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LLC

LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter with

PLL Control Scheme

LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter with PLL Control Scheme

by

Wei-Cheng Ju*

National Cheng Kung University

(ABSTRACT)

This thesis proposes a capacitively loaded loop (LLC) DC/DC resonant converter with

phase-locked loop (PLL) control scheme. The PLL control scheme enables the switching

frequency of the converter to continuously track the resonant frequency of the LLC resonant

tank, which means the switching frequency is adjusted in order to obtain the required voltage

gain.

Due to variations in the parameters of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter,

including the LLC resonant tank and the output resistance, the voltage-gain

characteristic of the LLC resonant tank is changed; this causes the fixed- and

frequency in an attempt to obtain the required voltage gain. Therefore, the

converters switching frequency will be lower than the resonant frequency of the LLC

resonant tank, which results in an increase in switching loss.

Thus, this thesis presents a PLL control scheme, the use of which makes the

switching frequency of the converter continuously track the resonant frequency of the

I
LLC resonant tank by detecting the phase signals of the input and transformer

secondary output voltages of the LLC resonant tank. Based on this resonant

frequency, the switching frequency is adjusted to obtain the required voltage gain.

In this thesis, the mathematic software Mathcad is used to complete the characteristic

analysis and the parameters design of the LLC resonant tank. Meanwhile, the

simulation software SIMPLIS is utilized to complete the system analysis and the

compensator design of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter in order to ensure overall

system stability.

The proposed 200W LLC DC/DC resonant converter with PLL control scheme is

then designed and implemented to validate and demonstrate the performance and

feasibility of the proposed DC/DC converter.

Keywords: capacitively loaded loop (LLC), phase-locked loop (PLL), resonant tank,
DC/DC converter.

* The student

II
LLC

* ** **

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LLC

LLC

SIMPLISLLC

200W

LLC

*
**

III

Catena

IV

2.3. Matched Load for Optimal Efficiency ...........................................................................15

2.4. Analysis of the Transformer for the LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter ..........18

CHAPTER 3. PROPOSED PLL CONTROL SCHEME FOR THE LLC DC/DC

RESONANT CONVERTER .....................................................................................23

3.1. Introduction to the Control Schemes .............................................................................23

3.1.1. Fixed-Frequency and Variable-Frequency Controls ......................................25
3.1.2. Phase-Locked-Loop Control..........................................................................27

3.2. Phase Characteristics of the LLC Resonant Tank ....................................................30

3.2.1. Vo/Vs of the LLC Resonant Tank...................................................................30
3.2.2. VLr/Vs of the LLC Resonant Tank..................................................................35

CHAPTER 4. IMPLEMENTATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS..........41

4.1. Introduction..............................................................................................................................41

4.2. Design of the Proposed LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter ...................................43

4.2.1. Design of the LLC Resonant Tank.................................................................43
4.2.2. Design of the Compensator for the LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter .........48

V
4.2.3. Design of the Transformer for the LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter ...........55

4.4. Experimental Results for the PLL-Controlled LLC DC/DC Resonant

Converter ................................................................................................................................59

CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK.......................................77

REFERENCES...........................................................................................................79

VI
List of Figures
Figure 1.1. Distributed power system structure. .......................................................2
Figure 1.2. Conventional LLC DC/DC resonant converter [13]. .............................2
Figure 1.3. Improved LLC DC/DC resonant converter [16]. ...................................3
Figure 1.4. Voltage gain of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter..............................3
Figure 2.1. (a) LLC DC/DC resonant converter, and (b) simulation waveforms for
the LLC DC/DC resonant converter. .....................................................8
Figure 2.2. Circuit diagram during Mode 1. .............................................................9
Figure 2.3. Circuit diagram during Mode 2. .............................................................9
Figure 2.4. Circuit diagram during Mode 3. ...........................................................10
Figure 2.5. Circuit diagram during Mode 4. ...........................................................10
Figure 2.6. Circuit diagram during Mode 5. ........................................................... 11
Figure 2.7. Circuit diagram during Mode 6. ........................................................... 11
Figure 2.8. Circuit of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.....................................12
Figure 2.9. Simplified circuit of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter....................12
Figure 2.10. Equivalent circuit for DC analysis. ......................................................13
Figure 2.11. Equivalent circuit for DC analysis........................................................13
Figure 2.12. DC characteristics of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter. .................14
Figure 2.13. Optimal terminal of the LLC resonant tank with equivalent resistor: (a)
LLC resonant tank with equivalent resistor, and (b) changing the
arrangement from parallel to series......................................................15
Figure 2.14. (a) Equivalent circuit, and (b) the curve of efficiency vs. equivalent
resistance..............................................................................................17
Figure 2.15. Structure of the transformer..................................................................18
Figure 2.16. Reluctance model for the structure of the transformer. ........................18
Figure 2.17. Electrical circuit model of the transformer for the LLC DC/DC
resonant converter. ...............................................................................19
Figure 2.18. Analysis of the transformer during Mode 1. ........................................19
Figure 2.19. Equivalent circuit during Mode 1.........................................................20
Figure 2.20. Analysis of the transformer during Mode 2. ........................................21
Figure 3.1. Configuration of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter. ........................24

Figure 3.3. Block diagram of variable-frequency control.......................................26

Figure 3.4. Relationship between amplitude of voltage gain Vo/Vi and operating

frequency..............................................................................................26

VII
Figure 3.5. Block diagram of the PLL control scheme...........................................28

Figure 3.7. Simplified circuit of the LLC resonant tank.........................................30

Figure 3.8. Gains and phases of Vs/Vin with different values of R in the LLC

resonant tank ........................................................................................31

Figure 3.9. Relationship between phase of Vs/Vin and the different equivalent

resistances REQ at the resonant frequency............................................34

Figure 3.10. Relationship between phase of Vs/Vin and the different resonant

capacitors Cr at the resonant frequency................................................34

Figure 3.11. Gains of Vs/Vin and phases of VLr/Vs with different values of R in the

LLC resonant tank................................................................................36

Figure 3.12. Relationship between the phase of VLr/Vs and the different equivalent

resistances REQ at the resonant frequency............................................39

Figure 3.13. Relationship between the phase of VLr/Vs and the different resonant

capacitors Cr at the resonant frequency................................................39

Figure 4.1. Detailed circuit diagram of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter with PLL control. .................................................................42

Figure 4.2. Operating region of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter. ...................45

Figure 4.3. Circuit of LLC resonant tank................................................................46

Figure 4.4. Gain and phase of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter:......................47

Figure 4.5. (a) Circuit for open-loop small-signal analysis of LLC DC/DC resonant

function of LLC DC/DC resonant converter........................................49

Figure 4.6. (a) Compensator structure for LLC DC/DC resonant converter (b) Gain

for the compensator..............................................................................51

VIII
Figure 4.7. (a) Circuit for closed-loop small-signal analysis of LLC DC/DC

transfer function of LLC DC/DC resonant converter. .........................53

Figure 4.8. (a) Output voltage at different load conditions (b) Output voltage at

different input voltage (c) Simulation results of load change from full

Figure 4.9. Structure of the transformer..................................................................55

Figure 4.10. Detailed schematic of the prototype circuit for the proposed LLC

DC/DC resonant converter with PLL control. .....................................58

Figure 4.11. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at the rated

load and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and IDS2

at the rated load and with 400V input voltage. ....................................60

Figure 4.12. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at the rated

load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and IDS2

at the rated load and with 300V input voltage. ....................................61

Figure 4.13. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 75% of the

rated load and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2

and IDS2 at 75% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage...........63

Figure 4.14. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 75% of the

rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2

and IDS2 at 75% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage...........64

Figure 4.15. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 50% of the

rated load and with 400V input voltage, (c) waveforms for VDS2 and

IDS2 at 50% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage. ................66

Figure 4.16. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 50% of the

rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2

IX
and IDS2 at 50% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage...........67

Figure 4.17. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 25% of the

rated load and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2

and IDS2 at 25% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage...........69

Figure 4.18. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 25% of the

rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2

and IDS2 at 25% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage...........70

Figure 4.19. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 10% of the

rated load and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2

and IDS2 at 10% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage...........72

Figure 4.20. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 10% of the

rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2

and IDS2 at 10% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage...........73

Figure 4.21 Output voltages versus input voltages at different load conditions.....74

Figure 4.22 Output voltages versus output powers at different input voltages. .....74

Figure 4.24. Efficiency of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant converter at different

input voltages and at the full-load condition........................................75

Figure 4.25. Efficiency of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant converter at different

load conditions and with 400V input voltage. .....................................75

X
List of Tables

Table 4.1. Specifications of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter with PLL control. ..43

XI
Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. Background

As illustrated in Figure 1.1, in a distributed power system (DPS) [1-5], the LLC

DC/DC resonant converter is used as a front-end DC/DC converter [6-10], which

converts the 400VDC to 48VDC for the load system. The conventional LLC DC/DC

resonant converter [11-15], as shown in Figure 1.2, is composed of input voltage VDC,

the half-bridge converter with diodes Q1 and Q2, the LLC resonant tank, step-down

transformer T, the full-wave rectifier with diodes D1 and D2, and output capacitor Co.

An improved LLC DC/DC resonant converter has been proposed [16], as shown

in Figure 1.3. The improved LLC DC/DC resonant converter differs from the

conventional one in the following respects. One is that the resonant capacitor is

divided into two capacitors, thus allowing the input current ripple to be reduced.

The other one is that two clamping diodes are put in parallel with the resonant

capacitor, which allows overload protection to be achieved. Therefore, the voltage

stress on the resonant capacitor is limited, and thus a low-voltage capacitor can be

used.

For the requirement of hold up time, the system is required running at full power

for 20 ms when AC input is lost. During hold up time, the energy will draw from

400 V bus capacitor which causes voltage drop on 400 V bus. Therefore, for a

normal design, the front-end DC/DC converter input voltage range will be 300 V to

400 V. As shown in Figure 1.4, while the input voltage of the LLC DC/DC resonant

converter drops to 300 V, the operating frequency of the converter must be reduced in

1
order to make the converter operate at the required voltage gain. Thus, the required

variable-frequency controls [17-18] result in increased turn-on switching losses

because the converters operating frequency could be lower than its resonant

frequency [19] which means the switches of the converter are not operated in

zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) condition. In order to overcome this drawback, this

thesis proposes a PLL control scheme for the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

48VDC
400VDC
System
Power Front-end
Factor DC/DC High Voltage
Correction Converter VRM

On-board Low Voltage

Converter VRM
Figure 1.1. Distributed power system structure.

Q1
Cr Lr T D1

VDC
Co R
ns
Lm np
Q2
ns D2

2
Q1 Cr1 Dc1 L D1
r
T

VDC ns Vs Co R
Vin Lm np
ns

Q2 Cr2 Dc2
D2

Figure 1.3. Improved LLC DC/DC resonant converter [16].

2
Vs Q =
Zo
where Z o =
Lr 8
, REQ = 2 n 2 R
0.1 REQ Cr
Vin
1.5 0.3 VDC=300V
0.5
1 VDC=400V

2
0.5 4

Q=6
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
fs / fr
Figure 1.4. Voltage gain of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

3
1.2. Motivation

Generally speaking, the PLL control scheme has been widely used in

signal-processing and digital systems. The PLL control scheme presented in [20]

involves detecting the phase signals of both the resonant-tank input voltage and the

two leakage inductor terminals in the transformer. The papers [21-22] give

approaches for sensing the capacitor voltage. With the PLL control scheme, the

lamp current is accurately controlled, regardless of variations in the load. In other

work [23], the inductor voltage is sensed for PLL control scheme to tolerate lower

equivalent resistance of the lamps at the steady state and to have the operating

frequency of ballasts continuously track the resonant frequency of the resonant tank.

The concept and IC [24-25] show the regulation of the phase between the midpoint

voltage and resonant inductor current, including plots showing the zero-phase point

tracking the resonant frequency. This is expected based on the input impedance of

the tank. However, the work presented in this manuscript appears to show the same

result, but also senses the inductor voltage. In other work [26], a digital approach for

phase control is presented, including sensing either the resonant inductor current or

voltage. A discrete circuit is given in other research [27] that also senses the

resonant inductor voltage and effectively controls the phase. Another paper [28]

gives an approach for designing ballast with phase control.

Therefore, this thesis proposed the PLL control scheme for the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter. With the PLL control scheme, the operating frequency of the

inverter continuously tracks the resonant frequency while the phase difference of the

inverter at the resonant frequency is always fixed. Thus, the lowest operating

frequency is the resonant frequency. Based on the lowest operating frequency, the

4
operating frequency of the inverter is changed to make the inverter operate at the

required voltage gain. However, because the operating frequency will not be lower

than the resonant frequency of the LLC resonant tank, the switches of the inverter are

both operated in ZVS condition so that turn-on switching losses are reduced.

5
1.3. Thesis Outline

This thesis is comprised of five chapters plus the References. The chapters are

organized as follows.

Chapter 1 is the background review of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter that is

used as the front-end converter in a DPS.

Chapter 2 briefly introduces the analysis of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter,

including its operating principles, its modeling, its optimal design, and the structure of

its transformer.

Chapter 3 introduces the PLL control scheme for the LLC DC/DC resonant

converter, and analyzes the phase characteristics of the LLC resonant tank.

Chapter 4 shows the design of the prototype circuit and demonstrates its

implementation and experimental results.

Chapter 5 gives the conclusions of this thesis and proposes some ideas for future

work.

6
Chapter 2. Analysis of the LLC DC/DC
Resonant Converter
This chapter first introduces the operational principles of the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter. After this brief review, this chapter will present the derivation of

the converters DC analysis. In the subsequent section, the matched load is analyzed

in order to achieve optimal efficiency. Additionally, the transformer used for the

2.1. Operational Principles of the LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter

The operational principles of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter are discussed

in this section. The operational principles can be divided into two time intervals.

In the first time interval, resonance occurs between resonant capacitor Cr and resonant

inductor Lr. In the other time interval, resonance occurs between resonant capacitor

Cr, resonant inductor Lr, and magnetic inductor Lm. Therefore, the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter is a multi-resonance converter because of the different resonant

frequencies at the different time intervals. Figure 2.1 (b) shows the simulation

waveforms of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter. At this time, the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter is operated in region 2 [13]. According to Figure 2.1, one

switching cycle includes six operational modes, and each mode will be explained in

detail as follows.

7
Is1
Q1

Cr Lr ID1
VDC
D1 Io
VCr ILr Co R
Is2 ns
Lm np
Q2 ILm
ns D
2

ID2
(a)

Vgs Q1 Q2
ILr

IL

ILm

Voltage gain
2 Vcr
Region 2
ID ID1 ID2
1.5
0.2
Region 1
0.4
1 Is1
0.6
Region 3
1
0.5 Is2
3
Q=5
0
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
fs/fr t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6

Figure 2.1. (a) LLC DC/DC resonant converter, and (b) simulation waveforms for the
LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

8
Mode 1 (t0-t1):
At t0, switch Q2 is turned off. Since the current of Lr is negative, it flows

through the body diode of switch Q1, which creates a ZVS condition for Q1. The

current of Lr starts to increase because of the resonance between resonant capacitor Cr

and resonant inductor Lr. At the same time, secondary diode D1 is conducting and

the voltage of Lm is clamped by the output voltage. Therefore, the current ID1 begins

to rise. This mode ends when the current of Lr becomes positive at t1.

Q1 Is1

Cr Lr ID1
VDC
VCr D1 Io
ILr Co R
Is2 ns
Lm np
Q2 ILm
ns D
2

ID2
Figure 2.2. Circuit diagram during Mode 1.

Mode 2 (t1-t2):
At t1, switch Q1 is turned on. At this moment, the current of Lr becomes

positive and the current flows through Q1. The current of Lr increases because of the

resonance between resonant capacitor Cr and resonant inductor Lr. However,

diode D1 is still conducting and the voltage of Lm is clamped by the output voltage,

which means the current of Lm increases linearly. This mode ends while the current

of Lr is equal to the current of Lm and the current ID1 reaches zero at t2.

Q1 Is1

Cr Lr ID1
VDC
D1 Io
VCr ILr Co R
Is2 ns
Lm np
Q2 ILm
ns D
2

ID2

Figure 2.3. Circuit diagram during Mode 2.

9
Mode 3 (t2-t3):
When the inductor currents of Lr and Lm are equal, the secondary voltage of the

transformer is lower than the output voltage, which means the output is separated

from the transformer. Therefore, the current ID1 is zero during this mode.

Secondary diodes D1 and D2 are not conducting. Since Lm is not clamped by the

output voltage, Lm is free to participate in the resonance between Cr and Lr.

Q1 Is1

Cr Lr ID1
VDC
VCr D1 Io
ILr Co R
Is2 ns
Lm np
Q2 ILm
ns D
2

ID2
Figure 2.4. Circuit diagram during Mode 3.

Mode 4 (t3-t4):
Switch Q1 is turned off at t3. The current of Lr flows through the body diode of

switch Q2, which creates a ZVS condition for Q2. The current of Lr starts to decrease

because of the resonance between resonant capacitor Cr and resonant inductor Lr. At

the same time, secondary diode D2 is conducting and the voltage of Lm is clamped by

the output voltage. Hence, the current ID2 begins to rise. This mode ends when the

Is1
Q1

Cr Lr ID1
VDC
D1 Io
VCr ILr Co R
Is2 ns
Q2 Lm np
ILm
ns D2

ID2

Figure 2.5. Circuit diagram during Mode 4.

10
Mode 5 (t4-t5):
At t4, switch Q2 is turned on. At this moment, the current of Lr becomes

negative and the current flows through Q2. The current of Lr decreases because of

the resonance between resonant capacitor Cr and resonant inductor Lr. However,

diode D2 is still conducting and the voltage of Lm is clamped by the output voltage,

which means the current of Lm decreases linearly. This mode ends while the current

of Lr is equal to the current of Lm and the current ID2 reaches zero at t5.

Is1
Q1

Cr Lr ID1
VDC
D1 Io
VCr ILr Co R
Is2 ns
Lm np
Q2 ILm
ns D2

ID2

Figure 2.6. Circuit diagram during Mode 5.

Mode 6 (t5-t6):
During this mode, the inductor currents of Lr and Lm are equal, the secondary

voltage of the transformer is lower than the output voltage, which means the output is

separated from the transformer. Therefore, secondary diodes D1 and D2 are not

conducting and the current ID2 is zero. Since Lm is not clamped by the output

voltage, Lm is free to participate in the resonance between Cr and Lr. For the next

switching cycle, the operational principles are the same as those analyzed above.
Is1
Q1

Cr Lr ID1
VDC
D1 Io
Is2 VCr ILr ns
Co R
Lm np
Q2 ILm
ns D
2

ID2

Figure 2.7. Circuit diagram during Mode 6.

11
2.2. DC Analysis of the LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter [13]

Figure 2.8 shows the circuit of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter. In order to

conduct the DC analysis for the LLC DC/DC resonant converter, the circuit must be

simplified. By using the equivalent AC resistor as presented in other work [29], the

LLC resonant tank can be simplified, as illustrated in Figure 2.9. The simplified

circuit is composed of voltage source Vin, capacitor Cr, two inductors (Lr and Lm), and

the equivalent resistor REQ. Then, using the equivalent circuit model presented in

previous work [30], the circuit can be easily derived, as illustrated in Figure 2.10.

Transformer
D1
Cr V
Lr
n : 1

Lr R Vo
ICr
Vin Lm

REQ D2
Figure 2.8. Circuit of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

Cr Lr

Vin Lm REQ Vs

Figure 2.9. Simplified circuit of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

12
Cr Lr js Lr

1 js Lm
js Cr
Vin REQ Vs
Lm

Figure 2.10. Equivalent circuit for DC analysis.

1
js Cr js Lr

Vin js Lm REQ Vs

Figure 2.11. Equivalent circuit for DC analysis.

Under DC conditions, the capacitor can be considered as an open circuit and the

inductor can be considered as a short circuit. Then, the equivalent circuit is further

simplified, as shown in Figure 2.11. Using the circuit shown in Figure 2.11, the DC

gain Vs/Vin can be obtained, as follows:

Vs j n k L
= , (2.2.1)
1
j n 1 + k L 2 + k L (1 n ) Q
Vin 2

s 1 L Lr Z 8
where n = , r = , kL = m , Zo = , Q = o , REQ = 2 R n 2 .
r Lr Cr Lr Cr REQ

Figure 2.12 shows the relationship between the voltage gain and frequency with

different load conditions from Q=0.2 to Q=5. In this figure, the high resonant

13
frequency is determined by resonant inductor Lr and resonant capacitor Cr. However,

the lower resonant frequency is determined by capacitor Cr and the series inductors of

Lr and Lm. For this application, it is preferable for the MOSFET to operate in ZVS.

In order to ensure ZVS operation, the converter is designed to operate above the

resonant frequency, as determined by capacitor Cr and the series inductors of Lr and

Lm.

3
Vs
Vin 2.5
ZVS Region
0.2
2

1.5
0.4
1
0.6
ZCS Region
1
0.5
2
3
Q=5
0
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
fs/fr

Figure 2.12. Voltage gain of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

14
2.3. Matched Load for Optimal Efficiency

The matched load for optimal efficiency is discussed in this section. In order to

calculate the efficiency of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter, the circuits equivalent

series resistance (ESR), RESR, needs to be considered in the circuit, as shown in Figure

2.13 (a); this includes resonant capacitor Cr, resonant inductor Lr, magnetic inductor

Lm, and equivalent resistance REQ. In order to easily calculate the optimal efficiency,

the circuit in Figure 2.13 (a) can be converted to a series format, as illustrated in

Figure 2.13 (b).

RESR Cr Lr

Vin Lm REQ VS

(a)
Lm
RESR Cr Lr 1+q p 2

q p 2 R EQ
1+q p 2

Zi ZL

(b)
Figure 2.13. Optimal terminal of the LLC resonant tank with equivalent resistor: (a)
LLC resonant tank with equivalent resistor, and (b) changing the
arrangement from parallel to series.

15
According to Figure 2.13 (b), input impedance Zi and efficiency can be

easily derived as shown in the following equations:

1 L q p 2 REQ q p 2 REQ
Z i = RESR + + j Lr + j m 2 + , ZL = , (2.3.1)
jCr 1+ qp 1+ qp2 1 + qp2

Lm
where q p = , and
REQ

Re [ Z L ] q p 2 REQ
= = . (2.3.2)
Re [ Z i ] q p 2 REQ + RESR (1 + q p 2 )

Therefore, as shown in Equation (2.3.3), the maximum efficiency is obtained by

equating to zero the first derivative of Equation (2.3.2), which corresponds to REQ:

= 0. (2.3.3)
REQ

REQ ,OPT = Lm . (2.3.4)

From Equation (2.3.4), the maximum efficiency can be found while the parallel

quality factor qp =1 and the REQ is equal to matched resistance REQ,OPT, which is the

using Equations (2.3.2) and (2.3.4), as shown in Equation (2.3.5):

REQ ,OPT
OPT = . (2.3.5)
REQ ,OPT + 2 RESR

Based on the parameters of the LLC resonant tank, in which the values of Cr, Lr,

and Lm are 66 nF, 43 H, and 240 H, respectively, the curves of efficiency vs. load

16
resistance at the resonant frequency can be plotted as shown in Figure 2.14.

According to Figure 2.14(b), the maximum efficiency is achieved around the matched

equivalent resistance, REQ,OPT, at the resonant frequency.

RESR Cr Lr

Vin Lm REQ VS

(a)

0.94

0.93 fs=100kHz

0.92
REQ,OPT=150
0.91

0.9
50 200 350 500
REQ()

(b)
Figure 2.14. (a) Equivalent circuit, and (b) the curve of efficiency vs. equivalent
resistance at the resonant frequency.

17
2.4. Analysis of the Transformer for the LLC Resonant Converter

In this section, the structure of the transformer for the LLC DC/DC resonant

converter is discussed [13]. As illustrated in Figure 2.15, the structure has the same

air gap for all legs and the same winding structure. According to the duality

modeling method [31], the reluctance model can be easily derived, as shown in Figure

2.16.

i2
i1
n2

n1 i3
n3

A gap1
R1 =
0 AC
A gap 2
R2 =
0 AC
A gap 0
R0 =
0 AC

Figure 2.16. Reluctance model for the structure of the transformer.

Through the reluctance model, the electrical circuit of the transformer for the

LLC DC/DC resonant converter can be obtained easily, as shown in Figure 2.17; it

consists of one set of ideal transformer and three inductors. However, the ideal

transformer has the same turns ratio as the real physical structure, and the three

18
inductors correspond to each air gap. Based on the electrical circuit model, the

parameters of the transformer are analyzed in detail, as follows.

L0 n12 A gap1
3 L1 = , where R1 =
1
n3
R1 0 AC
L1 L2 n1 4 n12 A gap 2
L2 = , where R2 =
n3 R2 0 AC
5 n12 A
L0 = , where R0 = gap 0
n2 R0 0 AC
2
Figure 2.17. Electrical circuit model of the transformer for the LLC DC/DC resonant
converter [13].

Based on the electrical circuit model, the analysis of the transformer is divided

into two modes, as shown in Figure 2.18 and Figure 2.20. During Mode 1,

secondary winding n3 is connected to the output voltage. From the circuit in Figure

2.18, the equations of input current and input voltage can be derived, as follows:

iin i0 3
1 n1
L0 n3 Vo

i1 L1 L2 v1
n3 4
Vin

v2 5

2 n2
Mode 1
Figure 2.18. Analysis of the transformer during Mode 1 [13].

19
di1 n2
L1 + v1 = Vin ,
dt n1
di0 n
L0 + v1 + 2 v1 = Vin ,
dt n1
n3
v1 = Vo , and
n1
iin = i0 + i1 . (2.4.1)

Due to Equation (2.4.1), the relationship of the input current and voltage can be

obtained, as follows:

L1 L0 diin 1 L1
Vin = + Vo n2 + n1 . (2.4.2)
L1 + L0 dt n3 L1 + L0

Figure 2.19 shows the equivalent circuit during Mode 1. By comparing Figure

2.19 and Figure 2.18, the relationship can be obtained, as shown in Equation (2.4.3).

Due to Equation (2.4.3), inductor Lr and primary winding na are derived, as illustrated

in Equation (2.4.4).

iin
1 na : n3 3

Lr
Vin Lm Vo

2 4

Figure 2.19. Equivalent circuit during Mode 1.

L1 L0 diin 1 L1 diin 1
Vin = + Vo n2 + n1 Vin = Lr + Vo na
L1 + L0 dt n3 L1 + L0 dt n3 (2.4.3)
Lr na

20
L1 L0
Lr =
L1 + L0
(2.4.4)
L1
na = n2 + n1
L1 + L0

During Mode 2, both secondary windings are unconnected, as shown in Figure

2.20. Using the same analysis described for Mode 1, inductor Lm can be derived as

follows:

na 2 L1 + L0
Lm = L2 . (2.4.5)
n1 L1 + L2 + L0
2

iin i0
1 n1
L0
i1 L 1 L2 v1
Vin

v2

2 n2
Mode 2

Figure 2.20. Analysis of the transformer during Mode 2 [13].

The preceding discussion shows the relationships among primary winding na,

resonant inductor Lr, and magnetic inductor Lm. Based on these equations, the

structure of the transformer can be easily designed.

21
2.5. Summary

This chapter introduces the operational principles of the LLC resonant converter,

which includes six modes. Then, in Section 2.2, the DC analysis of the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter is derived. Furthermore, in order to achieve optimal efficiency,

the matched load for maximum efficiency is explored. Finally, the magnetic design

for the LLC DC/DC resonant converter is discussed.

22
Chapter 3. Proposed PLL Control Scheme for
LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter

3.1. Introduction to the Control Schemes

Generally speaking, the characteristics of the LLC resonant tank are affected by

the input voltage and the output impedance; this means the LLC resonant tank does

not operate at the required voltage gain. Therefore, in order to operate at the

required voltage gain, frequency control is required.

Figure 3.1 shows the configuration of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter, which

consists of DC bus voltage VDC, the DC/AC inverter, the rectifier and the load. The

variable-frequency types can be categorized further as voltage-feedback,

current-feedback, or PLL controls. The following sections will discuss these control

schemes in detail.

23
Figure 3.1. Configuration of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

Frequency Control
Frequency Control Schemes
Schemes
of DC/AC Inverter
of DC/AC Inverter

Fixed-Frequency Control
Fixed-Frequency Control Variable-Frequency Control
Variable-Frequency Control

Voltage- or
Voltage- or Current-
Current-
Phase-LockedLoop
Phase-Locked LoopControl
Control
FeedbackControl
Feedback Control

Figure 3.2. Control schemes for the DC/AC inverter.

24
3.1.1. Fixed-Frequency and Variable-Frequency Controls

Fixed-frequency control [17] is used to drive the switches of the half-bridge

inverter. However, due to the variation in input voltage and output impedance, the

inverter with fixed-frequency control does not actually regulate the voltage gain.

Therefore, fixed-frequency control is not suitable for the LLC DC/DC resonant

Variable-frequency control of the inverter is used to drive switches of the

half-bridge inverter. With the adjustable operating frequency, the LLC resonant tank

can achieve the required voltage gain. In general, variable-frequency control

schemes use either voltage feedback or current feedback [18-19]. Figure 3.3 shows

the block diagram of the variable-frequency control scheme. According to Figure

3.3, the detected feedback signal of the circuit is sent to the control circuit to adjust

the operating frequency, and thus the required voltage gain is achieved.

Figure 3.4 shows the relationship between the amplitude of voltage gain Vo/Vi

and the operating frequency. Figure 3.4 illustrates the different voltage gains, which

are caused by variations in the resonant tank and output impedance. When the

converter is operated with the voltage gain required by the LLC resonant tank, the

operating frequency is fstable1. Variable-frequency control allows Curve1 to be

operated at the required voltage gain while the operating frequency is fstable1.

However, the operating frequency can not provide the required voltage gain for

Curve2. Meanwhile, the operating frequency may be lower than resonant frequency

f1, which increases the turn-on switching losses. Current-feedback control has the

same drawback. Therefore, in this thesis PLL control is proposed to overcome the

drawback inherent in the other two types of variable-frequency control.

25
DC/AC Inverter

VDC
LLC
Tank

Voltage- or Current-
Feedback Control

Figure 3.3. Block diagram of variable-frequency control.

Figure 3.4. Relationship between amplitude of voltage gain Vo/Vi and operating
frequency.

26
3.1.2. Phase-Locked-Loop Control

In order to overcome the drawback of the voltage- or current-feedback control

schemes, the PLL control scheme is presented [20-23]. This scheme is also a

typical variable-frequency control.

Figure 3.5 shows the PLL control scheme, which controls the operating

frequency by locking the phase differences, such as those caused by input voltage,

input current, output voltage, inductor voltage, capacitor voltage, etc. With the PLL

control scheme, the operating frequency of the inverter continuously tracks the

resonant frequency while the phase difference of the inverter at the resonant

resonant frequency. Based on the lowest operating frequency, the operating

frequency of the inverter is changed to make the inverter operate at the required

voltage gain. However, because the operating frequency will not be lower than

the resonant frequency of the LLC resonant tank, the switches of the inverter are

both operated in a ZVS condition. Meanwhile, turn-on switching losses are not

increased. For this reason, the PLL control scheme is better than both

voltage-feedback and current-feedback control schemes.

27
Figure 3.5. Block diagram of the PLL control scheme.

At present, the PLL control scheme has been widely used in signal-processing

and digital systems. The concept and IC [24-25] show the regulation of the phase

between the midpoint voltage and resonant inductor current, including plots showing

the zero-phase point tracking the resonant frequency. This is expected based on the

input impedance of the tank. However, the work presented in this manuscript

appears to show the same result, but also senses the inductor voltage. In other work

[26], a digital approach for phase control is presented, including sensing either the

resonant inductor current or voltage. A discrete circuit is given in other research [27]

that also senses the resonant inductor voltage and effectively controls the phase.

Another paper [28] gives an approach for designing ballast with phase control. In

this thesis, the CD4046 is used as the PLL control IC, and the principle of the PLL is

described as follows.

comparator, a low-pass filter (LPF), and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO).

28
These three parts are connected to form a closed-loop frequency-control system.

Since error voltage Ve(t) at the output of the phase comparator is zero, there is no

signal input applied to the PLL system, which means VCO control voltage Vd(t) is

zero. At the same time, Vd(t) causes the VCO to operate at a set frequency, which is

called the center frequency, fo, [32]. However, while an input signal is applied to the

PLL system, the phase comparator compares the phase and frequency of the signal

input with the VCO frequency and produces an error voltage proportional to the phase

and frequency difference of the input signal and the VCO. Error voltage Ve(t) is

filtered by the LPF and is applied as the control input voltage of the VCO.

Therefore, Vd(t) varies in a direction that reduces the frequency, thus reducing the

frequency difference between the VCO and the signal-input frequency. When the

input frequency is adequately close to the VCO frequency, the closed-loop nature of

the PLL is locked in. Hence, except for a finite phase difference, the VCO frequency

Input
Signal
Vs(t) Vo(t)

fs fo
Phase
Comparator
Ve(t)
Low-Pass Filter
Vd(t)
VCO

CD4046 PLL

Figure 3.6. PLL block diagram [32].

29
3.2. Phase Characteristics of the LLC Resonant Tank

The section presents the phase characteristics of the LLC resonant tank. The

LLC resonant tank, as shown in Figure 3.7, consists of capacitor Cr, two inductors (Lr

and Lm), and equivalent resistance REQ. However, in order to determine a proper

detecting point for tracking the resonant frequency by using the PLL control scheme,

the phase characteristics Vs/Vin and VLr/Vin of the LLC resonant tank must be

analyzed as follows.

Cr VLr

Lr
ICr
Vin Lm REQ VS

Zi

3.2.1. Vs/Vin of the LLC Resonant Tank

Referring to Figure 3.7, the transfer function of Vs/Vin can be obtained at the

resonant frequency, as follows:

Vs ( Z Lm || REQ )
AV = = , (3.2.1)
Vin Z Cr + Z Lr + ( Z Lm || REQ )

1 8
where Z Lr = j Lr , Z Cr = , Z Lm = j Lm , REQ = 2 n 2 R .
jCr

In order to conduct the simulation for the LLC resonant tank, capacitor Cr, two

inductors (Lr and Lm), and three different values of resistance R are respectively 42 nF,

30
60 H, 240 H, 12 , 60 and 120 . Figure 3.8 shows the gains and phases of

Vs/Vin with different values of R. By observing the simulation results for gains and

phases, the phase angle of Vs/Vin at the resonant frequency is 90o while R is equal to

120 . However, when the value of R decreases at the resonant frequency, the phase

difference between Vs and Vin still remains at 90o.

'
VS
(dB)
V in
20

10
R=120
R=60
0

-10 R=12
1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
f(Hz)

V
s
Vin

180o
150o

100o
90o

R=12
50o
R=60
R=120
0o
1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
f(Hz)

Figure 3.8. Gains and phases of Vs/Vin with different values of R in the LLC
resonant tank.

31
The following section shows the analysis and design of the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter in detail to observe the relationship between the phases at the

resonant frequency and the variations in the load.

Equation (3.2.2) shows the input impedance of the LLC resonant tank; using this

equation, the resonant frequency can be obtained, as follows:

1 j Lm REQ
Zi = + j Lr +
jCr j Lm + REQ
(3.2.2)
2 Lm 2 REQ REQ 2 ( m + n 2 1) 2 Lm 2 (1 n 2 )
= +j .
REQ 2 + 2 Lm 2 Cr ( REQ 2 + 2 Lm 2 )
1 L 8
where, n = , r = , k L = m , REQ = 2 n 2 R, m = n 2 QL .
r Lr Cr Lr

the resonant frequency can be derived as follows.

1

1 2

r EQ
R 2
R 4
2 R 2
L 2
2

2 (1 + k L ) + Lm + 4 (1 + k L ) + (1 k L ) + Lm
2
fr = 2 4
EQ EQ m

2 Lm r r r 2

(3.2.3)

Then, Equation (3.2.1) can be modified, as shown in Equation (3.2.4).

Vs m REQ ( m + n 1) j Lm m REQ (n 1)
2 2 2

= (3.2.4)
R 2 ( m + 2 1) + 2 L 2 ( 2 1)
2 2
Vin
EQ n m n

When the phase of Vs/Vin is 90o, the real part of the voltage gain Vs/Vin is zero.

Then, Equation (3.2.6) is obtained by solving Equation (3.2.5), which shows the

parameters of inductor Lm.

32
V m REQ 2 ( m + n 2 1)
Re =
s
=0 (3.2.5)
Vin REQ 2 ( m + n 2 1) + 2 Lm 2 (n 2 1)
2 2

1 2 Lr Cr
Lm = (3.2.6)
2 Cr

Equation (3.2.7), then

Vs m REQ 2 ( m + n 2 1) j Lm m REQ (n 2 1)
A= = . (3.2.7)
R ( m + 1) + L ( 1)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Vin
EQ n m n

A Cr REQ
Lr = . (3.2.8)
A 2 Cr

Based on Equation (3.2.8), Equation (3.2.6) becomes

REQ
Lm = . (3.2.9)
A

Figure 3.9 and Figure 3.10 are obtained by Equations (3.2.3), (3.2.4), (3.2.8) and

(3.2.9). Figure 3.9 shows the relationship between the phase of Vs/Vin at the

resonant frequency and the different equivalent resistances REQ in the steady state, in

which the value of the resonant capacitor is 0.1 nF, the gain ranges between 1 and 50,

and the operating frequencies are 50 kHz, 100 kHz, and 150 kHz. The figure shows

that the phase difference of Vs/Vin remains at 90o, regardless of the operating

frequencies and the required gains. Figure 3.10 shows the relationship between the

phase of Vs/Vin at the resonant frequency and the different resonant capacitors Cr in

the steady state, in which the value of the equivalent resistance REQ is 150 , the

33
gain ranges between 1 and 50, and the operating frequencies are 50 kHz, 100 kHz,

and 150 kHz. The figure shows that the phase difference of Vs/Vin remains at 90o,

regardless of the operating frequencies and the required gains.

V
s
Vin f = f r
Cr=0.1nF
100o
90o
A=1~50

50o
0.1k 1k 10k
REQ()

Figure 3.9. Relationship between phase of Vs/Vin and the different equivalent
resistances REQ at the resonant frequency.

V
s
Vin f = f r REQ=150

100o
90o
A=1~50

50o
0.1n 1n 10n 100n
Cr(F)

Figure 3.10. Relationship between phase of Vs/Vin and the different resonant
capacitors Cr at the resonant frequency.

34
3.2.2. VLr/Vs of the LLC Resonant Tank

According to Figure 3.7, the transfer function of VLr/Vs can be obtained at the

resonant frequency, as follows:.

VLr Z Lr
AVLr = = , (3.2.10)
Vs ZCr + Z Lr + ( Z Lm || REQ )

1 8
where Z Lr = j Lr , ZCr = , Z Lm = j Lm , REQ = 2 n2 R .
jCr

For the simulation of the LLC resonant tank, capacitor Cr, two inductors (Lr and

Lm), and the three different values of resistance R are respectively 42 nF, 60 H, 240

H, 12 , 60 and 120 . Figure 3.11 shows the gains of Vo/Vs and phases of

VLr/Vs with different values of R. The simulation results for gains and phases reveal

that the phase angle of VLr/Vs at the resonant frequency is 90o while R is equal to 120

. Meanwhile, when the resistance decreases from 120 to 12 at the resonant

frequency, the phase angles of VLr/Vs are always equal to 90o. However, according

to Figure 3.11, the phase signal causes the PLL control scheme error malfunction.

Therefore, the phase angle of Vo/Vs will be locked at 90o for the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter proposed in this thesis.

35
Vo
(dB)
Vs
20

10
R=120
R=60
0

-10 R=12
1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
f(Hz)

V
Lr
Vs
180o
150o

100o
90o
R=12 R=60
50o
R=120

0o
3 4 5 6
1k 10k 100k 1M 10M
f(Hz)

Figure 3.11. Gains of Vo/Vs and phases of VLr/Vs with different values of R in the
LLC resonant tank.

36
The following section shows the analysis and design of the LLC DC/DC

resonant converter in detail in order to observe the relationship between the phases at

(3.2.11).

VLr n REQ (n QL + n 1) + n Lm (n 1) + jn Lm REQ QL

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4

=
(n 2 QL + n 2 1) REQ + Lm (n 2 1)
2 2
Vs

1 L
where n = , r = , QL = m
r Lr Cr Lr

(3.2.11)

When the phase of VLr/Vs is 90o, the real part of the voltage gain VLr/Vs is zero.

Then, Equation (3.2.13) is obtained by solving Equation (3.2.12), which shows the

parameters of resonant inductor Lr.

n 2 REQ 2 (n 2 QL + n 2 1) + n 2 2 Lm 2 (n 2 1)
=0 (3.2.12)
(n QL + n 1) REQ + Lm (n 1)
2 2
2 2 2

REQ 2 (1 n 2 QL ) + 2 Lm 2
Lr = (3.2.13)
2 ( Cr REQ 2 + Lm n 2 QL )

Assume that the voltage gain of Vo/Vs is A in the steady state, as shown in

inductor Lm can be obtained as follows:

REQ
Lm = . (3.2.14)
A2 1

37
Based on Equation (3.2.14), Equation (3.2.13) becomes
C R + A2 ( A2 1) C R A2
1

r EQ r EQ
Lr = 2 . (3.2.15)
Cr A2 ( A2 1)

Figure 3.12 and Figure 3.13 can be obtained through Equations (3.2.3), (3.2.4),

(3.2.14) and (3.2.15). Figure 3.12 shows the relationship between the phase of

VLr/Vs at the resonant frequency and the different equivalent resistances REQ in the

steady state, in which the value of the resonant capacitor is 0.1 nF, the gain ranges

between 2 and 50, and the operating frequencies are 50 kHz, 100 kHz, and 150 kHz.

The figure shows that the phase difference of VLr/Vs remains at 90o, regardless of the

operating frequencies and the required gains. Figure 3.13 shows the relationship

between the phase of VLr/Vs at the resonant frequency and the different resonant

capacitors Cr in the steady state, in which the value of equivalent resistance REQ is 150

, the gain ranges between 2 and 50, and the operating frequencies are 50 kHz, 100

kHz, and 150 kHz. The figure shows that the phase difference of VLr/Vs remains at

90o, regardless of the operating frequencies and the required gains.

38
V
Lr
VS f = f r Cr=0.1nF
100o
90o
A=2~50

50o

0o
0.1k 1k 10k
REQ()

Figure 3.12. Relationship between the phase of VLr/Vs and the different equivalent
resistances REQ at the resonant frequency.

V
Lr
VS f = f r REQ=150
100o

90o
A=2~50

50o

0o
0.1n 1n 10n
Cr(F)

Figure 3.13. Relationship between the phase of VLr/Vs and the different resonant
capacitors Cr at the resonant frequency.

39
3.3. Summary

This chapter has proposed a PLL control technique for the LLC DC/DC resonant

converter using the phase-feedback signal. The phase characteristics described in

Section 3.2 are helpful for choosing and designing the LLC resonant tank. With the

proposed control scheme, the operating frequency of the converter continuously

tracks the resonant frequency of the LLC resonant tank at different input voltages and

40
Chapter 4. Implementation and

Experimental Results

4.1. Introduction

Figure 4.1 shows the detailed circuit diagram of the proposed LLC DC/DC

resonant converter with PLL control. The LLC resonant tank includes a Cr-Lr-Lm

resonant-tank network where Cr is made up of Cr1 and Cr2, Lr is the primary leakage

inductor, and Lm is the primary magnetic inductor of the step-down transformer.

According to the analysis presented in Section 3.2, the phase differences of Vs/Vin

and VLr/Vin are always equal to 90o at the resonant frequency despite the value of

output impedance R. However, a comparison of Figures 3.8 and 3.11 shows that

using the phase angle of Vs/Vin for the PLL control scheme can achieve better

performance. Therefore, the phase angle of Vs/Vin will be locked at 90o for the LLC

DC/DC resonant converter proposed in this thesis.

41
Figure 4.1. Detailed circuit diagram of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant converter
with PLL control.

42
4.2. Design of the Proposed LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter

This section introduces the design of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter; its

specifications are listed in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1. Specifications of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter with PLL control.

Specifications Values

Input-Voltage Range 300~400 V

Output Voltage 48 V

Step 1: Determine the Required Voltage Gains

As shown in Figure 4.1, the input voltage of the LLC resonant tank is a square

wave, and the duty cycle of the square wave is 50%. In order to simplify the

analysis of the LLC resonant tank, the fundamental wave of the sinusoidal input

voltage of the LLC resonant tank is approximated as shown in Equation (4.2.1), which

is used to derive the voltage gain of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter as follows:

2
Vrms = VDC , and

(4.2.1)

43
Vo
A= . (4.2.2)
Ns 2
VDC
Np

Based on Equation (4.2.2), the required voltage gains are 1.42 and 1 while the

Step 2: Determine the Limitation of Q

Vs
Vin
2
Zo Lr 8
Q = where Z o = , REQ = 2 n 2 R
REQ Cr
0.2
1.5
VDC=300V
0.4

1 VDC=400V
0.6

1
0.5
3
Q=5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
fs/fr

Figure 4.2 shows the operating region of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter

when the input voltage ranges from 300 V to 400 V. According to Figure 4.2, the

limited range of Q is from 0.4 to 0. Therefore, in order for the converter to operate

at the required voltage gain, the value of Q must be lower than 0.4. The definition of

Q is shown as follows:

Zo Lr 8
Q = where Z o = , REQ = 2 n 2 R . (4.2.3)
REQ Cr

44
Vs
Vin
2
Zo Lr 8
Q = where Z o = , REQ = 2 n 2 R
REQ Cr
0.2
1.5
VDC=300V
0.4

1 VDC=400V
0.6

1
0.5
3
Q=5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
fs/fr

Step 3: Determine Resonant Capacitor Cr and Resonant Inductor Lr

Based on Equations (3.2.6) and (3.2.13), the relationship between Cr and Lr can

be obtained, as follows:

1
f=
2 Lr Cr
. (4.2.4)

According to Equation (4.2.4), the value of the resonant capacitor and inductor

can be found as follows:

Lr = 43 H , Cr = 66nF .

Step 4: Determine the Optimal Efficiency

As analyzed in the previous section, the matched load for optimal efficiency can

be found as follows:

45
REQ ,OPT = Lm . (4.2.5)

Based on Equation (4.2.5), REQ,OPT = 155.63 and f=100 kHz at rated load

condition and 400 V input voltage, the value of Lm can be found as follows:
Lm 240 H .
According to these design steps, all of the parameters for the LLC resonant tank

can be obtained. The values of the designed component parameters for the LLC

Cr Lr

43H

66nF
Vin Lm REQ Vs
240H

Figure 4.3. Circuit of LLC resonant tank.

By use of the parameters shown above, the gain and phase of the proposed LLC

DC/DC resonant converter can be obtained, as illustrated in Figure 4.4, which shows

that the voltage gain of Vs/Vin is 1 when the input voltage is 400 V. Moreover, the

switching frequency of the LLC resonant tank is 100 kHz and the phase difference of

Vs/Vin is approximately 0o. However, when the input voltage is reduced to 300 V,

the switching frequency of the LLC resonant tank is adjusted to 61 kHz. Therefore,

the voltage gain of Vs/Vin is 1.42, and the phase angle of Vs/Vin is approximately 11o.

46
Vs
(dB)
Vin
3

2.5 R=12

1.5 VDC=300V
1.42

1 VDC=400V
fs=61kHz fs=100kHz
0.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
fs/fr

(a)

V
s
Vin
o
180

150o R=12

100o
90o

50o

11o
0o
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
fs/fr

(b)
Figure 4.4. Gain and phase of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter:
(a) gain of Vs/Vin, and (b) phase of Vs/Vin.

47
4.2.2. Design of the Compensator for the LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter

The compensator used for LLC DC/DC resonant converter is analyzed in this

the open-loop control-to-output transfer function is obtained, as shown in Figure 4.5

(b). Then, the following will introduce the design and implementation of the

compensator for the LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

48
Q1
Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vo D1
Vs
Vin
Co R
ns
Lm np
n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

Vc
Driver VCO
Vp

Vs
VDC
Vo

(a)

Gain(dB)
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
Phase(deg)
60
-20
-60
-100
-140
-180
100 1k f(Hz) 10k 100k

(b)

Figure 4.5. (a) Circuit for open-loop small-signal analysis of LLC DC/DC resonant
converter (b) Bode plot of open-loop control-to-output transfer function of
LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

49
With above discussion, the compensator used for LLC DC/DC resonant

converter is shown in Figure 4.6 (a) which is composed of one integrator, one pole

and one zero. The transfer function of this compensator is derived, as shown in

Equation (4.2.6).

Vc
=
(1 + sR2C1 ) =
K ( s + fz )
(4.2.6)
Vo sR1 1 + sR2C1C2 / ( C1 + C2 ) s ( s + f p )

Assuming C1  C2 , the frequencies of the pole and zero are derived, as shown

in Equation (4.2.7).

1 1
fz = , fp = (4.2.7)
2 R2C1 2 R2C2

Based on Figure 4.5, in order to compensate this system, the zero is placed at

3kHz and the pole is placed at 100kHz. Then, using Equation (4.2.7), the parameters

R1 = 10 k, R2 = 470 k, C1 = 120 pF, and C2 = 3.3 pF.

Figure 4.6 (c) shows the simulation waveform of the bode plot for the proposed

compensator. According to Figure 4.6 (c), the turning points are approximately

3kHz and 100kHz which are corresponded to the design values of the compensator.

50
R2 C1

R1
C2
Vo
Vc
Vref

(a)

Gain

-1

fz fp -1

Gain Spectrum

(b)

Gain(dB)

80

60
40

20
Phase(deg)
160

140

120

100
100 1k 10k 100k 1M
f(Hz)

(c)
Figure 4.6. (a) Compensator structure for LLC DC/DC resonant converter (b) Gain
spectrum of the compensator (c) Simulation waveforms of Bode plot for
the compensator.

51
Figure 4.7 (a) shows the circuit diagram of closed-loop LLC DC/DC resonant

converter. With this compensator, the small-signal characteristic of the closed-loop

control-to-output transfer function is shown in Figure 4.7 (b) which is obtained from

the simulation software, SIMPLIS. According to Figure 4.7 (b), the phase margin

(P.M.) of this system is 40o. Figure 4.8 (a) and (b) show the simulation results for

the closed-loop LLC DC/DC resonant converter at different load conditions and input

voltages. However, based on Figure 4.8 (a) and (b), the system has provided a

constant output voltage at the load conditions which range from 25% to rated load

condition and at input voltages which range from 300V to 400V. Figure 4.8 (c)

shows the simulation results for the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant converter under

load change. The output voltage is within 5% regulation when the load changes

52
Q1
Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vo D1
Vs
Vin
Co R
ns
Lm np
Vp
ns D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2 R2 C1

C2 R1

Driver VCO

Vref
Vs

Vo

(a)
Gain(dB)
40
0
-40
-80
-120
Phase(deg)
0
-50
-100
-150
-200 P.M.=40o

100 1k f(Hz) 10k 100k

(b)

Figure 4.7. (a) Circuit for closed-loop small-signal analysis of LLC DC/DC resonant
converter (b) Bode plot for closed-loop control-to-output transfer function
of LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

53
Vo(V)
50
48
46
44 400V
350V
42
300V
40
50 100 150 200 250 300
Po(W)

(a)

Vo(V)
50
48
46
44 300W
200W
42 100W
40
300 320 340 360 380 400
Vin(V)

(b)
49
48
Vo
48.6

Vo 48.2
47.8
47.5
47

47.4 46.5
47
4
4
3
Io 3

Io 2 2
1 1
0 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 25.9 26
25 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5

time/mSecs 100uSecs/div time/mSecs 100uSecs/div

(c)
Figure 4.8. Simulation results using SIMPLIS: (a) Output voltage at different load
conditions (b) Output voltage at different input voltage (c) load change

54
4.2.3. Design of the Transformer for the LLC DC/DC Resonant Converter

This section describes the detailed parameters of the transformer for the LLC

DC/DC resonant converter. For the structure shown in Figure 4.9, two outer legs are

i2
i1
n2

n1 i3
n3

Figure 4.9. Structure of the transformer.

The structure of the transformer shown in Figure 4.9 reveals that L1=L2=0.5Lo.

Based on this relationship and Equations (2.4.4) and (2.4.5), the parameters of the

windings n1, na and n2 are derived as shown in Equation (4.2.8). For the proposed

LLC DC/DC resonant converter, the core used is EE40 and the air gap is 0.5 mm for

all legs.

L1 A gap1
n1 =
0 AC
8 n12 Lm
na = (4.2.8)
9 Lr
1
n2 = na n1
3

According to Equation (4.2.8) and the information about the EE core, the values

of n1, na and n2 can be found as follows:

55
n1 22, na 42, n2 35 .

Because the turns ratio of the transformer is equal to 4, the value of secondary

winding n3 can be obtained as follows:

n3 10 .

However, the primary windings of the transformer are built with three stands of

SWG#29 wire. On the secondary side, the windings of the transformer are built with

six stands of SWG#29 wire.

56
4.3. Implementation of Proposed Resonant Converter

Figure 4.10 shows the complete circuit of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter

with PLL control. The prototype circuit in this thesis is modified from the circuit

driver [34], a LLC DC/DC resonant converter, a phase-detection circuit and a

voltage-regulator circuit. The gate signals of the half-bridge switches are provided

by gate driver L6384, in which the variable-frequency pulse signals are produced

from the VCO of the CD4046. Then, the half-bridge circuit is used to drive the LLC

DC/DC resonant converter. With the PLL control scheme, the operating frequency

of the LLC DC/DC resonant converter continuously tracks the resonant frequency,

and thus the resonant converter can operate at the required voltage gain. In addition,

the maximum and minimum operating frequencies on the IC CD4046 can be set using

one external capacitor and two resistances. Phase detection is realized by a simple

capacitive coupled clipping network and a series of NAND gates, which sharpen the

phase-signal edges and reduce noise. The voltage-regulator circuit regulates the

output voltage by detecting the feedback voltage, which is sensed by the voltage

divider. By comparing this averaged voltage with the reference voltage, the input

voltage of the VCO for the CD4046 can be decreased, and thus the oscillator

frequency can be also decreased. This method increases the output voltage until the

reference voltage is equal to the feedback voltage.

57
Figure 4.10. Detailed schematic of the prototype circuit for the proposed LLC DC/DC

resonant converter with PLL control.

58
4.4. Experimental Results for the PLL-Controlled LLC DC/DC

Resonant Converter

Figure 4.11 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vs and input voltage Vin of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at the rated load and with 400V input voltage. The relationship shows that

the phase difference at the rated load is -10o, which approaches the previous analysis

shown in Figure 4.4 (b). Figure 4.11 (c) shows the experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET. These waveforms illustrate that drain-source current

IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2, which creates a ZVS condition for

primary switch Q2. Therefore, both half-bridge switches work in ZVS at the rated

Figure 4.12 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vs and input voltage Vin, of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at the rated load and with 300V input voltage. The relationship shows that

the phase difference at the rated load is 2o, which approximates the previous analysis

shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the half-bridge bottom

MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.12 (c). These waveforms show that drain-source

current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2, which creates a ZVS

condition for primary switch Q2. Thus, both half-bridge switches work in ZVS at the

59
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vs

Vin
-10o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 100kHz
Vs(10V/div) ; Vin(10V/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 100kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.11. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vs and Vin at the rated load
and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and IDS2 at the
rated load and with 400V input voltage.

60
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vs

Vin
2o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.2kHz
Vs(10V/div) ; Vin(10V/div) ; Time Base(10s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.2kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.12. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vs and Vin at the rated load
and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and IDS2 at the
rated load and with 300V input voltage.

61
Figure 4.13 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vo and input voltage VDS2 of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 75% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage. The relationship

shows that the phase difference at 75% of the rated load is -8o, which approaches the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.13 (c). These waveforms

illustrate that drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2,

which creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Therefore, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 75% of the rated load.

Figure 4.14 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vo and input voltage VDS2 of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 75% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage. The relationship

shows that the phase difference at 75% of the rated load is 3o, which approximates the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.14 (c). The waveforms show

that drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2, which

creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Consequently, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 75% of the rated load.

62
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vo

VDS2
-8o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.6kHz
Vo(10V/div) ; VDS2(10V/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.6kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.13. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 75% of the
rated load and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and
IDS2 at 75% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage.

63
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vo

VDS2
3o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.5kHz
Vo(10V/div) ; VDS2(10V/div) ; Time Base(10s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.5kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.14. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 75% of the
rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and
IDS2 at 75% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage.

64
Figure 4.15 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vo and input voltage VDS2 of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 50% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage. The relationship

shows that the phase difference at 50% of the rated load is -5o, which approaches the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.15 (c). These waveforms

illustrate that drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2,

which creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Therefore, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 50% of the rated load.

Figure 4.16 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vo and input voltage VDS2, of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 50% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage. The relationship

shows that the phase difference at 50% of the rated load is 1o, which approximates the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.16 (c). These waveforms reveal

that drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2, which

creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Consequently, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 50% of the rated load.

65
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vo

VDS2
-55oo Phase
phase Difference
difference
Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.4kHz
Vo(10V/div) ; VDS2(10V/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.4kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.15. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 50% of the
rated load and with 400V input voltage, (c) waveforms for VDS2 and IDS2
at 50% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage.

66
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vo

VDS2
1o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.5kHz
Vo(10V/div) ; VDS2(10V/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.5kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.16. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 50% of the
rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and
IDS2 at 50% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage.

67
Figure 4.17 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vo and input voltage VDS2 of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 25% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage. The relationship

shows that the phase difference at 25% of the rated load is -4o, which approaches the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.17 (c). These waveforms

illustrate that drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2,

which creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Therefore, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 25% of the rated load.

Figure 4.18 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vo and input voltage VDS2 of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 25% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage. The relationship

shows that the phase difference at 25% of the rated load is 0o, which approximates the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.18 (c). These waveforms reveal

that drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2, which

creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Consequently, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 25% of the rated load.

68
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vo

VDS2
-4o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.1kHz
Vo(10V/div) ; VDS2(10V/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.1kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.17. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 25% of the
rated load and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and
IDS2 at 25% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage.

69
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vo

VDS2
0o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.9kHz
Vo(10V/div) ; VDS2(10V/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.9kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.18. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vo and VDS2 at 25% of the
rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and
IDS2 at 25% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage.

70
Figure 4.19 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vs and input voltage Vin of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 10% of the rated load and 400V input voltage. The relationship shows

that the phase difference at 10% of the rated load is -3o, which approaches the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.19 (c). According to the

waveforms, drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2,

which creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Therefore, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 10% of the rated load.

Figure 4.20 (b) shows the experimental waveforms for transformer secondary

output voltage Vs and input voltage Vin of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant

converter at 10% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage. The relationship

shows that the phase difference at 10% of the rated load is 1o, which approximates the

previous analysis shown in Figure 4.4 (b). The experimental waveforms for the

half-bridge bottom MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.20 (c). These waveforms reveal

that drain-source current IDS2 flows through the body diode of switch Q2, which

creates a ZVS condition for primary switch Q2. Consequently, both half-bridge

switches work in ZVS at 10% of the rated load.

71
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

V s

Vin
-3o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.6kHz
Vs(10V/div) ; Vin(10V/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=400V ; Switching Frequency = 103.6kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.19. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vs and Vin at 10% of the
rated load and with 400V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and
IDS2 at 10% of the rated load and with 400V input voltage.

72
Q1 Cr1 Dc1
Lr T Vs D1
Vin
VDC Co R
ns
Lm np
IDS2 n s D2

Q2 Cr2 Dc2

(a)

Vs

Vin
1o Phase Difference
Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.5kHz
Vs(10V/div) ; Vin(10V/div) ; Time Base(10s)
(b)

VDS2

IDS2

Input Voltage=300V ; Switching Frequency = 61.5kHz

VDS2(200V/div) ; IDS2(2A/div) ; Time Base(5s)
(c)

Figure 4.20. (a) Circuit block diagram, (b) waveforms for Vs and Vin at 10% of the
rated load and with 300V input voltage, and (c) waveforms for VDS2 and
IDS2 at 10% of the rated load and with 300V input voltage.

73
Figure 4.21 shows the measured output voltages versus the input voltages at

different load conditions. When the load condition is below 200W, the output

voltage is within 5% regulation. Figure 4.22 shows the measured output voltages

versus the load conditions at different input voltages. When the load condition is

below 200W, the output voltage is within 5% regulation. Figure 4.23 shows the test

result for the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant converter under load change. The

output voltage is also within 5% regulation.

Vo(V)
50

48

46

44 300W
200W
42 100W
40
300 320 340 360 380 400
Vin(V)

Figure 4.21 Output voltages versus input voltages at different load conditions.
Vo(V)
50
48
46
44 400V
350V
42 300V
40
50 100 150 200 250 300
Po(W)

Figure 4.22 Output voltages versus output powers at different input voltages.

Vo Vo

Io Io

Input Voltage=400V Input Voltage=400V

Vo(10V/div) ; Io(1A/div); Time Base(1ms) Vo(10V/div) ; Io(1A/div); Time Base(1ms)

74
Figure 4.24 shows the measured efficiency of the proposed LLC DC/DC

resonant converter at different input voltages and rated load conditions. The

measured maximum efficiency is approximately 91.8% at the rated load and with

400V input voltage. Figure 4.25 shows the measured efficiency of the proposed

LLC DC/DC resonant converter at different load conditions and with 400V input

voltage. The maximum efficiency is achieved at the rated load, which is nearly

91.8%.

Test Condition : Vo=48V, Po=200W

(%) Line Change versus Efficiency
92
91
90
89
88
300 320 340 360 380 400
VDC(V)
Figure 4.24. Efficiency of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant converter at different
input voltages and at the full-load condition.

Test Condition : VDC=400V, Vo=48V

95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
20 50 100 150 200 250 300
Po(W)
Figure 4.25. Efficiency of the proposed LLC DC/DC resonant converter at different
load conditions and with 400V input voltage.

75
4.5. Summary

This chapter has shown the design and implementation of the proposed circuit.

The PLL control scheme is implemented by detecting the phase signals of the input

voltage and the output voltage. The PLL control scheme prevents the operating

frequency of the circuit from being lower than the resonant frequency of the LLC

resonant tank. The experimental results show that both half-bridge switches work in

a ZVS condition at different input voltages and load conditions. In addition, with the

optimal-efficiency design, the maximum efficiency (nearly 91.8%) is achieved at the

76
Chapter 5. Conclusions and Future Work

This thesis has proposed a PLL-controlled LLC DC/DC resonant converter.

The preceding analysis of phase characteristics facilitates the choice and design of the

LLC resonant tank. The PLL control scheme allows the operating frequency of the

converter to continuously track the resonant frequency of the LLC resonant tank at

different input voltages and load conditions; this means the resonant frequency of the

LLC resonant tank will not be lower than the switching frequency, thus affording a

reduction in turn-on switching losses. Due to the PLL control scheme, this converter

has higher tolerance of component inaccuracy, such as inductor or capacitor. At the

same time, the LLC resonant tank has higher PF because of PLL control, the higher

efficiency is achieved.

The DC analysis derived in this thesis has also simplified the design of the LLC

DC/DC resonant converter. Furthermore, in order to achieve optimal efficiency, the

matched load for maximum efficiency has been explored. The magnetic design for

the LLC DC/DC resonant converter has also been discussed. Based on the model,

the integrated magnetic structure has the same amount of air gap on all legs, which is

useful for designing the transformer.

The PLL control scheme has been implemented by detecting the phase signals of

the input voltage and the transformer secondary output voltage. The experimental

results have shown that both half-bridge switches work in a ZVS condition at

77
design, the maximum efficiency (approximately 91.8%) has been achieved at the rated

Recommended Future Work

The recommended future research work for the LLC DC/DC resonant converter

z The LLC DC/DC resonant converter can be pushed to higher switching

frequencies, such as 200 kHz or higher, to reduce the volume of the magnetic

component.

z By use of the integrated magnetic module for the LLC resonant tank, the power

density and performance can be improved.

78
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