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Vijay

PTEWritingSummarizeWrittenText

PostedonJuly26,2017August1,2017byVijay
Numberoftasks:2to3

Skillsassessed:Reading&writing

Description:Afterreadingapassage,writeaonesentencesummaryofthepassage.

Scoring:Content2,Form2,Grammar2,Vocabulary2,Spelling2

Part1:4minutestoreadandunderstandthepassages.

Diculties:Unknowntopic,complexwords.

Part2:4minutestowritethesummary.2minutestocheckgrammar,spelling&cleansentence.

Diculties:Sentenceformation,connectingwords&spelling.

Togetthegoodscore,dopracticerepeatedquestions.Ihavelistedsomeofthembelow.

1PASCOLENAFLORRY

When Namibia gained independence in 1990, teenager Pascolena Florry was herding goats in the
countrysdry,desolatenorthernsavannah.Herjob,unpaidanddangerous,wastoprotectherparents
livestock from preying jackals and leopards. She saw wildlife as the enemy, and many of the other
indigenous inhabitants of Namibias rural communal lands shared her view. Wildlife poaching was
commonplace. Fifteen years later, 31yearold Pascolenas life and outlook are very dierent. She has
builtapreviouslyundreamedofcareerintourismandistherstblackNamibiantobeappointedthe
managerofaguestlodge.Hervillage,andhundredsofothershavedirectlybenetedfromgovernment
eortstodevolvewildlifemanagementandtourismdevelopmentoncommunallandstoconservancies
runbyindigenouspeoples.Nowweseethewildlifeasourwayofcreatingjobsandopportunitiesas
thetourismindustrygrows,shealsosays.Thefutureisbeerwithwildlifearound,notonlyforjobs
butalsofortheenvironment(Florry2004).
SampleAnswer1:
Before the independence of Namibia, Pascolena Florrys job was to herd goats in dry desolate desert
withoutpaidalongwithdangerouspreyingwildlife,however,afterindependenceofthiscountry,she
gained an undreamed job at her 30s which was a manager position in tourism and make living by

wildlife around, both people from communal villages and indigenous inhabitants are beneted from
wildlife around, both people from communal villages and indigenous inhabitants are beneted from
governmentstourismdevelopmentoncommunallands.(67words)
SampleAnswer2:
The establishment of conservancies, run by local communities and assisted by the government and
NGOs,hasbeenprovedsuccessfultohelpdevelopingcountriestodecentralizenaturalresources,create
jobsandimprovetheeconomy.(33words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

2CHILDRENWATCHTV

WhyandtowhatextentshouldparentscontroltheirchildrensTVwatching?Thereiscertainlynothing
inherentlywrongwithTV.Theproblemishowmuchtelevisionachildwatchesandwhateectithason
hislife.ResearchhasshownthatastheamountoftimespentwatchingTVgoesup,theamountoftime
devotednotonlytohomeworkandstudybutotherimportantaspectsoflifesuchassocialdevelopment
andphysicalactivitiesdecreases.
Televisionisboundtohaveitstremendousimpactonachild,bothintermsofhowmanyhoursaweek
hewatchesTVandofwhathesees.Whenaparentisconcernedabouttheeectsofwatchingtelevision,
heshouldconsideranumberofthings:whatTVoersthechildintermsofinformationandknowledge,
how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex,
andtheinuenceofcommercials.
Whataboutthefamilyasawhole?IstheTVsetacentralpieceoffurnitureinyourhome!Isitickedon
themomentsomeoneenterstheemptyhouse?Isitonduringthedaytime?Isitpartofthebackground
noiseofyourfamilylife?Doyoudemonstratebyyourownviewingthattelevisionshouldbewatched
selectively?
Sincetelevisionisclearlyheretostay.ItisimportantthatparentsmanagetheirchildrensTVviewingso
thatitcanbeaplusratherthanaminusinthefamilysituation.
SampleAnswer1:
TherearetwoaspectsshouldbetakenintoaccountforparentstocontroltheirchildrensTVwatching,
one is their kids time spend on watching TV, the other is the impact of contents from TV such as
information,knowledge,violence,sexandcommercials,furthermore,otherproblemslikewatchingTV
togetherwithfamilies,allocateTVincentralofthehouse,TVopensduringdaytime,TVnoiseandTV
programselectivityareconcernedaswell.(72words)
SampleAnswer2:
Watchingtoomuchtelevisionhasnegativeeectsonimportantaspectsofchildrenslivesanditisnot
abouttelevisionbutthewaythatparentsmanagetheirchildrensTVwatching,includingthetimethey
spendon,theprogramstheywatchandevenhowthefamilydealwithTV,thatmaers.(51words) (I
amgoingwiththis).
SampleAnswer3:
Reason and duration are quite important to allow kids to watch TV as it impacts directly on childs
physical and mental development along with degraded academic output; however, in this regard,
parents must be cautious on program selection and time allocation for adolescents and have to
understanditsnecessitytruly.

3SLPOFFICER

ArmedpolicehavebeenbroughtintoNSWschoolstoreducecrimeratesandeducatestudents.The40
ArmedpolicehavebeenbroughtintoNSWschoolstoreducecrimeratesandeducatestudents.The40
School Liaison Police (SLP) ocers have been allocated to public and private high schools across the
state.
Organizerssaytheocers,whobeganworklastweek,willbuildpositiverelationshipsbetweenpolice
and students. But parent groups warned of potential dangers of armed police working at schools in
communitieswherepolicerelationswerealreadyunderstrain.
Amongtheirduties,theSLPswillconductcrimepreventionworkshops,talkingtostudentsaboutissues
including shoplifting, oensive behavior, grati and drugs, and alcohol. They can also advise school
principals.One SLP, Constable Ben Purvis, began to work in the inner Sydney region last week,
including at Alexandria Park Community Schools senior campus. Previously stationed as a crime
prevention ocer at The Rocks, he now has 27 schools under his jurisdiction in areas including The
Rocks,RedfernandKingsCross.
Constable Purvis said the fulltime position would see him working on the broader issues of crime
prevention.Iamnotasecurityguard,hesaid.Iamnottheretopatroltheschool.
Wewanttoimproverelationshipsbetweenpoliceandschoolchildren,tohaveapositiveinteraction.We
arecomingtotheschoolandgivingthemtheknowledgetoimprovetheirownsafety.
TheuseoffakeIDamongolderstudentsisamongtheissueshehasalreadydiscussedwithprincipals.
Parents groups responded to the program positively but said it may spark a range of community
reactions.
Itisagoodthingandaninnovativeideaandtherecouldbesomepositivebenets,
Council of Catholic School Parents executive ocer Danielle Cronin said. Dierent communities will
respondtothiskindofpresenceindierentways.
SampleAnswer1:
Armedpolice(SLP)hasbeenintroducedintoschoolsinNSWinordertoreducecrimerateandeducate
schoolchildren,theinschoolSLPwouldliketobuildpositivestudentspolicerelationshipsalthoughitis
alreadysomewhatunderstrain,moreover,ConstablePurvis,whopointedoutsomeissueslikefakeID
misuses with principals, thinks sending police to schools is innovative and has positive benets. (61
words)
SampleAnswer2:
SchoolliaisonpolicehavebeenbroughtintoNSWschoolstoreducecrimeratesandimprovestudents
safetybyconductingworkshopsandsomepeoplebelieveitagoodthingwhileothersnot.
SampleAnswer3:
BringingofarmedforcesinNSWschools,thoughbeingcriticizedbyparentsdoesntonlyaimtobuild
the positive relationship between police and students but also have an objective to cover the broader
topicofcrimealleviationbyconductingcrimepreventionworkshops.(43words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

4COWANDGRASS

Thecoevolutionaryrelationshipbetweencowsandgrassisoneofnaturesunderappreciatedwonders;
it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat. For the
grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands
their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the
animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilizes it with his manure. In
exchange for these services, the grasses oer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For
cows(likesheep,bison,andotherruminants)haveevolvedthespecialabilitytoconvertgrasswhich
Singlestomachedcreatureslikeuscantdigestintohighqualityprotein.Theycandothisbecausethey
possesswhatissurelythemosthighlyevolveddigestiveorganinnature:therumen.Aboutthesizeofa
medicine ball, the organ is essentially a fortyvegallon fermentation tank in which a resident
medicine ball, the organ is essentially a fortyvegallon fermentation tank in which a resident
population of bacteria dines on grass. Living their unseen lives at the far end of the food chain that
culminatesinahamburger,thesebacteriahave,justlikethegrasses,coevolvedwiththecow,whomthey
feed.Trulythisisanexcellentsystemforallconcerned:forthegrasses,forthebacteria,fortheanimals,
andforus,theanimalseaters.
There is a coevolutionary relationship between cows and grass as the cows, which is one of the
ruminants that have the rumen to digest the grass into highquality protein even though the grasses
alreadyevolvedtoagainstthegrazingofruminants,canhelpthegrassspreadseedbytheirhoovesand
alsoprovidemanuretoit.
SampleAnswer1:
Cows and grasses have underappreciated coevolution relationships, in which grasses evolved to
withstandgrazingofcows,provideplentifulandexclusivesupplyoffood,whilecowshelpgrassesto
prevent trees and shrubs from growing, enlarge grasses habitats and fertilise grasses with manure,
meanwhile, cows have evolved into species with large volume of multistomachs in which abundant
bacteriacanliveandhelptodigestgrassesintohighqualityprotein.(68words)
SampleAnswer2:
There is a coevolutionary relationship among cows, grass and bacteria as cows have rumen where
bacteria could digest grass into highquality protein while they help the grass spread seed by their
hoovesandalsoprovidemanuretoit.(40words)(Iamgoingwiththis)
SampleAnswer3:
Cowsandgrasshaveamutuallybenetingrelationship,inwhichcowshelpthegrasstogrowproperly
andgrassoerscowsproteinenrichedfoodtosurvive.

5AUSTRALIANEDUCATION

WhenAustraliansengageindebateabouteducationalqualityorequity,theyoftenseemtoacceptthata
countrycannotachievebothatthesametime.Thelecturewillpresentcompellinginternationalevidence
thattherearecountrieswhichdo,thoughAustraliaisnotamongthem.
Curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail to do so because they increase breadth or
dierentiation in oerings in a way that increases dierences in quality. Further, these dierences in
qualityoftenreectdierencesinstudentssocialbackgroundsbecausethenewoeringsaretypically
taken up by relatively disadvantaged students who are not served well by them. Evidence from New
SouthWaleswillbeusedtoillustratethispoint.
TheneedtoimprovethequalityofeducationiswellacceptedacrossOECDandothercountriesasthey
seek to strengthen their human capital to underpin their modern, knowledge economies. Improved
equity is also important for this purpose since the demand for highlevel skills is widespread and the
opportunitiesforthelowskilledarediminishing.
Improved equity in education is also important for social cohesion. There are countries in which the
educationsystemseemsprimarilytoreproduceexistingsocialarrangements,conferringprivilegewhere
italreadyexistsanddenyingitwhereitdoesnot.Evenincountrieswherethediagnosismightbeless
extreme, the capacity of schooling to build social cohesion is often diminished by the way in which
schoolsseparateindividualsandgroups.
SampleAnswer1:
Australians debate shows the education quality and equity are hard to be achieved at the same time,
increaseineducationqualitycanstrengthenthecountryshumancapital,whileimprovingeducational
equity can widespread highlevel skills and diminish low skilled opportunities, moreover, educational
qualityreectsstudentssocialbackgroundandeducationalequityisimportantforsocialcohesion.(56
words)(Iamgoingwiththis)
words)(Iamgoingwiththis)
SampleAnswer2:
Although improved educational equity increases dierences in quality so that educational equity and
qualitycantbeachievedatthesametime,improvededucationalequityandqualityarestillimportant
becausetheycouldstrengthenhumancapitalandsocialcohesion.
SampleAnswer3:
There needs to be a balance between quality and improved equity in education to maintain social
cohesion and for this purpose, dierent countries have dierent policies regarding building social
cohesion,socialarrangementsandconferringprivileges.

6NATIONALPROHIBITIONACT

In1920,theEighteenthAmendmenttotheUnitedStatesConstitutionwasenacted,creatingyetanother
serious setback to the American wine industry. The National Prohibition Act, also known as the
Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or
possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes, and nearly destroyed what had become a
thrivingnationalindustry.In1920thereweremorethansevenhundredwineriesinCalifornia.Bythe
endofProhibition,therewere160.
If Prohibition had lasted only four or ve years, its impact on the wine industry might have been
negligible.Butitcontinuedforthirteenyears,duringwhichtimegrapeswentundergroundliterallyand
guratively,becominganimportantcommodityinthecriminaleconomy.OneloopholeintheVolstead
Actallowedforthemanufactureandsaleofsacramentalwines,medicinalwinesforsalebypharmacists
withadoctorsprescription,andmedicinalwinetonics(fortiedwines)soldwithouttheprescription.
Perhaps more importantly, Prohibition allowed anyone to produce up to two hundred gallons of fruit
juice or cider each year. The fruit juice, which was sometimes made into concentrate, was ideal for
makingwine.SomeofthisyieldfounditswaytobootleggersthroughoutAmericawhodidjustthat.
But not for long, because the government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing
illegalwineproduction.Vineyardsstoppedbeingplanted,andtheAmericanwineindustrygroundtoa
halt.
SampleAnswer1:
In 1920, the Volstead Act came into eect and lasted for 13 years to prohibit the manufacture, sale,
transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors and almost
destroyedthisindustrythoughitsloopholeallowedfortheproductionofsomekindsofwineandfruit
juicewhichlateronwasbannedbythegovernment.
SampleAnswer2:
TheintroductionoftheVolsteadactprohibitedthebusinessofwineinAmerica,butstill,thisactwas
notfullproof,sothegovernmentagainintervenedandbannedthesaleofillegalwine,whichstopped
thegrowthofwinebusiness.(39words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

7ITLLNEVERFLY:THECITYOFLONDON

Who would have thought back in 1698, as they downed their espressos, that the lile band of
stockbrokers from Jonathans Coee House in Change Alley EC3 would be the founder members of
whatwouldbecometheworldsmightymoneycapital?
Progresswasnotentirelysmooth.TheSouthSeaBubbleburstin1720andthecoeehouseexchanges
burneddownin1748.AslateasBigBangin1986,whenbowlerhatswerenallyhungup,youwouldnt
burneddownin1748.AslateasBigBangin1986,whenbowlerhatswerenallyhungup,youwouldnt
have bet the farm on London surpassing New York, Frankfurt and Tokyo as Mammons international
nexus.Yetthe325,000soulswhooperateintheUKcapitalsnancialhubhavenowovertakentheirNew
York rivals in size of the funds managed (including oshore business); they hold 70% of the global
secondarybondmarketandtheCitydominatestheforeignexchangetrading.Anditsinstitutionspaid
out 9 billion in bonuses in December. The Square Mile has now spread both eastwards from EC3 to
CanaryWharfandwestwardsintoMayfair,wheremanyoftheprivateequitylocustsandtheirhedge
fundpalsnowhangout.Forforeignersinnance,Londonistheplacetobe.IthasnoSarbanesOxley
andnoeurotoholditback,yetthefactthatitstilliessohighisagainsttheodds.Londonisoneofthe
mostexpensivecitiesintheworldtolivein,transportsystemsgroanandtheresaneverpresentthreat
ofterroristaack.But,forthetimebeing,thedealsjustkeepongeingbigger.
SampleAnswer1:
London is becoming the worlds mighty money capital as it has overtaken New York rivals in the
managedfunds,theglobalsecondarybondmarketandtheforeignexchangetrading,despitethedoubt
of London can never y, as the city has humble background, deplorable experience (burned down in
1748), prohibitively living cost, inferior transportation system, and threatening of terrorist aack. (60
words)
SampleAnswer2:
London has surpassed its rivals and has dominated global nancial markets to become the worlds
mightymoneycapitalduetoitsjudicialandcurrencyadvantageseventhoughtheexpansionprogress
wasnotsmooth.(33words)(Iamgoingwiththis)
SampleAnswer3:
In spite of many challenges, London has continued to evolve as one of the strongest economies of the
world,withdominanceintheforeignexchangetradingandplethoraofopportunitiesforforeigners.(32
words)

8ASKINGQUESTIONS

Allnonhumananimalsareconstrainedbythetoolsthatnaturehasbequeathedthemthroughnatural
selection.Theyarenotcapableofstrivingtowardstruth;theysimplyabsorbinformation,andbehavein
waysusefulfortheirsurvival.Thekindsofknowledgetheyrequireoftheworldhavebeenlargelypre
selected by evolution. No animal is capable of asking questions or generating problems that are
irrelevanttoitsimmediatecircumstancesoritsevolutionarilydesignedneeds.Whenabeaverbuildsa
dam,itdoesntaskitselfwhyitdoesso,orwhetherthereisabeerwayofdoingit.Whenaswallow
ies south, it doesnt wonder why it is hoer in Africa or what would happen if it ew still further
south. Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions, questions that have no
relevance,indeedmakelilesense,inthecontextofevolvedneedsandgoals.Whatmarksouthumans
isourcapacitytogobeyondournaturallydenedgoalssuchastheneedtondfood,shelteroramate
andtoestablishhumancreatedgoals.
Some contemporary thinkers tend to believe that there are indeed certain questions that humans are
incapable of answering because of our evolved nature. Steven Pinker, for instance, argues that Our
mindsevolvedbynaturalselectiontosolveproblemsthatwerelifeanddeathmaerstoourancestors,
nottocommunewithcorrectnessortoansweranyquestionwearecapableofasking.Wecannothold
ten thousand words in our shortterm memory. We cannot see ultraviolet light. We cannot mentally
rotate an object in the fourth dimension. And perhaps we cannot solve conundrums like free will and
sentience.
SampleAnswer1:
Nonhuman animals are constrained by tools, they do not ask question and just simply absorb
Nonhuman animals are constrained by tools, they do not ask question and just simply absorb
informationthenbehavethewaygoodfortheirsurvivalsfromwhichevolutionisselectedbynature,on
theotherhand,humanscanaskthemselvesquestionsandtheyhavetheabilitytogobeyondthedened
natural goals, however, there are certain questions that human cannot answer due to their evolved
nature.(66words)
SampleAnswer2:
Unlike animals, that could only absorb information preselected by nature, the humans can ask
themselvesquestionswhichareirrelevanttonaturallydenedneedsandgoalsandsomepeoplebelieve
thathumansarealsoincapableofansweringsomequestionsduetotheevolvednature.(44words)(Iam
goingwiththis)
SampleAnswer3:
Animals never question their actions, they simply act as they have strong instincts, which is a main
characteristicthatseparateanimalsfromhumans,wherethelaerhaveamassivecapacityofthinking
andquestioningthemselvesandtheirpossibleactions.

9DIASPORACONSCIOUSNESS

Diasporas communities which live outside, but maintain links with, their homelands are geing
larger,thickerandstronger.Theyarethehumanfaceofglobalization.Diasporaconsciousnessisonthe
rise: diasporans are becoming more interested in their origins, and organising themselves more
eectively;homelandsarerevisingtheiropinionsoftheirdiasporasasthestigmaaachedtoemigration
declines, and stepping up their engagement eorts; meanwhile, host countries are witnessing more
assertive diasporic groups within their own national communities, worrying about fth columns and
foreignlobbies,andsueringoutbreaksofdiasporaphobia.
This trend is the result of ve factors, all of them connected with globalisation: the growth in
international migration; the revolution in transport and communications technology, which is
quickening the pace of diasporans interactions with their homelands; a reaction against global
homogenisedculture,whichisleadingpeopletorethinktheiridentities;theendoftheColdWar,which
increased the salience of ethnicity and nationalism and created new space in which diasporas can
operate; and policy changes by national governments on issues such as dual citizenship and
multiculturalism, which are enabling people to lead transnational lives. Diasporas such as those
aaching to China, India, Russia and Mexico are already big, but they will continue to grow; the
migrationowswhichfeedthemarelikelytowidenandquickeninthefuture.
SampleAnswer1:
Diasporas is emigration communities in host countries and maintain links with homelands, which is
increasinginengagementandkeepgrowing,thistrendisaresultofveglobalisationfactorsincluding
international migration growth, revolution of transportation and communication technology, reaction
against cultural global homogenisation, increase of ethnicity salience and nationalism after the Cold
War,andnewmigrationpoliciesandmulticulturalismbynationalgovernment.(63words)
SampleAnswer2:
Thetrendthatdiasporasareconsciousabouttheiroriginsandthathostcountriesaresueringoutbreaks
of diasporaphobia, results from ve factors related to globalisation: the growth in international
migration, transportation and communication technology revolution, a reaction against global
homogenisedculture,theendoftheColdWarandpolicychangesbygovernments.
SampleAnswer3:
Emergingactivitiesofdiasporacommunitieshavecausedinsecurityforhostcountries;however,these
communitieswouldcontinuetoexpandinfutureduetothepoliciesofthenationalgovernment.
SampleAnswer4:
SampleAnswer4:
Multiple circumstances related to globalization are responsible for the strong evolving community of
Diasporas,andislikelytogrowstrongerandbiggerinthefuture,duetowhichlocalcommunitiesfeel
threatenedfortheirsurvival.

10ACALLFORREVOLUTIONARYTHINKING

Weliveinanageingworld.Whilethishasbeenrecognizedforsometimeindevelopedcountries,itis
onlyrecentlythatthisphenomenonhasbeenfullyacknowledged.Globalcommunicationisshrinking
theworld,andglobalageingismaturingit.Theincreasingpresenceofolderpersonsintheworldis
making people of all ages more aware that we live in a diverse and multigenerational society. It is no
longerpossibletoignoreageing,regardlessofwhetheroneviewsitpositivelyornegatively.
Demographers note that if current trends in ageing continue as predicted, a demographic revolution,
whereintheproportionsoftheyoungandtheoldwillundergoahistoriccrossover,willbefeltinjust
three generations. This portrait of change in the worlds population parallels the magnitude of the
industrialrevolutiontraditionallyconsideredthemostsignicantsocialandeconomicbreakthroughin
thehistoryofhumankindsincetheNeolithicperiod.Itmarkedthebeginningofasustainedmovement
towards modern economic growth in much the same way that globalization is today marking an
unprecedented and sustained movement toward a global culture. The demographic revolution, it is
envisaged,willbeatleastaspowerful.
Whilethefutureeectsarenotknown,alikelyscenarioisonewhereboththechallengesaswellasthe
opportunities will emerge from a vessel into which exploration and research, dialogue and debate are
poured. Challenges arise as social and economic structures try to adjust to the simultaneous
phenomenonofdiminishingyoungcohortswithrisingolderones,andopportunitiespresentthemselves
in the sheer number of older individuals and the vast resources societies stand to gain from their
contribution.
Thisageingofthepopulationpermeatesallsocial,economicandculturalspheres.Revolutionarychange
calls for new, revolutionary thinking, which can position policy formulation and implementation on
sounder footing. In our ageing world, new thinking requires that we view ageing as a lifelong and
societywidephenomenon,notaphenomenonexclusivelypertainingtoolderpersons.
SampleAnswer1:
Ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that is fully acknowledged recently, the prediction shows that
proportion of aged and young people will undergo a crossover which needs sustained movement for
economy,ontheotherhand,challengesarisesalongwiththediminishingyounggenerationsinsocial,
economicandculturalstructureswhichcallsforrevolutionarychangesandthinking.(55words)
SampleAnswer2:
If the fact and trend that we are living in an ageing world continues, the demographic revolution, as
powerful as the industrial revolution, will bring both challenges and opportunities to the society and
willbealifelongandsocietywidephenomenon.
SampleAnswer3:
Theageingofpopulation,whichspreadsacrosseverysocial,economicandculturalground,duetoits
current trends and paerns is predicted to be as huge and powerful as the industrial revolution,
throwingupmultiplechallengesaswellasgivinganequalnumberofopportunitiesandhenceitwill
needanewandrevolutionarythinkingtoestablisharmfooting.
11THEPROBLEMOFPREDICTION

As far as prediction is concerned, remember that the chairman of IBM predicted in the fties that the
world would need a maximum of around half a dozen computers, that the British Department for
EducationseemedtothinkintheeightiesthatwewouldallneedtobeabletocodeinBASICandthatin
theninetiesMicrosoftfailedtoforeseetherapidgrowthoftheInternet.Whocouldhavepredictedthat
onemajoreectoftheautomobilewouldbetobankruptsmallshopsacrossthenation?Couldtheearly
developers of the telephone have foreseen its development as a medium for persontoperson
communication,ratherthanasaformofbroadcastingmedium?Weall,includingtheexperts,seemto
bepeculiarlyineptatpredictingthelikelydevelopmentofourtechnologies,evenasfarasthenextyear.
We can, of course, try to extrapolate from experience of previous technologies, as I do below by
comparing the technology of the Internet with the development of other information and
communication technologies and by examining the earlier development of radio and print. But how
justiedImightbeindoingsoremainsanopenquestion.Youmightconceivablyndthehistoryofthe
British and French videotex systems, Prestel and Minitel, instructive. However, I am not entirely
convinced that they are very relevant, nor do I know where you can nd information about them on
line,so,ratherthantakeupspacehere,Ivebrieydescribedtheminaseparatearticle.
SampleAnswer1:
ByconsideringthatIBMchairmansuccessfullypredicteddevelopmentofcomputers,BASICcodingwas
predicted by British Education Department, but Microsoft failed to foresee internet popularity, it is
believed that no one (including experts) can exactly foresee the development of future technologies
which can be extrapolated by experience of past technologies, however, the relation between past and
future technologies is unknown, and how to justify the extrapolation remains an open question. (70
words)
SampleAnswer2:
We all, including expert, seem to be unlikely to predict the development of our, even recent,
technologies,thoughyoucouldcomparethemwithearliertechnologiesandndrelevantinformation.
SampleAnswer3:
Predicting the advancement of technology in future with the help of present and past encounters, is a
dauntingtaskinitselfandhencemostlyprovenwrong.(26words)(Iwillgowiththis)

12AREFEMALESONGBIRDSEVOLUTIONSUNSUNGHEROINES?

Malesdothesingingandfemalesdothelistening.Thishasbeentheestablished,evencherishedviewof
courtshipinbirds,butnowsomeornithologistsarechangingtune.LaszloGaramszegioftheUniversity
ofAntwerp,Belgium,andcolleaguesstudiedtheliteratureon233Europeansongbirdspecies.Ofthe109
forwhichinformationonfemaleswasavailable,theyfoundevidenceforsingingin101species.Inonly
eightspeciescouldtheteamconcludethatfemalesdidnotsing?
Females that sing have been overlooked, the team say, because either their songs are quiet, they are
mistakenformalesfromtheirsimilarplumageortheyliveinlesswellstudiedareassuchasthetropics.
Garamszegi blames Charles Darwin for the oversight. He emphasised the importance of male sexual
display,andthisiswhateveryonehasbeenlookingat.
The ndings go beyond modern species. After carefully tracing back an evolutionary family tree for
their songbirds, Garamszegis team discovered that, in at least two bird families, singing evolved in
femalesrst.Theysuggesttheseancientfemalesmayhavebeenusingtheirsongstodeterotherfemales
fromtheirterritories,tocoordinatebreedingactivitieswithmales,orpossiblytoaractmates.
fromtheirterritories,tocoordinatebreedingactivitieswithmales,orpossiblytoaractmates.
It leaves us with a perplexing question, says Garamszegi. What evolutionary forces drove some
femalestogiveupsinging?
Beforepeoplebelievedthatmalesingsandfemalelisten,traditionallystudiesnormallyfocusonmaleas
they are more important in xx areas. After examined the family tree of songbird, at least two female
singsforsurvivingreasons.
SampleAnswer1:
Traditionally ornithology studies, like from Darwin, normally focus on male birds singing as their
importance in sexual display, however, researchers from Belgium examined family tree of songbirds
nding female birds can sing within at least two species, the researchers allege the reasons for the
oversightofsingingfemalebirdsastheyaretooquietandliveinlesswellstudiedareas,moreover,they
believefemalebirdssingforterritoriesprotection,breedingandaractingmates.(74words)
SampleAnswer2:
AresearchwasdonebyLaszloGaramszegiandhisteamshowsthatthemostfemalesongbirdscould
sing and some species sing for surviving reasons and that this fact is overlooked due to Darwins
emphasisontheimportanceofmaledisplay.(41words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

13COUNTRYLIVING

Liveinthecountryandlastthreeyearslongerthanmycityfriends?Goodnewsindeed,morebacking
for a lifestyle choice made half a lifetime ago when it seemed a good idea to exchange an Edinburgh
terraceforafarmcoage.
IknewitwasagoodideabecauseIhadbeentherebefore.BornandrearedonafarmIhadbeenseduced
forafewyearsbytheideaofbeingabigshotwholivedandworkedinacityratherthanonlygoingfor
thedaytowaveatthebuses.
True,Iwasfamiliarwithsomeoftheminordisadvantagesofcountrylivingsuchasaniyprivatewater
supply sometimes inltrated by a range of ora and fauna (including, on one memorable occasion, a
dead lamb), the absence of central heating in farm houses and coages, and a singletrack farm road
easilyblockedbysnow,brokendownmachineryorescapedlivestock.
But there were many advantages as I told Liz back in the midSeventies. Town born and bred, eight
months pregnant and exchanging a warm, substantial Corstorphine terrace for a windswept farm
coageonamuchlowerincome,persuadingherthatcountryhaditovertownmighthavebeendicult.
SampleAnswer1:
Althoughtherearemanyadvantagesofcountryliving,itisstilldiculttopersuadeatownbornand
bred person to live in the country due to disadvantages and inconvenience of country living life. (33
words)(Iamgoingwiththis)
SampleAnswer2:
There is plethora of advantages to live in countryside over urban areas, but it really hard to persuade
someonetoresideinitbecauseithassomeminordownfalls.

14HOUSEMICE

According to new research, house mice (Mus musculus) are ideal biomarkers of human selement, as
theytendtostowawayincratesoronshipsthatendupgoingwherepeoplego.Usingmiceasaproxy
for human movement can add to what is already known through archaeological data and answer
importantquestionsinareaswherethereisalackofartifacts,Searlesaid.
importantquestionsinareaswherethereisalackofartifacts,Searlesaid.
Wherepeoplego,sodomice,oftenstowingawayincartsofhayoronships.Despiteanaturalrangeof
just 100 meters (109 yards) and an evolutionary base near Pakistan, the house mouse has managed to
colonizeeverycontinent,whichmakesitausefultoolforresearcherslikeSearle.
Previous research conducted by Searle at the University of York supported the theory that Australian
miceoriginatedintheBritishIslesandprobablycameoverwithconvictsshippedtheretocolonizethe
continentinthelate18thand19thcenturies.
IntheVikingstudy,heandhisfellowresearchersinIceland,DenmarkandSwedentookitastepfurther,
usingancientmouseDNAcollectedfromarchaeologicalsitesdatingfromthe10thto12thcenturies,as
wellasmodernmice.
Heishopingtodojustthatinhisnextproject,whichinvolvestrackingthemigrationofmiceandother
species,includingplants,acrosstheIndianOcean,fromSouthAsiatoEastAfrica.
SampleAnswer1:
Someresearchesshowthathousemicearebiomarkersofhumanselement,becauseofmicecanstow
away along with crates and ships with human movement and this can be supported by some
archaeological data, meanwhile, tracking mices evolution and DNA from archaeology resources can
alsobeevidencesforhumancolonisationandmigrationfromonecontinenttoanother.(57words)
SampleAnswer2:
Duetotheirnatureofstowingawayaroundhumans,housemiceareusedbyresearchersasadditional
informationsourcestoknownarchaeologicaldata,tostudyhumanselementandmovement.
SampleAnswer3:
Housemice,despitehavinganaturalrangeofjustafewmeters,managedtospreadineverycontinent
alongwithhumansandhenceactasanidealtoolfortheresearcherstostudyhumanmovement.
SampleAnswer4:
According to scientic researchers, the house mice follow humans movement, which has been
propoundedbythearchaeologistSearle,whoisplanningotherDNAbasedexperimentstoknowmore
aboutthemigrationofdierentspeciesandplantsacrosstheglobe.(38words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

15BEAUTYCONTEST

Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen
International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this
country. These wins have also sparked a debate as to whether beauty pageants are just harmless
reminders of oldfashioned values or a throwback to the days when women were respected for how
goodtheylooked.
Opponents argue that beauty pageants, whether its Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are
demeaningtowomenandoutofsyncwiththetimes.Theysaytheyarenothingmorethansymbolsof
decline.
InthepastfewdecadesAustraliahastakenmorethanafewfalteringstepstowardtreatingwomenwith
dignityandrespect.Youngwomenarebeingbroughtupknowingthattheycandoanything,asshown
byinspiringrolemodelsinmedicinesuchas2003AustralianoftheYearProfessorFionaStanley.
Inthe1960sand70s,oneoftherstactsofthefeministmovementwastopicketbeautypageantsonthe
premise that the industry promoted the view that it was acceptable to judges women on their
appearance.TodaymanyyoungAustralianwomenarestillprofoundlyuncomfortablewiththeirbody
image,feelingunderallkindsofpressuresbecausetheyarejudgedbyhowtheylook.
Almostallofthepageantvictorsarewaferthin,reinforcingthemessagethatthinequalsbeautiful.This
ignores the fact that men and women come in all sizes and shapes. In a country where up to 60% of
youngAustralians.
youngAustralians.
SampleAnswer1:
AustraliahasadebatewhentwofemaleAustralianswoninternationalbeautypageants,someAustralian
believe that beauty pageants are demeaning to women and judge them solely from appearance, the
opponents hold a belief that women can do anything and should be treated with dignity and respect,
evenworse,beautypageantsismakingmoreyoungfemalesbelievethinisbeautyandforcethemselves
toloseweightdespiteofnormalBMI,whichishazardoustohealth.(74words)
SampleAnswer2:
Opponentstobeautypageantsarguethatitisdemeaningtowomenandisasymbolofdeclinebecause
inthepast,Australianwomenweretreatedwithdignityandrespect,whilebeautypageants,promoted
fromthe1960s,seemtoconveythatwomencouldbejudgedontheirappearance.(47words)
SampleAnswer3:
ThebeautycontestsinAustraliaaregivingrisetothenotionofconnectingbeautywiththecolourofskin
and body shape, hence resulting in imparting grave impacts on Australian youths. (30 words) (I am
goingwiththis)

16COMPARATIVEADVANTAGES

WithanabundanceoflowpricedlaborrelativetotheUnitedStates,itisnosurprisethatChina,India
and other developing countries specialize in the production of laborintensive products. For similar
reasons, the United States will specialize in the production of goods that are human and physical
capital intensive because of the relative abundance of a highlyeducated labor force and technically
sophisticatedequipmentintheUnitedStates.
Thisdivisionofglobalproductionshouldyieldhigherglobaloutputofbothtypesofgoodsthanwould
be the case if each country aempted to produce both of these goods itself. For example, the United
Stateswouldproducemoreexpensivelaborintensivegoodsbecauseofitsmoreexpensivelaborandthe
developing countries would produce more expensive human and physical capitalintensive goods
becauseoftheirrelativescarcityoftheseinputs.
This logic implies that the United States is unlikely to be a signicant global competitor in the
productiongreentechnologiesthatarenotrelativelyintensiveinhumanandphysicalcapital.
Nevertheless,duringtheearlystagesofthedevelopmentofanewtechnology,theUnitedStateshasa
comparative advantage in the production of the products enabled by this innovation. However, once
thesetechnologiesbecomewellunderstoodandproductionprocessesaredesignedthatcanmakeuseof
lessskilledlabor,productionwillmigratetocountrieswithlessexpensivelabor.
SampleAnswer1:
Developing countries can produce more labour intensive goods due to cheap labour resources while
America is good at producing human and physical capital intensive goods because of high quality
labour forces and technically sophisticated equipment, both types of goods have higher yield for this
division,moreover,innovationisadvantageoustoAmericaforproducingnewtechnologygoodsatearly
stage,butthegoodsproductionwillmigratetodevelopingcountrieswhentechnologiesandprocesses
arewellknown.(74words)
SampleAnswer2:
Although some developing countries, such as China, become competent in the production green
industries because they have a comparative advantage over the United States, in producing labour
intensive goods due to the relatively lowerpriced labour, the United States still has a comparative
advantage enabled by innovation in the production at the early stage of the development of a new
technology.
SampleAnswer3:
SampleAnswer3:
Though United States have an upper hand in producing updated tools during the early stages in
comparisontootherdevelopingcountrieswhohavecheaplabour,thescenarioislikelytochangeinthe
future.
SampleAnswer4:
ThepossibilityofU.Sbecomingagiantinthemanufacturingofgreentechnologiesisveryless,asthe
labourforceandmanufacturingcostisveryhighincomparisontotheAsiancountrieswhocancertainly
have an edge over US because of the availability of low cost labour and innovative technologies
importedfromU.S.(54words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

17NOBELPEACEPRIZE

ThisyearsNobelPeacePrizejustlyrewardsthethousandsofscientistsoftheUnitedNationsClimate
Change Panel (the IPCC). These scientists are engaged in excellent, painstaking work that establishes
exactlywhattheworldshouldexpectfromclimatechange.
Theotherawardwinner,formerUSVicePresidentAlGore,hasspentmuchmoretimetellinguswhatto
fear.WhiletheIPCCsestimatesandconclusionsaregroundedincarefulstudy,Goredoesntseemtobe
similarlyrestrained.
Gore told the world in his Academy Awardwinning movie (recently labeled onesided and
containing scientic errors by a British judge) to expect 20foot sealevel rises over this century. He
ignoresthendingsofhisNobelcowinners,theIPCC,whoconcludethatsealevelswillrisebetween
onlyahalffootandtwofeetoverthiscentury,withtheirbestexpectationbeingaboutonefoot.Thats
similartowhattheworldexperiencedoverthepast150years.
Likewise, Gore agonizes over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland and what it means for the
planet,butoverlookstheIPCCsconclusionthat,ifsustained,thecurrentrateofmeltingwouldaddjust
threeinchestothesealevelrisebytheendofthecentury.Gorealsotakesnonoticeofresearchshowing
thatGreenlandstemperatureswerehigherin1941thantheyaretoday.
Gore also frets about the future of polar bears. He claims they are drowning as their icy habitat
disappears. However, the only scientic study showing any such thing indicates that four polar bears
drownedbecauseofastorm.
The politicianturnedmovie maker loses sleep over a predicted rise in heatrelated deaths. Theres
anothersideofthestorythatsinconvenienttomention:risingtemperatureswillreducethenumberof
coldspells,whichareamuchbiggerkillerthanheat.Thebeststudyshowsthatby2050,heatwillclaim
400,000morelives,but1.8millionfewerwilldiebecauseofcold.Indeed,accordingtotherstcomplete
surveyoftheeconomiceectsofclimatechangefortheworld,globalwarmingwillactuallysavelives.
SampleAnswer1:
ThisyearsNobelPeacePrizeissharedbyscientistsofIPCCandAIGore,fortheirexcellentresearchin
climate change, however, Gore believes sea level will increase 20 feet in this century and he concerns
polarbearwillbedrownedduetoglobalwarmingwhileIPCCestimatestherewillonlybe0.5to2feet
sealevelriseandtheglobalwarmingcanactuallysavelivesbecauselesspeoplewilldiefromcold.(74
words)
SampleAnswer2:
Al Gore, in his awardwinning movie, expresses his fear about sealevel rises over this century, the
accelerated melting of ice in Greenland, the future of polar bears predicted rise in heatrelated deaths
andtheseconcernsgoagainstscienticstudiesdonebyhiscowinnerofthisyearsNobelPeacePrize,
theIPCC.
SampleAnswer3:
The IPCC scientists did a great eort in predicting and illustrating many facts about climate change,
The IPCC scientists did a great eort in predicting and illustrating many facts about climate change,
similarly, AL Gore presented many facts in his famous movie which explained various phenomena of
climaticvariousinsavingmanypeoplelives.(38words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

18PARENTSBORNORDERAFFECTSTHEIRPARENTING

Parentsownbirthordercanbecomeanissuewhendynamicsinthefamilytheyareraisingreplicatethe
familyinwhichtheywereraised.Agatinotescommonexamples,suchasarstbornparentgeinginto
ragingbaleswitharstbornchild.Bothareusedtogeingthelastword.Eachhastoberight.But
the parent has to be the grownup and step out of that bale, he advises. When youngest children
becomeparents,Agaticautionsthatbecausetheymaynothavehadhighexpectationsplacedonthem,
theyinturnmaynotseetheirkidsfortheirabilities.
Buthealsonotesthatsinceyoungestchildrentendtobemoresocial,youngestparentscanbehelpfulto
their rstborn, who may have a harder time with social situations. These parents can help their eldest
kidsloosenupandnotbesohardonthemselves.MomSusanRisaysherownbirthorderdidntseem
to aect her parenting until the youngest of her three children, Julie, was born. Julie was nine years
younger than Ris oldest, Joshua, mirroring the age dierence between Susan and her own older
brother.IwouldseeJoshuadotoJuliewhatmybrotherdidtome,shesaysofthetauntingandteasing
byamucholdersibling.
IhadtotrynottoalwaystakeJuliesside.Biasescansurfacenomaerwhatyourownbirthposition
was,asLoriSilverstonepointsout.Asamiddlemyself,Icanbeharderonmyolderdaughter.Irecall
myoldersisterhiingme,shesaysofherreactionstoherdaughterstussles.
Myhusbandisarstborn.Hesalwaysstickingupfortheoldest.Hefeelsbadforherthattheothers
camesofast.Hehelpsmetoseewhatthatfeelslike,tohavethataentionandthenloseit.Silverstone
seesbirthordertriggersasanopportunitytohealpartsofourselves.Ivelearnedtoteachmymiddle
daughtertostandupforherself.
Mymotherdidntteachmethat.Imconsciousofgivingmymiddledaughtertoolssoshehasaniceway
toprotectherself.
Whetherornotyousubscribetotheoriesthatbirthordercanaectyourchildspersonality,ultimately,
weallhavefreewill,Agatinotes.Itsimportantforbothparentsandkidstorealizethat,despitethe
characteristicsoftenassociatedwithbirthorder,yourenotlockedintoanyrole.
SampleAnswer1:
Parents own birth order and raising experience have eect on their parenting, for example, raging
balesforrstchildcaneasilyappearbetweenrstbornparents,youngestparentsmaynotpayenough
aention to their kids as they were not taken car enough when they were young, on the other hand,
dierentparenttendstostickonchildssidewhentheysharesamebirthorder.(64words)
SampleAnswer2:
Despite the theory that parents own birth order can aect their parenting, and that parents usually
replicatethefamilyinwhichtheywereraised,bothparentsandchildrenhavefreewilltobuilduptheir
ownpersonalityandcharacteristics.
SampleAnswer3:
A presented tendency in which familial birth order from previous upbringing may aect parenthood
therebypressingsuperiorexpectationsonrstbornchildrenandnotpuingintoaccountthesignicant
socialcontributionandequilibriumindynamicsoftheyoungestchild.
SampleAnswer4:

Thereseemstobeacorrelationbetweenbirthorderofparentsandtheirchildrenanditseemstocause
Thereseemstobeacorrelationbetweenbirthorderofparentsandtheirchildrenanditseemstocause
conictsbetweentheeldestonesusually,whereastheyoungestonesareseentobemorefriendlyand
accommodating,whichhelpsinthegrowthofchildren.

19NAPPING

Alargenewstudyhasfoundthatpeoplewhoregularlytookasiestaweresignicantlylesslikelytodie
ofheartdisease.Takinganapcouldturnouttobeanimportantweaponintheghtagainstcoronary
mortality,saidDimitriosTrichopoulosoftheHarvardSchoolofPublicHealthinBoston,wholedthe
studypublishedyesterdayintheArchivesofInternalMedicine.
Thestudyofmorethan23,000Greekadultsthebiggestandbestexaminationofthesubjecttodate
foundthatthosewhoregularlytookamiddaysiestaweremorethan30percentlesslikelytodieofheart
disease.
Otherexpertssaidtheresultsareintriguing.Heartdiseasekillsmorethan650,000Americanseachyear,
makingitthenationsNo.1causeofdeath.
Itsinteresting.Alilesiesta,alilesnoozemaybebenecial,saidGeraldFletcher,acardiologistat
theMayoClinicinJacksonville,Fla.,speakingonbehalfoftheAmericanHeartAssociation.Itssimple,
butithasalotofpromise.
While more research is needed to conrm and explore the ndings, there are several ways napping
couldreducetheriskofheartaacks,expertssaid.
Nappingmayhelpdealwiththestressofdailyliving,saidMichaelTwery,whodirectstheNational
HeartLungandBloodInstitutesNationalCenteronSleepDisordersResearch.
Anotherpossibilityisthatitispartofthenormalbiologicalrhythmofdailyliving.Thebiologicalclock
that drives sleep and wakefulness has two cycles each day, and one of them dips usually in the early
afternoon.Itspossiblethatnotengaginginnappingforsomepeoplemightdisrupttheseprocesses.
ResearchershavelongknownthatcountriessuchasGreece,ItalyandSpain,wherepeoplecommonly
take siestas, have lower rates of heart disease than would be expected. But previous studies that
aemptedtostudytherelationshipbetweennapsandheartdiseasehaveproducedmixedresults.The
new study is rst to try to fully account for factors that might confuse the ndings, such as physical
activity,dietandotherillnesses.
SampleAnswer1:
AnewstudyfromGreeceshowsthatnappingorsiestacanreduceheartdiseaserisks,theresultsshow
that 30% examined adults are less likely to die from heart disease, and midday siestas can be more
benetedtoworkingmenthannonworkingmen,furthermore,theresearchersbelievethattheeectof
napsandmiddaysiestasareintriguing,itisbeertorestwhenyouhaveanopportunityorcustomto
nap.(71words)
SampleAnswer2:
Although more research is needed, some studies show that a regular midday siesta could reduce the
probability of death caused by heart disease, by helping to deal with stress and biological rhythm of
dailyliving.

20TREERINGDATING/DENDROCHRONOLOGY

Hereshowtreeringdating,knowntoscientistsasdendrochronology(fromtheGreekrootsDendron=
Hereshowtreeringdating,knowntoscientistsasdendrochronology(fromtheGreekrootsDendron=
tree, and chronos = time), works. If you cut a tree down today, its straightforward to count the rings
inwards,startingfromthetreesoutside(correspondingtothisyearsgrowthring),andtherebytostate
thatthe177thringfromtheoutermostonetowardsthecentrewaslaiddownintheyear2005minus177,
or 1828. However, the widths of tree growth rings vary from year to year, depending on the rain or
droughtconditionsineachyear.
HencethesequenceoftheringsinatreecrosssectionislikeamessageinMorsecodeformerlyusedfor
sendingtelegraphmessages;dotdotdashdotdashintheMorsecode,widewidenarrowwidenarrow
in the tree ring sequence. Actually the tree ring sequence is even more diagnostic and richer in
information than the Morse code, because trees actually contain rings spanning many dierent width,
ratherthantheMorsecodechoicebetweendotanddash.
Tree ring specialists (known as dendrochronologists) proceed by noting the sequence of wider and
narrowerringsinatreecutdowninaknownrecentyear,andalsonotingthesequencesinbeamsfrom
treescutdownatvarioustimesinthepast.Theythenmatchupandalignthetreeringsequenceswith
thesamediagnosticwide/narrowpaernsfromdierentbeams.
In that way, dendrochronologists have constructed tree ring records extending back for thousands of
years in some parts of the world. Each record is valid for a geographic area whose extent depends on
localweatherpaerns,becauseweatherandhencetreegrowthpaernsvarywithlocation.
Abonusofdendrochronologyisthatthewidthandsubstructureofeachringreectstheamountofrain
andtheseasonatwhichtherainfellduringthatparticularyear.Thus,treeringstudiesalsoallowoneto
reconstructthepastclimate,e.g.,aseriesofwideringsmeansaverywetperiod,andaseriesofnarrow
ringsmeansadrought.
SampleAnswer1:
Treeringisusedtoidentifyhowoldatreeisbycountingthenumberofringsfromoutmosttowards
centre, dendrochronologists nd a diagnostic way for how to determine a date for a specic ring by
checkingthesequenceandwidthinatreecrosssection,meanwhile,dendrochronologistspointoutthat
thewidthandsubstructurebetweenringscanreectinformationoflocalweather,climate,andseasons
duringaparticularyearfordierentgeographicareas.(74words)
SampleAnswer2:
Dendrochronologyisascienticmethodofdatingbasedontheconstructionandanalysisofpaernsof
treeringsanditcanhelptoreconstructthepastclimateforageographicarea.

21THEKHOIKHOI

San,peopleofsouthernAfrica,consistingofseveralgroupsandnumberingover85,000inall.Theyare
generallyshortinstature;theirskinisyellowishbrownincolor;andtheyfeatureprominentcheekbones.
The San have been called Bushmen by whites in South Africa, but the term is now considered
derogatory. Although many now work for white selers, about half are still nomadic hunters and
gatherers of wild food in desolate areas like the Kalahari semidesert, which streches between todays
NationStatesofBotswana,NamibiaandSouthAfrica.Theirsocialunitisthesmallhuntingband;larger
organizations are loose and temporary. Grashuts, caves and rock shelters are used as dwellings. They
possess only what they can carry, using poisoned arrowheads to fell game and transporting water in
ostricheggshells.TheSanhavearichfolklore,areskilledindrawing,andhavearemarkablycomplex
languagecharacterizedbytheuseofclicksounds,relatedtothatoftheKhoikhoi.Forthousandsofyears
theSanlivedinsouthernandcentralAfrica,butbythetimeofthePortuguesearrivalinthe15thcent.,
theyhadalreadybeenforcedintotheinteriorofsouthernAfrica.Inthe18thand19thcent.,theyresisted
theencroachmentontheirlandsofDutchselers,butby1862thatresistancehadbeencrushed.
SampleAnswer1:
SampleAnswer1:
2300 years ago, the San people started hunting and gathering throughout the western half of South
Africa,lateronpartoftheSanturnedtheirlifestylesintoherdingandcallthemselvestheKhoikhoiwho
rstly contacted with the Dutch selers, however, the Dutch dispossessed, exterminated and enslaved
Khoikhoiandtookovertheirlandsincemid17thcentury.(56words)
SampleAnswer2:
San, short Southern African people with yellowish brown skin color and prominent cheekbones, are
livinginprimitivewaysandsmallhuntingbandspreviouslylivedinsouthernandcentralAfrica.

22COMPUTERPROGRAMMING

Considerthecurrentsituation:LiketheircounterpartsintheUnitedStates,engineersandtechniciansin
India have the capacity to provide both computer programming and innovative new technologies.
Indian programmers and hightech engineers earn onequarter of what their counterparts earn in the
UnitedStates.Consequently,IndiaisabletodobothjobsatalowerdollarcostthantheUnitedStates:
Indiahasanabsoluteadvantageinboth.Inotherwords,itcanproduceaunitofprogrammingforfewer
dollarsthantheUnitedStates,anditcanalsoproduceaunitoftechnologyinnovationforfewerdollars.
Doesthatmeanthat the United States will lose not only programmingjobsbutinnovativetechnology
jobs,too?DoesthatmeanthatourstandardoflivingwillfalliftheUnitedStatesandIndiaengagein
internationaltrade?
DavidRicardowouldhaveanswerednotobothquestionsaswedotoday.WhileIndiamayhavean
absolute advantage in both activities, that fact is irrelevant in determining what India or the United
States will produce. India has a comparative advantage in doing programming in part because such
activityrequireslilephysicalcapital.TheipsideisthattheUnitedStateshasacomparativeadvantage
intechnologyinnovationpartlybecauseitisrelativelyeasytoobtaincapitalinthiscountrytoundertake
such longrun projects. The result is that Indian programmers will do more and more of what U.S.
programmers have been doing in the past. In contrast, American rms will shift to more and more
innovation.
The United States will specialize in technology innovation; India will specialize in programming. The
businessmanagersineachcountrywillopttospecializeinactivitiesinwhichtheyhaveacomparative
advantage.Asinthepast,theU.S.economywillcontinuetoconcentrateonwhatarecalledthemost
bestactivities.
SampleAnswer1:
India has its advantage in programming as programming requires limited physical capital and Indias
labourcostisverylow,comparingtothis,theUnitedStateshascomparativeadvantageintechnology
innovationbecauselongrunprojectcanbeeasilyfundedinUSA,asaresultofthat,IndiaandUSAwill
specialiseinprogrammingandtechnologyinnovationrespectively,andtheeconomywillconcentrateon
domainsthetwocountriesaregoodat.(69words)
SampleAnswer2:
Whatacountrywillengageininternationaltradedependsonitscomparativeadvantage,soIndiawill
do more computer programming due to its comparative disadvantage of obtaining physical capital
whiletheUnitedStatewillengageincapitalintensivetechnologyinnovation,thoughIndiacandoboth
atlowercosts.

23TOURISMINDUSTRY
Jobs generated by Travel & Tourism are spread across the economy in retail, construction,
manufacturingandtelecommunications,aswellasdirectlyinTravel&Tourismcompanies.
These jobs employ a large proportion of women, minorities and young people; are predominantly in
smallandmediumsizedcompanies;andoergoodtrainingandtransferability.Tourismcanalsobeone
of the most eective drivers for the development of regional economies. These paerns apply to both
developedandemergingeconomies.
TherearenumerousgoodexamplesofwhereTravel&Tourismisactingasacatalystforconservation
andimprovementoftheenvironmentandmaintenanceoflocaldiversityandculture.Travel&Tourism
creates jobs and wealth and has tremendous potential to contribute to economically, environmentally
and socially sustainable development in both developed countries and emerging nations. It has a
comparativeadvantageinthatitsstartupandrunningcostscanbelowcomparedtomanyotherforms
ofindustrydevelopment.Itisalsooftenoneofthefewrealisticoptionsfordevelopmentinmanyareas.
Therefore,thereisastronglikelihoodthattheTravel&Tourismindustrywillcontinuetogrowglobally
overtheshorttomediumterm.
SampleAnswer1:
ManyjobscanbecreatedbyTravelandTourismindustryespeciallyforwomen,minoritiesandyoung
people, moreover, the industry is a catalyst for a nations sustainable development including
environmentimprovement,localdiversityandculturemaintenance,atlast,TravelandTourismindustry
startsandrunsmuchcheaperthanotherindustries.(50words)
SampleAnswer2:
Travelandtourismindustryimprovesthedevelopmentofregionaleconomiesandmaintenanceofthe
environment and culture and it will continue to grow in the short to medium term because of its
comparativelylowstartingandrunningcosts.
SampleAnswer3:
Growthofthetourismindustryinanationseconomyisparamount,asitcreatesemploymentforyoung
people,needssmallcapitalandcouldbetheonlyviablebusinessinsomecountries.

24THEORYOFRESONANCE

The history of marketers seeking the advice of physicists is a short one, but an understanding of the
TheoryofResonancemaygivecommunicationsexpertstheedge.
Resonance Theory explains the curious phenomenon of how very small pebbles dropped into a pond
can create bigger waves than a large brick. The brick makes a decent splash but its ripples peter out
quickly.Atinypebbledroppedintothesamepond,followedbyanother,thenanother,thenanother,all
timedcarefully,willcreateripplesthatbuildintosmallwaves.
As Dr Carlo Contaldi, a physicist at Imperial College London, explains, a small amount of energy
commiedatjusttherightintervalsthenaturalfrequencycreatesacumulativelylargeeect.
MediaconsultantPaulBaybelievesthatjustaswithpebblesinapond,acarefullychoreographedand
meticulouslytimedstreamofcommunicationwillhaveamorelastingeectthanasporadicbigsplash
duringprimetimeTVbreaks.
Innocent is testament to the power of pebbles. Until last year, the maker of smoothies had never
advertised on TV, instead dripfeeding the market with endless ingenious marketing ploys from
annotating its drinks labels with quirky messages to hosting its own music festival, Fruitstock. The
companysentaconstantstreamofmessagesratherthancommunicatingthroughtheoccasionalbigand
expensivenoise.
So whether youre trying to make waves in the laboratory or in the media, the people in white coats

wouldadvisealileandoften.Abigbudgetisnottheprerequisiteofsuccess.
wouldadvisealileandoften.Abigbudgetisnottheprerequisiteofsuccess.
SampleAnswer1:
Resonancetheory,whichexplainsthatverysmallpebblesdroppedintoapondcancreatebiggerwaves
thanalargebrick,couldalsobeappliedtomediaandacarefullychoreographedandmeticulouslytimed
stream of communication will create a more cumulative and lasting eect than a big occasional
propaganda.
SampleAnswer2:
The marketing arena has sought scientic guidance and clearly pinpointed the theory of resonance a
clear explanation of the phenomenon wherein a consistent minimal eort can surpass a single
tremendous aempt thereby reinforcing the idea that signicant budgetary allowance is not the
determinanttowardsvictory.

25ANTIBULLYINGPROJECT

Spurred by the sense that disorderly behaviour among students in South Euclid was increasing, the
schoolresourceocer(SRO)revieweddataregardingreferralstotheprincipalsoce.Hefoundthat
thehighschoolreportedthousandsofreferralsayearforbullyingandthatthejuniorhighschoolhad
recently experienced a 30 percent increase in bullying referrals. Police data showed that juvenile
complaintsaboutdisturbances,bullying,andassaultsafterschoolhourshadincreased90percentinthe
past10years.
AresearcherfromKentStateUniversity(Ohio)conductedasurveyofallstudentsaendingthejunior
highandhighschool.Interviewsandfocusgroupswereconductedwithstudentsidentiedasvictims
or oenders teachers, and guidance counsellors. Finally, the South Euclid Police Department
purchasedaGeographicInformationSystemtoconductcrimeincidentmappingofhotspotswithinthe
schools. The main ndings pointed to four primary areas of concern: the environmental design of the
school;teacherknowledgeofandresponsetotheproblem;parentalaitudesandresponses;andstudent
perspectivesandbehaviours.
The SRO worked in close collaboration with a social worker and the university researcher. They
coordinatedaResponsePlanningTeamcomprisingmanystakeholdersthatwasintendedtorespondto
eachoftheareasidentiedintheinitialanalysis.Environmentalchangesincludedmodifyingtheschool
schedule and increasing teacher supervision of hotspots. Counsellors and social workers conducted
teacher training courses in conict resolution and bullying prevention. Parent education included
mailings with information about bullying, an explanation of the new school policy, and a discussion
about what could be done at home to address the problems. Finally, student education included
classroomdiscussionsbetweenhomeroomteachersandstudents,aswellasassembliesconductedbythe
SRO.TheSROalsoopenedasubstationnexttoaprimaryhotspot.TheOhioDepartmentofEducation
contributedbyopeninganewtrainingcentretoprovideanontraditionalseingforspecializedhelp.
The results from the various responses were dramatic. School suspensions decreased 40 percent.
Bullying incidents dropped 60 percent in the hallways and 80 percent in the gym area. Followup
surveysindicatedthattherewerepositiveaitudinalchangesamongstudentsaboutbullyingandthat
morestudentsfeltcondentthatteacherswouldtakeactionwhenaproblemarose.Teachersindicated
that training sessions were helpful and that they were more likely to talk about bullying as a serious
issue.Parentsrespondedpositively,askingformoreinformationabouttheprobleminfuturemailings.
Theoverallresultssuggestthattheschoolenvironmentswerenotonlysafer,butthatearlyintervention
washelpingatriskstudentssucceedinschool
SampleAnswer1:
As the increasing trend of bullying, disturbances and assaults at school, SRO conducted a survey on
junior and high schools in Ohio and collaborated with a team which were intending to modify school
junior and high schools in Ohio and collaborated with a team which were intending to modify school
scheduleandteachersupervisionathighbullyinghotspots,meanwhile,parentseducation,newschool
polices,andstudenteducationareintroducedatschoolalongwithasubstationnearby,moreover,the
resultsareverydramaticandbullyingincidentsarealsoreducingsignicantly.(72words)
SampleAnswer2:
The school resource oce coordinated a Response Planning Team to respond to major concerns about
disorderlybehaviouramongstudentsandtheresultsforeachconcernweredramaticallypositive.

26AGEINGWORLD

Weliveinanageingworld.Whilethishasbeenrecognizedforsometimeindevelopedcountries,itis
onlyrecentlythatthisphenomenonhasbeenfullyacknowledged.Globalcommunicationisshrinking
theworld,andglobalageingismaturingit.Theincreasingpresenceofolderpersonsintheworldis
making people of all ages more aware that we live in a diverse and multigenerational society. It is no
longerpossibletoignoreageing,regardlessofwhetheroneviewsitpositivelyornegatively.
Demographers note that if current trends in ageing continue as predicted, a demographic revolution,
whereintheproportionsoftheyoungandtheoldwillundergoahistoriccrossover,willbefeltinjust
three generations. This portrait of change in the worlds population parallels the magnitude of the
industrialrevolutiontraditionallyconsideredthemostsignicantsocialandeconomicbreakthroughin
thehistoryofhumankindsincetheNeolithicperiod.Itmarkedthebeginningofasustainedmovement
towards modern economic growth in much the same way that globalization is today marking an
unprecedented and sustained movement toward a global culture. The demographic revolution, it is
envisaged,willbeatleastaspowerful.
Whilethefutureeectsarenotknown,alikelyscenarioisonewhereboththechallengesaswellasthe
opportunities will emerge from a vessel into which exploration and research, dialogue and debate are
poured. Challenges arise as social and economic structures try to adjust to the simultaneous
phenomenonofdiminishingyoungcohortswithrisingolderones,andopportunitiespresentthemselves
in the sheer number of older individuals and the vast resources societies stand to gain from their
contribution.
Thisageingofthepopulationpermeatesallsocial,economicandculturalspheres.Revolutionarychange
calls for new, revolutionary thinking, which can position policy formulation and implementation on
sounder footing. In our ageing world, new thinking requires that we view ageing as a lifelong and
societywidephenomenon,notaphenomenonexclusivelypertainingtoolderpersons.
SampleAnswer1:
Ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that is fully acknowledged recently, the prediction shows that
proportion of aged and young people will undergo a crossover which needs sustained movement for
economy,ontheotherhand,challengesarisesalongwiththediminishingyounggenerationsinsocial,
economicandculturalstructureswhichcallsforrevolutionarychangesandthinking.(55words)
SampleAnswer2:
If the fact and trend that we are living in an ageing world continues, the demographic revolution, as
powerful as the industrial revolution, will bring both challenges and opportunities to the society and
willbealifelongandsocietywidephenomenon.

27THEDEMANDFORTALENT

Someofthispanicisoverdoneandlinkedtothebusinesscycle:therewasmuchadoaboutawarfor
Someofthispanicisoverdoneandlinkedtothebusinesscycle:therewasmuchadoaboutawarfor
talentinAmericainthe1990s,untilthedotcombubbleburst.Peopleoftentalkaboutshortageswhen
theyshouldreallybediscussingprice.Eventually,supplywillrisetomeetdemandandthemarketwill
adjust.But,whileyouwait,yourrmmightgobust.Fortheevidenceisthatthetalentshortageislikely
togetworse.
Nobody really disputes the idea that the demand for talentintensive skills is rising. The value of
intangibleassetseverythingfromskilledworkerstopatentstoknowhowhasballoonedfrom20%
ofthevalueofcompaniesintheS&P500to70%today.TheproportionofAmericanworkersdoingjobs
thatcallforcomplexskillshasgrownthreetimesasfastasemploymentingeneral.Asothereconomies
moveinthesamedirection,theglobaldemandisrisingquickly.
As for supply, the picture in much of the developed world is haunted by demography. By 2025 the
numberofpeopleaged1564isprojectedtofallby7%inGermany,9%inItalyand14%inJapan.Even
instillgrowingAmerica,theimminentretirementofthebabyboomersmeansthatcompanieswilllose
large numbers of experienced workers in a short space of time (by one count half the top people at
Americas 500 leading companies will go in the next ve years). Meanwhile, two things are making it
muchharderforcompaniestoadjust.
Therstisthecollapseofloyalty.Companieshappilychoppedoutlayersofmanagersduringthe1990s;
now people are likely to repay them by moving to the highest bidder. The second is the mismatch
betweenwhatschoolsareproducingandwhatcompaniesneed.InmostWesterncountriesschoolsare
churningouttoofewscientistsandengineersandfartoomanypeoplewholacktheskillstoworkina
modern economy (thats why there are talent shortages at the top alongside structural unemployment
forthelowskilled).
SampleAnswer1:
Talentshortageislikelytogetworsegloballyinthefuturebecauseoftheimminentretirementofbaby
boomers, the collapse of loyalty and the mismatch between what schools are producing and what
companiesneed.

28MARSHMALLOWTEST

Theycallitthemarshmallowtest.Afourtosixyearoldchildsitsaloneinaroomatatablefacinga
marshmallowonaplate.Thechildistold:Ifyoudonteatthistreatfor15minutesyoucanhavebothit
and a second one. Kids on average wait for ve or six minutes before eating the marshmallow. The
longerachildcanresistthetreathasbeencorrelatedwithhighergeneralcompetencylaterinlife.
Nowastudyshows that ability to resist temptation isnt strictly innateitsalsohighlyinuencedby
environment.
Researchers gave veyearolds used crayons and one sticker to decorate a sheet of paper. One group
waspromisedanewsetofartsuppliesfortheprojectbutthenneverreceivedit.Buttheothergroup
didreceivenewcrayonsandbeerstickers.
Then both groups were given the marshmallow test. The children who had been lied to waited for a
meantimeofthreeminutesbeforeeatingthemarshmallow.Thegroupthatgottheirpromisedmaterials
resistedanaverageof12minutes.
Thus, the researchers note that experience factors into a childs ability to delay gratication. When
previouspromiseshavebeenhollow,whybelievethenextone?
SampleAnswer1:
A study shows that childrens ability to resist temptation is highly inuenced by experiences and that
childrenwhogettheirpromisesbeforecoulddelaygraticationlonger.
29CRISISINBRITISHARCHAEOLOGY

Human remains are a fundamental part of the archaeological record, oering unique insights into the
livesofindividualsandpopulationsinthepast.Recentlyanewsetofchallengestothestudyofhuman
remains has emerged from a rather unexpected direction: the British government revised its
interpretationofnineteenthcenturyburiallegislationinawaythatwoulddrasticallycurtailtheability
of archaeologists to study human remains of any age excavated in England and Wales. This paper
examinestheseextraordinaryeventsandthelegal,politicalandethicalquestionsthattheyraise.InApril
2008theBritishgovernmentannouncedthat,henceforth,allhumanremainsarchaeologicallyexcavated
inEnglandandWalesshouldbereburiedafteratwoyearperiodofscienticanalysis.Notonlywould
internationally important prehistoric remains have to be returned to the ground, removing them from
public view, but also there would no longer be any possibility of longterm scientic investigation as
new techniques and methods emerged and developed in the future. Thus, while faunal remains,
potsherds, artefacts and environmental samples could be analysed and reanalysed in future years,
human remains were to be eectively removed from the curation process. Archaeologists and other
scientistswerealsoconcernedthatthismightbetherststeptowardsapolicyofreburyingallhuman
remainsheldinmuseumcollectionsinEnglandandWalesincludingprehistoric,Roman,Saxon,Viking
andMedievalaswellasmorerecentremains.
SampleAnswer1:
TheBritishgovernmentsannouncementthatallhumanremainsarchaeologicallyexcavatedinEngland
andWalesneedreburying,willnegativelyaectthestudyofhumanremains.

30GEOTHERMALENERGYINAFRICA

Whatisthesolutionfornationswithincreasingenergydemands,hinderedbyfrequentpowercutsand
aninabilitytocompeteintheinternationaloilmarket?ForEastAfricaatleast,expertsthinkgeothermal
energyistheanswer.Morepromisingstill,theKenyangovernmentandinternationalinvestorsseemto
belistening.Thisisjustintimeaccordingtomany,asclaimsofanacuteenergycrisisareafootdueto
highoilprices,populationspikesanddroughts.
Currently over 60% of Kenyas power comes from hydroelectric sources but these are proving
increasingly unreliable as the issue of seasonal variation is intensied by erratic rain paerns.
Alternative energy sources are needed; and the leading energy supplier in Kenya, Kenya Electricity
GeneratingCompany(KenGen),hopestoexpanditsgeothermalenergysupplyfrom13%to25%ofits
totalusageby2020.Thepotentialofgeothermalenergyintheregionwasrstrealisedinternationallyby
theUnitedNationsDevelopmentProgram,whengeologistsobservedthermalanomaliesbelowtheEast
AfricanRiftsystem.Localshavebeenutilisingthisresourceforcenturies;usingsteamventstocreatethe
perfecthumidityforgreenhouses,orsimplytoenjoyaswiminthemanynaturalhotlakes.
Alongthe6000kmoftheriftfromtheRedSeatoMozambique,geochemical,geophysicalandheatow
measurements were made to identify areas suitable for geothermal wells. One area lies next to the
extinct Olkaria volcano, within the Hells Gate National Park, and sits over some of the thinnest
continental crust on Earth. This is a result of the thinning of the crust by tectonic stretching, causing
hoer material below the Earths surface to rise, resulting in higher temperatures. This thin crust was
idealforthedrillingofgeothermalwells,reachingdepthsofaround3000m,wheretemperaturesgetup
to342C,farhigherthantheusualtemperatureof90Catthisdepth.Waterinthesurroundingrocksis
convertedtosteambytheheat.Thesteamcanbeusedtodriveturbinesandproduceelectricity.Wells
like those in Olkaria operate by pumping cold water down to permeable geothermal reservoir rocks,
like those in Olkaria operate by pumping cold water down to permeable geothermal reservoir rocks,
causingsteamtorisebackupanearbyproductionwell.Caremustbetakenwiththerateatwhichcold
waterisaddedsoastonotpermanentlycoolthesourcerock.
SampleAnswer1:
Four African countries researched that geothermal energy can be used to meet increasing energy
demandswithpowercutandinabilityhinders,thisnewenergycomesfrompumpingupheatedwater
from bedrock, and can be transformed into electricity as well, meanwhile, this new energy is very
competitiveandabundantinAfricacontinentcomparewithhydroelectricsourceswhichareunreliable
forseasonablevariations.(62words)
SampleAnswer2:
Geothermal energy will be used as alternative electric sources to meet increasing energy demands in
EastAfricancountriesduetothegeologicaladvantages,thermalanomaliesbelowtheEastAfricanRift
system.

31LANGUAGEDEVELOPMENT

Whatistext/wrienlanguageanyway?ItsanancientITforstoringandretrievinginformation.Westore
informationbywritingit,andweretrieveitbyreadingit.
Six thousand to 10,000 years ago, many of our ancestors huntergatherer societies seled on the land
andbeganwhatsknownastheagriculturalrevolution.Thatnewlandselementledtoprivateproperty
andincreasedproduction and trade of goods, generating a huge new inuxofinformation.Unableto
keep all this information in their memories, our ancestors created systems of wrien records that
evolvedovermillenniaintotodayswrienlanguages.
But this ancient IT is already becoming obsolete. Text has run its historic course and it now rapidly
geingreplacedineveryareaofourlivesbytheeverincreasingarrayofemergingITsdrivenbyvoice,
video,andbodymovementratherthanthewrienword.Inmyview,thisisapositivestepforwardin
the evolution of human technology, and it carries great potential for a total positive redesign of K12
education.
SampleAnswer1:
Wrienlanguage,whichcanbedenedasanancientmethodofstoringandretrievinginformation,is
quicklyreplacedbythemoderninformationtechnologies,whichinvolvemoreaudio,visualorkinetic
elements,andthewriterconsiderthisasapositivemovement.

32GREENHOUSEGASES

When an individual drives a car, heats a house, or uses an aerosol hair spray, greenhouse gases are
produced.Ineconomicterms,thiscreatesaclassicnegativeexternality.Mostofthecosts(inthiscase,
those arising from global warming) are borne by individuals other than the one making the decision
abouthowmanymilestodriveorhowmuchhairspraytouse.Becausethedriver(orsprayer)enjoysall
thebenetsoftheactivitybutsuersonlyapartofthecost,thatindividualengagesinmorethanthe
economicallyecientamountoftheactivity.Inthissense,theproblemofgreenhousegasesparallelsthe
problemsthatoccurs when someone smokes a cigaree in an enclosedspaceorliersthecountryside
with fastfood wrappers. If we are to get individuals to reduce production of greenhouse gases to the
ecientrate,wemustsomehowinducethemtoactasthoughtheybearallthecostsoftheiractions.The
twomostwidelyacceptedmeansofdoingthisaregovernmentregulationandtaxation,bothofwhich
havebeenproposedtodealwithgreenhousegases.
havebeenproposedtodealwithgreenhousegases.
SampleAnswer1:
Greenhouse gas is created when individuals are driving a car, heating a house, using an aerosol hair
spray or even smoking in an enclosed house or damping in countryside with fastfood wrappers,
government should let those people who caused greenhouse more to pay for their bills, for example,
introduce regulation and increase taxation, and it is believed that both of the two ways can reduce
greenhousegasemission.(68words)
SampleAnswer2:
Greenhouse gasses are produced in our daily activities and could create negative externality, which
meansthatmostofthecostbehindtheseactionsareshoulderedbyavastmajorityofinnocentpeople,
andthereforesuchbehaviourscanonlyberegulatedthroughgovernmentregulationandtaxation.
SampleAnswer3:
Greenhousegasesarecreatedwhenindividualsaredrivingcars,heatinghouses,orevensmokinginan
enclosedroomsordampinginthecountrysidewithfastfoodwrappers,thegovernmentshouldletthese
people pay more bills by introducing regulations and increase taxation, which can reduce greenhouse
gasemissions.(49words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

33AUSTRALIANINDIGENOUSFOOD

Initsperiodicquestforculinaryidentity,Australiaautomaticallylookstoitsindigenousingredients,the
foodsthatarenativetothiscountry.Therecanbeliledoubtthatusinganindigenousproductmust
qualifyadishasAustralian,notesStephanieAlexander.Similarly,andwithoutqualication,Cheriko
statesthatAuniquelyAustralianfoodculturecanonlybebaseduponfoodsindigenoustothiscountry,
although, as Craw remarks, proposing Australian native foods as national symbols relies more upon
theirassociationwithnatureandgeographicoriginthanoncommonusage.Notwithstandingthelack
ofjusticationforthepremisethatnationaldishesare,ofnecessity,foundedoningredientsnativetothe
countryafter all, Italys gastronomic identity is tied to the nonindigenous tomato, Thailands to the
nonindigenouschilitherealityisthatAustraliansdonoteatindigenousfoodsinsignicantquantities.
The exceptions are sh, crustaceans and shellsh from oceans, rivers and lakes, most of which are
unarguablyuniquetothiscountry.Despitevaliantandwellintentionedeortstodayatpromotingand
encouragingtheconsumptionofnativeresources,bushfoodsarenotharvestedorproducedinsucient
quantitiesforthemtobeastandardcomponentofAustraliandiets,noraretheygenerallyaccessible.
IndigenousfoodsarelessrelevanttoAustralianidentitytodaythanlambandpassionfruit,bothinitially
importedandnownaturalised.
SampleAnswer1:
DespitetheeorttoassociatetraditionalAustralianfoodingredientswithnationaldiets,itisimpossible
tomakesuchlinkbecausethoseindigenousfoodareproducedandconsumedininsucientquantities,
and in fact, imported foods are much more representative of what the nation eats. (44 words) (I am
goingwiththis)

34UPPERPALAEOLITHICPEOPLE

ThewaysoflifeofUpperPalaeolithicpeopleareknownthroughtheremainsofmealsscaeredaround
their hearths, together with many tools and weapons and the debris left over from their making. The
people were huntergatherers who lived exclusively from what they could nd in nature without
practisingeitheragricultureorherding.Theyhuntedthebiggerherbivores,whileberries,leaves,roots,
practisingeitheragricultureorherding.Theyhuntedthebiggerherbivores,whileberries,leaves,roots,
wildfruitandmushroomsprobablyplayedamajorroleintheirdiet.Theirhuntingwasindiscriminate,
perhapsbecausesomanyanimalswereaboutthattheydidnotneedtosparepregnantfemalesorthe
young. In the cave of Enlene, for example, many bones of reindeer and bison foetuses were found.
Apparently,UpperPalaeolithicpeoplehuntedlikeotherpredatorsandkilledtheweakestpreyrst.
Theydid,however,sometimesconcentrateonsalmonrunsandmigratingherdsofreindeer.Contraryto
popularbeliefsaboutcavemen,UpperPalaeolithicpeopledidnotlivedeepinsidecaves.Theyrather
chose the foot of clis, especially when an overhang provided good shelter. On the plains and in the
valleys, they used tents made from hides of the animals they killed. At times, on the great Russian
plains,theybuilthutswithhugebonesandtuskscollectedfromtheskeletonsofmammoths.
(Menhuntedmostlywithspears;thebowandarrowwasprobablynotinventeduntiltheMagdalenian
periodthatcameattheendoftheUpperPalaeolithic.Toolsandweapons,madeoutofwoodorreindeer
antlers,oftenhadintcuingedges.Flintknapperswereskilfulandtraditionsinintknappingwere
pursuedforthousandsofyears.Thiscontinuitymeansthattheymusthavebeencarefullytaughthowto
nd good int nodules and how to knap them in order to make knives, burins (chisellike tools) or
scrapers,whichcouldbeusedforvariouspurposes.)
SampleAnswer1:
UpperPalaeolithicPeoplearehuntergatherswho,bydenition,livedexclusivelyfromwhattheycould
ndinnaturewithoutpracticingeitheragricultureorherding,andinsteadoflivingdeepinsideincaves,
theyliveinthetentsmadefromtheanimalstheyhunted.(43words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

35HuntersGatherers

Inaround2300BP(BeforePresent),huntergathererscalledtheSanacquireddomesticstockinwhatis
now modern day Botswana. Their population grew, and spread throughout the Western half of South
Africa. They were the rst pastoralists in southern Africa, and called themselves Khoikhoi (or Khoe),
whichmeansmenofmenortherealpeople.Thisnamewaschosentoshowprideintheirpastand
culture. The Khoikhoi brought a new way of life to South Africa and to the San, who were
hunter6gatherersasopposedtoherders.Thisledtomisunderstandingsandsubsequentconictbetween
thetwogroups.
TheKhoikhoiweretherstnativepeopletocomeintocontactwiththeDutchselersinthemid17th
century. As the Dutch took over land for farms, the Khoikhoi were dispossessed, exterminated, or
enslavedandthereforetheirnumbersdwindled.TheKhoikhoiwerecalledtheHoentotsbyEuropean
selers because the sound of their language was so dierent from any European language, and they
couldnotpronouncemanyofthewordsandsounds.
SampleAnswer1:
ThehuntergatherersofSouthAfricacalledthemselvesasKhoikhoitoindicateprideintheirtraditions
andbroughtanewwayoflifewhichwasdetestedbytheherders,however,whentheDutchoccupied
theirlands,theirnumbersdrasticallyreduced.
SampleAnswer2:
HuntergatherersareknownasKhoikhoispreadacrosstheSouthAfricaandintroducednewmeansof
life,however,eventuallyinthe17thcentury,theiracquisitionswerepossessedbyEuropeanselersby
enslavingandmurderingthem.(35words)(Iamgoingwiththis)

Hopethiswillhelpyoutoscoremorepoints.Pleaseleavecommentsandquestionsbelow.