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CE 547

Mixing and Flocculation


1. Mixing
Is a unit operation that distributes the components of two
or more materials among the materials producing in the
end a single blend of the components. Mixing is
accomplished through agitation.

Type of mixers:
rotational (rotational elements)
pneumatic (gas or air bubbles)
hydraulic (flowing of water)

2. Flocculation
Is a unit operation aimed at enlarging small particles
through a very slow agitation. Flocculation is
accomplished through the use of large paddles.
Mixing
A. Rotational Mixers
Impellers are used in rotation mixing. Types of impellers are (Fig
6.2):
a. propellers
standard three-blade
guarded
weedless

b. Paddles
flat paddle

c. Turbines
straight blade
curved blade
vaned-disk
shrouded blade
Flow Pattern in Rotational Mixers (Fig
6.3)
fluid is thrown towards the wall
fluid is deflected up and down

flow returns back to the blades (circulation


rate)

Prevention of Swirling Flow (Fig 6.4)


putting the agitator eccentric to the vessel
using a side entrance to the vessel

putting baffles along the vessel wall


Power Dissipation in Rotational Mixers

P = function of (N, Da, g, , )

P = power dissipated
N = rotational speed
Da = diameter of impeller
g = acceleration due to gravity
= absolute viscosity
= mass density
If Re 10
P K L N 2 Da3
NDa
Re

At high Re
P KT N D 3 5
a

KL and KT are constants (Power coefficients)


Dt = Diameter of Vessel; W = Width of Paddle; J= Width of baffle
Example 6.1
B. Criteria for Effective Mixing

P
G
V

G = average velocity gradient in the tank


V = volume of tank
P = power dissipated
= absolute viscosity
G Criteria Values for Effective Mixing

t0 (seconds) G (s-1)

< 10 4000 1500

10 20 1500 950

20 30 950 850

30 40 850 750

40 130 750 700

t0 = detention time of the tank


C. Pneumatic Mixers
This is accomplished using diffused aerators (Fig
6.7)
porous ceramic tube
coarse bubble
open pipe
perforated pipe
fine bubble
saran wrapped tube
diffused aeration schematic
Pneumatic mixing power = function (number of bubbles
formed)

Pi Qi h
n
Pa Vb 0 b
n = number of bubbles
Pi = input pressure to the unit
Qi = input flow to the unit
Pa = atmospheric pressure
b = average rise velocity of bubbles
h = depth of submergence of air diffuser
Vb0 = average volume of bubble at surface
b is described in terms of
three dimensionless g 4
G1
quantities, G1, G2 and Re Pi 3

G1 = Peebles number G2
4
g r b Pi
4 3

G2 = Garber number 3

= surface tension of fluid


Re

2 Pi b r
r = average radius of
bubbles
b

2 r Pi
Re 2
9
0.52

b 0.33 g 0.75 Pi
r
1.28
2 Re 4.02G 2.214


1

0.50

b 1.35 4.02G 1
2.214
Re 3.10G 1
0.25

Pi r
0.25
g
b 1.53 3.10G 1
0.25
Re G2
Pi
Power Dissipation in Pneumatic Mixers

Pa h l
P PiQi ln
Pa

Qi = input flow to the unit (air)


l = specific weight of water
Example 6.2
D. Hydraulic Mixers
This is accomplished by the use of energy of a
flowing fluid to create the power dissipation
required for mixing. Types of hydraulic mixers
include:
hydraulic jump mixer
weir mixer
Power Dissipation in Hydraulic Mixers

P Qh f

hf = fluid friction loss


Q = flow rate
= specific weight
For hydraulic jump (Fig 6.9)
2 2
V V
1
y1 h f y2 2
2g 2g
y2 y1 q y2 y1 2 gy
2 2
y 2

hf 2 2
1 2
2 gy y
1 2

q = flow per unit width of the channel


Using the momentum equation



F t cv dv A .n dA

Solving for y1 and y2, then


y1 12
y2 1 8 1
2 gy1
Q 2
Q y2 y1 y2 y1 2 gy1 y2
2 2

W
P
hydraulic jump 2 gy12 y22

V jump y1 y2 LW
1
2
V jump
t0
1
y1 y2 LW
Q 2Q
L 6 y2
V jump 3 y2W y1 y2

t0
3 y2W
y1 y2
Q
Examples 6.3 and 6.4
For weirs (Fig 6.10)

hf H H D
H = head over the weir crest
HD = drop provided from weir crest to surface of
the water below

Then

P Qh f Q H H D
Examples 6.5 and 6.6
Flocculators
Agitation in flocculation involves gentle motion of the
fluid to induce agglomeration of smaller particles into
larger flocs
Small flocs build into larger sizes until a point reached
where the size can not go on increasing (critical size)
Critical size depends on:
Detention time (larger detention time produce larger critical
sizes)
Velocity gradient (larger velocity gradients produce smaller
critical sizes)
Critical values for effective flocculation are expressed in
terms of:
Gt0 and
G
Critical Values for Effective Flocculation

Type of Raw Water G (s-1) Gt0 (dimensionless)

Low turbidity and 20 70 50,000 250,000


colored
High turbidity 70 - 150 80,000 190,000
Compartments vary in size (from
smaller to larger)
G decreases instead
As flow gets larger, rotation of
paddle must be made slower to
avoid breaking up the flocs
The number of blades decrease
also as water moves from
compartment to another
If FD is drag by water on the blade
and FD is also the push of the
blade upon the water
Due to that, water will move at a
velocity p equal to the velocity of
blade
Since paddle is rotating, (p) is a
tangential velocity
p rp
rp = radial distance to rotational axis
= angular rotation (radians / time)

C D Ap l 2

FD
p

2
CD = drag coefficient
Ap = projected area of blade in the direction of its
motion
= mass density of water
i 2
i 3

Pblade C D Ap
p
p C D Ap p

2 2

Total power = sum of powers in each blade

i 3p i a 3pt
P Pblade CD Ap CD Apt
2 2
Apt = sum of projected area of blade
pt = blade tip velocity
Due to location of blades, there will be several ps
To use one velocity, pt, is used multiplied by a factor
(a), [ a = 0.75 ]
G and Gt0 are to be checked to see if the flocculator
performs at conditions of effective flocculation
Paddle tip velocity should be less than 1.0 m/sec
CD is a function (Re)

D p
Re

p = blade velocity
= kinematic viscosity
For one single blade at Re = 105

b
C D 0.008 1.13
D
CD = for multiple blades must be determined
Example 6.7