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AProjectReporton

FabricationofGreenCompositesfromNaturallyAvailableFibers

Submittedinpartialfulfilmentofthe
requirementfortheawardofthedegree
of
BACHELOROFTECHNOLOGY
in
MechanicalEngineering

Submittedby:

AnoopGwalia AyushKatiyar IndrajSaini


13117011 13117015 13117034

Guidedby:

Dr.IndraVirSingh
AssociateProfessor
MIED,IITRoorkee



DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALANDINDUSTRIALENGINEERING
INDIANINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYROORKEE
ROORKEE247667
May,2017

DECLARATIONOFTHECANDIDATE

We hereby certify that the work being presented here entitled Fabrication of Green
Composites from Naturally Available Fibers is an authentic record of our own work from
the period August 2016 till May 2017 under the guidance of Dr. Indra Vir Singh, Associate
Professor, MIED, IIT Roorkee. The matter embodied in this report, to the best of our
knowledge,hasneverbeenpresentedfortheawardofanyotherdegreeelsewhere.

Dated:
Place:

AnoopGwalia AyushKatiyar IndrajSaini

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the report submitted by Mr. AnoopGwalia,Mr.AyushKatiyarandMr.
Indraj Saini on Fabrication of Green Composites from Naturally Available Fibers in a
partial fulfilment of the degree is an authentic record of their project work which they have
satisfactorilycompletedundermysupervision.

Dated:

Dr.IndraVirSingh
AssociateProfessor
MIED,IITRoorkee

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TableofContents

1. Acknowledgement5
2. Abstract6
3. Introduction7
Greencomposites7
Problemdefinitionandobjective8
4. Literaturereview9
5. Greencomposites11
Typesofcomposites11
Influenceoffiberlength12
Influenceoffiberorientationandconcentration13
Tensilestressstrainbehaviour13
Elasticbehaviour14
Whydoweneedgreencomposites14
Advantagesofgreencompositesovertraditionalcomposites14
Disadvantagesofgreencomposites15
Applicationsandendusesofgreencomposites15
Someoftheotherapplications15
6. Fibersusedingreencomposites16
Bamboofibers17
Basaltfibers18
Flaxfibers19
Hempfibers20
Kenaffibers21
Ramiefibers23
Jutefibers24
Chemicaltreatmentofnaturalfibers24
7. Variousmatrices26
Polylacticacid26
Polyfurfuryl27

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Comparisonofmechanicalproperties28
Comparisonofthermalconductivities28
8. Costanalysis29
9. Manufacturingprocess30
Injectionmoulding30
FormationofhempPLAsamples32
10. CommerciallyavailablegradesofPLA34
11. Experimentsandresults36
Scanningelectronmicroscope36
Degradationtest40
Waterabsorptiontest41
Weatheringtest42
Tensiletest43
Thermalconductivitytest49
12. Conclusion52
13. Scopeoffuturework52
14. References53

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our deep sense of gratitudetoDr.IndraVirSingh(Mechanicaland
Industrial Engineering Department) our mentor in this project who encouraged us in taking
thisprojectandhelpedusineachandeverystepofit.
We feel thankful tohimthatinspiteofsuchabusyschedulehegaveushistimeandvaluable
adviceandlistenedtouspatiently.
We would also like to thank Mr Ujendra Komal for his help in sample preparation and was
thereateverysteptoguideus.
And most importantly, this opportunity inculcated in us a sense of teamwork. Thanks to all
members.

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Abstract

Therecentresearchesanddevelopmentincompositeshasgreatlyenhanceditsusesinvarious
applications. However, most of these composites are plastic based, which means there is a
serious challenge of their waste disposal and carbon footprints. Green composites, on the
other hand, are fully derived from natural resources and are fully biodegradable too. This
givesahopeofthemreplacinggeneralnonbiodegradablecomposites.
In the present work, the applicabilityofhemp(20%w/w)PLAgreencompositesaretestedin
structural and insulatoroperations.Agreencompositemadehousingprojectcanbeprovedto
becheaper,greenerandexpeditiousinfulfillingofhighdemands.
First, the compatibility of different fibermatrix combinations are studied from previous
research papers. HempPLA is selected and a 20% hemp (w/w) in made using injection
molding. The samples thusmadeweresubjectedtoparticulartestssoastogetthebehaviours
of the composite in actual working conditions. These tests include biodegradation,
weathering, sunlight, thermal conductivity, water absorption tests andtensilestrengthamong
others.
The results show a reduction as much as 28% in tensile strength under biodegradation.
However,otherenvironmentalvariableshavelittletonoeffectonthetensilestrength.
It can be concluded that waste disposal of a green composite is easier but extra support
shouldbegiveninthestructureswherethecompositesareneartheground.

Key words: Green composites, hemp fiber, poly (lactic acid), biodegradability, water
absorption,thermalconductivity,tensilestrengthetc.

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Introduction

Fiber reinforced polymeric composites have been usedforavarietyofstructuralapplications


because of their high specific strength and modulus compared to metals. Most composites
currently available on the market are designed with longterm durability in mind and are
made using nondegradable polymeric resins, such as epoxies and polyurethane, and
highstrengthfibers,suchasgraphite,aramids,andglass.
With increasing numbers of applications and mass volume uses, in particular, recording
doubledigit growth worldwide, disposal of composites after their intended life is already
becoming critical, as well as expensive. Most composites end up inlandfills,whilesomeare
incinerated after use. There disposal hasbecomeexpensive,andinmanycases,pollutingand
hazardous for roaming animals. Landfills are decreasing innumberincitieswherelandcosts
aregoinghigh,makinglessspaceavailabletodiscardwaste.
the evergrowing worldwide litter problem has raised environmental consciousness among
consumers, manufacturers, and governments. Further, it is estimated that we are currently
consuming petroleum at an unsustainable rate, 100 000 times fasterthannaturecancreateit.
The growing global environmental awareness and societal concern, high rate of depletion of
petroleum resources, concepts of sustainability, and new environmental regulations have
together triggered the search for new products and processes that are compatible with the
environment. Keeping this in mind, environmentfriendly, fully biodegradable reinforced
plastics or green composite materials will play a major role in greening theproductsofthe
future.

GreenComposites
Green composites are biocomposites where both matrix and reinforcement derive from
renewable resources (most commonly plants). All plant fibers are composed of cellulose.
Plant fibers include bast (or stem or soft sclerenchyma) fibers, leaf, seed, fruit, root, grass,
cereal straw and wood. The availability of large quantities of fibers with welldefined
mechanical properties is a general prerequisite for the successful use to reinforce the resins.
Plant fibers have a number of advantages and disadvantages over traditional glass fibers.
Their ecological character, biodegradability, low costs, non abrasive nature, safe fiber
handling, high possible filling levels, low energy consumption, high specific properties, low
density and wide varietyoffibertypesareveryimportantfactorsfortheiracceptanceinlarge
volumemarketssuchastheautomotiveandconstructionindustry.
However certain drawbacks, such as tendency to form aggregates during processing,
low thermal stability, low resistance to moisture and seasonal quality variations (even
between individual plants in the same cultivation),greatlyreducethepotentialofplantfibers
to be used as reinforcement for polymers. The high moisture absorption of plantfibersleads

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to swelling and presence of voids at the interface (porous products), which results in poor
mechanicalpropertiesandreducesdimensionalinstabilityofcomposites.
Another problem is the processing temperature that restricts the choice of matrix material.
Plant fibers are composed of various organic materials (primarily cellulose, as well as
hemicellulose and lignin) and therefore their thermal treatment leads to a variety ofphysical
and chemical changes. Thermal degradation of those fibers leads to poor organoleptic
properties, such as odor and colors and moreover to deterioration of their mechanical
properties.

ProblemDefinitionandObjective
Out of three verybasicnecessitiesoflifefood,clothingandhousing,theaffordablehousing
is still to reach to the masses. Keeping in view the rapid urbanization in India with major
chunk of the total population migrating toward metro cities in search of employment and a
better lifestyle, large investment is needed in providing housing for all. Additionally, these
should also be inexpensive and,lookingattherapidlyincreasingtrendofthedemand,ableto
bebuiltquickly.
Choice of the material to built such small scale structure would be a variable in
deciding the applicability of the two properties described above. One of the possible choice
for such materials can be green composites. It has many properties which match the
requirements. Selection of the correct green composite has been the main( along with a few
other)objectiveofthecurrentproject.
Choice of the most appropriate fiber and matrix is veryimportant.Furthermore,their
compatibility between themselves is the bottleneck of the selection procedure. The sample
wouldbemadewithafixedweightfractionoffiberwithrespecttomatrix.
Every structure thus built needtostandtestsbynaturalfactors.Atypicalhousehasto
withstand certain loads, sunlight, weather changes, rain etc. To check theapplicabilityofthe
composite, certain tests are to be made on the sample to check such properties. The
microscopic view of the samples can also give deep insights intotheinternalstructureofthe
composite.

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LiteratureReview

Anil Netravali et. al. describes the need of green composites over nonbiodegradable
composites which are obtained from petroleum based products, a non replenishable
commodity. He presents the idea of green compositestoovercometheproblemofpollution.
Variouspropertiesofdifferentnaturalfibresandmatrixresinswerepresented.[1]

Mitsugu Todo et. al. presents properties and results obtained for biocomposite prepared
from Kenaf and Polylactic acid. Fiber loadings were varied between 0 and 40 wt%. The
tensile,dynamicmechanical,andmorphologicalpropertiesandwaterabsorptionbehavior
ofthesecompositeswerepresented.[5]

ElisaZinet.al.talksaboutvariousnaturalfibresusedinthepresentdayandtalksabouttheir
various properties and some targeted applications and also recently developed thermoplastic
andthermosettingbiobasedpolymersarereviewed.[31]

Jong Sung Won et. al. shows by performing biodegradation testonkenaf/SPIPVA thatthe
degradation time of the composite could be controlled by the crosslinking agent that the
degradation rate ofthekenaf/SPIPVAcompositewiththecrosslinkingagentwaslowerthan
thatofthecompositewithoutthecrosslinkingagent.[12]

Hongwei Ma et. al. shows the effect ofjutefibercontent,processingtemperature,andalkali


treatment on the structure and mechanical properties of jutePLAcomposites.Theinterfacial
structure between jute fibers and PLA was analysed by scanning electron microscope.The
optimum tensile properties of jutePLA composites were obtained at 15 wt% fiber content
andaprocessingtemperatureof210C.[26]

Nurul Fazita Mohammad Rawi et. al. investigated the performance of bamboo
fabricpoly(lactic acid) composites manufactured by compression moulding.The effects of
compression moulding parameters on the mechanical properties of the bamboo
fabricpoly(lactic acid) composite sheets were evaluated. Optimum compression moulding
parameters to achieve the best mechanical properties of the composites was determined
usingtheTaguchimethodofexperimentaldesign.[10]

B. C. Mitra talks about several critical issues related to biofiber surface treatments is to
make itamoresuitablematrixforcompositeapplicationandpromisingtechniquesneedtobe
solved to design biocomposite of interest and talks about various fiber properties and
composition[4]

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Ali Amiri et. al. uses TimeTemperaturesuperposition to overcome the challenge of long
time required to perform the tests. Shortterm strain creep at different temperatures was
measured and curves were shifted with both horizontal and vertical shift factors and
comparedwith24hourcreeptestdata.[29]

Jong Sung Won et. al. investigate the interfacial adhesion properties, water absorption,
biodegradation properties, and mechanical properties of the kenaf/soy protein isolate (SPI)
PVA composite and showed that 20wt% poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and 8wt%
glutaraldehyde (GA) created optimum conditions for the consolidation of the composite.The
kenaf/SPIPVA mechanical properties of the composite also increased with the content of
crosslinking agent Results of the biodegradation test indicated that the degradation time of
the composite could be controlled by the crosslinking agent. The degradation rate of the
kenaf/SPIPVA composite with the crosslinking agent was lower than that of thecomposite
withoutthecrosslinkingagent.[12]

Vincenzo Fiore et. al. reviewed and illustrated the results ofresearchonbasaltfibre topical
subject. In this mechanical, thermal and chemical properties of basalt fibre have been
reviewed. The effect of using this mineral fibre as reinforcement of different matrices as
polymer(boththermoplasticandthermoset),metalandconcretewaspresented.[17]

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GreenComposites

Globalawarenessofenvironmentalissueshasresultedintheemergenceofsustainableand
environmentallyfriendlygreenmaterials,whicharerenewableresourcesbased,recyclable,
andbiodegradable.Todevelopgreencompositematerials,naturalfibres,suchashemp,flax,
jute,kenaf,andsisal,havebeenusedtoreplaceconventionalsyntheticfibres.Inaddition,
matrixmaterialsintheformofbiopolymersorbioresinshavebeenderivedfromstarch,
vegetableoils,andprotein.Greencompositesarethenextgenerationofsustainable
compositematerialsandcombinenaturalfibreswithnaturalresinstomakelightandstrong
compositesthatarerecyclableorbiodegradablebytrigger.Theuseofrenewableresources
reducestheneedsforpetrochemicalsandminerals,resultinginlessnaturalresources
depletioneffectontheplanet.Commercialproductsandapplicationshavebeendevelopedfor
thesegreencompositesinrecentyears.

TypesofComposite

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FiberReinforcedComposites

A fiberreinforced composite (FRC) is a composite building material that consists of three


components:
(i)thefibersasthediscontinuousordispersedphase
(ii)thematrixasthecontinuousphase,and
(iii)thefineinterphaseregion,alsoknownastheinterface.

Influenceoffiberlength

The extent of load transmittance is the magnitude of the interfacial bond between the fiber
andmatrixphases.Underanappliedstress,thefibermatrixbondceasesatthefiberends,
yielding a matrixdeformationpatternThiscriticallengthlcisdependentonthefiberdiameter
d and its ultimate (or tensile) strength f* and on the fibermatrixbondstrength(ortheshear
yieldstrengthofthematrix,whicheverissmaller)
caccordingto


For a number of glass and carbon fibermatrix combinations, this critical length is on the
orderof1mm,whichrangesbetween20and150timesthefiberdiameter.
Fibers for which l>>lc(normally l>15lc ) are termed continuous discontinuousorshortfibers
havelengthsshorterthanthis.

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Stressposition profiles when f iber length l ( a) is equal to the critical length lc ( b) is greater than the critical length,and ( c) is less than the

f*
critical length f or a f iberreinforced composite that is subjected to a tensile stress equal to the f iber tensile strength

InfluenceofFiberorientationandconcentration
Withrespecttoorientation,twoextremesarepossible:
(1)aparallelalignmentofthelongitudinalaxisofthefibers
inasingledirection
(2)atotallyrandomalignment

TensileStressStrainBehavior
Mechanical responses of this type of composite depend on several factors to include the
stressstrain behaviors of fiber and matrix phases, the phase volume fractions, and, in
addition, the direction in which the stress or load is applied.Furthermore, the properties of a
composite having its fibres aligned are highly anisotropic, that is,dependentonthedirection
inwhichtheyaremeasured.

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ElasticBehavior
First, it is assumed that the fibermatrix interfacial bond is verygood,suchthatdeformation
of both matrix and fibers is the same (an isostrain situation). Under these conditions, the
Elastic modulus in the longitudinal directionEdin termsof stressonfiberElasticmodulusEf
&matrixElasticmodulusEmand
volumefractionVfandVmrespectively

Ed=EmVm+EfVf

Fortransversedirection

WhydoweNeedGreenComposites?

Thepresentdaycompositesabout94%whichendupindumpyardsarenonbiodegradable
Theresinsandfibresusedinthegreencompositesarebiodegradable,whentheydumped,
decomposedbytheactionofmicroorganisms.TheyareconvertedintotheformofH2 Oand
CO2.TheseH2 OandCO2areabsorbedintotheplantsystems.
Thetwomaincomponentsofthegreencompositesinclude:

1. Biodegradableresin
2. Naturalfibres

AdvantagesofGreenCompositesoverTraditionalComposites

1. Lessexpensive.
2. Reducedweight.
3. Increasedflexibility.
4. Renewableresource.
5. Soundinsulation.
6. Thermalrecyclingispossiblewhereglassposesproblems.
7. Friendlyprocessingandnoskinirritation.

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DisadvantagesofGreenComposites

1. Dimensional InstabilityS pecifically in thickness and in linear expansion since they


havereversibleswelling(normalswelling).

2. Moisture AbsorptionDue to the hydroxyl and oxygencontaining groups, moistureis


attractedthroughthehydrogenbonding.

3. Biological ResistanceOrganisms that have specific enzyme systems tohydrolyzethe


carbohydratepolymersinthecellwallintodigestibleunits.

4. Ultraviolet ResistanceThe main reason of UV degradation is the presence of lignin


whichisresponsibleforcoloralteration.

5. StrengthMainlylessthanconventionalmaterials.

6. Lowerdurability.

7. Poor fire resistance and irregular fibrelengthsarethedisadvantages.However,recent


fibretreatmentshaveimprovedtheseproperties.

ApplicationandEndUsesofGreenComposites

Green composites are applied to various components with moderate and high strength such ascars,
mobile phones, etc. Various problems associated with green composites include effects of moisture
and humidity, strength reliability, enhancement in fire resistance, etc. Moreover, there are some
concerns over natural fibre quality and consistency, fogging and odour emission and processing
temperaturelimits(200oC)

Someoftheotherapplications

Falsec eilings
Partitionpurposes
Doors
Furniture
Boxesfora griculturepurposes
Rims
MobilePanels
Toys
Aircraft
Insulation

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FibreusedinGreenComposites

Green composites are divided into nonwood fibers and wood fibers, which all of them
present cellulose and lignin. The nonwood fibers (natural fibers) aremoreattractiveforthe
industry due to the physical and mechanical properties whichtheypresent.Also,thesefibers
are relatively long fibers, and present high cellulose content, which delivers a high tensile
strength, and degree of cellulose crystallinity. Whereas, natural fibers have some
disadvantages because they have hydroxyl groups (OH) in the fiber that can attract water
molecules, and thus, the fiber might swell. This results in voids at the interface of the
composite, which will affect the mechanical properties and loss indimensionalstability.The
wood fibers have this name because almost than 60% of its mass is wood elements. It
presents softwood fibers(longandflexible)andhardwoodfibers(shorterandstiffer),andhas
lowdegreeofcellulosecrystallinity.

ClassificationofGreenComposites

BioFibres

NonWoodNaturalFibres WoodFibres

Straw Bast Leaf Seed/ GrassFibre Recycled


Fibres Fruit

Examples Rice, Kenaf, Henequen Cotton, Bamboo, Softand Newspap


Wheat, flax,jute, ,sisal, coir, bamboofiber, hard er,
Corn hemp pineapple coconut switchgrass, woods magazine
Straws leaffiber elephantgrass fibers

The natural fibers are divided into straw fibres, bast, leaf, seed or fruit,andgrassfibers.The
fibers most widely used in the industry are Flax, Jute, Hemp, Kenaf, Sisal and Coir. The
straw fibers could be found in many parts of the world, and it is an example of a lowcost
reinforcement for biocomposites. The wood fibers could be recycled or nonrecycled. Thus,
many polymers as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)are
beingusedinwoodcompositesindustries.
Among various available fibres, we choose below listed fibres for comparative study forthe
targetedpurpose
1) BambooFibre
2) BasaltFibre
3) FlaxFibre
4) HempFibre
5) KenafFibre

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6) RamieFibre
7) JuteFibre
Whenitcomestocomparativestudythemechanical,chemicalpropertiesaffectsmosttothe
selectionoffibre,sowearegotostudyeachfibreindividualise

BambooFibre
Bamboo fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fibre produced from bamboo. Starchy pulp is
produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and
multiphase bleaching. Further chemical processes produce bamboo fibre. Chemical
composition of natural fibre includes Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, Pectin, Aqueous
extracts.Bamboofibrecompositionisshowninbelowpichart


TheotherpropertiesofBamboofibreareasbelow

Strength(gm/tex) 34.3

Elongation 16.0

ShortFibreIndex 5.58

Uniformity 92.7
Index(%)

Moisture 6.5

Micronaire 4.0

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BasaltFibre
Basalt is a natural material that isfoundinvolcanicrocksoriginatedfromfrozenlava,witha
melting temperaturecomprisedbetween1500and17000 C.Itsstateisstronglyinfluencedby
thetemperaturerateofquenchingprocessthatleadstomoreorlesscompletecrystallization.
Basalt can be used in manufacturing and made into fine, superfine ultrafine fibres. It has
homogenouschemicalstructureanditcanreplaceoffiberglass,steelfibre,polyamidefibres
and carbon fibre product in many applications. 1 kg of basalt fibre replaces 9.6 kg of steel
reinforcement.Thechemicalcompositionofbasaltfibre&Eglassisgivenbelow

Compound Wt%inEglass Wt%inBasalt

SiO2 5256 51.657.5

Al2O3 1216 16.918.2

CaO 1625 5.27.8

MgO 05 1.33.7

B2O3 510

Na2O 0.8 2.56.4

K2O 0.20.8 0.84.5

Fe2O3 =<0.3 4.09.5

Forbasaltfibremanufacturingfollowingstepsarefollowedmainly
1) BatchSilos:rawmaterialsupply
2) Weighing,dosingandmixing
3) Pneumatictransport
4) Batchbox:charging
5) MeltingFurnace
6) Feeder
7) Bushing
8) Sizingapplication
9) DrawPlateFidder
10) Lubricator
11) AutomatedWinder
Andprocessdiagramisshownbelow

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ThemechanicalpropertieswhicharecomparabletothatofEglassfibrearegivenbelow
whichmakesitanattractiveoption
Capability BasaltFibre Eglassfibre

TensileStrength,MPa 30004840 31003800

ElasticModulus,GPa 79.393.1 72.575.5

ElongationatBreak,% 3.16 4.7

SpecificGravity 2.652.8 2.52.62

TemperatureofApplication 260+500 50+380

MeltingTemperature 1450 1120

Price 150 90

FlaxFibre
Flax fiber is extracted from the bast beneath the surface of the stem of the flax plant. Flax
fiber is soft, lustrous, andflexiblebundlesoffiberhavetheappearanceofblondehair,hence
the description "flaxen" hair. It is stronger than cotton fiber, but less elastic. The bestgrades
are used for linen fabricssuchasdamasks,lace,andsheeting.Coarsergradesareusedforthe

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manufacturing of wine and rope, and historically, for canvas and webbing equipment. Flax
fiber is a raw material used in the highquality paper industry for the use of printed
banknotes, rolling papers for cigarettes , and tea bags. Chemical composition of flax fibreis
shownbelow


AndMechanicalpropertiesusedforcompositesisgivenbelow

Resign FailureStress FailureStrain Youngs Moisture


(MPa) (%) Modulus(MPa) Content(%)

SPC 18.6(8.9) 16.4(9.7) 448(5.6) 15.0

CSPC 24.9(7.8) 11.6(9.2) 778(6.9) 14.7

GACSPC 28.5(9.8) 9.6(10.3) 969(7.4) 14.3


Wherefiguresinparenthesisarepercentagevariationofcoefficient

HempFibre
Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon
after being introduced to the New World. Items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial
materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was often used to make sail canvas, and the
word canvas derives from cannabis. Today, a modest hemp fabric industry exists, andhemp
fibers can be used in clothing. Pure hemp has a texture similar to lenin.The chemical
compositionofHempfibreisgivenbelow

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AndcharacteristicsofHempyarnaregivenbelow
Linear Yarn Twist Fracture Fracture Youngs Moisture
Density Diameter Angle Stress Strian Modulus Content
(tex (*106m) (MPa) (%) (GPa) (%)
g/1000m)

40.74(0.62) 216.2(13. 26.11(14.3 449.9 4.28 11.91 8.33


7) 1) (14.94) (11.20) (14.06)

KenafFibre
Cropinformation

In 3 month (after sowing the seeds), it is able to grow under a wide range of weather
conditions, to a height of more than 3 m and a basediameterof35cm.Fromtheviewpoint
ofenergyconsumption,ittakes15MJofenergytoproduce1kgofkenafwhereasittakes54
MJ to produce 1 kgofglassfiber.Thestemisstraightandunbranchedandiscomposedofan
outer layer (bark) and a core. It is easy to separate the stem into bark and core, either by
chemicals and/or by enzymatic retting. The bark constitutes 30 40% ofthestemdryweight
and shows a rather dense structure. Kenaf absorbs nitrogen and phosphorusthatispresentin
the soil. Kenaf accumulates carbon dioxide at a significantly high rate. The photosynthesis
rate of kenaf is much higherthanphotosynthesisratesofconventionaltrees.Asinglefiberof
kenaf can have a tensile strength and modulus as high as 11.9 GPa and 60 Gpa.Structureof
Kenaffibreisgivenbelow

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Andchemicalcompositionisshownbelow

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Interface

Polar hydroxyl groups, on the surface of the kenaf fiber, have difficulty forming a well
bonded interphase with a relative nonpolarmatrixasthehydrogenbondsofthefibersurface
tendtopreventthewettingofthefillersurface.

The incorporation of kenaf fiber as a filler in a polymer matrix is often associated with
agglomeration, as a result of insufficient dispersion caused by the tendency offiberstoform
hydrogenbondswitheachother.

To overcome these problem we go for chemical treatment of fibres. Which is explained in


nexttopic.ThemechanicalpropertiesofKenaffibreareas

Fibre Density(g/cm3) Elongation(%) TensileStrength ElasticModulus


(MPa) (GPa)

Kenaf 1.4 1.6 930 53

RamieFibre
Ramieisabastfiberobtainedfromtheperennialherbaceousplant,Boehmerianivea,from
theUrticaceaefamilymainlygrowninKorea,Japan,China,India,andothereasternAsian
countriesithashighspecificstrengthandmodulus.ThechemicalcompositionofRamieFib

MechanicalpropertiesofRamiefiberaregivenbelow

Fibre Density Elongation Youngs Tensile Specific Water


(g/cm3) (%) Modulus Strength Tensile absorption
(GPa) (MPa) Strength

Ramie 1.5 2.03.8 44128 400938 270620 1217

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JuteFibre
Juteisalong,soft,shinyvegetablefiberthatcanbespunintocoarse,strongthreads.Itis
producedprimarilyfromplantsinthegenusCorchorus,whichwasonceclassifiedwiththe
familyTiliaceae,andmorerecentlywithMalvaceae.Theprimarysourceofthefiberis
Corchorusolitorius,butitisconsideredinferiortoCorchoruscapsularis."Jute"isthenameof
theplantorfiberthatisusedtomakeburlap,hessianorgunnycloth.Juteisthesecondmost
importantvegetablefiberaftercottonduetoitsversatility.Juteisusedchieflytomakecloth
forwrappingbalesofrawcotton,andtomakesacksandcoarsecloth.Thefibersarealso
wovenintocurtains,chaircoverings,carpets,arearugs,hessiancloth,andbackingfor
linoleum.Chemicalcompositionofjutefiberisshownbelow


ThemechanicalpropertiesofJuteare

Fibre Density Elongation Youngs Tensile Specific Water


(g/cm3) (%) Modulus Strength Tensile Absorptio
(GPa) (MPa) Strength n

Jute 1.31.5 1.51.8 1055 393800 300610 12

ChemicalTreatmentofNaturalFibres
Cellulose and Hemicellulose contain large number of hydroxyl (OH) group, moisture
absorptionishighduetohydrogenbondingbetweenhydroxyl(OH)andwatermolecules.
Moisture absorption and release causes debonding between fiber and Matrix which creates
internal stresses in composite. Weak bonding between matrix and fiber phase reduces

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mechanical property of composite this also decreases the product durability. By alkaline
Treatmenthydrogenbondingisdisruptedandcreatesroughnesswhichincreasesadhesion

AlkalineTreatment
Main aim of alkaline treatment is to disrupt hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group and
water molecules. It also removes certain amount of lignin, wax and oils covering external
surfaceoffibercellwall.Thealkalinetreatmentreactionis
FiberOH+NaOHFiberONa+H2O
Alkalinetreatmenthastwoeffects
1) Increasessurfaceroughnessresultinginbettermechanicalinterlocking
2) Increasesamountofcelluloseexposeonfibersurfacethusincreasingnoofpossible
reactionsites
Various results shows that maximum tensile occurs at about 4% NaOH treatment if the
amount of NaOH increases tensile strengthdecreasesdrastically.Anotherchemicaltreatment
usedtoimprovepropertiesofcompositesisacetylation.

AcetylationofNaturalFibres
Acetylation describes a reaction introducing an acetyl functional group (CH3COO) into an
organiccompound.ThereactionbyProductaceticacid(CH3COOH)mustberemovedbefore
useoffiber.Thereactionis

FiberOH+CH3C(=O)OC(=O)CH3FiberOCOCH3+CH3COOH
Acetylationreduceshygroscopicnatureofnaturalfibersanddimensionalstabilityof
compositesincreases.
Treatedfibersshowhigherthermalstabilityandbioresistance.

25
VariousMatrices

Matrix material is a continuous phase, and it includes metal matrix composite materials,
inorganic nonmetallic matrix composite materials and polymer matrix composites by the
differentmatrixmaterials.Reinforcingmaterialisadispersedphase,usuallyfibrousmaterials
suchasglassfiber,organicfiberandsoon.
Matrix is the major portion of any composite, it contributes most to the properties of
composites. There are various matrix phases available, the main of them are Polylacticacid,
PolyfurfurylandSoyaprotein.Allofthemareobtainedfromplantsandothervariouscrops.

PolylacticAcid
Polylactic Acid (PLA) isdifferentthanmostthermoplasticpolymersinthatitisderivedfrom
renewable resources like corn starch or sugar cane. Most plastics, by contrast, are derived
from thedistillationandpolymerizationofnonrenewablepetroleumreserves.Plasticsthatare
derivedfrombiomass(e.g.PLA)areknownasbioplastics.
Polylactic Acid is biodegradable and has characteristics similar to polypropylene (PP),
polyethylene (PE), or polystyrene (PS). It can be produced from already existing
manufacturing equipment (those designed and originally used for petrochemical industry
plastics). This makes it relatively cost efficient to produce.Accordingly,PLAhasthesecond
largest production volume of any bioplastic (the most common typically cited as
thermoplasticstarch).

HowPolylacticAcidismanufactured
Polylactic Acid is principally made through two different processes: condensation and
polymerization. The most common polymerization technique is known as ringopening
polymerization. This is a process that utilizes metal catalysts in combination with lactide to
create the larger PLA molecules. The condensation process is similar with the principal
difference being the temperature during theprocedureandthebyproducts(condensates)that
arereleasedasaconsequenceofthereaction.

CharacteristicsofPolylacticAcid
PLA is classified as a thermoplastic polyester (as opposed to thermoset), and the name
has to do with the way theplasticrespondstoheat.Thermoplasticmaterialsbecomeliquidat
their melting point (150160 degrees Celsius in the case of PLA). A major useful attribute
about thermoplastics is that they can be heated to their melting point, cooled, and reheated
again without significant degradation. Instead of burning, thermoplastics like Poly Lactic
Acid liquefy, which allows them to be easily injection molded and then subsequently
recycled. By contrast, thermoset plastics can only be heated once (typically during the
injection molding process). The first heating causes thermoset materials to set (similar to a

26
2part epoxy) resulting in a chemical change that cannot be reversed. If you tried to heat a
thermoset plastic to a high temperature a second time it would simply burn. This
characteristicmakesthermosetmaterialspoorcandidatesforrecycling.

PropertiesofPLA

Property Value

TechnicalName PolylacticAcid(PLA)

ChemicalFormula (C3H4O2)n

MeltTemperature 157170C

TypicalInjectionMoldingTemperature 178240C

HeatDeflectionTemperature(HDT) 4952Cat0.46MPa

TensileStrength 6166MPa

FlexuralStrength 48110MPa

SpecificGravity 1.24

ShrinkRate 0.370.41%

PolyFurfuryl
Poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) is a thermally crosslinked polymer that is synthesized from
furfuryl alcohol (FA) derived from renewable saccharidic resources. The monomer FA is
liquidatroomtemperatureandhashighsolubilityinwaterandmanyorganicsolvents,andits
polymerizationcanbecarriedoutunderflexibleconditions.
Poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) is a common thermosetting resin that is usually synthesized by
thecationiccondensationofitsmonomerfurfurylalcohol.
Obtained from hydrolysis of pentosanrich biomass such as agricultural residues of corn,
sugarcane, wheat, oat, cottonseed hulls, rice hulls, birch wood, and hazelnut shells. Furanic
monomercanbeeasilypolymerizedthroughcationiccondensation

27

Polyfurfurylisthermosettinginnaturethatswhywedontuseitasthermosettingbioplastics
arenotrenewable.

ComparisonofMechanicalProperties
Comparisonofvariouspropertiesofdifferentfibresandmatricesisrequiredforselectionof
suitablefibreandmatrixforthetargetedpurpose
Fibre Density(g/cm3) Elongation(%) Tensile Tensile
Strength(MPa) Modulus(GPa)

Jute 1.31.46 1.51.8 393800 1030

Flax 1.41.5 1.23.2 3451500 27.680

Ramie 1.5 2.03.8 220938 44128

Kenaf 1.157 1.65 930 53

Hemp 1.48 1.6 550900 70

Basalt 2.65 3.15 30004800 79.393.1

Eglass 2.5 2.53.0 31004800 72.575.5

BasaltandEglasshavehighesttensilestrengthandtensilemodulusincomparisonofother
fibresbutasourtargetedpurposeisbuildingofthermalinsulation.

Comparisonofthermalconductivities
Useofthecompositeswillbeforinsulationhencealesserthermalconductivityfibrewillbe
chosen

28
While Basalt shows excellent mechanical properties but it have highestthermalconductivity
thats why we dont consider it as option. Hemp and PLA have minimum thermal
conductivity good mechanical properties hence we consider them for further analysis and
testings.

CostAnalysis

Fibre Cost(Rs/Kg)

Jute 100

Hemp 330

Ramie 584

Flax 400

Kenaf 350

Basalt 680

Bamboo 300

Matrixphaseresin Cost(Rs/Kg)

SPI 300

Polyfurfrylalcohol 140

PLA 90

PLAhaveminimumcostamongmatrixphasematerialandminimumthermalconductivity,
Hempalsohaveminimumthermalconductivityamongfibresandareasonablecost

29
ManufacturingProcess
Keeping in mind the fiber length of the composite, injection molding was chosen as the
processofmanufacturingofsamples.

InjectionMoulding
Injection molding is generally used to produce thermoplastic polymers.Itconsistsofheating
of thermoplastic materialsuntilitmeltsandtheninjectingintothesteelmould,whereitcools
and solidifies to take its finalshape.Theplasticmaterialsareusuallyreceivedinthegranular
form. It is placed in the hopper of the moulding machine from which it is fed to a heated
cylinder. Granules are heatedinthecylindertomeltorplasticize.Thetypicalmeltingpointis
about 180o which, however, can be changed as pertherequirement.Themeltingtemperature
varies with the material. The mould is usually made up of steel and it is water cooled. A
plunger forces the molten plastics from the cylinder into the mould wherein, it cools and
solidifies. The mould is opened and the moulded part as well as the attached runner is
removed.
Material granules for the part is fed via a hopper into a heated barrel, melted using
heater bands and the frictional action of a reciprocating screw barrel. The plastic is then
injection through anozzleintoamouldcavitywhereitcoolsandhardenstotheconfiguration
of the cavity. The mouldtoolismountedonamoveableplatenwhentheparthassolidified,
theplatenopensandthepartisejectedoutusingejectorpins.


Illustrativediagramofatypicalinjectionmoldingmachine

30
InjectionMouldingMachine


Figure:InjectionMouldingMachine

The machine used for makingthecompositeisaninjectionmouldingmachine,manufactured


by Electronica Plastic Machines Ltd .This particular model ( of Endura Series) has the
followingproperties:

MODEL 60#27

SERIAL 2106
NO.

YEAROF 20122013
MFG.

WEIGHT 3050

VOLTAGE PHASES FREQ CURRENT CONNECTED COSOF


POWER MAINMOTOR

415V10% 3+N 50Hz 36AMP 15.76kW 0.81


5% (MAX)

OtherTechnicalSpecifications

ClampingTonnage:600to6500KN
ShotWeight:64to3500gminPS
Dist.betweenTieBar:3 20to900mm

31
FormationofHempPLAsamples
The samples created in the process consistsof20%hempfiberbyweightandrest80%PLA.
Due to the constraint imposed by the flow of molten material, the wt% could not go above
that.
Theoperatingconditionsfortheprocessareasfollows:

InjectionPressure 30bar

HoldingPressure 20bar

BackPressure 5bar

InjectionSpeed 4050%(ofmaximumspeed)

CoolingTime 15second

The picture below shows the increasing fiber ratios during the transient phase of the
equipment:


Increasingfiberquantity

Finally, when the input reaches equilibrium state (i.e fiber ratio remains same in coming
samples), the usable sample begins to get produced. The die in the molding equipment
consists of two parts with different shapes in each. The part in one side is used for tensile
testing,whilethatontheothersideisusedforimpactandflexuralstrengthtesting.

32

Fig:HempPLAcomposites

33
CommerciallyavailablegradesofPLA

1.2SeriesforExtrusion&Thermoforming
The 2000 series is a thermoplastic resin designed foruseinfreshfoodpackagingandfood
serviceware applications. It is a transparent general purpose extrusion gradethatcanbeused
naturally or as part of a formulated blend. This is a highmolecularweightbiopolymergrade
that processes easily on conventional extrusion equipment. Extruded roll stock is readily
thermoformable.

2.3SeriesforInjectionMolding
The 3000 series is designed for injection molding applications that can include cutlery,
electronics casings,cosmeticcases,andoutdoorgardeningitems.Thisseriesoffersarangeof
meltviscositieswithoutstandingclarityinthemoldedpart.

3.4SeriesforFilms&Cards
The 4 series is designed for use in theproductionoforientedfilms,cardstockandgraphic
arts. Ingeofilmsincludeusagetemperaturesrangingfromheatsealablefilmsat175F(80C)
to oriented films that are stable up to 300F (150C). These clearfilmshaveexcellentoptics
and shrink, good machinability, as well as excellent twist and deadfold. Ingeo films are
knownfortheirgreatbarriertoflavor,greaseandoil.

4.6SeriesforFibers&Nonwovens
The 6 series is designed for fiber processes from mono to multi filament as well as
spunbond and meltblown products. Melting point ranges from 130C to 170C with
amorphoustocrystallinegrades.

5.7SeriesforBlowMolding
The 7 series is designed for use in injection stretch blow molded (ISBM) bottle
applications, where heat setting is needed.ProcessesatlowertemperaturesthanPETandcan
attaingoodresolutionofmolddetailonconventionaltooling.

6.8SeriesforFoam
The 8 series can be converted into an expanded foam sheet with use temperatures up to
77F (25C). This foam is lightweight, strong and suitable for packaging fresh meat and
vegetables. In order to extrude a foam with desired expansion properties, this grade must be
modifiedwithabranchingagentsuchasJoncryl4368C.

7.3DSeriesfor3DPrinting
From impact resistance toalowcarbonfootprint,IngeoPLAgradesprovideanunmatched
portfolio of advantages in 3Dprintingfilament.Ourspecialtygrades3D850and3D870were
developed specifically for manufacturing 3D printer monofilament. These grades have

34
excellent processability and printability, as well as improved impact resistance in printed
parts.
Monofilaments made with Ingeo PLA have notable 3D printing characteristics such as
precise detail, good adhesion tobuildplates(noheatingneeded),lesswarpingorcurling,and
low odor (no strong, greasy, or oily smell while printing). These properties make this grade
wellsuited for 3D printing using many different types of printers and for a broad range of
printingapplications.

3SeriesforInjectionMolding

3001DUnlubricated,highflowgrade
3052D Lubricated,highflowgrade
3100HPMediumviscosity&designedformediumflowinjectionmolding
applications
3251DLubricated,ultrahighflowgrade
3260HPDesignedtocrystallizeduringprocessing,leadingtohigherheatdeflection
temperaturesinopaqueapplications

IngeoBiopolymer3052DTechnicalData
TypicalM aterial&ApplicationProperties

PhysicalProperties IngeoResin ASTMM ethod

SpecificGravity 1.24 D792

MFR,g/10min(210C,2.16Kg) 14 1238

RelativeViscosity 3.3

CrystallineMeltTemperature(C) 145160 D3418

GlassTransitionTemperature(C) 5560 D3418

Clarity Transparent

MechanicalProperties

TensileYieldStrength,psi(MPa) 9,000(62) D638

TensileElongation,% 3.5 D638

NotchedIzodImpact,ftlb/in(J/m) 0.3(16.0) D256

FlexuralStrength(MPa) 15,700(108) D790

FlexuralModulus(MPa) 515,000(3600) D790

HeatDistortionTemperature(C) 55 E2092

35
Experiments&Results

ScanningElectronMicroscope(SEM)

SEM of the surface of f iber showing parallel f ibres

36
SEM of the surface showing parallel f ibres and the spheroidal matrix phase f ormed.


SEM of the surface showing f ibres which are f ractured due to high pressure injection moulding machine.

37

SEM of the surface showing f ibres which are f ractured due to high pressure injection moulding machine and the spheroidal matrix phase
formed.

SEM of the surface showing f ormation of spheroidal matrix phase f ormed on the surface of f ibres

38
SEM of the cross section showing parallel f ibres

SEM of the cross section showing f iber ends

39
DegradationTest

Conditions
20cmdepth
TimePeriod=31days
Normalgardensoil

InitialWeight(ingm) FinalWeight(ingm) %WeightReduction(in%)

11.91 11.78 1.0915

11.98 11.85 1.08514

11.84 11.72 1.0135

40
WaterAbsorptionTest

Conditions
Normalatmosphericcondition
Waterdepth=6cm
Timeperiod=32days

InitialWeight(ingm) FinalWeight(ingm) %Absorption(in%)

11.84 12.01 1.4358

11.78 11.92 1.188

11.27 11.44 1.508

41
WeatheringTest

Conditions
Putoutdoorindirectsunlightandothernaturalconditions
Timeperiod=30days

InitialWeight(ingm) FinalWeight(ingm) %Reduction(in%)

11.46 11.42 0.349

11.94 11.90 0.335

11.45 11.42 0.262

42
TensileTests

Conditions
Gaugelength=50mm
Strainrate=2mm/min

NormalSpecimen DegradationTest

Sample1 Sample2 Sample1 Sample2

Extensiona tBreak 1.41 1.49 1.66 1.26


(Standard)[mm]

MaximumLoad[N] 2365.783 2409.033 1934.551 1581.898


Tensilestrain 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03


(Extension)a tBreak
[mm/mm]

Tensilestress[MPa] 37.138 37.817 30.369 24.833


Modulus 2275.871 2221.523 1854.842 1922.209


(Emodulus)[MPa]

Modulus(Automatic 2275.871 2221.523 1854.842 1922.209


Young's)[MPa]

Timea tBreak 42.40 44.78 49.70 37.80


(Standard)[s]

Length[mm] 50.0000 50.0000 50.0000 50.0000


43

WaterAbsorption Weathering

Sample1 Sample2 Sample1 Sample2

Extensiona tBreak 2.08 2.19 1.57 1.29


(Standard)[mm]

MaximumLoad[N] 2153.452 2184.477 2274.384 2198.786



Tensilestrain 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03


(Extension)a tBreak
[mm/mm]

Tensilestress[MPa] 33.805 34.292 35.703 34.516


Modulus 1815.863 1853.377 2399.363 2191.162


(Emodulus)[MPa]

Modulus(Automatic 1815.863 1853.377 2399.363 2191.162


Young's)[MPa]

Timea tBreak 62.48 65.60 47.00 38.78


(Standard)[s]

Length[mm] 50.0000 50.0000 50.0000 50.0000


44

NormalSpecimen




















AfterDegradationTest

45

AfterWaterAbsorptionTest

AfterWeatheringTest

46
TensileStressVsTensileStrain

NormalSpecimen


AfterDegradationTest

47

AfterWaterAbsorptionTest

AfterWeatheringTest

48
ThermalConductivityTest

To check the applicability of the hempPLA composite, a thermal conductivity test is
performed on the sample. The method used for measuring the conductivity is based on the
theory of the Transient PlaneSourceTechnique(recognizedinISO220072).Theequipment
thususediscalledHotDiscThermalConstantAnalyzer.
It utilises a sensor element in the shapeofadoublespiral.Itismadeofa10mthick
Nickelmetal double spiral. The radius of the sensor is 6.403 mm. Thespiralissupportedby
polyimideKaptontogiveitmechanicalstrengthandkeepitelectricallyinsulated.
The encapsulated Nispiral sensor is sandwiched between two samples. During a
preset time, about 200 resistance recordings are taken, and from these the relation between
temperature andtimeisestablished.Afewparameters,liketheheatingpowertoincreasethe
temperature of the spiral and the measurement time for recording about 200 point are used
tooptimizethesettingsoftheexperiment.

49

Parameters:

Description Experiment1 Experiment2 Experiment3

Temperature 23.928276 23.928276 23.928276

Outp.power. 0.5 0.3 0.25

Meas.time 160 160 80

Radius 6.403 6.403 6.403

TCR 0.004673 0.004673 0.004673

DiskType Kapton Kapton Kapton

Temp.drift TRUE TRUE TRUE


rec.

Time 20170406 20170406 20170406


09:06:42 09:12:39 09:20:05

Rs 6.798891 6.798891 6.798891



Results:

Description Experiment1 Experiment2 Experiment3

Th.Conductivity 0.267984367 0.286647973 0.279420278

Th.Diffusivity 0.256436170 0.311325673 0.212085403

50
Spec.Heat 1.045033416 0.920733489 1.317489434

Pr.Depth 12.453617767 13.721871001 8.008408699

Temp.Incr. 16.168867895 9.224956547 7.081577485

Total/Char.Time 0.944542763 1.146719572 0.390591707

TimeCorr. 0.000118624 0.000279069 0.000000000

MeanDev. 0.071355504 0.050450411 0.010832352

DiskRes. 13.082187342 13.149778275 13.162637924




51
CONCLUSION

Green composites may be easily composted after theirlife,completingnature'scarboncycle.
Greencomposites can supplement and eventually replace petroleumbased composite
materials in many applications, offering newagricultural,environmental,manufacturing,and
consumer benefits. Ecofriendlygreencompositesfromplantderivedfibre(natural/biofibre)
andcropderivedplasticsarenovelmaterialsofthetwentyfirstcenturyandwouldbeofgreat
importance to the materials world, notonlyasasolutiontogrowingenvironmentalthreatbut
also as a solution to the uncertainty of petroleum supply. Despite of having some
disadvantagesofgreencomposites,thegreencompositescanbethematerialsoffuture.

ScopeofFutureWork

1. Atimeboundgraphof%weightdegradedcanbemadeatsuccessivetimeintervals.
2. Atimeboundgraphof%weightgainedinwaterabsorptiontestandweatheringcan
bemadeatsuccessivetimeintervals.
3. Atimeboundgraphoftensilepropertiesofthespecimencanbemade.

52
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