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UNIVERSITI TENAGA NASIONAL

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE


(MEHB 493)

ASSIGNMENT 3

NAME : Surenderan Logan

ID : ME093015

LECTURER : Dr. Firas Basim Ismail Alnaimi


1. Fuel injection system in SI and CI engine.

SI engine CI engine
Carburation: Mechanical injection system:
The process of formation of combustible Fuel is forced into the cylinder by means of
fuel- air mixture by mixing the proper compressed air. Little used nowadays
amount of fuel with air before admission to because it requires bulky multistage air
engine cylinder is called carburation and the compressor, which causes increase in engine
device which does this job is called weight and reduces the brake power output.
carburetor. Preparation of charge is done BUT it gives good mixing of fuel with the air
outside the engine cylinder. Appropriate for resulting higher mean effective pressure, i.e.
petrol 4 stroke and 2 stroke (light duty higher indicated power for the engine. Fuels
engines) because petrol is more volatile as of high viscosity ( less expensive) can be
compare to diesel. Fuel is atomized by injected through this type of injection system
relying on the air speed
Throttle body Injection system: Common rail injection system:
Similar to carburetor throttle body injectionIn common rail injection system: High
system with a throttle valve controlling the pressure pump supplies fuel to a fuel header.
amount of air entering the intake manifold. High pressure in header pushes fuel to the
Injector is placed slightly above the throttle
each nozzle located in the cylinders. At the
body. Injector spray the gasoline into the air
proper time a mechanically operated valve
in the intake manifold where gasoline mixes allows fuel to enter the proper cylinder
with the air and mixture passes through the through the nozzle. Fuel pressure in the
throttle valve and enters into the intake header must be that, for which the injector
manifold. It may be timed or continuous type.system is designed i.e.it must be able to
penetrate and disperse the fuel in combustion
chamber. Length of push rod controls the
amount of fuel entering in the combustion
chamber
Multipoint fuel injection: Two types are Nozzles:
manifold fuel injection system type and port a) Pintle nozzle: Stem of nozzle valve is
fuel injection type. extended to form a pin or Pintle which
protrudes through the mouth of nozzle.
Provides a spray operating at low
pressure, 8-10 MPa. Spray cone angle is
generally 60 degree. It avoids weak
injection and dribbling.
b) Pintaux nozzle: Similar to Pintle nozzle
but a auxiliary hole is drilled in the nozzle
body. Hence it helps in injection of small
amount of fuel through it slightly before
the main injection. The needle valve does
not open fully at low speed and most of
fuel is injected through the auxiliary hole.
Provides better cold starting of engine.
c) Single hole: At the center of nozzle body
there is single hole which is closed by the
nozzle valve. Major disadvantage is that it
tend to dribble Small cone angle
facilitates good mixing unless higher
velocities are used

2. Advantages and disadvantages of fuel injection system in SI and CI engine.

Advantages Disadvantages
1. Setup is simple for fuel injection system. 1. With use of electronic fuel injector, you
2. The use of different sensors for detection cannot use leaded gas.
of various changes such as altitude, 2. This system usually has a shortened life
throttle position, weather condition unlike with carburetors.
which would correct the amount of fuel 3. Fuel injection system is a lot more
to be delivered to the cylinders. This expensive than a carburetor upgrade.
maximizes the economy and engine's 4. Repairing of fuel injectors is not easy as
power. compared with carburetors.
3. Easier to start especially during harsh 5. The Air fuel ratio and mix of that will be
winter season. excellent in a carburetor than a direct
4. Precise, constant and accurate Injection system.
supplication of fuel to the engine. 6. There may be more of unburnt
5. Accurate throttle response and tuning hydrocarbon.
options. 7. The air fuel ratio and mix of that will be
6. No requirement of adjusting them in excellent in a carburetor than a direct
accordance with situations. Injection system.
7. Saves undue fuel consumption. 8. There may be more of unburnt
8. Fuel burns efficiently because it becomes hydrocarbon.
atomized as it passes through the 9. Servicing of the fuel injector unit is
cylinder. cumbersome.
9. No need for frequent tune-ups in use of 10. If there is an ECU failure, the bike
fuel injection system. will seize to work.
10. Ability to run higher compression ratios 11. Procuring new fuel maps is a costly
when the fuel is injected. affair.
11. The vehicle pick up will be good and 12. The need for fuel return lines to the
fast. tank in use, or a separate header tank.
13. Possible vapor lock in the steel fuel
lines above the engine, making it difficult
to start a hot engine.
3. Reasons for using fuel injectors in SI and CI engines.

Functional requirement of an injection system. Fuel injection system is the most vital
component of the engines (CI & SI). Engine performance viz. power output, economy, etc. is
greatly affected by the fuel injection system The injection system has to perform the most
important duty of initiating and controlling the engine during the idling, cruising or during
the full load so that the equivalence ratio is maintained according to the need of operation.

For a proper running and performance, following requirement must be met by the injection
systems:

a) a) Accurate metering of the fuel injected per cycle. This is very important an critical
because e small amount of metering errors may cause drastic variation from the
desired output.
b) Timing the injection of fuel correctly in the cycle so that maximum power is obtained
ensuring the fuel economy and clean burning.
c) Proper control on rate of fuel injection so that desired heat release pattern is obtained.
d) Proper atomization of fuel and proper spray pattern ensuring rapid mixing of the fuel
and air.
e) To supply equal quantity of metered fuel to all cylinders in case of multi cylinder
engines.
f) No lag during beginning an d end of the injection i.e. eliminate dribbling of the fuel
droplets into the cylinder

4. Electronic fuel injection system on SI and CI engines.

Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an Internal Combustion Engine. It has
become the primary fuel delivery system used in gasoline automotive engines, having almost
completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s. With the advent of electronic fuel injection
(EFI), the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar.

Electronics has emerged as the necessary science to achieve the art of communication,
computation and precision. It is only natural that this all parading science should have
influenced the automobile. Many accessories, which were mechanically or electrically
operated or controlled, have become electronics. Many provisions, which could not be
achieved by mechanical or electrical means or electrical means, have become possible
because of electronics. Automobile engineers and electronics engineers have joined together
to understand the requirements and evolve solutions.
In the case of carburetor, the entire working depends on the throttle position and all the
systems must be tailored so that proper mixture delivery takes place at every throttle position.
The fuel delivered cannot easily be adjusted to suit certain important operating conditions of
the engine such as water temperature, oil temperature and air temperature etc., to the levels of
precision called for with stringent emission control requirements. In the case of fuel injection,
this is achieved by means of electronics. It is possible to make the system to recognize and
respond to every operating condition of the engine and to deliver the required mixture at all
operating conditions. With the increases in demands of precision of air fuel ratio control,
electronic fuel injection is resorted to. Today EFI system is universally employed to achieve
the desired objective. Relative to carbureted fuel systems, the main mechanisms by which an
EFI system has helped to reduce exhaust emissions are as follows:

Reduced wall wetting


Improved fuel atomization
Greater flexibility in A/F control, which in turn has facilitated

5. Engine management system.

The Engine Management System (EMS)is responsible for controlling the amount of fuel
being injected and for adjusting the ignition timing. Optimum functioning of the EMS assures
maximum engine power, with the lowest amount of exhaust emissions and the lowest fuel
consumption. The EMS is comprised of sensors for intake air and coolant temperature, intake
manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and throttle position (TPS), as well as sensors for engine
speed and signals for the required injection and ignition spark events, and a sensor for
information about the oxygen content in the exhaust. Furthermore, there is an idle speed
motor for adjusting and stabilizing the idle speed, or an electronic throttle body and finally a
fuel pressure regulator and fuel injector(s). The supplied high-energy ignition coils are
controlled by the integrated ignition module. For alternative fuel applications fuel rail
pressure and temperature sensors are also utilized.

Air Induction System/Control: The purpose of the air induction control/system is to


filter, meter and measure intake air flow into the engine
Fuel Delivery System/Control: The purpose of fuel delivery system/control is to inject
the correct and precise amount of fuel in the intake manifold
Electronic Control System: The Purpose of electronic control system is to detect air
temperature, engine temperature, throttle valve opening angle, amount of air entering
air induction system. The system controls the correct amount of fuel to be injected and
the proper time at which the fuel will be injected at any speed and load condition.
Electronic control unit: The Electronic control unit serves as the control center for all
of the sensors on a car. The engine control unit is responsible for monitoring and
controlling all the sensors on a cars engine. The ECU monitors the performance of
the engine and makes adjustments according to where the problem is. The ECU also
does calculations of pulse length (injector time opening) and adjustments to any
change in the engine.
Air flow sensor: air flow sensor is a device that is used in conjunction with an oxygen
sensor to accurately measure the flow of air into a fuel injection engine.
Air temperature sensor: The air Temperature sensor is used to measure the
temperature of the incoming air in the engines air stream
Throttle Position sensor (TPS): The purpose of the throttle position switch is to relay
the position of the throttle butterfly valve to the ECU.
Oxygen sensor: The oxygen sensor is a device positioned in the exhaust stream which
is tasked with measuring the makeup of the exhaust whether it is running too lean or
too rich.
Idle air control valve: The idle air control valve controls the amount of air entering the
engine while idling
MAP sensor: The purpose of the MAP sensor or Manifold absolute pressure sensor is
to provide information about the air pressure in the intake manifold to the ECU.
KNOCK SENSOR: Engine knock occurs in the combustion chamber when two high-
pressure waves collide. This unwanted and damaging event can because in different
ways. Two examples are excessive load on the engine and engine overheated.
Function of Engine Speed Sensor: Monitor engine speed, which is one of the factors
used to calculate the pulse width.
Engine Oil Sensor: The function of the engine oil sensor is to produce an electrical
signal that the ECU can use to determine the quality of the oil. The electrical
capacitance value of oil varies with various oil properties; these include Viscosity
anti-foaming cleaning. Electronic circuitry within the sensor converts the capacitance
value of the oil to a voltage signal. The ECU monitors voltage signal from sensor and
uses this data to determine service requirements.
Crankshaft sensor: The crankshaft sensor is used to relay the position and speed of the
crankshaft to the ECU. It measures the position and speed of the camshaft to aid the
ECU in engine timing.
FUEL INJECTION VALVE simultaneous meaning they open all at the same time
Simultaneous, in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders.

References
[1] Rajput, R. (2009). Internal combustion engines. Bangalore: Laxmi Publications.

[2] Burton, G. (2000). Chemical storylines. Oxford: Heinemann.

[3] Jain, K. and Asthana, R. (2002). Automobile engineering. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

[4] Pulkrabek, W. (2014). Engineering fundamentals of the internal combustion engine.


Harlow: Pearson.

[5] Gupta, H. (2006). Fundamentals of internal combustion engines. New Dehli: Prentice-
Hall of India.

[6] OpenCourseWare, M. (2017). Lecture Notes | Internal Combustion Engines | Mechanical


Engineering | MIT OpenCourseWare. [online] Ocw.mit.edu. Available at:
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-61-internal-combustion-engines-
spring-2008/lecture-notes/.