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apur, Amravati

Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

1.1 General

All-terrain vehicle or ATV may refer to any vehicle which is capable of traversing on
any surface-terrain within its operational limitations. The ATV discussed in the
present report was designed for the student engineering design competition BAJA
SAEINDIA-2016.

In this competition the collegiate student teams are challenged to design, build,
develop and race a 4-wheeled, single sitter, all-terrain vehicle, under partially defined
operating conditions and a fully defined set of design constraints.

The principle guidelines & safety rules for the competition are stated in the document
called BAJA SAE-INDIA RULEBOOK.[i] Despite the presence of safety rules &
design constrains, students have plenty of engineering work which require the
application of engineering knowledge, logic and innovation.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

The challenge of the stated competition poses a typical engineering problem with
number of open ended sub problems.

The Off-road Competition Rules states that the course is designed around a vehicle
with the maximum dimensions of 64 inches width by 108 inches length.
Considering this overall width and the size of the tire and wheel combination, the
suspension must be designed around a maximum width tire edge surfaces of 64 inches
at ride height. The rear track width is designed to be smaller than the front to aid in
maneuverability. Furthermore, through mock chassis, driver dimensions, drive- train
considerations, and performance requirements a wheelbase between 58 to the
maximum 63 inches can be chosen prior to further design. .

The overall problem can be stated in a nutshell as design, manufacturers, run test &
develop a 4- wheeled single sitter all-terrain vehicle confirming to the rules stated in
the rulebook & those communicated by the organizing committee the vehicle must be

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capable to run on number terrains such as but not limited to gravel, loose sail, mud,
hills upto 450 inclination, rocks upto 25 m dumps, stepped logs etc.

1.3 OBJECTIVES

The objectives for the present project are pretty much derived from the performance
of previous years car. Cross functional design deployment was used as the tool for
choosing between the available options at hand. Two sets of objectives were
established based on the cross functional design deployment discussions. The first set
emphasizes on the overall project objectives and the second set on the objective
design parameters to be taken as a goal while designing the vehicle subsystems.

1.3.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVES

Design and build a rugged vehicle expected to sustain the harsh working
environment.
Lower the overall weight as low as possible.
Deploy design for manufacturing and design for assembly philosophies.
Meet the project deadlines

1.3.2 DESIGN OBJECTIVES

TABLE: 1.1.1 DESIGN OBJECTIVES

Parameters Objective
Wheelbase 50-54
Track-width Front: 51-55
Rear: 50-53
Weight 150 Kg
Ride Height 13
Top Speed 55 Kmph
Gradability 35o
Turning Radius 3m
Stopping Distance 8m
Acceleration 100 in 6 sec

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

These design objectives are however subject to change during the course of the
project development, due to design and manufacturing conflicts between different
parameters. But establishment of them at the early stage gives a layout of the final
machine that we intend to design and build.

This concludes the Introduction part of this report, the data presented here
belongs to a domain of vast theory and numerous developments has taken place in
them, so a complete picture cannot be presented here due to constraints on the size of
the establishment.

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A very succinct review of the literature that is believed to form the base of present
subject of study is presented in this chapter. It involves basic definitions,
classifications and general discussion.

For the sake of simplicity the vehicle is divided into a set of systems. A systematic
classification can be found in any good text on automobile engineering, but
sometimes it is done on the basis of requirements and the degree of abstraction to be
maintained. Based on these ideological foundations, we have considered the ATV to
be comprised of following subsystems.

1) Chassis
2) Powertrain
3) Drivetrain
4) Suspension
5) Steering
6) Brakes

2.1 CHASSIS

Automotive chassis is a skeletal frame on which various mechanical parts like engine,
tires, axle assemblies, brakes, steering etc. are bolted. The chassis is considered to be
the most significant component of an automobile. It is the most crucial element that
gives strength and stability to the vehicle under different conditions. Automobile
frames provide strength and flexibility to the automobile. The backbone of any
automobile, it is the supporting frame to which the body of an engine, axle assemblies
are affixed. Tie bars, that are essential parts of automotive frames, are fasteners that
bind different auto parts together.

Chassis is classified into following major types. [4]

1) Ladder chassis
2) Space frame
3) Monocoque
4) ULSAB monocoque

For the present project we are intending to employ a tubular space frame chassis and
the same is described below

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

2.1.1 TUBULAR SPACE FRAME

A tubular space frame chassis employs dozens of circular-section tubes (some may
use square-section tubes for easier connection to the body panels, though circular
section provides the maximum strength), position in different directions to provide
mechanical strength against forces from anywhere. These tubes are welded together
and form a very complex structure, as you can see in the Fig: 2.1.1.

FIG: 2.1.1 TUBULAR SPACE FRAME

2.2 POWERTRAIN

Powertrain refers to the subsystem that produces the power for propulsion. The most
important governing factor in this section is the rulebook. It states that the use of a
Briggs and Stratton 10 HP OHV INTEK internal combustion engine is mandatory.
So no second thought is given to its procurement.

2.3 DRIVETRAIN

Drivetrain constitutes the system that takes power from the engine and provides it to
the wheels. Generally during this process involves successive steps of speed
reduction. Following are the most prominently used drivetrains/transmissions.

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1) Manual transmission
2) Automated manual transmission
3) Automatic transmission
4) Continuously variable transmission (CVT)

Among these available options, continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a fixed
ratio gearbox are most suitable for the set applications in which the present vehicle
falls.

2.3.1 CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)

Internal combustion engines deliver their maximum power and torque over a narrow
rev range. For example, non-turbocharged petrol motors typically deliver peak power
around 5500rpm and maximum torque at 4000rpm.
With the transmission systems weve detailed above, the engine is often operating
outside of its sweet spot for speed, torque or efficiency. A continuously variable
transmission (CVT) seeks to overcome this by offering an infinite number of gear
ratios between a transmissions upper and lower ratio limit. [2]
Most CVTs feature two pulleys connected via a V-shaped belt: one pulley is driven by
the engine, and the other is connected to the wheels. To change gear ratios the
transmission manipulates the ride height of the belt across the pulleys. Unlike cars
with other transmissions, giving a CVT car a little bit more fuel doesnt necessarily
cause engine revolutions to rise unless throttled to very high rotational speeds.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

FIG: 2.3.1 CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (CVT)

2.4 SUSPENSION
Suspension is the prime mechanism which separates the rider form the road. The
suspension of modern vehicles need to satisfy a number of requirements whose aims
partly conflict because of different operating conditions (loaded /unloaded,
acceleration/braking, level/uneven road, straight running/cornering). From the point
of view of an all-terrain vehicle, following are the high performance suspension
layouts extensively used in the industry.

1) Double wishbone
2) Macpherson strut
3) Semi trailing/leading arm
4) Solid axle

Of these, double wishbone system has proved to provide the best performance in all
the passenger as well as racing cars. A trailing arm in the rear suspension provides
large articulation and flexibility of design. [3]

2.4.1 DOUBLE WISHBONE

This consists of two transverse links (control arms) either side of the vehicle, which
are mounted to rotate on the frame, suspension sub frame or body and, in the case of
the front axle, are connected on the outside to the steering knuckle or swivel heads via
ball joints. The greater the effective distance c between the transverse links, the
smaller the forces in the suspension control arms and their mountings become, i.e.
component deformation is
smaller and wheel control more precise.

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FIG: 2.4.1 DOUBLE WISHBONE

2.4.2 SEMI TRAILING ARM

This suspension also known as a crank axle consists of a control arm lying
longitudinally in the driving direction and mounted to rotate on a suspension subframe
or on the body on both sides of the vehicle, Fig: 2.4.2. The control arm has to
withstand forces in all directions, and is therefore highly subject to bending and
torsional stress. Moreover, no camber and toe-in changes are caused by vertical and
lateral forces.

The trailing-arm axle is relatively simple and is popular on front-wheel drive vehicles.
It offers the advantage that the car body floor pan can be flat and the fuel tank and/or
spare wheel can be positioned between the suspension control arms. If the pivot axes
lie parallel to the floor, the bump and rebound-travel wheels undergo no track width,
camber or toe-in change, and the wheel base simply shortens slightly.

FIG: 2.4.2 SEMI TRAILING ARM

2.5 STEERING

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

Steering of a vehicle consists of some similar components. What makes a steering


different from other is the type of steering geometry incorporated. Steering
geometry is a geometric arrangement of linkages in the steering of a car or other
vehicle designed to solve the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of a turn
needing to trace out circles of different radii.

There are only two widely used steering geometries. These have proven so successful
that no other competition has stood up till now. These geometries are

1) Ackermann steering geometry


2) Davis steering geometry

Among these two systems, former is most desirable from design as well as packaging
point of view.

2.5.1 ACKERMANN STEERING GEOMETRY

Ackermann steering geometry is distinguished by the placement of steering rack and


linkages, which are placed in the backside of the front axle. When the vehicle takes a
turn, steered wheels rotate at different angles. This allows the wheels to travel along
different circle radii. [5]

Fig: 2.5.1 ACKERMANN STEERING GEOMETRY

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2.6 BRAKES

Brakes are one of the most important safety features on your vehicle. There are
different types of brakes, both between vehicles and within a vehicle. The brakes
used to stop a vehicle while driving are known as the service brakes, which are either
a disc and drum brake.

2.6.1 DISC BRAKES


Disc brakes consist of a disc brake rotor - which is attached to the wheel - and a
caliper, which holds the disc brake pads. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder
causes the caliper piston to clamp the disc brake rotor between the disc brake pads.
This creates friction between the pads and rotor, causing your car to slow down or
stop.

FIG: 2.6.1 DISK BRAKES

2.6.2 DRUM BRAKES


Drum brakes consist of a brake drum attached to the wheel, a wheel cylinder, brake
shoes, and brake return springs. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder causes
the wheel cylinder to press the brake shoes against the brake drum. This creates
friction between the shoes and drum to slow or stop your car.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

FIG: 2.6.2 DRUM BRAKES

This chapter merely introduced the literature reviewed. For any deeper insight, reader
is directed to refer the reference section. With this much theory and hypotheses, it
would be ideal to move towards design phase.

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CHAPTER 3

DESIGN AND MODELING

3.1 CHASSIS

Various kinds of chassis are discussed in the previous chapter. After analyzing each
for the factors like (weight to strength ratio), manufacturability, cost & available
production facilities, a tubular space frame chassis was decided to be used for the
ATV.

A generic structure of chassis of a BAJA car is shown. All the members are classified
into two types namely primary members & secondary members. Further each major
section of the chassis is named. A list of these sections called members is listed
below. [i]

FIG: 3.1.1 COMPULSORY CHASSIS MEMBERS

Primary members are:

RRH: Rear Roll Hoop

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

RHO: Roll Hoop Overhead Members


FBM: Front Bracing Members
ALC: Aft Lateral Cross Member in Rule B8.3.3
BLC: Overhead Lateral Cross Member
FLC: Front Lateral Cross Member in Rule B8.3.4
CLC: Upper Lateral Cross Member
DLC: SIM Lateral Cross Member
LFS: Lower Frame Side Members

Secondary members are:

LDB: Lateral Diagonal Bracing


SIM: Side Impact Members
FAB: Fore/Aft Bracing Members
USM: Under Seat Member
RLC: Rear Lateral Cross Member
Any tube that is used to mount the safety belts or fuel tank

3.1.1 DESIGN

Design life of the chassis started with objective established in the previous chapter. It
was decided to design the machine around the man. In this approach passenger (man)
is taken as the central agency & chassis (machine) is designed around him. First a
preliminary prototype was built around the driver taking into account ergonomics,
special requirements of subsystem, general/truss requirement etc.

The type of chassis incorporated is tubular space frame chassis. Round tubes are
decided to be used, owing to wide range of their availability and good inherent axial
rigidity.

This initial design was modeled in the 3D CAD environment suite CATIA V5
(Computer Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application). CAD model lays a
foundation for further developments. Accordingly the prototype was passed through a
number of design-analysis loops. The major concerns while iterating the design, were-

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special requirements, strength & stiffness, standard tube mats sizes available,
machining and fastening and the Rulebook.

FIG: 3.1.2 CHASSIS DEVELOPMENT

Two different cross sections are used for the primary and secondary chassis members.
Considering the rulebook and the standard sizes available in the market, following
properties can be stated for the selected cross sections

Primary tubes 1 OD, 3 mm thickness

Secondary tubes 1 OD, 2 mm thickness

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

a) Moment of inertia (I)


I = 64 ( 4 4 )

i) Primary tube:


Ip = 64 (25.44 19.44 )

= 13478.64 mm4

ii) Secondary Tube:


Ip = 64 (25.44 21.44 )

= 10136.75mm4

b) Bending strength

M=

Sy = yield strength = 365 MPa

c = 25.4/2 = 12.7

i) Primary tube

365
Syp = 12.7 13478.6

= 387.38 N-m

ii) Secondary tube


365
Syp = 12.7 10136.75

= 291.33 N-m

3.1.2 SPECIFICATION OF THE FINAL CHASSIS (ROLLCAGE)

Based on the design and analysis final chassis specifications are enumerated in the
table 3.1.1

TABLE: 3.1.1 CHASSIS SPECIFICATIONS

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Parameter Specification
Primary members Secondary members
Material AISI 1018 AISI 1018
Cross section 1 and 3 mm thick round 1 and 2 mm thick
tube round tube
Bending strength 387.378 N-m 291.332 N-m
Bending stiffness 2763 2078
Total length 14 m 20 m
Mass 13.8 Kg 19.74 Kg
Total chassis mass 33.56 Kg

3.2 POWERTRAIN

The selection of powertrain was fully


governed by the rulebook. Use of a Briggs
and Stratton OHV INTAKE IC engine is
mandatory. The specifications of this
engine are mentioned in the Table: 3.2.1.

FIG: 3.2.1 BRIGGS & STRATTON 10 HP ENGINE

TABLE: 3.2.1 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS

PARAMETER SPECIFICATION
Type Briggs and Stratton 20S232 0036-F1
Single cylinder, 4 stroke, gasoline

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

engine
Power 7kw [ 9.3 H.P.] @ 3800 rpm
Max. engine torque 18.6 Nm @ 2600 rpm
Displacement 305 cc
Engine brand Briggs & Stratton
parameter SPECIFICATION
Type Horizontal
Displacement (cc) 305cc
Shaft dimensions 1" x 2-29/32"
Shaft end tapped (in.) 3/8-24
Max. rpm 3800
Ignition system Magnetron Electric
Starting system Recoil
Cylinders (qty) 1
Fuel tank capacity (qt.) 3.2 quarts
Oil capacity (oz.) 26-28 oz.
Air cleaner type Dual Element
Muffler included Yes
Shaft rotation (from pto) CCW
Cylinder bore Cast Iron
Cooling system Air Cooled
Carburetor Float

3.3 DRIVETRAIN

Due to constraints on the drivetrain selection & hence the performance thereof
drivetrain plays a major role in the maximum performance that could be delivered by
the vehicle. The Table: 3.3.1 gives a comparative study of two transmissions
considered to be highly efficient in such applications.

TABLE: 3.3.1 GEAR DRVE VS CVT

Gear Drive Continuously Variable Transmission

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Stepped Shifting Step less Shifting
More traction loss Less Traction loss
Not tunable Highly tunable
High dead weight Low dead weight
High rotational Inertia Low rotational Inertia
Gear Drive Continuously Variable Transmission
Requires clutch, Shifter and other No auxiliary devices are needed.
accessories, which increase weight.
No heating loss Heating causes power loss
Positive drive, no slippage Slippage may occur
Low cost High cost

Based on the analysis of the given data it was decided to use a Continuously Variable
Transmission (CVT) as the main gear reduction device.

A widely used CVT in the student competitions like BAJA is CVTech CVT. Teams
can get this CVT at a discount price from the manufacturer.

3.3.1 DESIGN

But even the maximum speed reduction given by this CVT is not sufficient to give the
desired performance, as a fact it is not even sufficient to move the vehicle. To
supersede this problem, a compound geartrain consisting of CVT and a fixed ratio
gearbox was decided to be implemented. A layout is shown in the Fig: 3.3.1.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

FIG: 3.3.1 TRANSMISSION LAYOUT

This stage mainly consists of determining a gear reduction that would deliver the
desired performance. As minimum and maximum speed ratios are fixed for a given
CVT, the main task that poses is determining the speed reduction needed from the
gear drive.

As quoted above gear ratio is designed for a desired performance. The first task in
this process is to define desired performance. The basic criterion of performance for
the design of speed ratios is taken to be maximum gradability required from the
vehicle. The complete process is elaborated below

Gradability required, = 350

Vehicle weight, W = 210 10 = 2100 N

When on a grade, only a portion of the total weight works to oppose the upward
motion. This effective weight is given by

We = W sin ()

= 2100 sin (35)

= 1204.5 N

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Effective weight act through the tire contact patch. Therefore it applies a resisting
moment on the drivetrain. The resisting moment is given by

M = We tire radius

= 1204.5 0.2794

= 336.54 N-m

The resisting moment has to be balanced be the torque from the engine as seen at the
driveshaft. Therefore the overall speed reduction is given by [8]


G =

336.54
= 18.6

= 18.1:1

As a speed reduction of 3:1 is given by the CVT, the speed reduction required from
the gear drive is given by

18.1
Gg = = 6.1
3

Gg = 7, approximated to compensate for the power losses.

3.4 SUSPENSION

The very first step in the design of suspension system of any vehicle is to gather
whatever vehicle data that is available or to assume some data based on the previous
experience with the similar vehicle. The range of the data may vary from simple
vehicle dimensions to quality knowledge of the vehicle properties.

In our case vehicle data is based on the previous experience and basic the
dimensioning of space requirement of various subsystems along with passengers (in
our case only one).

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

FIG: 3.4.1 DESIGN METHODOLOGY

Vehicle data assumed in the suspension design is:

Total Vehicle weight - 210 Kg

Front vehicle weight - 84 Kg

% Front vehicle weight - 40 %

Front corner weight - 42 Kg

Front corner sprung weight - 30 Kg

3.4.1 DESIGN

Suspension design of a vehicle is not done directly considering the 3-Dimensional


components. Instead first a kinematic mechanism is designed and then components
are designed to scope to the kinematic design. The kinematic design is itself done in 2
stages 2-Dimensional design and 3-Dimensional design. [1]

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Suspension design cannot be done in one pass design approach; it needs to go through
a number of design-analysis-design loops, before we arrive at the final design.
Following are the initial design considerations and in no way represent the intended
design. But they lay a foundation we can work on and progress towards a design that
would deliver us the desired performance.

3.4.1.1 TWO-DIMENSIONAL DESIGN

Starting off suspension design in 2D is beneficial for easy interpretation of vehicle


data and performance goals. 2D design is about designing the basic suspension
dimensions and parameters in 2D.

A schematic of suspension design in the 2D environment is shown the Fig: 3.4.2.

FIG: 3.4.2 TWO DIMENSIONAL SUSPENSION GEOMETRY

3.4.1.2 THREE-DIMENSIONAL DESIGN

3D design is can be thought of as the process of projecting front and side orthographic
(2D) views in 3D space and specifying some extra design parameters.

FIG: 3.4.3 THREE DIMENSIONAL SUSPENSION GEOMETRY

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

3.4.2 FINAL DESIGN

Thus we have arrived at a front suspension model for an ATV that best satisfies our
needs. Most of the targets are fulfilled and suspension hardpoints give a system that is
packable, performance oriented and most importantly tunable.

Following are the performance parameters of final system.

TABLE: 3.4.1 BUMP PERFORMANCE

Wheel Travel Camber Toe


-50 2.2 2.1
-25 1.1 1
0 0 0
25 -1.1 -1
50 2.2 -2
75 3.3 -2.8

TABLE: 3.4.2 ROLL PERFORMANCE

Roll angle Camber Toe


-3 -2.1 0.2
-2 -1.7 0.15
-1 -1.1 0.1
0 0 -0.1
1 1.7 -0.14
32 2.9 -0.19

3.5 STEERING SYSTEM

Steering system of a vehicle is one of the most frequently underestimated subsystems


of an automobile. Though its function seems to be simple, the design variables of a
steering system greatly affect not only the steerability but also the suspension and
acceleration and braking performance of the automobile.

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In reference to the present design problem it can be seen that the suspension system
plays the most important role in the performance of an ATV. So any ill effects on its
performance from the steering system are not tolerable.

There are two major steering geometries used in automobiles, namely Ackermann
steering gear and Davis steering gear. Out of these two former is very popular because
of the ease of design, production, and packaging. A schematic representation of a
generic Ackermann steering geometry is shown in Fig: 3.5.1

FIG: 3.5.1 ACKERMANN STEERING GEOMETRY

Table: 3.5.1 shows the design parameters of the Ackerman steering system to give
optimum steering performance, but this design does not guarantee an optimum
suspension performance. This drawback is dealt with in the analysis phase, when a
complete suspension and steering system is tested for suspension as well as steering
performance.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle


TABLE: 3.5.1 STEERING DESIGN PARAMETERS

Parameter Specification
Steering ratio 50.4 mm/rev
Turning radius 2.8 m
Outer wheel angle 21.69o
Inner wheel angle 35.65o
Ackermann angle 16o
Steering arm length 80 mm
Rack travel 2
Inner ball joint distance 203.2 mm
Outer ball joint distance 678 mm
Steering scrub radius 15 mm
Percentage Ackermann 141.62 %
Toe rod length 395 mm

3.6 BRAKING SYSTEM

Braking system in an ATV does many other tasks than merely stopping the vehicle.
Braking system enhances the cornering ability of the vehicle; it also enhances the
ability of the vehicle to negotiate ditches, pits etc.

A very diverse variety of braking system technologies is available at the hands of a


brakes engineer. From the actuation point of view, considering the braking
performance needed and practical constraints, a hydraulically actuated system would
be a good design. Similarly, for the mechanical components, a disc brake system
would deliver the desired performance.

Based on the previous experience with similar designs, following components were
finalized to be implemented in the braking system.

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TABLE: 3.6.1 BRAKE COMPONENETS

Component Type
Master cylinder Bosch, Tandem master cylinder, single
reservoir
Brake caliper Floating type, 2 cylinder
Brake disc Stock ventilated, tempered steel disc

An account of the brake system specifications is presented in the Table: 3.6.2

TABLE: 3.6.2 BRAKE SPECIFICATIONS

Parameter Specification
Weight Bias 40 : 60 (Front to Rear)
Stopping distance 10 m at 50 kmph
Calipers Floating twin piston caliper 32mm dia.
Rotor 200 mm dia.
Pedal ratio 5
Master cylinder 15 mm dia. Piston twin circuit with
separate reservoirs and 30 mm stroke
Brake fluid DOT 3
Weight transfer at 50 kmph 865.8 N
Brake torque needed Per wheel 176.8 N-m (Front) & 77.588 N-m (Rear)
Force required by Caliper cylinders 5525 N

We would like to conclude this chapter by quoting a note about the design process.
The design process was keen brainstorming and corresponding iterations. Therefore
instead of presenting the unnecessary intermediate ambiguous stages, only initial
considerations and the final design are presented.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS

Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in
order to get better understanding of it.

In the present chapter mathematical and computer aided analysis of various


subsystems of the vehicle is discussed. Computer aided analytical tools allow us to
analyze the environments which otherwise require lengthy and cumbersome
calculations.

It may be noted that the analysis, like design, is not a one pass process. In fact there
are as much analyses as the design iterations. Therefore, considering the problem
involved in quoting all the iteration steps, it would be ideal to restrict the report to the
last iteration only.

Analytical treatment to final designs of major subsystems will be dealt with in the
following sections.

4.1 CHASSIS

Chassis is the main bearing part of the vehicle. It has to support vehicle subsystems,
passenger but most importantly it is subjected to the loads from the terrain on which
the vehicle runs.

Owing to the requirements of an ATV, the chassis is subjected to severe road-loads.


These loads are transferred from the road to wheels to suspension system to the cassis.
Road loads can be evaluated by MBD (Multi-Body Dynamics) study of the vehicle.
But this way we can research very limited domain of actual loads experienced by
chassis.

The best way to deal with this problem is to use the traditional way of loading. In this
method there are some good-practices used in the industry. These include generic
load formulae, which can deliver a maximum amount of force that can be expected to
be borne by the chassis. This approach also takes into consideration the limits within
which human body, passenger, can stay unharmed and perform some basic tasks.

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Various possible modes in which a chassis can fail are known as load cases.
Following are the load cases of our interest

1) Front Impact
2) Rear Impact
3) Side Impact
4) Front Roll-Over
5) Torsion

Forces applied on the chassis are measured in a generic unit of G. The definition of
one G is one G force is the product of the mass and the acceleration due to
gravity. [1]

1G = M g

Where: M mass, g acceleration due to gravity = 10 m/s2 (approximation)

All the load cases are evaluated for the present chassis using Finite Element Method
(FEM) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A computer program has to be employed to
deploy this method for an application using CAD geometries. For the present analysis
Altair Hyperworks Version 12 was used.

Following subsections discuss analysis of the stated load cases using FEA tool.

4.1.1 FRONT IMPACT

For the front impact analysis a load of 10G was assumed to act on the front facing
area of the chassis, while the rear suspension pick-up points were supposed to be
fixed and the front suspension pick-up points to be constrained in translation along the
longitudinal and transverse axes of the vehicle and also in rotation about vertical axis.

Force applied

10G = 10 M g

= 10 210 10

= 21000 N

A snapshot of the stress analysis of this load case is shown in Fig: 4.1.1.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

FIG: 4.1.1 STRESS CONTOUR OF FRONT IMPACT

Fig: 4.1.1 shows the stress contour on the surface of the chassis. It can be seen that
maximum stress is concentrated at the junction of SIM and FBMup support.

Maximum stress induced = 123.82 MPa

Maximum deformation = 4.36 mm

Factor of safety FOS = Allowable stress/induced stress

Allowable stress = yield stress

= 365 MPa

365
FOS = 123.82

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FOS = 2.95

4.1.2 REAR IMPACT

For the rear impact analysis a load of 10G was assumed to act on the rear suspension
pick-up points of the chassis, while the front suspension pick-up points were supposed
to be fixed and the rear suspension pick-up points to be constrained in translation
along the longitudinal and transverse axes of the vehicle and also in rotation about
vertical axis.

Force applied

10G = 10 M g

= 10 210 10

= 21000 N

A snapshot of the stress analysis of this load case is shown in Fig: 4.1.2.

FIG: 4.1.2 STRESS CONTOUR OF REAR IMPACT

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

Fig: 4.1.2 shows the stress contour on the surface of the chassis. It can be seen that
maximum stress is concentrated in the tubing of the engine and drivetrain
compartment.

Maximum stress induced = 173.32 MPa

Maximum deformation = 13.3 mm

Factor of safety FOS = Allowable stress/induced stress

365
FOS =173.32

FOS = 2.1

4.1.3 SIDE IMPACT

For the side impact analysis a load of 5G was assumed to act on the SIM of the
chassis, while the all the suspension pick-up points were supposed to be fixed
longitudinally and transversely and also in rotation about longitudinal axis.

Force applied

5G = 5 M g
= 5 210 10
= 10500 N

A snapshot of the stress analysis of this load case is shown in Fig: 4.1.3.

Fig: 4.1.3 shows the stress contour on the surface of the chassis. It can be seen that
maximum stress is concentrated in the tubing supporting the engine and drivetrain
compartment.

Maximum stress induced = 336.6MPa

Maximum deformation = 6.81 mm

Factor of safety FOS:

365
FOS = 336.6

31
FOS = 1.1

FIG: 4.1.3 STRESS CONTOUR OF SIDE IMPACT

4.1.4 FRONT ROLL-OVER

For the front roll-over analysis a load of 2.5G was assumed to act on the C points of
the chassis, while all the suspension pick-up points were supposed to be fixed.

Force applied

2.5G = 2.5 M g

= 2.5 210 10

= 5250 N

A snapshot of the stress analysis of this load case is shown in Fig: 4.1.4.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

Fig: 4.1.4 shows the stress contour on the surface of the chassis. It can be seen that
maximum stress is concentrated in the area around lateral cross member joining C
points and a part of roll hoop overhead members.

Maximum stress induced = 54.4 MPa

Maximum deformation = 1.45 mm

Factor of safety FOS:

365
FOS = 54.4

FOS = 6.7

FIG: 4.1.4 STRESS CONTOUR OF FRONT ROLLOVER

4.1.5 TORSION

33
For the torsion analysis a load of 1G was assumed to act at the front suspension pick-
up points in the opposite directions, while rear suspension pick-up points were
assumed to be fixed.

Force applied

2.5G = 2.5 M g

= 2.5 210 10

= 5250 N

A snapshot of the stress analysis of this load case is shown in Fig: 4.1.5.

FIG: 4.1.5 STRESS CONTOUR OF TORSION TEST

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

Fig: 4.1.5 shows the stress contour on the surface of the chassis. It can be seen that
maximum stress is concentrated in the area around lateral cross member joining C
points.

Maximum stress induced = 301 MPa

Maximum deformation = 11.8 mm

Factor of safety FOS:

365
FOS = 301

FOS = 1.23

4.2 DRIVETRAIN

A layout and basic working components of the drivetrain system has been established
in the design stage, along with speed reductions and performance aimed. This section
will deal with analysis of the design parameters to test their validity for performance
goals.

Speed

i) Minimum speed


Minimum speed =

2 1750 0.279 60
= 3 7

= 8778 m/min

Minimum speed = 8.78 Km/hr.

ii) Maximum speed


Maximum speed =

35
2 3800 0.279 60
= 1 7

= 57180 m/min

Maximum speed = 57.2 Km/hr.

4.3 SUSPENSION

Suspension design by itself is an iterative process, a loop of design-analysis-design.


Suspension analysis is the kinematic analysis of connected links mechanisms. These
mechanisms may have any number of links and joints. An analysis of a complex
system such as a suspension system has numerous data variables to be evaluated. This
kind of job is too lengthy and exhaustive if done manually. Therefore computer aided
kinematic suspension analysis program Lotus SHARK suspension analyzer is
utilized. In this software a virtual suspension model is analyzed for a given wheel
travel. The result is values of different values of the suspension variables for
corresponding wheel travel. Fig shows the virtual model of the suspension as viewed
in Lotus SHARK suspension analyzer.

FIG: 4.3.1 SUSPENSION MODEL IN LOTUS SHARK SUSPENSION ANALYZER

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

Graphs are the perfect mode for analyzing the suspension variables against the wheel
travel. These gives a data value at a corresponding input as well as a pattern of the
variation of the two concerned entities can be studied in an effective manner. Most of
the times merely individual values are not of the interest, rather a pattern in which
they correlate are also equally important. For this very reason analysis results are
presented in the form of graphs along with numerical values for salient points at
regular intervals.

Suspension system was analyzed for following major suspension variables:

1) Camber angle
2) Caster angle
3) Kingpin axis inclination
4) Toe angle
5) Tire scrub

4.3.1 CAMBER ANGLE

Camber angle has the maximum bearing on the traction profile of a tire. But this
general theory does not fit completely to the suspension system of an ATV. This can
be justified by low traction tires and uneven terrain that is most commonly come
across.

A negative camber gain while tire moves in jounce is considered good, as it helps
counteract the positive camber gain at the outer wheel due to centrifugal force.
Similarly a positive camber gain in rebound is considered good, as it counteracts the
negative camber gain at inner wheel. In all-terrain vehicles it large camber gains are a
common practice. This helps concentrate most of the benefits on other important
variables. This ideology was adopted for the complete analysis of the system.

Now the results of the final analysis run of the suspension system are presented. On
the graph wheel travel is plotted along the abscissa and the camber angle along the

37
ordinate. An account of camber change with respect to the wheel travel is given in the
Table: 4.3.1

FIG: 4.3.2 CAMBER GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL PLOT

TABLE: 4.3.1 CAMBER GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL

Wheel travel Camber angle


60 -1.3
40 -0.8
20 -0.4
0 0
-20 0.4
-40 0.8
-60 1.3

4.3.2 CASTER ANGLE

Caster angle is a suspension parameter that does not affect the performance directly. It
essentially affects the camber gain in cornering and steer conditions. A nearly
constant caster change results in better performance because caster adversely affects
the camber.

The results of the final analysis run of the suspension system are presented. On the
graph wheel travel is plotted along the abscissa and the caster angle along the

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

ordinate. An account of caster change with respect to the wheel travel is given in the
Table: 4.3.2

FIG: 4.3.3 CASTER GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL PLOT

TABLE: 4.3.2 CASTER GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL

Wheel travel Caster angle


60 -3.71
40 -3.71
20 -3.71
0 -3.70
-20 -3.71
-40 -3.71
-60 -3.71

4.3.3 KINGPIN AXIS INCLINATION (KPI)

Kingpin inclination also has bearing on the camber angle as well as the steer angle
during suspension travel as well as steer. A constant kingpin inclination in ideal
condition during suspension travel will give optimum performance. But this
condition can never be met in the actual system.

39
The results of the final analysis run of the suspension system are presented. On the
graph wheel travel is plotted along the abscissa and KPI along the ordinate. An
account of KPI change with respect to the wheel travel is given in the Table 4.3.3

FIG: 4.3.4 KPI GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL PLOT

TABLE: 4.3.3 KPI GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL

Wheel travel KPI


60 1.23
40 0.8
20 0.4
0 0
-20 -0.4
-40 -0.8
-60 -1.23

4.3.4 TOE ANGLE

Change of toe angle is known as bump steer. Bump steer affects suspension
performance and the handling altogether. From performance point of view a toe
change results in power loss due to inefficient wheel direction. Handling is also

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

affected as during bump steer, vehicle is being steered in a way not intended by the
driver. Owing to these reasons ideally bump steer should be reduced to zero. But a
bump steer so small that may not be experienced by the driver and affect the
performance is acceptable compromise if other important variables are at stake.

The results of the final analysis run of the suspension system are presented. On the
graph wheel travel is plotted along the abscissa and toe angle along the ordinate. An
account of toe angle change with respect to the wheel travel is given in the Table:
4.3.4

FIG: 4.3.5 TOE GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL PLOT

TABLE: 4.3.4 TOE GAIN VS WHEEL TRAVEL

Wheel travel Toe angle


60 0.001
40 -0.009
20 -0.009
0 0
-20 0.013
-40 0.047
-60 0.086

41
4.3.5 TIRE SRCUB

Tire scrub directly affects the traction of the tire. As can be easily visualized, a
transverse motion of the tire when it moves in jounce or rebound naturally makes
it lose its contact with the ground. So it is clear that tire scrub should not be allowed,
but for the most obvious reasons as described before a small amount of tire scrub is
tolerated as a part of design compromise.

The results of the final analysis run of the suspension system are presented. On the
graph wheel travel is plotted along the abscissa and tire scrub along the ordinate. An
account of tire scrub change with respect to the wheel travel is given in the Table:
4.3.5

FIG: 4.3.6 SCRUB VS WHEEL TRAVEL PLOT

TABLE: 4.3.5 SCRUB VS WHEEL TRAVEL

Wheel travel (mm) Tire scrub (mm)


60 3.35
40 2.75
20 1.6
0 0

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

-20 -2.1
-40 -4.75
-60 -7.9

4.4 STEERING

Steering system is also a kinematic mechanism. Ackermann steer gear essentially


constitutes a four bar chain. Kinematic analysis of this mechanism was also done in
Lotus SHARK suspension analyzer. Major suspension parameters of concern that
are affected by the steering performance are analyzed below.

4.4.1 TOE ANGLE

Results of the final analysis run of suspension system are presented. On the graph
wheel travel is plotted along the abscissa and toe angle along the ordinate.

FIG: 4.4.1 TOE ANGLE VS STEER TRAVEL PLOT

4.4.2 PERCENTAGE ACKERMANN

Results of the final analysis run of suspension system are presented. On the graph
wheel travel is plotted along the abscissa and toe angle along the ordinate.

43
FIG: 4.4.2 % ACKERMANN VS STEER TRAVEL PLOT

CHAPTER 5

FINAL DESIGN AND DISCUSSION

A system approach was employed for the design of the vehicle subsystem as well the
vehicle as a whole. This rewards the designer with the ability to obtain a design that
delivers the design goals as a system. Final design of the ATV is essentially a
commemoration of the subsystems designed and analyzed in the leading chapters. But
some systems employed in the vehicle are not discussed; these systems for various
sets of reasons were not in the domain of the design and analysis of the present
project.

Now the complete design of the ATV is discussed in subsequent sections. These are
mainly the CAD models created in CATIA V5. A complete assembly of the vehicle
prepared using a CAD suite allows us to study space as well as operational details of
the designed system.

5.1 FIANAL VEHICLE DESIGN REVIEW

Major design parameters of the final design are presented in the Table: 5.1.1.

TABLE: 5.1.1 VEHICLE DESIGN PARAMETERS

PARAMETER SPECIFICATION
Wheelbase 1450 mm

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

Front track width 1300 mm


Rear track width 1150 mm
Centre of gravity from front axle 580 mm
Centre of gravity height 560 mm
Vehicle weight 160 Kg
Maximum speed 57.2
Acceleration 7.6 m/s2
Braking distance 10 m @50Kmph
Turning radius 2.8 m
Ride height 279 mm

Table: 5.1.2 gives an overview of the ATV specifications. Major highlights of the
subsystems installed are presented.

TABLE: 5.1.2 SUBSYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

PARAMETR SPECIFICATION
Chassis Tubular space frame
Body panels Polypropylene sheets
Engine Briggs and Stratton 10 HP OHV
Drivetrain CVT + fixed ratio gearbox
Suspension: front Unequal nonparallel double wishbones
Rear Semi trailing arm
Steering Rack and pinion type
Brakes Hydraulic disc brakes with twin piston
calipers

Now some standard views of the vehicle in 3D design environment, CATIA, are
presented along with major dimension quoted on the same.

45
FIG: 5.1.1 FRONT VIEW

FIG: 5.1.2 REAR VIEW

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

FIG: 5.1.3 SIDE VIEW

47
FIG: 5.1.4 TOP VIEW

FIG: 5.1.5 RIGHT ISOMETRIC VIEW

FIG: 5.1.6 LEFT ISOMETRIC VIEW

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

FIG: 5.1.7 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ISOMETRIC VIEW

5.2 DESIGN DISCUSSIONS

After the design of major vehicle subsystems and their assembly, a discussion on the
so obtained product is in order. This will include discussion of technical performance
of a subsystem as well as the effect of its performance on other subsystem(s).
Engineering design compromises made during the development process are also
discussed.

5.2.1 CHASSIS

Major goals while designing the chassis were to get a light, robust and yet spacious
design meeting the performance as well as rules requirements. Final specifications of
the chassis reveal that these goals are more than met. FEA analysis of chassis
confirms that a good mix of strength and stiffness has been successfully achieved
without having much bearing on the weight.

49
Major design compromises made during the development are the choice of rather
conservative tube cross sections and a comparatively non mass-efficient tube material.

5.2.2 DRIVETRAIN

Drivetrain was aimed to provide maximum transmission efficiency at all working


conditions. To achieve this, requirements were to keep the mass moment of inertia as
low as possible and reduce the power loss due to frictional resistance between
mechanical parts.

Major design compromises that had to be borne are low articulation of the constant
velocity joint and a somewhat surplus mass moment of inertia owing to the use of
steel.

5.2.3 SUSPENSION

Maximum possible wheel travel and ride height coupled with maximum traction at all
wheel positions were some of the important design goals. Damping and springing
performances were left for the testing and tuning stage.

A lot of design compromises were made in this system owing to contradictory nature
of performance variables. Some major compromises include use of stock spring and

dampers, those are inherently non-adjustable.

5.2.4 STEERING

Steering system requirements were clear and precise affect the suspension as lees as
possible and provide god steering response coupled with minimum steering effort.

Major compromise was made in the choice of steering rack which has more inner ball
joint distance than required.

5.2.5 BRAKING

Braking performance required the vehicle to stop in a straight line from average
operating speed. Also a small lightweight system was aimed at.

The main compromise was made by choosing stock brake parts.

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

We shall conclude the present report with expected and intended applications and
inherent limitations followed by a formal conclusion. These are presented in a
comprehensive manner.

6.1 APPLICATIONS

The ATV industry has only recently started to flourish in Indian mass consumer
market. Until very recent years ATVs were limited constrained to special domains
including but not limited to army, adventure sport enthusiasts, geological and wild life

51
researchers etc. One of the major credit of popularization and this so called boom of
the ATVs is accredited to the internet and global television. There is an increasing
demand from all over the aisles of the economy and society. Some of the domains
where the application of the present endeavor is specifically intended and/or expected
are

1) Weekend enthusiasts
2) Adventure sport mountaineers
3) Student/youth competitions
4) Farmers during hard weather
5) Researchers

6.2 LIMITATIONS

Similar to any engineering design and product development numerous compromises


were made during the whole lifecycle of the ATV. With these compromises come
some inevitable drawbacks and limitations. But there is a different set of limitations,
the one which arises from the inherent lacunas in the basic design decisions and the
layouts themselves.

Below are enlisted some of the limitations that fall under at least one of the mentioned
sets. They are considered to cause a nuisance to the designed performance of the
vehicle, but within acceptable limits.

Limitations

1) At the current stages of development, the design is not capable of sustaining the
environments expected to be encountered in elevated degrees of harshness.
2) The stock performance delivered is not at par with other commercially available
ATVs.
3) Inherent ergonomic deficiencies hinder the long time usage of the vehicle, thus
limiting it to a short term cruiser.

6.3 CONCLUSION

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

We would like begin the conclusion with a quote from renowned auto engineer and
designer Steve Fox: Every engineering design is a box of compromises. The present
project is no exception to this unsaid rule.

Design and development of an all-terrain vehicle has proved to be an intense task. A


lot of the influencing qualities and quantities were considered and manipulated. By
the end of the project we have analyzed the final design on the grounds of set goals
and general considerations about the competition.

The vehicle has proved to be closely following the goal contour. This much
confirmation to the expectancy is just sufficient, as the number of compromises made
have added some inefficiency. These resulted in fair departure from the ideal
performance.

Simulations were performed on computer generated mathematical models of the


vehicle. Based on the results of these simulations, the present design is expected to
render the vehicle as a rugged ATV, coupled with satisfactory overall performance.

Chapter 7

REFERENCES

BOOKS

1. Bill Millikan & Doug Millikan, Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, SAE
International, Detroit, USA, 2003.
2. Olav Aaen, The clutch Tuning Handbook, Aaen performance, Racine, WI,
USA , 1999
3. J. C. Dixon, Suspension Geometry and Computation, SAE International,
Detroit, USA, 1996.

53
4. Jornsen Reimpell & Helmut Stoll, The automotive Chassis, Elsevier, New
Delhi, 2001
5. Thomas Gillespie, Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics, SAE International,
Detroit, USA, 1992.
6. J. Dixon, The shock absorber handbook, SAE International, Detroit, USA,
1999.
7. J. Shigley, C. Mischke, R. Budynas, Mechanical Engineering Design,
McGraw Hill, New York, USA, 2003.
8. Lechner, G., Naunheimer, H., Ryborz, J., and Day, S. Automotive
Transmissions: Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application. Springer-
Verlag, Berlin, 1999.
9. Rudolf Limpert, Brake Design and Safety, SAE International, Detroit, USA,
1992.
10. Heibing, Bernd, Ersoy, Metin, Chassis Handbook, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
2011.

INTERNET

i) BAJA SAEIDIA 2016 Rulebook, SAEINDIA, Chennai, 2015.


http://www.bajasaeindia.org/pdf/2016_Baja%2520SAE%2520India%2520
Rulebook.pdf&sa=U&ved=0ahUKEwiD8_e4zfvMAhUBMJQKHUrfDOc
QFggQMAA&usg=AFQjCNENG8UTg9b6VkFNQ-DuRPFtA0cjZA
ii) The Bibles
http://www.carbibles.com
iii) BAJA archives
http://www.bajatutor.org
iv) "Ackerman Steering and Racing Oval Tracks." AutoWire. 1998.
http://www.auto-ware.com/setup/ack_rac.htm

PROJECT GUIDE

Mr, Pavan J. Bhadange

PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS

Gaurav P. Gedam
Add: Gurudev Nagar, Kathora Naka, Amravati;
Contact: +91 8407904283
E-mail: gauravgedam007@gmail.com

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Design and Development of an All-Terrain Vehicle

55