1 views

Uploaded by Milan Petrik

0206051

- Physics is the Scientific Study Of
- Schrödinger equation
- Walker 1994
- Concepts in physics.docx
- Diode junctions
- my-thesis
- German Scientist Posts Complete Free Energy Documentation Online
- Reference Computational Physics Troyer
- Vibrasi Dari Atkins
- Rangkuman Fisika Statistik C5
- 6093-vol2_chap01_v2
- -Particle in a Ring
- An Info-Theoretic Link Between Spacetime Symmetries and Quantum Linearity [jnl article] - (2004) WW.pdf
- 6172986
- 10741158_10152758673261284_1635495907_n
- Untitled
- 4.93 MSc Physics Sem I,II,III,IV.pdf
- Aqm Lecture 8
- Lectures Pahtria
- Quantum-Entropic-Logic-Theory-and-Quantum-Computer_by_S-I-Doronin.pdf

You are on page 1of 10

Oscar Chavoya-Aceves

Camelback High School

Mathematics Department

4612 North 28th Street

Phoenix, Arizona, 85016 USA

ochavoya@iteso.mx

May 30, 2002.

Abstract

Schrodinger equation for spin-less particles has an exact hydrodynamic

model, which can be used to study quantum transitions, using causal

functions. This has the potential to throw light on the nature of quantum

entanglement, which is not studied here.

Keywords: Quantum Mechanics; Hydrodynamics; Bohm-Aharonov Ef-

fect; Electromagnetic Theory.

PACS: 03.65.G; 03.30.

1 Introduction

As well see, there is a complete hydrodynamic model of the motion of

a spin-less quantum particle in an external field, in such manner that to

each stationary state there corresponds a steady flux of the model.

Given that there is a well defined procedure to transform wave func-

tions into hydrodynamic fields, and viceversa, this opens the possibility of

studying quantum transitions as unsteady fluxes. The use of this method

could throw light on the nature of quantum entanglement, which is not

studied in this paper, since the hydrodynamic analogy is valid even for

many-particle systems, at least when the masses are equal.

In absence of magnetic fields, the hydrodynamic field, which is the

quantum field of velocity, defined as the quotient of the current of proba-

bility and the corresponding density, represents a potential motion.

If there is a magnetic field the velocity becomes rotational, and

e

v= H, (1)

mc

Submitted to Physics Letters A (05/30/02).

1

which explains the Bohm-Aharonov effect[1], and calls to investigate a

physical connection between quantum momentum and the vector poten-

tial of the electromagnetic field. This is a hydrodynamic version of the

operational equation p = ih + ec A, which is the quantum counterpart

of the equation

e

P = mv + A, (2)

c

that defines the generalized momentum of a charged particle under the

action of an electromagnetic field, in the realm of analytic mechanics.

Hydrodynamic analogies were used before to model quantum sys-

tems in the classical limit [2]. Those models were derived from Bohr-

Sommerfelds old quantum theory and the correspondence principle, which

lead to suppose that, in the classical limit, the phase of the wave function

becomes equal to the mechanical action. Those analogies are not valid in

general, because the gradient of Bohms potential [3], which is precisely the

term from which the quantum stress tensor of the hydrodynamic model

is formed, is neglected.

As well see, however, there are valid hydrodynamic analogies even for

strictly quantum motions, because, as follows from Schrodinger equation,

e

(mv + A) = 0, (3)

c

and

e

mv + A = h. (4)

c

where v is the quantum field of velocities, A is the vector potential of the

electromagnetic field, and is the phase of the wave function.

From Schrodinger Equation

h2

ih = 4 + V (5)

t 2m

where is the wave function and V is the potential energy of a classical

particle, it is shown that

+j= 0 (6)

t

Here

? , (7)

which is interpreted as a distribution of probability, and

ih

j (? ? ) (8)

2m

Equation (8) can be written as

? 2im

= v. (9)

? h

2

where we have introduced the velocity field

j

v . (10)

Taking the gradient of both sides of (7), and dividing the resulting

equation by , we get

?

+ = (11)

?

Adding (9) and (11)

2imv

(2 ln ln ) = .

h

Therefore

mv = h; (12)

where

i

= (ln 2 ln ) (13)

2

and

= Exp (i). (14)

Observe that, according to equation (12)

p = h4, (15)

and

p = 0, (16)

where

p mv. (17)

In particular, I

p dl = 0 (18)

According to the continuity equation the material derivative of the

density is given by

D h

= v = 4. (19)

Dt m

As it is well known from Quantum Mechanics ([2] p. 223), doing the

substitution (14) the Schrodinger equation (5) is transformed into a pair

of real equations

m + ( ) + 4 = 0. (20)

t 2

()2

+ +V +Q = 0 (21)

t 2m

Where

h2 4

Q (22)

2m

is the quantum potential of the De Broglie-Bohm theory.

3

Equation (20) is mathematically equivalent to (6), which is written as:

+ (v) = 0. (23)

t

We use equations (12) and (21), as well as the identity

1

v2 = v ( v) + (v )v, (24)

2

to show that

v

m + m(v )v = V Q. (25)

t

Equation (25) can also be written in the form

v

m + (v )v = V + F. (26)

t

where

h2

m m ; F Q = ( 4 4 ) (27)

2m

removing thus the divergence of Bohms quantum potential.

It is easily shown that F is the divergence of a second order symmetric

tensor:

h2

Fi = j Tij ; Tij = ( ij i j ). (28)

2m

The magnitude

Tii h2

P = = (( )2 4 ) (29)

3 6m

is a kind of pressure, whilst the tensor

ij = Tij + P ij , (30)

Equations (12), (14), (23), (25) and the condition

Z

dv = 1 (31)

scribed by (5). They model the flux of probability as a flux of classical

locally interacting particles. The hydrodynamic view, however, is more

general than Schrodingers view, because it allows us to make statements

about the motion between stationary states, and about the motions that

result from the relaxation of the condition v = 0, and test the validity

of those statements.

Its well known from quantum mechanics that if V is the potential

of a central field of forces the eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian can be

chosen real, and the corresponding field of velocity is zero everywhere.

Those states correspond to the hydrostatic limit of equations (23,25),

where v 0 and t

= 0. In this limit

(V + Q) = 0, (32)

4

that has the solution

V + Q = E, (33)

which is equivalent to the equation that results from dividing by both

sides of the time independent Schrodinger equation:

h2

4 + V = E, (34)

2m

because = where the wave function is real.

In general, a stationary state of the system described by equation (5)

corresponds to a steady flux of the hydrodynamic model, and the value

of the energy corresponds to Bernoullis integral of hydrodynamics.

The equations for steady flux are

m(v )v = V Q. (35)

and

(v) = 0 (36)

If the flux is irrotational, m(v )v = 1

2

m(v2 ), and equation (35) is

transformed into

1 2

v + V + Q = 0, (37)

2

that has a first integral

1

()2 + V + Q = E, (38)

2m

where is a scalar potential for the field mv, which is also irrotational.

The continuity equation takes the form

() = 0. (39)

Equations (38) and (39) determine the solutions of the time indepen-

dent Schrodinger equation, when the wave function is written in the form

= Exp( i h

).

There is also a Bernoulli theorem for unsteady irrotational flux([4]).

Lets do the substitutions m(v )v = 12 m(v2 ) and mv = in (25):

1

+ ()2 = V Q. (40)

t 2m

This equation can be written as.

1

+ ()2 + V + Q = 0, (41)

t 2m

showing that there is a function f (t) such that

1

+ ()2 + V + Q = f (t). (42)

t 2m

Therefore

1

+ ()2 + V + Q = 0, (43)

t 2m

5

where Z

= f (t). (44)

equation, determines the evolution of non stationary quantum states.

This suggests that, at least for this system, non steady and possibly

rotational fluxes, could be used to describe quantum jumps using causal

functions.

Field

The wave equation for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field gen-

erated by the electrodynamic potentials and A, subject to the Coulomb

condition

A = 0, (45)

is

h2 e e2

ih = 4 + ih A + A2 + e. (46)

t 2m mc 2mc2

In this case

ih e

j= (? ? ) ? A, (47)

2m c

that can be written in the form

? 2i e

= mv + A . (48)

? h c

Adding (48) and (11) we find that

e

mv + A = h (49)

c

where

i

= (ln 2 ln ) (50)

2

Observe that now we have

p = h4 (51)

e e

p = A = H, (52)

c c

where H is the magnetic field.

Furthermore I

e

p.dl = H (53)

c

where H is the magnetic flux embraced by the circuit of integration.

Equation (52) shows that we could explain the Bohm-Aharonov effect

as a manifestation of a physical relation between the field of momentum

and the vector potential of the electromagnetic field. Actually:

I

d e d

mv = , (54)

dt c dt H

6

which according to Faraday-Lenz law should be equal to

I

e E.dl, (55)

From (49) and (52), we deduce that

= Exp(i), (56)

appendix)

h h e

= 4 + A (57)

t m 2m mc

2

1 e

h = h A + e + Q (58)

t 2m c

Using equation (49), (57) is transformed into

1 e 1 e e

= mv + A mv + A + A .

t m c 2m c mc

(59)

Which, on account of (45), can be simplified to (20), which is equivalent

to the continuity equation.

We use now (49) to transform (58) into

1

h = mv2 + e + Q. (60)

t 2

We take the gradient of both sides of this equation and reorder the

terms to obtain

e 1

mv + A + mv2 = e Q (61)

t c 2

and then

v 1

m + mv2 = eE Q, (62)

t 2

where

1 A

E = (63)

c t

equals the external electric field.

Using (24), (27) and (52), (62) can be written in the form

v e

m + (v )v = eE + v H + F, (64)

t c

showing thus that, also in this case, there is a valid hydrodynamic analogy.

7

4 A relativistic model of particle-wave

duality

We consider a theoretical system made of two covariant fields and pa ,

such that

pa pa = k 2 (65)

and

a (pa ) = 0. (66)

From (65)

pb a pb = 0. (67)

Therefore

pb a pb = pb a (pb ) pb pb a = 0, (68)

which can be written in the form

pb a (pb ) + k2 a = 0. (69)

and

= pb (b pa a pb ) + pb pa b .

Equation (71) can be written in the form

e pa pb

ub b (pa ) = Fab ub + b , (72)

c k

where e is the electronic charge; c is the speed of light;

pa

ua = (73)

k

is the four-velocity associated to pa ; Fab is an electromagnetic field gen-

erated by a four-potential Aa , such that

e

pa + Aa = a , (74)

c

and is a solution of the differential equation

pa a

a a = a pa = . (75)

(The second equality follows from equation (66).)

Equation(72) describes a relativistic flux of charged particles under

the action of an electromagnetic field and a density of four-force

pb b

fa = va pb b = va = (76)

= va b b .

8

Under this interpretation pa is the four-momentum of the particles and

is the density of particles in the system of reference where they are in

rest.

According to equation (75), fa is a kind of reaction associated to in-

terchange, creation and/or annihilation of particles, all of them processes

under which the elements of the fluid lose their physical individuality, as

has been observed by Prandtl & Tietjens[5].

Equations (74) and (75) are analogous to (49) and (19). Also,

c

Fab = (a pb b pa ), (77)

e

which is analogous to (52).

The electronic charge e and the mass of the particles, however, are in-

troduced here in an arbitrary fashion. Also, although has the units

of action, it is not completely clear why Plancks constant should be

introducedas the standard deviation of , for example.

Finally we note that the electrical current associated to the field Fik

is given by the equation:

4 c

ja = b Fab = (a b pb b b pa ) = (78)

c e

c

(a b b b b pa ),

e

which, again, includes a term that could be associated to interchange,

creation and/or annihilation of particles.

5 Appendix

Lets write the solution of equation (46) in the form

= Xei . (79)

Then

X i

ih = ih hX e (80)

t t t

h2 h2

4 = 4X 2iX + X()2 iX4 ei (81)

2m 2m

eh eh

i A = (iA X XA ) ei (82)

mc mc

Adding term by term the real and imaginary parts of equations (80),

(81) and (82), it is shown that (46) is mathematically equivalent to a

system of real equations

X h h e

= X X4 + A X (83)

t m 2m mc

2 2

h 4X 1 e

h = + h A + e (84)

t 2m X 2m c

9

References

[1] Aharonov, Y. and Bohm, D. Significance of Electromagnetic Poten-

tials in the Quantum Theory. Phys. Rev. (Ser. 2) 115, 485-491, 1959.

[2] A. Messiah. Quantum Mechanics. Dover Ed. (1999).

[3] D. Bohm. A suggested interpretation of quantum theory in terms of

hidden variables I and II. Physical Review,85, 155-93 (1952).

[4] Rutherford Aris. Vectors, tensors and the basic equations of fluid

mechanics. Dover (1989) pp. 105 & 131-32.

[5] Prandtl and Tietjens. Fundamentals of Hydro and Aeromechanics.

Dover (1957) p. 9.

10

- Physics is the Scientific Study OfUploaded byJohn MIchael Ausa
- Schrödinger equationUploaded byShahed Ahmed Chowdhury
- Walker 1994Uploaded byÍcaro Samir
- Concepts in physics.docxUploaded bySaad Memon
- Diode junctionsUploaded byAsad Malik
- my-thesisUploaded bybekirovich
- German Scientist Posts Complete Free Energy Documentation OnlineUploaded byInfo_scribd
- Reference Computational Physics TroyerUploaded byscribdrocksfeynman
- Vibrasi Dari AtkinsUploaded byFawzia Aulia
- Rangkuman Fisika Statistik C5Uploaded byWidya Oktaviani Ajjah
- 6093-vol2_chap01_v2Uploaded byShridhar Mathad
- -Particle in a RingUploaded byPatrick Liwag
- An Info-Theoretic Link Between Spacetime Symmetries and Quantum Linearity [jnl article] - (2004) WW.pdfUploaded byUmer Zubair
- 6172986Uploaded byelhadyeg
- 10741158_10152758673261284_1635495907_nUploaded byRichard Zhu
- UntitledUploaded byElizabeth Brissey
- 4.93 MSc Physics Sem I,II,III,IV.pdfUploaded byashwini
- Aqm Lecture 8Uploaded bysayandatta1
- Lectures PahtriaUploaded byMario Mede Rite
- Quantum-Entropic-Logic-Theory-and-Quantum-Computer_by_S-I-Doronin.pdfUploaded by1357531
- James R. Henderson, C. Ruth Le Sueur and Jonathan Tennyson- DVR3D: programs for fully pointwise calculation of vibrational spectraUploaded byPassamm
- QMB09sol_2Uploaded byMuzamil Shah
- IIT JodhpurUploaded bysurujJD
- benaoum_0205140Uploaded byNetzaira
- Joel M. Bowman et al- Variational Quantum Approaches for Computing Vibrational Energies of Polyatomic MoleculesUploaded byMaxnamew
- HW_1Uploaded byLoller Troller
- Qaaauantum Mics; What Re TheyUploaded byRyanMichael Salcedo
- What the Bleep - Down the Rabbit HoleUploaded byPatricia Hut
- Born OpenheimerUploaded byfaizsyauqi
- Discrete Fourier transformUploaded byAnonymous 78dgE5

- Fluid Mech IIUploaded byMilan Petrik
- 10.13182@FST93-A30227Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- 10.1038@nmat5025Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- Mizu Not Pre Print ObUploaded byMilan Petrik
- Anomalous Diffusion(1)Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- On the Theory of Quanta Louis-Victor DeUploaded bymirandare
- Editorial i e 51Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- MizunoTnucleartra.pdfUploaded byMilan Petrik
- Calculation of Deuteron InteractionUploaded byMilan Petrik
- Bp 2007 Tomicova JelenaUploaded byMilan Petrik
- Mach-Effect thruster modelUploaded byMilan Petrik
- Mach-Effect thruster modelUploaded byMilan Petrik
- 10.1021@acs.chemmater.7b03978Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- 402Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- Testing quantised inertia with extreme spins.Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- Fedi Superfluid ToE v2Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- nn7b00866_si_001Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- DAMIDSOL-180Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- bhgrowUploaded byMilan Petrik
- 1007.4377v75Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- Burning Salt WaterUploaded bydavidrimington
- MizunoTnucleartra.pdfUploaded byMilan Petrik
- b Iberian Jp j Condensed tUploaded byMilan Petrik
- 00759842Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- 6912159_0Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- Hlinikove FolieUploaded byMilan Petrik
- AbstractsUploaded byMilan Petrik
- 0608229(2)Uploaded byMilan Petrik
- Vzl5_10Uploaded byMilan Petrik

- Molpro SlidesUploaded byshadraws
- Michele Burrello- Kitaev ModelUploaded byKuiasm
- Jaynes-Cummings ModelUploaded byFavio90
- Quantum FluctuationUploaded byRahul Saha
- HW03.docUploaded by何家銘
- • Niels Bohr (Lahir 7 Oktober 1885 – wafatUploaded bywakawiki
- Z. L. Guo et al- Möbius graphene strip as a topological insulatorUploaded byYlpkaso
- presentation_physicsUploaded bykumar singh
- An Approximate Quantum Theory of the Antiferromagnetic Ground StateUploaded byIndranil Halder
- MoriyaUploaded bypoecoek84
- UGC SKUploaded byKalaiarasu Subramanian
- AtomicHandWrittenNotes-BulutayUploaded bySwashy Yadav
- Capítulo 40 (5th Edition).pdfUploaded byEdwin Fernando Sepulveda Duran
- Aqm Lecture 9Uploaded bysayandatta1
- 0521875099Uploaded byRaymundo Gonzales
- History of atom modelsUploaded bySatheesh Kodakkattu Purushothaman Nair
- Quantum CapacitanceUploaded bySanu Gangwar
- A Supersymmetry PrimerUploaded byporter_mw2
- AdvancedUploaded byEnoch Rajesh
- day1Uploaded byCaio E. Oliveira
- Photon PolarizationUploaded byrr1819
- 01 F MaizUploaded byGeras Pacheco
- 8428_chap08Uploaded byMartín Figueroa
- Quantum mechanics presentationUploaded byemad11518
- 1473602416.pdfUploaded byزكرياء بنحيرت
- The HQET/NRQCD Lagrangian to order α/m3Uploaded bymebaker1111
- 3.1.6 Schottky MetalsUploaded byAjitBabban
- RMP_v066_p0445Uploaded bybuddy72
- 3 HeterostructureUploaded byPhan Thanh Hoa
- Chapter 40Uploaded byGrace Sun Hae Lutia