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Two POPULATION

T TEST (INDEPENDENT)

T TEST (INDEPENDENT)

1. 1.1) A new drug is proposed to lower total cholesterol. A randomized controlled trial is designed to evaluate the efficacy of

the medication in lowering cholesterol. Thirty participants are enrolled in the trial and are randomly assigned to receive

either the new drug or a placebo. The participants do not know which treatment they are assigned. Each participant is

asked to take the assigned treatment for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, each patient's total cholesterol level is measured

and the sample statistics are as follows.

Is there statistical evidence of a reduction in mean total cholesterol in patients taking the new drug for 6 weeks as compared to

participants taking placebo.

a) Ho: 1 = 2

Ha: 1 < 2

b) Let a=0.05

Critical Value: Z 0.05 = 1.645

Critical Region:

Decision Rule:

This is a lower-tailed test, using a t statistic and a 5% level of significance. The appropriate critical value can be

found in the t Table (in More Resources to the right). In order to determine the critical value of t we need degrees of

freedom, df, defined as df=n1+n2-2 = 15+15-2=28. The critical value for a lower tailed test with df=28 and =0.05 is -

1.701 and the decision rule is: Reject H0 if t < -1.701.

c) Computation:

d) Decision:

We reject H0 because -2.92 < -1.701. We have statistically significant evidence at =0.05 to show that the

mean total cholesterol level is lower in patients taking the new drug for 6 weeks as compared to patients taking

placebo, p < 0.005.

e) Conclusion:

The clinical trial in this example finds a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol, whereas in the

previous example where we had a historical control (as opposed to a parallel control group) we did not demonstrate

efficacy of the new drug. The historical control value may not have been the most appropriate comparator as

cholesterol levels have been increasing over time. In the next section, we present another design that can be used to

assess the efficacy of the new drug.

Reference: Hypothesis Testing. (2017) Tests Means Proportion. Retrieved from http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-

modules/bs/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions/BS704_HypothesisTest-Means-Proportions6.html

2.

2.1) An investigator theorizes that people who participate in a regular program of exercise will have levels of systolic

blood pressure that are significantly different from that of people who do not participate in a regular program of

exercise.

To test this idea the investigator randomly assigns 21 subjects to an exercise program for 10 weeks and 21 subjects to a

non-exercise comparison group. After ten weeks the mean systolic blood pressure of subjects in the exercise group is

137 and the standard deviation of blood pressure values in the exercise group is 10. After ten weeks, the mean systolic

blood pressure of subjects in the non-exercise group is 127 and the standard deviation on subjects in the non-exercise

group is 9.0. Please test the investigator's theory using an alpha level of .05.

2.2) Hypothesis testing:

a) Ho: People who participate in a regular program of exercise do not have levels of systolic blood pressure

that are significantly different from those of people who do not exercise.

Ha: People who participate in a regular program of exercise have levels of systolic blood

pressure that are significantly different from those of people who do not exercise.

Critical value: t(0.02,40) = 2.021

Df = 21 + 21 2 = 40

Critical region:

c) Computation

Sp2 = (21-1) 102 + (21-1)(9)2 = 3620 = 90.5

21+21-2 40

T = 137 127

90.5 (1/21 + 1/21)

tc = = 3.406

d) Decision

Since tc = 3.406 > t(0.02,40) = 2.021, the null hypothesis is rejected.

e) Conclusion

People who participate in a regular program of exercise have levels of systolic blood pressure that are

significantly different from those of people who do not exercise.

Reference:

http://www.radford.edu/~tpierce/610%20files/SPSS%20Lab/Practice%20Problems/610%20independe

nt%20samples%20ttest.pdf

http://www.radford.edu/tpierce/610%20files/SPSS%20Lab/Practice%20Problems/Answers%20to%20z

%20and%20t-test%20practice%20problems.pdf

3.

3.1) A biologist suspected that females age 20 - 24 have a lower mean systolic blood pressure than males in the same

age group. Independent random sample produced the following results for systolic pressure.

a) Ho: Female and male systolic blood pressure are the same

b) Let a = 0.05

Df = 13

Critical region:

c) Computation:

Tc = -1.7729

d) Decision:

Since tc = -1.7729 < t (0.05, 13) = -1.771, the null hypothesis is rejected.

f) Conclusion:

Therefore, we conclude that female systolic pressure are lower than males same age (20-24)

Reference: Comparing two population means - small independent samples. (2017). Pindling.org. Retrieved 3

August 2017, from

http://www.pindling.org/Math/Statistics/Textbook/Chapter8_two_population_inference/mean_independe

nt_nsmall.htm

4.

We wish to know if we may conclude, at the 95% confidence level, that smokers, in general, have greater lung damage

than do non-smokers.

alpha = .05

b) Let a = 0.05

Df = 16 + 9 2 = 23

Critical Region:

c) Computation:

tc = 2.656

d) Decision :

Since tc = 2.656 > t(0.05, 23) = 1.714, the null hypothesis is rejected.

e) Conclusion:

On the basis of these data, we conclude that smokers have a greater lung damage than non

smoker.

Reference: Hypothesis Testing of the Difference Between Two Population Means. (2017). Kean.edu.

Retrieved 3 August 2017, from http://www.kean.edu/~fosborne/bstat/07b2means.html

5.

5.1) To find out whether a new serum will arrest leukemia, 9 mice, all with an advanced stage of the disease,

are selected. Five mice receive the treatment and 4 do not. Survival times, in years, from the time the

experiment commenced are as follows:

No Treatment 1.9 0.5 2.8 3.1

a) Ho: 1-2=0

Ha: 1-2<0

b) Let a = 0.05

Df = 5 + 4 2 = 7

Critical Region:

c) Computation:

= 2.802785715

Tc = 0.69

d) Decision:

e) Conclusion:

The null hypothesis is accepted, which mean there is sufficient evidence that the new serum

is effective and will arrest the leukemia.

Reference:

http://www.akademik.adu.edu.tr/fakulte/muhendislik/F001%5CD0004%5CP00005%5CCours

es%5CMAT254/1432643660/EN/stunentttest.pdf

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