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Abstract:

The main aim of this project is to study the Direct sequence- Spread
Spectrum(DSSS) Modulation Technique and its application in the satellite
Communications along with the Quadrature Phase Shifting Keying ( QPSK ).
After a qualitative and Quantitative analysis of the above technique, we identify
the potential problems arising with them and study a novel method of modulation
which could overcome the problems of both the above techniques i.e., Guassian
Minimum Shift Keying Technique ( GMSK ). In the whole project for the
quantitative analysis we used the Simulating platform of MATLAB and
SIMULINK. The various performance parameters like the BER and the Power
Spectral density are studied and a comparative study is carried out with respect
to both the methods.

In any Communication system modulation techniques play a vital role in the


information transmission in a secure and reliable way. One such technique is the
spread spectrum technique which was originally introduced to have a secure
transmission of data in the military applications. But however, it found its way into
almost all the communication systems like the deep space communications, High
density CDMA systems, Underground Acoustic systems, etc. There are basically
four types of spread spectrum techniques depending on the spreading
modulation used, they are: (i) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, (ii) Frequency
Hopping Spread Spectrum, (iii) Time Hopping Spread Spectrum, (iV) Hybrid
Systems.

Spread spectrum techniques usually involve the phase shift keying modulation
techniques for transmitting the spread spectrum signals. PSK is any general
modulation scheme of M ary where M can be M=2 for BPSK, M=4 for a QPSK
and for any higher level modulation schemes. However, the fundamental problem
with any PSK modulation scheme is the “spill-over” of the signal energy from the
allocated bandwidth into the adjacent bands. This effect of spill over can be
overcome by incorporating various envelope waveform shaping techniques.
Though the fundamental problem is solved, the need to improve the spectral
efficiency of the modulated signals still remains as a challenge for the spread
spectrum systems. This is true in limited bandwidth environments such as
wireless and satellite systems, where the neighboring signals are packed closely
together in the frequency spectrum may experience significant interference from
one another due to unwanted spill over of each signal outside its allocated
bandwidth.

Another important issue in the design of any spread spectrum systems is the
susceptibility due to noise. In traditional multi dimensional QPSK spread
spectrum systems, the two dimensional data signals corresponds to Inphase and
Quadrature phase components of the QPSK signal are each spread
independently by separate spreading codes. such independent spreading of the
I and Q components of the QPSK signal indicates that the combined complex
signal waveform does not necessarily represent each data symbol using
antipodal signaling. This yields a modulation scheme characterized by degraded
phase noise sensitivity as compared to antipodal modulation schemes.

Therefore in order to overcome the above drawbacks involved in the spread


spectrum systems with the traditional PSK techniques, we present a novel
method of modulation known as Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying technique for
transmitting and receiving signals. The transmission process involves obtaining a
sequence of data symbols, obtaining a spread spectrum code comprising a
sequence of spread spectrum chips, wherein for each data symbol, at least one
of the pre-modulation chips are generated by taking into account atleast one
data symbol and one of the spread spectrum chips, performing Gaussian
Minimum Shift Keying Modulation ( GMSK ) using the sequence of pre
modulation chips to produce a spread spectrum GMSK signal and transmitting
the spread spectrum GMSK signal. The spread spectrum GMSK signal adopts
an antipodal signaling to represent each data symbol.
CHAPTER -1

1.1. INTRODUCTION:

Today, spread spectrum communications [Ref 1 – 3], are widely used in a variety
of applications such as multiple access, anti-jamming capability, interference
rejection, secure communications, multi-path protection, etc. independent of the
application in which the spread spectrum is used, all the systems employing the
spread spectrums have to comply with the following properties:

• The bandwidth of the transmitted signal should be much larger than the
message signal which modulates the carrier and

• The transmission bandwidth is determined by a factor which is


independent of the message bandwidth.

The power spectral density of such a modulated signal is much lower and is
comparable to background noise and interference at the receiver.

According to [ ref 4], Spread spectrum is introduced as a ranging method for orbit
determination in the satellite communications. Spread spectrum ranging is also
called ‘Payload Ranging’ as it is transmitted using satellite payload channels.
This kind of transmission is possible as the transmitted signal is spread in a way
that it appears as a pseudo random noise for the payload traffic and is
reproducible at the receiver. A user can determine the distance by calculating the
time or phase difference between the transmitted and the received signal.

The use of payload kind of signals offers it various advantages over the
conventional pseudo range systems. In a payload based ranging system we
always have a signal that is present, which doesn’t need a separate activation
and hence have no impact on the satellite control activities, whereas the classical
Pseudo-range systems have to be activated by the satellite commands.

Figure 1: Payload method using Spread Spectrum for determining range


[ ref 7]

Hence tone ranging campaigns, are limited in time whereas the payload methods
provide continuous range data. Moreover the accuracy of the payload ranging is
superior dude to the larger bandwidth and high signal to noise ratio. The last two
applications make the payload ranging an optimal solution for orbit determination.

The code which is used for spreading the signal statistically in this case is a
pseudo random code. These codes are to considered to be the fast codes as
they run several times that of the information bandwidth. These codes are
pseudo random codes or pseudo random noise as they are not the real gaussian
noise functions which are spreading the data.
In the case of the spread spectrum systems, the processing gain(K) is defined as
the ratio between the transmitted spread spectrum signal bandwidth (B) and the
bandwidth of the original data sequence ( Bmess), where it is approximately
equal to the ratio of the processing bandwidth to the data rate.

K= B/R

Spread spectrum transmitters use similar power levels as that of the narrowband
transmitters. Since the spread spectrum systems transmit over a wide range,
they transmit a much lower power spectral density than the narrowband
transmitters. Hence the spread signals and the narrowband signals can occupy
the same bandwidth but still do not interfere. This unique feature of interference
rejection of Spread spectrum is the one which makes it more important than any
other scheme.

When transmitting any signal using the spread spectrum technique it is usually
modulated using the phase shift keying techniques. We mostly use either BPSK
or QPSK signaling techniques [Ref 1]. However, the phase shift keying
techniques suffer from an inherent drawback that they tend to “Spill over the
residual power” into the adjacent bands. This drawback of the phase shift keying
techniques becomes more eident when they are coupled with the traditional
spread spectrum techniques and more particularly, the Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum Techniques which suffers itself with the “Near - Faar problem”.
Figure 2: Schematic Illustrating Near – Far Problem [ Ref -2]

This effect is prominent when an interfering user is close to the receiver than the
intended user. Although the cross correlation between the codes of user A and B
is low, the correlation between the received signal from the interfering user and
the node A can be higher than the correlation between the received signal from
the intended transmitter and the user A. Hence, the detection of the peroper data
becomes difficult.

The spill over problem associated with the phase shift keying techniques is
overcome by shaping the symbols of phase shift keyed signals. The shaping can
be done by many methods like [ ref 13]:

• Root Raised Cosine

• Half- Sinusoid

• Gaussian

IN order to overcome the above drawbacks of the existing system, in the


current project we propose a novel scheme which overcomes both the
problems as “Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Technique”( GMSK) in
which we shape the PSK symbols using a Gaussian Pre shaping filter.
GMSK is practically used in most of the mobile techniques around the world.
Some of them are GSM, DECT, CDPD, DCS1800 in Europe and GSM based
PCS 1900 in the US. GMSK is always implemented as a FM Modulation.
However, it is conceptually same as MSK except that instead of a half
sinusoid as a pulse shaping filter we use a Gaussian pulse shaping filter. But,
the GMSK modulated carrier is better at transitions than MSK and this is the
reason it is used as principle standard in most of the cellular systems.

Figure 3: Modulated I and Q GMSK carriers [ ref – 13 ]


2. Spread Spectrum Technology:

According to [ref 10,12], there are many different spread spectrum techniques
available, but all of them have one idea in common i.e., key also known as code which
is attached to a communication channel. The way in which this code is inserted into the
communication channel defines precisely the kind of spread spectrum technique that is
used in the problem.

The term “spread spectrum” is defined as the process of spreading the signal
bandwidth by several orders of magnitude, which is dependent on the key which is used
for spreading. The more formal definition of the Spread Spectrum is defined as a RF
communication system in which the baseband signal is intentionally spread over a
larger bandwidth by injecting a higher frequency signal. As a result, the energy used in
transmitting the signal is spread over a wider bandwidth and appears as noise. The ratio
in dB between the spread signal and the original is called as processing gain. At the
receiver, the spreading is done by correlating the received signal with a synchronized
replica of the spreading signal.
Figure 4: Concept of Spread Spectrum Technology( Ref – 14 )

2.1. Operation of Spread Spectrum:

In the spread spectrum technique, we simply inject the corresponding SS code in the
transmitting chain before the antenna which is known as spreading operation. The effect
is to diffuse the information in a larger bandwidth. In the converse, which is also known
as the despreading operation we can remove the SS code at a point in the receiver
chain before the data retrieval. The effect of the despreading operation is to reconstruct
the original information in its original bandwidth. For this to happen, we need to know
the same code prior at both the transmitting and the receiving ends of the transmission
channel.

2.2 The need for Spread Spectrum:

2.2.1. Bandwidth Considerations:

• Bandwidth Effects of Spreading Effects:

SS modulation is spread on top of a conventional modulation such as


BPSK or QPSK or direct convertion. we can show that all the signals not
receiving the SS code will stay as they are unspread.
Figure 5: Effect Of Spreading ( ref – 4)

• Bandwidth effects of the dispreading operation:

An SS demodulation has been made on top of the normal demodulation


operations as that of modulation schemes. We can also observe that
signals added during the transmission such as jammer or interferer will be
spread during the despreading operation.

Figure 6: Bandwidth Effect of despreading operation[ ref -4]


• Waste of bandwidth dude to spreading is offset by multiple users:

Spreading operation results in the use of a wider frequency band and


hence it doesn’t spare the limited frequency resource. The novel feature of
the SS technique is that this overuse of bandwidth is well compensated by
the possibility that many users will share the enlarged frequency band.

Figure 7: schematic showing the bandwidth occupancy by multiple


users [ ref 4]

2.2.2. SS is Wideband Technology:

SS supports wide band of operation compared to its narrow band counterparts.


The latest technologies like the W-CDMA and UMTS are wideband technologies
requiring a large bandwidth. Hence SS is the best option for all these wideband
and ultrawideband technologies.

2.2.3. Resistance to Interference and Anti- Jamming Effects:

This is one of the attractive feature of the SS. Dude to the characteristic feature
of the SS the interference or jamming signals are rejected since they do not have
the SS key. Only the desired signal which has the key will be seen at the receiver
when the despreading operation is performed.
Figure 8: Schematic showing the resistance to interference and anti-
jamming[ ref – 14]

2.2.4. Resistance to Interception:

Resistance to interception is another key advantage of the SS technique. Since


the non authorized do not have the access to the key used to spread the original
signal, they would not be able to decode it. Without the right key, the SS appears
as noise or interferer and moreover the signal levels can be below the noise floor
since the spreading operation causes the power spectral density to reduce.
Hence the message is made invisible, which is an effect that is strongly observed
in the DSSS technique. As a result, the other users cannot see the transmission
but only witness a slight increase in the overall noise level.

Figure 9: Figure showing the noise resistance of the SS operation[ ref -14]

2.2.5. Resistance to Fading:


According to [ref -4], although a single EM wave is radiated by a transmitting
antenna, there are many instances in which that wave reaches the receiver by
more than one path. The alternate paths involve reflections from the ionosphere,
from the ground or from the buildings and other objects along the propagation
path. When more than one carrier wave arrives at the receiver, the resultant
signal is the sum separated or phase separated waves. Figure 10 shows the
following effect. The effect of the ground reflected waves along with the direct
path is a pretty important concept in the RF high precision communication. The
main problem comes with the phase differences that arise due to the direct and
reflected paths when they arrive at the receiving antenna. Multipath changes the
amplitude and the phase of the signal arriving at the receiver. These multiple
signals are due to the multiple reflectors and the scatterers around the receiver.
Also these multiple rays have random amplitudes, phases and angles of arrival
and they arrive at the receiver in different directions at slightly different excess
time delays with respect to each other. When such multipath signals are added
constructively at the receiver, the signal is enhanced. On the contratry when they
are added destructively, the signal value drops down. Moreover, when the
receiver moves from one location to the other over a small travel distance, the
resultant signal will vary due to the changing of the environment around it. This
rapid fluctuation of the signal over a short period of time or over a small travel
distance is called small scale fading.
Figure 10: Figure showing the effect of multipath fading [ ref -4]

In most of the cases when there is no line of sight propagation, the Rayleigh
distribution is used to describe the statistical time varying nature of the envelope
of the received signal. However though there is some line of sight transmission
between the transmitter and receiver, the scattered and reflected waves occur
due to the surrounding structure. But when there is a dominant stationary line of
sight propagation path arriving with many weaker indirect rays, the envelope
distribution of the received signal is rician. The maximum number of paths that
can be supported in the frequency selective fading channel is given as:

--------- 1

Where B ---- is the bandwidth of the transmitted signal

Bc ---- is the coherence bandwidth of the channel


The spread spectrum can minimize the effect of multipath fading by using the
RAKE receiver. The basic principle of the RAKE receiver is that it attempts to
collect the time- shifted versions of the original signal by providing a separate
correlator for each of the multipath signals. Moeoever the RAKE receiver can
achieve the multipath diversity depending on the fact that the multipath
components are practically uncorrelated when their relative propagation delay
exceeds a chip period [ ref 26].

2.3. Types of Spread Spectrum:

Based on the type of spreading technique used, the spread spectrum is broadly
classified into the following types:

1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ( DSSS )

2. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum ( FH- SS )

3.Time Hopping Spread Spectrum ( TH-SS)

4.Hybrid Systems

Spread Spectrum and (De) Coding Keys:

With all the discussion by now on the Spread Spectrum, it is obvious that the
main characteristic is the presence of the code or key which must be known to the
transmitter and the receiver in advance. In the modern digital communications, the
codes are the digital sequences that must be as long and as random as possible to
appear as noise-like as possible. But in any case they must be reproducible. In either
case they will not be able to retrieve the message sent. Thus the sequence is nearly
random. Such a code is known as “pseudo – random number (PRN) or sequence”.
The device used to generate most frequently the PN sequence is the Linear Feedback
Shift register ( LFSR ).
Figure 11: Schematic showing the Linear Feedback Shift Register ( LFSR )
( ref:18)

There is a lot of reference to the generation of PRNs and their characteristics , however
the construction or selection of a proper sequences is not trivial. To guarantee an
efficient SS communications, the PRN sequences must obey certain rules, such as
length, auto-correlation, orthogonality and bits balancing. The most popular available
PRN sequences are : Barker sequences, M-sequences, Gold Sequences, Hadamard –
Walsh Sequences, etc. However it is to be noted that more is the complexity of the
code, more is the robustness of the system. But the price paid for the complexity is the
more complex receiver electronics especially for dispreading operation.

Different spread spectrum techniques are identified by a method which gives the
location of the point in the system at which the Pseudo – random code ( PRN ) is
inserted in the Communication Channel. This principle is illustrated in the following
figure:

Figure 12: Schematic showing the choice of insertion of PRN sequence( ref 6)

If the PRN is inserted at the data level, we get the direct sequence spread spectrum,
wherein it seems that the pseudo random sequence is mixed or multiplied with the
information signal giving an impression that the original data flow was hashed by the
PRN. If the PRN acts at the carrier frequency level, we have the Frequency Hopping
Spread Spectrum ( FHSS ). When the PRN is applied at the LO stage, they force the
carrier to change or hop according to a pseudo random sequence. But the PRN acts as
an on/off gate to the transmitted signal, we get a Time Hopping Spread Spectrum
( THSS ). There is another chirp technique which linearly sweeps the carrier frequency
in time. We can have the hybrid technique as a mix of all the above techniques.
However, DSSS and the FHSS are the most widely used techniques.

2.3.1. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum:

According to [ ref 15 ], in a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ( DSSS ) technique, the


PRN is applied directly to the data sequence entering the carrier modulator. Hence the
modulator sees a much larger bit rate, which is due to the chip rate of the PRN
sequence. The resultant RF carrier which is modulating such a high data rate chip
sequence is the direct sequence modulated spread spectrum with ((sin x)/x)2 frequency
spectrum centered at the carrier frequency. The main lobe of this spectrum has a
bandwidth twice the clock rate of the modulating code and the sidelobes have null to
null bandwidth equal to the code’s clock rate. The following figure 13, shows the most
common type of the direct sequence spread spectrum signal. The shape of the DSSS
varies usually depending on the type of the carrier and the modulating rate of the
message signal. The figure 13 shows the DSSS for the most common type of
modulating technique known as BPSK.

Using the DSSS approach, the process of modulation is separate from that of spreading
operation. An important feature of the DSSS system is its ability to operate in the
presence of the strong co-channel interference. A popular definition of the Processing
Gain ( PG ) of the DSSS system is the ratio of the signal bandwidth to the message
bandwidth. A DSSS system can reduce the effects of interference on the transmitted
signal. An interfering signal may be reduced by a factor which may be as high as the
processing gain. To put it in more formal terms, the DSSS transmitter can withstand
more interference if the length of the PN sequence is increased. The output signal to
noise ratio of a DSSS can be expressed as (SNR)o = PG. (SNR)I where the (SNR)I is
the signal to noise ratio before dispreading operation. Inspite of being advantageous in
many ways, DSSS also has certain disadvantage. The major drawback is the “ Near –
Far Effect” as discussed in the chapter1.
Figure 13: Spectrum Analyser snapshot of the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
( Ref – 15 )

2.3.2. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum:

As the name suggests, in Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum ( FHSS ) the carrier is
hopped from frequency to frequency over a wideband according to some predefined
PN sequence. According to [ ref 18], the speed at which the hops are executed will
depend on the data rate of the original information. The speed at which the hops are
executed distinguishes them from the Fast Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

( FFHSS ) and the Low Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum ( LFHSS ). The latter
method allows one to allow the consecutive bits to modulate the same frequency while
the former method is used to hop several times within each data bit.
When we consider the spectrum of the Frequency Hopping SS, we find it is quite
different from that of the DSSS. Instead of being (sinx/x)2, it is flat over the band of
frequencies used. The bandwidth of the Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is simply
N times that of the number of frequency slots available, where N is the bandwidth of
each channel used.

Figure 14: Spectrum Analyzer snapshot of the Frequency Hopping Spread


Spectrum [ ref 15]

Another illustration of principle of frequency hopping is given as follows:


Figure 15: Illustration of principle of frequency hopping [ ref 15]

The receiver of a Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum system is usually non-coherent.


A typical non-coherent receiver for Spread Spectrum system is as shown in figure 16.

In a typical receiver, the incoming signal is multiplied by the signal from the PRN
sequence identical to the one at the transmitter. Resulting signal from the mixer is a
binary FSK signal which is then demodulated in the usual way. Error correction is then
applied in order to recover the original signal. Also the receiver consists of the timing
synchronization which is accomplished through the use of early-late gates, which is
used to control the clock frequency.
Figure 16: Non – Coherent receiver for Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

System [ ref -16]

2.3.3. Time Hopping Spread Spectrum:

In a Time Hopping Spread Spectrum ( THSS ), the on and off sequences are applied to
the power amplifier which are dictated according to the PRN sequence generated. A
typical transmitter using the principle of THSS is as shown in figure 17.
Figure 17: Figure showing the transmitter of the THSS[ ref 15]

A typical THSS is divided into frames, which are in turn subdivided into M time slots. As
the message is transmitted only in one time slot in the frame modulated with
information. This time slot is chosen using the PN generator. All of the message bits
gathered in the previous frame are then transmitted in a burst during the time slot
selected by the PN generator. If we let Tf as the frame duration and k as the number of
message bits in one frame and

Tf=k x tm

Then the width of each time slot in a frame is Tf/M and the width of each bit in the time
slot is Tf/KM or just tm/M. Thus the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is 2M times the
message bandwidth. A typical time hopping receiver is as shown in figure 18. In this
receiver, the PN code generator drives an on-off switch in order to accomplish the
switching at a given time in the frame. The output of this switch is then demodulated
accordingly. Each message burst is stored and re-timed to the original message rate in
order to recover the information. Time hopping is at times used in conjunction with other
spread spectrum modulations such as DS or FH.
Figure 18: Receiver block diagram of the Time hopping spread spectrum[ ref –
16]

Table I shows the comparisons of the salient features of the various kinds of Spread
spectrum Techniques

Table I : comparison of features of various Spread Spectrum Techniques


2.3.4. Hybrid Systems:

The hybrid Spread Spectrum technique is a combination of direct sequence/ frequency


hopping schemes. Here in this technique, one data bit is divided over several carrier
frequencies as shown in figure 19.

Figure 19: figure showing the Hybrid spread spectrum scheme [ ref -3]

AS the FH sequence and the PN codes are coupled, a user uses a combination of an
FH sequence and a PN code.

2.4. Applications of the Spread Spectrum Techniques:

• Use in CDMA standard

• Used in FEC for interleaving in the speech activity and variable speech encoding.

• Used in the uplink of WCDMA

• Used in satellite Communications

• Wireless LANS based on IEEE 802.11 standards


3. Comparison between Direct Sequence and Frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum

According to [ ref 27], when it comes to the relative merits of two types of
Spread Spectrum Techniques, i.e., Direct Sequence and the Frequency
Hopping, the choice depends on the particular implementation scenario.

The following section dispels the various features which gives us a detailed
understanding of the differences between both the approaches.

3.1. Spectral Density Reduction:

Both DS and FH reduce the average power spectral density of a signal but
the way they do it is different. The basic objective of both the techniques is to
reduce both the transmitted power and power spectral density to keep
interfereing with the other users in the band.

DS spreads its energy by rapidly phase chopping the signal so that it is


continuous only for avery short period. These short interval periods are
known as chips and these chips are atleast 10 times shorter than the data bits
which they are chopping. Therefore, instead of all the transmitted energy
being concentrated in the data bandwidth, it is spread over the entire
spreading bandwidth. In this approach, the total power is same but the
spectral density is lower. But however, more channels are interfered than
before but at a lower level. If the spread signal comes under the noise effect
of the other signals, it will be effected but will not be much noticed.

The spectrum of the DSSS exhibits discrete spectral lines which are related to
the length of the spreading sequence. The overall spectrum profile fo the
DSSS looks similar to (sinx/X) which is humped up in the middle. Therefore
the interference is greatest at the center and smears off as we go away from
the center frequency.
Figure 20: Comparisons between the DS and FH spectrums

On the contrary, a Frequency Hopping System lowers its average power spectral
density by hopping over many channels. During a single hop, signal appears to be a
narrowband signal. With slow hopping, the interference reductions are slight. A
narrowband radio being interfered with, will experience a pop or burst of noise when the
hopper hits its channel. The main reason the commercial applications use hopping is
not to minimize the interference but to share the effect of bad channels and to allow
the multiple uncoordinated nets to share the same spectrum. If there are multiple
asynchronous FH radios, using different hop sets in a given band, the overall effect is to
spread out the energy over the whole band.
3.2. Interference Susceptibility:

Though it might look at the very first instance that spread spectrum techniques might
lead to unwanted interference, but the fact is that the spread spectrum reduces the
effect of the other signals on the desired signal. The way either of the techniques handle
this is however different.

In a DS receiver, the de-spreading operation multiplies the incoming signal by a local


replica of the spreading sequence. This sequence correlates with the desired signal to
collapse it to the data bandwidth, while spreading all the other signals. After the de-
spreaded signal is filtered out to the data bandwidth most of the noise is outside the
narrow bandwidth and is discarded. Though this technique is well suited for the
narrowband systems, it is quite inefficient in discarding the interference for a wideband
system. For this, it is required that the channels be spaced wider and well away from
high power signals such as broadcast stations.

On the other hand, the FH system is much fast and doesnot stay for a longer time in a
fixed frequency. When this system hits a frequency which is too much crowded and may
be a potential source of interference, the desired signal is lost. This results in a
retransmission. However in a fast FHSS system, the protion of the signal lost may be
recovered, by spreading the data energy out in time through forward error coding.
However for the LFFHSS, the FEC is not recommended due to their low data rate like
the 802.11 WLANs.

3.3 . Near Far ratio:

Near/far problem is a serious limitation for the DS systems. However they do not even
spare the FH systems. The term near/far refers to the effect of a receiver from a
transmitter operating on its frequency that is nearer to it than the transmitter we want to
hear. However the DS systems can operate better on the near/far problem due to the
processing gain. But due to the wideband operation of these signals, they have to deal
with much more extraneous signals. On a given channel, distant FH signals are blocked
by the nearer ones, but as long as they can hop to another channel and re-transmit ,
even the FHSS can also get around this problem.
3.4.Multipath :

Multipath can be suppressed by DS in process of decorrelating the delayed signal.


Direct signals attain processing gain advantage, if multipath signals are delayed by one
chip when compared with them. Fading occurs whenever multipath signal arrives within
one-chip delay, so with this effect, direct signal may enhance or may suppress. Hence
to achieve the significant multipath rejection, the bandwidth of DS must be wider than
coherence delay of environment. The good multipath rejections in large ware houses
and poor rejections in institutions or like office buildings, can be possibly achieved in
case of 802.11, which is of 11 MCps chip rate and accordingly 1/11 M of coherence
interval i.e about 91 ns.

Unlike DS, fading occurs in case of FH, as multipath signals always arrive within the
signals coherence interval. Here some paths in the waveform are unstable which
causes hopping in the waveform; this is due to coherence interval i.e symbol duration in
this case.

Figure.2, Channel response [ref-27]

It is compatible to relate multipath effects to spectral nulling which can be


observed in channel response. It is feasible to detect significant part of DS spectrum
where in the case, spectral null is a broadband. This phenomenon may happen when
direct and indirect signal paths are short.

The energy in DS spectrum can be saved in case of longer paths, in which spectral null
is narrower in bandwidth unlike the above scenario. But in FH system, consumption of
signal energy is more since the signal is narrowband and falls well within the null
bandwidth. By observations, FH is effected more over side range of frequencies when
compared to DS.
3.5. Ability to Expand to Higher Data Rates:
Here the task is to increase the data rates, this can be done by increasing the
modulation complexity or by increasing clock rates in case of DS spectrum. As there is
an increase in data rates then transmitting power must be increased accordingly. Now
considering the FH case, here data rates can be increased by allocating wider
bandwidth, but the drawback with this is, the number of channels will suffer to hop in,
which in turn increases collisions unless the number of collocated nets was reduced.
This is basically a non-linear problem, so as a result number of collocated would reduce
to 3 if hopping channels was reduced to 20 for example.

3.6. Transmit Power :


DS spectrum requires less transmitting power, as it is more power-efficient and hence
we can reduce the transmitter cost by eliminating the post-modulation filtering. In this
way, we cannot use saturated power of power amplifier in full length. As to keep the
shape of spectrum, we need to cut back the power from amplifier by 3 to 6 db. As the
efficiency of the basic DS waveform is more when compared to FH system, it makes DS
more efficient in using power amplifier rather than FH at 1MBps. But the case at 2MBps,
the extremely low efficiency of 802.11 of FH system requires significant boost in
transmitting power, giving a clear edge to DS spectrum. The main advantage with FH
spectrum is that, the signal has constant amplitude and it is capable of utilizing the
saturated power amplifier output, but the lower modulation efficiency suppresses the
advantage.
DS signal is spread over utmost 22MHz under IEEE 802.11 with low spectral density
allows to use high transmit power, in addition to this, it does not interfere with other
users. But the drawback is, it get interfere with other users over wider bandwidth.

3.7. Multiple Signal Operation:


It is already stated above, 802.11- conforms that DS network cannot employ CDMA
because the processing gain and required Eb/N0 ratio do not allow another signal of the
same power to occupy the same channel. Therefore we can operate 3 networks
collocated. It is possible to collocate 15 FH networks before the interference is too
much, this interference is based on probability where the nets choosing the same
channel of available 79 channels at the same time. When this probability gets too high,
network throughput suffers. This effect is showed by Lucent technologies where
effective throughput of FH peaks at 13 nets. It is observed that effective throughput of
these 13 collocated FH nets is less when compared to 3 collocated DS nets because as
they are interfering with each other and can only operate at 1MBps. In case of DS
system, the nets placed on same channel can be placed much closer together, and as
the signaling is more robust, which in turn allows more networks and more capacity in a
given area.
Consider the FH system, it requires 7.6 dB more transmit power to achieve the same
range and has 18 dB loss in interference rejection in case of 802.11, hence FH nets
must be placed at 25.6 dB apart.
In general, FH system supports 13 nets and DS system of three to four in a single
room. So, in the next group FH system nets have to separated further away else both
groups suffers in throughput. DS system of three nets can be much close to each other
allowing more number of nets, in turn more throughput per hectare.

Fig. 4 Ranges of FH and DS [ref-27]


Basically, the designer usually doesn’t places the nets close to each other, but the fact
remains, if two sets are using same channel or hop set, they must be placed farther
away in FH rather than in DS, because the zone of interference is more.

Below figure shows the way the nets are packed, and it gives the net range and even it
provides net to net spacing. For DS, the network range is obtained by 110 dB of path
loss which is nothing but the ratio of the +20 dBm transmitted signal to the -90 dBm
level of the minimum receive signal.

Fig .5 Packing of networks [ref-27]

The fact is that, loss exponent is a function of range, and according to some studies the
loss can be 30 dB per 100ft which is made granted after 50ft. The net to net spacing is
given by the maximum interference signal, usually it is -3.2 dB relative to desired signal
in DS. Thus, the net to net spacing is slightly larger than the net range.
More 8 dB transmitting power is required in HF system as the receiver is less sensitive
when compared with discrete sequence system. Unlike in DS system, net to net spacing
is also larger as the interference signal is depicted to -19dB relative to desired signal.
This drawback is mainly due to inefficiency of processing gain and also high Eb/N0.
These two systems can be differentiated in net to net spacing, where spacing in FH is
25.6 dB greater than DS.

3.8. Synchronization and Timing:

DS system is available with very short code which can be searched with a time-
invariant matched filter, hence it is self- synchronizing. A DS radio is in built with number
of channels and number of nets, in case of roaming the channels may changed to other
nets, on assumption that it knows the next frequency to tune to. Else, it need to scan all
the available frequencies and wait until each signal is transmitted, which creates time
delay. In general, it has to wait for 100ms on each of 12 frequencies usually referred as
beacon interval, hence the total search time is given by 1.2s in this case. But consider
the case in FH system, here mobile station sit on any one frequency and wait for
beacon interval, if the current frequency is incompatible to that net then it moves to
other net as the process continues. This is because FH system has to search many
channels, hence and not feasible to perform the search in parallel. In the process of
station scanning for energy it may beneficial or may not, because only one channel
posses that amount of energy among number of available channels. If ever station
hears a beacon, then it is readily available with network timing and hopping sequence to
use. FH system is failed to have a calling channel and global timing reference, hence
constraining FH system’s ability to achieve a rapid roaming synchronization. Hence this
is the reason roaming with FH will require a longer time to achieve net switching.
Another point to be considered is latency; the latency must be minimized for efficient
performance. According to some studies, the most latency that can be tolerated with
voice traffic is 30ms. In FH system, if ever a channel is congested due to more number
of packets transmissions, then it may take almost 400ms for retransmission of same
packet on a clear channel. According to FCC rules, if a packet can’t be completed in
current hop then it has to wait until the next hop. But in a DS system, this is not the case
here if a channel gets jammed, and it has to wait until the jammer goes away.
3.9. Capacity:
In this aspect, when it is concern to throughputs of both FH and DS systems, DS holds
better results than FH. The packets sizes are small in FH when compared with DS,
(usually FH’s packets are of 400 bytes to 1000 bytes). When coming to data rates,
2MBps is optional to FH but it is more concern to DS.

3.10. Implementation:
Hardware cost to built FH is affordable when compared to DS, DS system require
complex baseband processing, whereas FH require simple analog limiter/discriminator
receiver. Even though FH system has an additional complication which is chosen by
802.11, still it requires less processing than DS.

3.11. Power Consumption:


DS system consumes more power relative to FH because it requires higher logic
speeds and involved with more complex processing. On the other hand, since the FH
nets will most likely operate at 1 MBps and the DS nets at 2 MBps, there will be a power
savings with DS. This results in longer transmit times and less time to be in sleep
modes.
4. Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Technique ( GMSK )

4.1. Introduction:
Now-a-days the demand for transmission of data over wireless links has been
enormously increasing which is generally referred to digital transmission. In digital
communication takes place with zero’s and one’s. Analog modulation includes FM or
AM or even no modulation at all. But digital modulation includes FSK, PSK, and QAM
etc. Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying is one of the digital modulation technique
which we are using here.

Wide area mobile standard services like Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) which
uses unused bandwidth normally used by AMPS mobile phones between 800 and
900 MHz to transfer data. The possible data rate is up to 19.2Kbps.

Before getting into the details about GMSK we need to have knowledge on MSK,
multiple shift keying is a type of continuous-phase frequency-shift keying, GMSK is also
a continuous-phase frequency-shift keying, however the digital data stream is first
shaped with a Gaussian filter before being applied to a frequency modulator. The
advantage with GMSK modems is to reduces system complexity, and in turn lower
system cost. Now in this paper we focus on interfacing single chip baseband modem to
the IF/RF section of a "typical" FM radio topology.

4.2. Background

Before starting the discussion on this topic, we need to check out the Fourier series
expansion, here the harmonics of data signal extends upto infinity. Adding all these
harmonics it leads to data signal with sharp transitions. If an unfiltered NRZ data stream
is modulated with RF carrier produces RF spectrum of considerable bandwidth. But this
system is impractical because the harmonics we need to consider is upto infinity; hence
we remove this high frequency component by transmitting the signal into a low pass
filter, now the transitions become less sharp. Hence this defines that pre-modulation is
used for a effective wireless transmission. Including this compatible spectrum we need
to consider a modulation technique with better (BER) i.e. bit-error rate even in noisy
conditions. And this scheme should not dependent on linearity characteristics of power
amplifier, such that class C power amplifiers can also be used.

4.3. GMSK Basics

Prior to discuss GMSK we need to know about MSK, it is already mention that MSK is a
type of continuous-phase frequency-shift keying. MSK is encoded with bits alternating
between quaternary components, with the Q component delayed by half
the symbol period. However, instead of square pulses as OQPSK uses, MSK encodes
each bit as a half sinusoid. This results in a constant-modulus signal, which reduces
problems caused by non-linear distortion. The modulated carrier contains no phase
discontinuities and Frequency changes occur at the carrier zero crossings. MSK is
unique due to the relationship between the frequency of a logical zero and one: the
difference between the frequency of a logical zero and a logical one is always equal to
half the data rate. In other words, the modulation index is 0.5 for MSK, and is defined as
m= f T
where,

f = |f logic 1 – f logic 0|

T=

Now consider an example, 1200bps baud rate of MSK data signal is composed of 1200
Hz and 1800 Hz frequencies for a logical one and zero respectively as shown in below
figure.
Figure.1 1200 baud rate of MSK data signal; (a) NRZ stream, (b) MSK
signal [ref-28]

Baseband MSK signal shown in above figure is of power full strength in transmitting
data in wireless systems, where the data-rate is relatively low when compared with the
bandwidth. MX-COM devices such as the MX429 and MX469 are single chip solutions
for baseband MSK systems, incorporating modulation and demodulation circuitry on a
single chip.
Another method to generate a MSK signal is by directly injecting NRZ data stream into
frequency modulator with modulation index set at 0.5, this approach is also similar to
baseband approach. But the difference is, in the direct approach the VCO is part of the
RF/IF section, whereas in baseband MSK the voltage to frequency conversion takes
place at baseband.
Figure.2 Direct MSK modulation [ref-1]

But the drawback with MSK is that, data rates are not compatible with RF
channel bandwidth. And the sidelobes of MSK spectrum extends the data rates, where
the energy of these sidelobes has to be reduced, because the wireless transmission
require more efficient use RF channel bandwidth. So as we already stated that these
sidelobes can be removed by using lowpass filter, hence pre-modulation filter is
required. Here comes the characteristic of Gaussian filter. The impulse response of
Gaussian filter is shown below:
Figure. 3 Gaussian filter impulse response for BT= 0.3 and BT = 0.5 [ref-29]

BT – refers to the filter’s -3dB BW and data rate by:

BT =

Hence, for a data rate of 9.6 kbps and a BT of 0.3, the filter’s -3dB cutoff
frequency is 2880Hz.

From figure we observe that a bit is spread over 3 bit periods for BT = 0.3 and two bit
periods for BT = 0.5, hence this phenomena causes inter-symbol interference (ISI). We
can state that bits interfering in case of BT = 0.3 are more when compared to BT = 0.5.
BT with infinity is equal to MSK, this implies that MSK will not allow inter-symbol
interference to occur. Greater ISI allows the spectrum to be more compact, making
demodulation more difficult. Hence, spectral compactness is the primary trade-off in
going from MSK to Gaussian pre-modulation filtered MSK.
Figure. 4 Spectral density for MSK and GMSK [ref-1]

From above figure we can clearly observe that strength of sidelobes existing in
GMSK is low when compared with MSK.

4.4 Implementation Considerations:

The design of GMSK modulation and demodulation appears to be very simple, in


the sense VCO is cascaded with Gaussian filter. But it is not as much simple, the
sections involved are synthesizer, IF filter, power amplifier etc. Practically synthesizer
presents a unique problem towards GMSK modulation. Usually synthesizer will not
respond to low frequency signals, ideally DC signals. Since synthesizer effectively has
high pass filter characteristic.

There are two methods to generate GMSK, one is two point modulation, and
other is quadrature modulation.
4.5.Two point modulation:

Figure.5 Two point modulation to generate GMSK signal [ref-28]

The above discussed synthesizer problem can be controlled here, by splitting Gaussian
filtered output into two portions. (i) one portion is directed towards VCO modulation
input and (ii) other is used to modulate the TCXO. We can observe that the TCXO is not
in the frequency control feedback loop, hence it can be modulated by low frequency
signal portion and its output is effectively summed with the signal modulating the VCO
in the synthesizer

4.6. I and Q modulation


Quadrature (I and Q) modulation can also be effective in eliminating synthesizer
shortcomings. In I and Q modulation, the Gaussian filtered data signal is separated into
in-phase (I) and quadrature phase (Q) components. Below is the I and Q modulation
block diagram.
Figure.6 I and Q modulation block diagram. [ref-28]

GMSK generation in first method is simple but it suffers from component tolerance
problems. This method requires that the frequency deviation factor of the VCO exactly
equals 0.5, but the modulation index of conventional VCO based transmitters drifts over
time and temperature.

The implementation in the second employs a quadrature baseband process followed by


a quadrature modulator. With this implementation, the modulation index can be
maintained at exactly 0.5. This method is also cheaper to implement when compared to
first method.

4.7. Performance measurements:

Almost any modulation technique performance can be calculated by using the


relation between signal-to-noise ratio Vs Bit error rate.

SNR is related to BER i.e.

. = =

Where,
S = signal power

R = data rate in bits per second

= noise power spectral density

= energy per bit

= N = noise power.

4.8. Demodulation:

Demodulation is one of the important aspect which has to be care of. So for effective
demodulation we need to consider three factors while choosing Gaussian shaped
premodulation filter.

1) Narrow bandwidth and sharp cutoff


2) Lower overshoot impulse response
3) Preservation of the filter output pulse area

The first condition gives GMSK modulation its spectral efficiency. It also improves its
noise immunity when demodulating. The second condition keep the phase distortion of
GMSK as low as possible, this is the important factor while receiver demodulating the
signal to original baseband signal, this factor is related to IR filter designing. And the
third concern about coherence of the signal. This factor is quite strict and not realizable
with physical Gaussian filter.
In most of the systems the constraints on the above goals also include:
- Data Rate
- Tx filter bandwidth (BT)
- Channel Spacing
- Allowable adjacent channel interference
- Peak carrier deviation
- Tx and Rx carrier frequency accuracy
- Modulator and Demodulator linearity
- Rx IF filter frequency and phase characteristics.
Above mentioned constraints are more bothered in designing GMSK modulation
scheme. Data rate, Tx filter bandwidth (BT), Peak carrier deviation, and Tx and Rx
carrier frequency accuracy play a key role in deciding the bandwidth of IF filter. The IF
filter must be very alert such that it has to allow maximum variations so that received
signal will not run into skirts of the filter, skirts in the sense group delays. The more
group delay introduced, the more degraded the bit error rate (BER) performance of the
receiver will become.

The bit error rate performance of MX589 is shown in below figure:

Figure.7 BER performance of MX589 [ref-30]

This figure represents data taken from a static system running at 8kbps with a BT of 0.3
and a noise bandwidth equal to the bit rate. With the noise bandwidth equal to the bit
rate, and assuming the noise spectrum at baseband is flat, the x-axis is in essence
Eb/N0. As an alternative to a full DSP implementation, these two devices offer cost-
effective and space conservative solutions to the modulation and demodulation
requirements of the CDPD and Mobitex GMSK based systems.
5.Simulation Discussion on Spread Spectrum Techniques using QPSK

5.1. Serial to parallel:

This is the starting block in the spread spectrum module. This module generates a
sequence of serial data, which is generated randomly. The randomly generated is as
shown in the figure. The data generated is to transmitted(splits) over two orthogonal
channels ,I-channel and Q-channel. It is done by altering each data symbol over the the
I-channel and Q-channel.

The below show matlab simulated output waveforms show the corresponding I-
Channel(one bit/symbol(phase))Data , Q-Channel(one bit/symbol(phase))Data.

Figure showing the input data and I-channel and Q-channel data

5.2. PRN CODE SEQUENCE GENERATOR:

The module is the PRN sequence generator ,it generates the sequence information for
both I and Q channels. It generates pseudo-random two separate prn codes-one for I-
channel and one for Q-channel.
5.3. CODE SPREADER:

Once the PRN sequence is generated the I-channel data and Q-channel data along with
the PRN sequence is forwarded to the spreader module. This module spreads the data
by the PRN sequence generated(previously).

The plots below shows the I-channel data and Q-channel data after spreading the data
using the PRN sequence. The plots are scaled by the data rate .If we have a high ratio
between the chip rate and data rate, some of the plots become unintelligible.

Figure showing the I-channel and Q-channel modified in accordence with the PRN
sequence
5.4. QPSK modulation:

The output of the Spreader module ,has to be transmitted (say wirelessly) in order to do
so one has to modulate the data(Spreader output) .As the QPSK is one of the optimal
modulation technique both in the sense of the data rate and data correction abilitity it is
hence chosen here.

The data is modulated by multiplying I-channel and Q-channel data with cos(2π*f*t + Ω)
and sin(2π*f*t + Ω) respectively .The QPSK modulated output is obtained by mixing the
above obtained two modulated signals. Here ‘f’ is the carrier frequency, and Ω the
phase is chosen to be ‘0’.

In order to have a clear comparision between the spreaded version and unspreaded
version ,the below plots shows the variations .
Figure showing a examplied version of SS for a single carrier
Figure showing the Spreaded QPSK data in the frequency domain.

Figure showing the Spreaded QPSK data in the timedomain


5.4. NOISE:

An inevitable thing in a wireless environment is the noise.This module generates both


random noise and a jamming signal.Amplitude of random noise is set by changing value
of variable “var” and amplitude of jamming signal is set by changing value of “a”
.Amplitude of both is set relative to strength of transmitted signal (which is set to 1).For
example , a value of 2 for “a” means the power of the jamming signal is twice as strong
as the desired transmitted signal at the receiver .

Jamming signal uses BPSK modulation .That seemed like a fairly effective modulation
scheme for a jamming signal since PSK modulation is very common for digital
communications.

The plot below shows the noise variations with respect to the time and frequency.
Figure shows the random noise generated in frequency and time domain

5.5.MIXER:

The spread spectrum data is mixed with noise in order have a real time wireless
environment. The noise is added both to the spreaded and unspreaded data in order to
have a clear comparison .

5.6.Demodulation:

The demodulation block is just inverse of the modulation block, like any other
demodulation the modulated signal is multiplied with the carrier frequency and the
signal is forwarded for dispreading. It demodulates unspread signal for comparison to
spread spectrum signal.
Figure shows the sequence of variations from Received to unspreading
Figure shows the comparision view of the Unspreaded time and frequency variation

5.7.Despreading:

This module multiplies the carrier frequency by the PRN sequence and then
demodulates the incoming signal by the composite signal (prn and carrier) .The data is
also filtered to produce the I-channel ,Q-channel.
Figure shows the time domain variations of the modulated and demodulated forms

Figure shows the Spread Specturm I channel and Q channel data


Figure showing the frequency domain amplitidue variations in different scales

A comparative view of the noised and unnoised despread combined signals