are usually displayed within the last minute of each period.

In multipurpose arenas, the penalties being served will appear in the multi-

purpose panels, used for player statistics in basketball, with shots on goal in the

same position as team fouls for basketball. In some arenas the sideboards of the

hockey rink feature three or four LED displays the size of one advertising hoarding

which will show scoring information and promotional messages, though their

limited visibility makes them rarely used.

The Pylon at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway

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Motor sports

In auto racing, the scoreboard typically displays the running order of the race, and

number of laps completed. Some more complex boards scroll statistics such as

average speed, laps behind, and timing reports.

Rugby football

All codes of rugby football have a game clock, the number of tries, penalties, field

goals and conversions listed.

Track and field

In track and field there is usually an elapsed time display. Sometimes the team

scores are displayed. Often in higher levels there is a variable message display

next to each field event area that displays the standings and who is up next. Other

indicators may show track side wind speed. In some settings where a track

surrounds an athletic field, a track and field scoreboard may be combined within

the football scoreboard or you can customize Fair-Play Track & Field Scoreboards

to include measurements, total team scores and other event details.

Association football (Soccer)

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An association football scoreboard usually shows the score for the home and away

team, as well as the current match time. A board displaying the current stoppage

time is usually held up by one of the match officials towards the end of the first

and second half. The same board is also used to denote the jersey numbers of

players coming in and leaving the game during a substitution, with the substitute's

number appearing in green, while the leaving player is denoted in red.

Some amateur and youth levels will have the clock count down.

Some American venues will use a multi-purpose gridiron/soccer venue type

scoreboard where various statistics are shown. Such may include either total fouls,

corner kicks, shots on goal, or other important statistics for spectators to learn

their team's overall performance.

Softball

Similar to baseball, a softball scoreboard will at the minimum show both team

scores and the current inning. In addition, the number of balls, strikes and outs,

and the number of hits and errors are often indicated.

Swimming

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The scores for the meet, swimmer by lane, and their current placing, along with

their race times are displayed on this type of board. The time display is most often

in hundredths of a second, though thousandths may also be utilized.

Wrestling

Wrestling scoreboards will display the team scores, the current match time, the

match score, and the weight class. Some scoreboards may also display riding time.

Captioning requirements

Within the last few years most major league, professional and major college

venues also include smaller displays featuring closed captioning of

announcements from the public address system and advertisements displayed on

the scoreboards to comply with the United States Americans with Disabilities Act

of 1990 for the hard of hearing, and to allow distracted spectators to read what

had been said.

Video board animation

Most major sports facilities will use a video board and display graphics and fun

videos relating to what is happening in the game. For instance, a home run may

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be depicted by an animation of a ball flying out to space. These animations are

usually high in detail and are customized for the team that uses them. Most MLB

facilities do their video editing on site in the press box; however, at AAA stadiums

most of it is done off site. The only AAA facility that does video editing on site is

the Toledo Mudhens in Toledo, Ohio (affiliate to the Detroit Tigers). Some teams

have animators that create their own animations, while others have outside

companies do the work for them www.wikiencyclopedia.com]

2.2 How it works

When the devices is powered, the display initializes itself to 00:00 which means

no recent update from server remote, now, when the user wants to send data in

form of numerical data, he or she has to send a particular values from the remote

server which when done the scoreboard displays only the new data receives from

the server and can only be changed from the wireless remote control.

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