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Perancangan Struktur

Beton Pratekan
Design terhadap Lentur
Sjahril A. Rahim
Departemen Teknik Sipil FTUI
2010
3.1 Konsep Beton Prategang:

Superposisi Tegangan
Internal (Resisting) Couple
Load Balancing
(a) Superposisi tegangan
Konsentrik Prestressing
Eksentrik Prestressing
Curved Tendon:

Efek pprestressing:
g F Fe
f c
A I
(b) Konsep internal resisting
PC, kombinasi steel dan beton Resistingg couple
p

Bervariasi sesuai M, Konsatan,


C = T konstan C = T bervariasi
sesuai M
Konsep internal resisting
RC > Passive PC > Active
reinforcement
reinforcement
No crack
> cracking Degree of
prestressing
Internal Resisting
C
e
a M

Internal (Resisting) Couple = Momen Luar


a = M/C = M/T
C=T

Dengan diketahuinya posisi C, bergeser sebesar a dari cgs


T
Tegangan dapat
d t dicari
di i sebagai
b i gaya eksentris:
k ti
C Cec
f
A I
dimana C = T
(c) Konsep Load Balancing
Prestressingg balance the load

8 Fh
8Fh
wb
L2

F=gaya prestressing
F t i
L=span
H=sag dari parabola
Konsep Load Balancing
Untuk
U t k bbeban
b luar
l w yang sama besar
b ddengan wb, beban
b b
transversal seimbang

F
f
A
Mc
Untuk perubahan stress dari kondisi balance: f
I
M = unbalanced moment akibat beban (w-wb)
Bent Tendons

Beam with bent tendon

V F Freebody
F b d off C
Concrete,
t with
ith
Tendon Replaced by Forces

V F
Concrete Stress Limits for Flexure
Compressive Stress Limit Tensile Stress Limit
Initial Stage 0,60 ffcii (a) (1/4)f cii
(1/4)f
At prestress transfer (b) (1/2)fci
Compresive Strength (c) If values above
= fci exceeded, provide
b d d reinforcement,
bonded i f t
As=Nc/0.5fy to resist
tensile stress resultant,
Nc

Final Stage (a) 0,45 fc (a) (1/2)fc


Aft all
After ll prestress
t (b) 0,60
0 60 fc (b) (1/4)fc
loosses
Compresive Strength
= fc

SNI 03-1847-2002 / ACI 318-1999


Permissible Stresses in Tendons:

In order to provide a margin of safety


against
g tendon fracture
or end anchorage failures;
to avoid inelastic tendon deformation;
and to limit relaxation losses
Permissible Stresses in Tendons:
Permissible stress in
tendons

Due to prestressing steel 0,94


0 94 fpy
jacking force 0,80 fpu

Immediately after 0,82


0 82 fpy
prestesing 0,74 fpu

Post-tensioning
P t t i i tendons,
t d att 0 70 fpu
0,70
anchorage devices and
couplers, immediately after
force transfer
ACI Code Tendons Stress Limits in terms of
fpu:
Tendon type fpy At Jackingg After Transfer

Low- 0,90 0,80 0,74*


relaxation
strand or wire
Normal stress- 0,85 0,80 0,70
relieved
strand or wire
Plain 0,85 0,80 0,70
pprestressingg
bars
Deformed 0,80 0,75 0,66
prestressing
bars
* Post-tensioned tendons limited to 0,70 fpu at anchorage and couplers.
Life History of Prestressed member under
flexure

Elastic stress
Load balancing method Life history
Ultimate strength method

Load-deflection relationship
Life History of Prestressed member under
flexure
3.2 Design balok terhadap lentur

(a) Pertimbangan Umum

Prestressing - Improved response struktur


terhadap beban
- Penggunaan hight-strength material
secara efisien
fi i
- Self-equilibrating system dari internal
stress: High tension stress pada
tendon
High compression stress pada
beton
Setiap fase kritis harus ditinjau
Beberapa fase yang harus ditinjau:

Initial prestress, sesaat setelah transfer, Pi


Initial p
prestress plus
p berat sendiri
Initial prestress plus full beban mati
Efective prestress
prestress, Pe,
Pe setelah losses,
losses plus
beban service, terdiri dari full beban mati
dan beban hidup p
Ultimate load, beban layan di kalikan load
factor
Pertimbangan umum dalam design
Pretensioned
Beam
(b) Tegangan izin tendons
Alasan pembatasan tensile stress:

Safety terhadap fracture


Safety terhadap endend-anchorage
anchorage failure
Menhindarkan inelastic deformation
M b
Membatasi i llosses akibat
kib relasasi
l i
(c) Tegangan Izin Beton
Control of cracking occurring at transfer:
Initial Stage

Final Stage
(d) Tegangan pada Beton
Akibat prestressing:
p g
Estimasi prestressing force:
Post tensioned: Initial prestressing,
Post-tensioned: prestressing Pi=Apfpi

- initial jacking force


- stressing sequence
- friction loosses

Standard Pretensioned:

Reduksi tendon forces antara jjackingg dan transfer


dianggap: 10 % untuk stress-relieved strand
7.5 % untul low-relaxation strand
Estimasi final prestressing force:

Pf Ap f pf Creep,
Creep
Shrinkage,
relaksasi
Stresses akibat beban luar
Transformed section:

Nilai n:
-short term loads
-- long term loads
Ringkasan tegangan akibat prestressing dan
beban
Transformed Section
(e) Proses Perencanaan
Perencanaan

Dimensi Penampang
Material Properties
Tendon Profile
P
Prestressing
i force
f yang diperlukan
di l k
Luas tulangan
Detail penulangan
Kriteria yang harus dipenuhi

Batasan tinggi
Difleksi harus dalam batas yang diizinkan
Kekuatan yang cukup
(i) Pemilihan Potongan Balok: Tipe, urutan pelaksanaan

Pemilihan type prestressed member;


Urutan pelaksanaan
Penentuan overall member depth based on
typical span-to-depth
span to depth ratios
Span and load ranges for standard deck elements

Type and
standard
precast,
pretensioned
elements
Typikal Span-to-depth ratio
(ii) Memenuhi batas tegangan

Tendon stress: batas atas ketika di tension


Stress pada beton
- Initial Stage: Pi,
Beton muda, fci,
Gaya prestressing: Pi, Pf
Momen, Momen min
- Final Stage: Pf, Eksentrisitas (e)
Concrete Strength, fc,
Momen Momen max
Momen,
Kasus 1: Kondisi zero tension
M min
Pi (1)
e kb

Sb
kt
A
S
kb t
A M max
Pf (2)
e kt

arrangement pers (1) dan (2)


Pf
Pf (kt kb ) M max M min
Pi
Nilai pendekatan lengan momen dalam untuk preliminary
service load design:
Kasus 2: Tegangan tarik izin diperbolehkan
M min Pi M min M min St f t
St

A St
ft e kb (5)
Pi

M max Sb f b
Pf (4)
e kt

M max Pf Pf e
fb
Sb A Sb
Range dari eksentrisitas tendon sehubungan dengan
batasan tegangan:
Note:

Tendon lurus, e konstan, stress limit tension dapat


di lampaui
Post-tensioned, dengan parabolic tendon,
memenuhi secara efisien stress limit baik di
midspan
id maupun diujung
di j (support)
( )
Pretensioned: - single harping point di midspan
- Double harping point pada kira-
kira 1/3 bentang
Reduksi prestress force di dekat perletakan,
perletakan
pretensioned
Reduksi prestress force di dekat perletakan,
perletakan
postensioned
(iii) Memenuhi batas defleksi
Prestressing
P t i camber
b
DL dan LL downward deflection

Simply supported beam, pretensioned with single


harping point, zero end eccentricity, zero deflection
under dead load,
load wd
5
Pf e wd l 2
32
Post-tensioned beam with a parabolic profile:
1
Pf e wd l 2
8
(iv) Memenuhi kebutuhan kekuatan
wu=1.2wd+1.6wl

~0.9h

M n ( Aps 0.95 f pu As f y )0.9h

M n M u
(v) Urutan dari perencanaan

Preliminary
design
process
Example: Design of Double-Tee Floor
Member

14 mspan
102 mm
Example: Design of Double-Tee Floor
Member
The untopped double-tee floor member shown in Figure,
span 14.0 m in an office building and carries a service live
load of 2.4 kN/m2 as well as a superimposed dead load of
0.72 kN/m2. The concrete strength at transfer, fci is 24.1
MPa, and the minimum specified 28-day strength is 34.5
MPa (normal weight concrete). The prestressing steel is
in. (13 mm) diameter low-relaxation strand, with an
ultimate strength, fpu=270 ksi (1860 MPa), which will be
tensioned to 0.75fpu in the pretensioning bed. Design the
double tee following the conventional practice of using
only prestressing strand for longitudinal reinforcement in
the stems.
stems
Example: Prosedur design

Tentukan tinggi balok


Tentukan gaya prestressing
Tentukan tendon profile
C k tegangan beton
Cek b pada
d beban
b b service
i
Cek kapasitas lentur
Cek reserve strength setelah cracking
Cek defleksi
Tentukan tinggi balok:
Untuk double Tee, span-to-depth ratio dalam
range 20 30
Sebuah doubel Tee dengan tinggi 610 mm, dengan
span-to-depth ratio 23
2438 mm

50 mm 610 mm

1219 mm
Tentukan gaya prestressing efektif
berdasarkan tegangan beton izin
Gaya prestressing yang diperlukan:

M max Sb f b
Pf
e kt

Luas penampang strand:

Pf
Aps
f pf
Untuk low relaxation strands, tegangan prestressing setelah
loss fpff=1080
loss, 1080 MPa
Estimasi final prestressing force:
Creep
Creep,
Pf Ap f pf Shrinkage,
relaksasi

effective
Initial
wo=6.10 kN/m
wd=11.75
75 kN/m
wl=5.84 kN/m
M i
Maximum service
i load
l d moment at midspan,
id
Mmax=(wo+wd+wl)L2/8=336 kN-m;
Required moment ultimate at midspan,
Mu=(1.4(wo+wd)+1.7wl)L2/8=514 kN-m
Gaya prestressing yang diperlukan

Untuk double tee, e+kt = 0.70 h=0.7 x 610=427 mm.


Bottom fiber tensile stress limit 6fc=424 psi=3.20 MPa.
G
Gaya prategang yang didiperlukan:
l k
M max Sb f b
Pf
e kt

Pf=651 kN
615x103/1080
Aps Pf/fps=615x10 588 mm2
/1080=588
Tentukan gaya prestressing efektif
berdasarkan kekuatan batas

Penentuan luas strand untuk memenuhi kekuatan batas:

M n ( Aps 0.95 f pu As f y )0.9h


M n 0.77 Apps f ppu h
Mn
Aps
0.77 f ppu h
Tentukan gaya prestressing efektif
berdasarkan kekuatan batas

Mn
Aps
0.77 f pu h

Aps=514/(0.77x1860x610)=587 mm2

Dari perhitungan dapat disimpulkan bahwa batas tegangan


tarik sedikit lebih kritis dibandingkan batas kekuatan.

Dipilih total 6 in. (13 mm) strands dengan Aps= 6 x


0.153=0.92 in2=592 mm2
Tentukan tendon profile
Pada midspan
p kita gunakan
g maksimum eksentritas yang
y g mungkin,
g , tetapi
p pada
p
kedua ujung ekesentristas akan direduksi untuk membatasi tegangan tarik pada
serat atas dari balok tidak lebih dari 6fci=63500=355 psi =2.45 MPa. Kondisi
stress akan dikontrol pada 50 diameter strand dari ujung balok = 50 x in=25
in 635 mm atau
in=635 ata 23 in=584.2
in 584 2 mm dari centerline perletakan Untuk
Unt k mengontrol
tegangan tarik pada serat atas, eksentrisitas harus memenuhi persamaan:

M min St f t
e kb
Pi

kb=St/A=194 mm
Mmin=12 kN-m
Pi=Apsfpi=592 x 1290=765 kN
e 194+(12x103x103+50194 x 103x2.45)/(765x103)
e
371 mm
Tendons Profile
cgc 2438 mm

ee=232 mm h

14 mspan ec=372
372 mm
102 mm
End section Midspan section
2438 mm

50 mm
610 mm
2 x 150 mm
50 mm 63 mm 50 mm

1219 mm
Cek tegangan beton pada beban service

Tegangan dicek pada tiga potongan:


midspan,
p , pada
p 0.4L,, ppada suatu lokasi
dimana 50 strand diameter dari ujung balok,
dimana g gaya
y prestress
p secara full bekerja.
j
Tegangan dicek pada dua kondisi: kondisi
initial dan kondisi final.
initial, final
Cek tegangan beton pada beban service
pada midspan
Maximum service load moment at midsapan,
Mmax=(wo+wd+wl)L2/8=336 kN-m;
Pf=592x1080=639630 N Aps=592 mm2
e=372 mm; Sb=20058 x 103 mm3; St=50194 x 103
mm3; A=258709 mm2
f1=-Pf/A-Pfe/St-Mmax/St=-642 psi =-4.432 MPa
f2 =-Pf/A+Pfe/Sb+Mmax/Sb=+349 psi = + 2.41 MPa
Cek kapasitas lentur
Kapasitas lentur dapat kritis pada midspan atau 0.40L
0 40L

cgc 518 mm 546 mm cgc


406 mm ee=232 mm

50 mm
0.5 L
102 mm cgs 102 mm

0.4 L

M0.5L=514
514 kN-m
kN

M0.4L
0 4L=0.96M
0.96M0.5
0 5L
L=463
463 kN-m
kN m
Cek kapasitas lentur

Tinggi stress blok:

Ap f ps
a 1c
0.85 f c ' b

Dengan demikian momen design:


a
M n Ap f ps d p
2
Tegangan steel fps pada keruntuhan lentur:

Stress didalam prestressing steel ketika balok failure dapat


ditentukan secara pendekatan, berlaku jika fpe tidak kurang dari
0 50 fpu.
0,50

Bonded tendon, tanpa tulangan tarik dan tekan


p p f pu
f ps f pu 1
1 f c '

dimana: p=Ab/bdp
dp=tinggi efektif balok ke titik berat prestressing
p=0.40
=0 40 untuk fps/fpu < 00.85,
85 ordinary stress-relieved tendons
p=0.28 untuk fps/fpu < 0.90, low relaxation wire dan strand
Cek reserve strength setelah cracking
Beton
B t dianggap
di crackk jika
jik tegangan
t tarik
t ik mencapaii modulus
d l off
rupture, fr=0.70fc. Pada kondisi final, jika tegangan tarik
mencapai ft, dan momen maksimum Mmax, thus Mcr adalah

M cr Sb ( f r f t ) M max

Dengan demikian reserve of strength after cracking:

M n
FS 1.20
M cr
Cek defleksi

Karena balok tidak retak pada beban


service,, defleksi dapat
p dihitung
g dengan
g
menganggap response elastic, uncrack
Defleksi sesaat akibat beban hidup
Cek defleksi terhadap kerusakan partisi
(a) Defleksi sesaat akibat beban
hidup
Lendutan sesaat akibat beban hidup:

5 wl L4
L
384 Ec I
Ec 4700 f c'

Batas defleksi sesaat akibat beban hidup: l/360


(b) Cek defleksi terhadap kerusakan
partisi
Untuk menghitung defleksi yang akan memberikan efek terhadap partisi,
kita estimete pertama defleksi balok pada saat partisi dipasang.

Defleksi elastic akibat berat sendiri:


5 wo L4
wo Dimana modulus elastisitas beton pada saat
384 Ec I release prestress
Ec 4700 f ci'

Elastic camber akibat initial prestressing

2ec ee Pi L2
Pi ( )
24 EI
Dengan mengunakan multiflier (PCI), defleksi net pada saat
ereksi:

net io wo Pi Pi

dimana io= 1.85 dan Pi = 1.80


Elastic deflection akibat superimposed dead load and sustained
live load:

5 ( wd 0.30 wl ) L4
wd 0.30 wl
384 Ec I
Ec 4700 f c'
Total long term deflection akibat berat sendiri, prestress,
superimposed dead load, dan beban hidup yang sustain:
long o wo p Pi s wd 0.30 wl

di
dimana o = 2.70,
2 70 p = 2.45,
2 45 s = 3.00
3 00

5 (0.7 wl ) L4
Total deflection: total
t t l long
l nett
384 Ec I
Untuk partisi yang sensitif terhadap defleksi, batas defleksi=
L/480
Suggested multipliers to be used as a guide in estimating
long-time cambers and deflections for typical members*

Without With
Composite Composite
Topping Topping
At Erection:
(1) Deflection (downward) component apply to the elastic 1.85 1.85
deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress
(2) Camber (upward) component apply to the elastic camber 180 1.80
due to prestress at the time of release of prestress
Final:
(3) Deflection (downward) component apply to the elastic 2 70
2.70 2 40
2.40
deflection due to the ember weight at release of prestress
(4) Camber (upward) component apply to the elastic camber
due to prestress at the time of release of prestress 2.45 2.20
(5) Deflection (downward) component apply to the elastic
deflection due to superimposed dead load only 3.00 3.00
(6) Deflection (downward) component apply to the elastic _ 2.30
deflection caused by the composite topping

*Source: PCI Design Handbook: Precast and Prestressed Concrete, 3rd edition, PCI,
Chicago, 1985
Load Balancing as a Design Tool
The equivalent concept offered an alternative approach to
the determination of required prestress force and
eccentricity. The prestress force and tendon profile can be
established
bli h d so that
h externall loads
l d that
h will ill act are exactly
l
counteracted by the vertical forces resulting from
prestressing. The net result, for that particular set of
external loads,
loads is that the beam is subjected only to axial
compression, and no bending moment;
The selection the load to be balanced is left to the
judgment of the designer.
designer Often the balanced load chosen
is the sum of the self-weight and superimposed dead load;
The design approach described in this section was
introduced by TY Lin in 1963.
1963
Load deflection curve for typical beam

Balanced
condition,
condition
wo+wd+kbwl=wp
Fundamental concept
For parabolic tendon:

8Py
wp 2
l

Concrete
stresses
resulting
from
balanced
condition,
condition
wo+wd+kbwl
Concrete =wp
stresses
resulting
lti
when load kb
wl is
removed
Load other than uniformly distributed
Psin

P
Pcos

2Psin

Psin Psin

Pcos Pcos

Psin Psin
A uniformly loaded cantilever beam
Parabolic tendon
w The steel
eccentricity must
be zero, the slope
of the tendon there
y P must match the
slope concrete
centroid.

2 Py
2Py
wP
l2
Load balancing tendon profiles for uniformly
loaded beams continuous support
Design procedure

Selection of a trial beam cross section, based on


experience and judgment, An appropriate span-
depth ratio is often applied;
The tendon profile is selected using the maximum
available maximum eccentricity;
The
h prestress fforce iis calculated;
l l d
The trial design may then be checked to ensure
that concrete stresses are within the allowable
limits should the live load be totally absent or
fully in place.
Example: Beam design initiating with load
balancing
Flexural Design based on Partial Prestressing

There is a distinction trend in current design practice toward the use of


partially prestresed beams, in which flexural tensile cracking is
permitted in the concrete in the service load stage or for occasional
overloads. Cracks are usually small and well distributed, and normally
close completely when the load that produced the is removed;
The present ACI Code permits tensile stress in the concrete of 6fc at
full service load. This slightly below the usual modulus of rupture. No
cracking should occur if the tension is limited to this value,
value and the
design methods presented earlier in this chapter are fully applicable;
The code also permits flexural tension as high as 12fc at full service
load, provided that deflection calculations accounting for the cracked
section
ti confirm
fi that
th t deflection
d fl ti are within
ithi specified
ifi d limits
li it andd that
th t
normal concrete cover requirements are increased by 50%. This tensile
stress is above the modulus of rupture, so flexural cracks can be
expected. A partially prestrssed beam design results.
A strength design procedure for partially
prestressed beams
Flexural Design based on Partial Prestressing