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Strain Energy

2
Normal Stress : Ui = dV
2

2
Shear Stress : Ui = dV
2

2
Axial load for arbitrary cross-section : Ui = dx
0 2

2
Axial load with constant cross-sectional area, length and load : Ui =
2

2
Bending moment : Ui = dx
0 2

2
Torsional moment with arbitrary cross-sectional shape : Ui = dx
0 2

2
Torsional moment with constant cross-sectional area, length and torque : Ui =
2

Conservation of Energy : Ue = Ui
Virtual Work

Theories of Failure

Stress, =


Shear stress, =


J= ( r04 ri4 )
2

For ductile material :



max =
2
Maximum distortion Energy Theory (Von Mises Criterion) :
Energy per unit Volume = Energy to cause volume change + Energy needed to distort the element
1
Energy per unit Volume, u =
2
1 1 1
Energy to cause volume change, u = 11 + 22 + 33
2 2 2
1
avg = (1 + 2 + 3)
3
1 1 1
x = [ x v(y + z)] ; y = [ y v(x + z)] ; z = [ z v(x + y)]

1
u= [12 + 22 + 32 2v (1 2 + 1 3 + 3 2)]
2
1 +
For plane or biaxial-stress cases : ud = [(1 2)2 + (2 3)2 + (3 1)2]
6
1 +
For plane stress cases ( 3 = 0 ) : ud = [12 12 + 22]
6
1 +
For uniaxial tension test : ud = [2]
6

Von Mises Criterion : 12 12 + 22 = 2

+ 2
Principle Stresses, 1,2 = ( ) + 2
2 2

2
Factor of Safety = =
1 2 1 2 + 2 2


Factor of Safety (for Shear Stress) = (opposite signs)
| 1 2 |

= and (same sign)
2 1

Margin of Safety = Factor of Safety 1

Fatigue

Amplitude Stress, Sa = =
2 2
+
Mean Stress, Sm =
2
Smax = Sm + Sa
Smin = Sm Sa

Stress Ratio, R =


Amplitude, A =

Fully reversed condition (Smin = Smax) : R = 1


Pulsating tension (Smin = 0) : R = 0

Modified Goodman Line : + =1

2
Gerber Parabola : + ( ) = 1


Morrow Line : + =1

2
Gerbers Parabola : a = e [1 ( ) ]


Goodman Equation : a = e [1 ( )]


Soderbergs Equation : a = e [1 ( )]