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Jeremy Cook

The polar angle at the guide exit is

2 2

(1).

x2 z2 (2).

In the small angle approximation (Eq. (2)), we can readily calculate the probability density distribution of

the polar angle produced by an ideal guide. This situation is illustrated in Figure 1 for a general case

where x z. Equation (2) represents an arc of a circle of radius with origin (x, z) = (0, 0), confined to

the box whose upper limits are the critical angles x = cx and z = cz. If the x and z distributions are

assumed to be uniform, the probability density for a polar angle is just proportional to the length of the

arc segment of radius . We define the following angles:

1 min cx , cz

2 max cx , cz (3).

max

c

x 2

c

y 2

Then we have

P for 1 (4),

2 cxcz

P cos1 1 x z for 1 2 (5),

2 c c

1

and

x z

P cos1 c cos1 c x z for 2 max (6).

2 c c

where the denominator cx cz is the area of the rectangle which normalizes P() to unit area for uniform

P(x) and P(z).

The probability density distribution, P(), for the case illustrated on the left of Figure 1 is shown on the

right of the figure. It is immediately obvious that P() is far from uniform.

Figure 1. Calculation of the probability density for a polar angle from an ideal guide characterized by uniform

horizontal and vertical divergence angles in the range 0 cx and 0 cz respectively.

P d

P d

which finally simplifies to

1 1 3 2 max 1 1 2 1 1

1 2 max 1 ln max

2

3

ln

max

3

cos cos

31 2 4 max 2 max 1 2 max max

(7).

2

For the simpler case of equal horizontal and vertical divergence cx = cz = c the above equations for P()

reduce to

P for c (8)

2 c2

and

P 2cos 1 c 2 for c 2c (9).

2 c

Figure 2. Probability density for a polar angle from an ideal neutron guide characterized by equal uniform horizontal

and vertical divergence angles in the range 0 c.

3

2 1 3 2 2

1 ln c 0.765c (10).

3 32 3 2 2

For a surface source, MCNP selects according to the distribution of = cos, where

P d P d (11)

therefore, we have

P P

P (12),

sin

where the approximation represents the small angle approximation appropriate to neutron guides.

P for 1 (13),

2cxcz

1 1

P cos 1 for 2 1 (14),

2 2 1 cxcz

cx cz 1

P cos 1

cos 1

for max 2 (15).

2 2 1 2 1 cxcz

The corresponding distribution for the distribution shown in Figure 1 is shown in Figure 3 (note that

for cos(1), the distribution is approximately uniform).

4

Figure 3. The probability density distribution of = cos(), corresponding to the distribution of polar angles, , shown in

Figure 1.

1

P for cos c (16)

2 c2

c 1

P 2cos 1

for cos 2c cos c (17).

2 2 1 c2

The corresponding distribution for the distribution shown in Figure 2 is shown in Figure 4 (note that

for cos(c), the distribution is approximately uniform).

5

Figure 4. The probability density distribution of = cos(), corresponding to the distribution of polar angles, , shown in

Figure 2.

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