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ALYZZA MAE L.

DAGOY
BNS II
QUIZ #3
1. Discuss pharmacokinetics process?
ANSWER:
- It describes the action of the body on the drug, including absorption, distribution,
metabolism, excretion.

Once the drug is administered, it is (the drug) broken down into four (4) distinct Areas
known as ADME.
1. ABSORPTION of the drug
2. DISTRIBUTION of the drug molecules
3. METABOLISM of the parent drug
4. EXCRETION or elimination of the drug and its metabolites

Absorption- is the movement of the drug from its site of administration into the blood
stream for distribution to tissues.
Distribution- once drug is administered and absorbed, it will be distributed to their site
of action. Distribution refers to the transport of a drug in the body by the bloodstream to
its site action.
Areas of Distribution:
a. First are those most extensively supplied with blood.
This include the heart, liver, kidneys, and brain
b. Areas of slower distribution include the muscle, skin, and fat
Once the drug enters the bloodstream, it is distributed throughout the body and begins to
be eliminated by the organs that metabolizes it (primarily by the liver and kidneys)
Drug Metabolism- drugs are eliminated from the body either unchanged through the
kidneys and bile, or they may undergo chemical changes that allow them to be more
easily excreted. The process of undergoing chemical changes is called biotransformation,
or metabolism.

Metabolism also referred as biotransformation. It involves the biochemical alteration of a


drug into an inactive metabolite, a more soluble compound substances, whether nutrients,
drug, or toxins.

METABOLIZING THE PARENT DRUG


- Metabolism of the parent drug compound occurs in the liver known as Hepatic
Metabolism. The transformation of drug compounds to metabolites or other compounds
known as DRUG METABOLITES.
- The metabolites is more polar (chemically charged) than the parent drug, making it more
readily excreted by the kidneys.

Hepatic biotransformation (metabolism) involves the activity of very large class of


enzyme known as cytochrome P.450 or simply known as P.450 enzymes. It controls
variety of biochemical reaction in the metabolism of medications

PHASE OF HEPATIC METABOLISM PROCESS


PHASE 1 PROCESS:
Metabolism Oxidation
Reduction
Hydrolysis

PHASE 2 PROCESS
Metabolism Conjugation

2 Types of Metabolic Process in the liver


FIRST is oxidation-reduction reactions or hydrolysis
These reactions of the drug use metabolic enzymes, most often those of the cytochrome
P450 enzymes system, to catalyze the biotransformation.
SECOND TYPE of metabolism involves conjugation reactions. In this type of reaction
the drug undergoing change is joined with another substance, such as glucuronic acid,
sulfuric acid, acetic acid, or an amino acid.

Excretion- happens after the drugs have reached their desired effects so that there is a
need to remove them from the body.

The kidneys act as a filter for the blood and create urine as a vehicle for removal of
waste. Blood enters the kidney through renal arteries and then is filtered by the
glomerulus. The glomerular filtrate becomes concentration and substances are removed
as it passes through the renal tubule and eventually becomes urine.

MODES OF EXCRETION
1. Renal elimination and clearance
2. Secretion into bile for fecal elimination
3. Enterohepatic recirculation

2. Discuss Bioavailability.
- Is defined as the fraction of unchanged drug reaching the systemic circulation following
administration by any route.

ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION, BIOAVAILABILITY, AND GENERAL


CHARACTERISTICS
Route Bioavailability Characteristics
Intravenous (IV) 100 (bydefinitior) Most rapid onset.
Intramuscular (IM) 75 to 100 Lager volumes often
feasible; may be painful
Subcutaneous (SC) 75 to 100 Smaller volumes than IM;
may be painful
Oral (PO) 5 to <100 Most convenient; first pass
effect may be significant
Rectal (PR) 30 to <100 Less first-pass effect than
oral
Inhalation 5 to <100 Often very rapid onset
Transdermal 80 to 100 Usually very slow
absorption

3. Discuss ionization
- Ionization the same compound will be ionized to different extents in different parts of the
body is the process by which the drug molecules acquires a negative or positive charge
by graining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical
changes.

DEGREE OF IONIZATION
- Some drug are weak acid ionized or weak hase (alkaline) depending on the pH of the
solution (acidity or alkalinity) in which the drug is being dissolved.

4. Different route drug administration.


PARENTERAL
- Is a general term meaning any route administration order.
- Most commonly it refers to injection by any methods, although topical and transdermal
medication can also be considered parenteral dosage.

INTRAVENOUSLY administered drug bypass the liver thus preventing the first-pass
effect from taking place, thus more of the drug reaches the circulation and distributed
with the blood throughout the body:
- Intradermally
- Subcutaneously
- Intramuscularly
- Intrathecally- injection in the spinal cord
- Intravenously
OUIZ #4
1. What is toxicology and different toxicity
ANSWER:
Toxicology- branch of pharmacology dealing with the undesirable effects of chemicals
On living systems from individual cells to complex ecosystem.
Toxicity- refers to a condition that results from exposure to either a poison or a
dangerous amount of drug that is normally safe when given in a smaller amount.
INORGANIC
- METALS
- METALLOIDS
- NON-METALS
- RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES
ORGANIC
- ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS
- AROMATIC COMPOUNDS
- COMPLEX PESTICIDES
- ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

2. What are the drug interactions underlying toxicity


ANSWER:
Synergism- the action of two drugs working together in which one help other
spontaneously for an effect that neither could produce alone.
Potentiation- the action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the effects of
the other.
Antagonism- the opposing action of two drugs in which one decreases or cancels out the
effect of the other.

3. What are adverse effects and its type.


ANSWER:
Desirable Synergism. A narcotic analgesic, a very effective in relieved pain. By giving
small amounts of each together, pain can be relieved more safely than by giving a large
amount of Demerol (which is addictive) by it self.
Desirable Potentiation. To build up a high level of some forms of penicillin(an
antibiotic) in the blood, the drug probenecid (Benemid) can given simultaneously.
Desirable Antagonism. A narcotic antagonist save lives from drug over dose by
cancelling out the effect of narcotics.
4. What is allergy and classification of allergy
ANSWER:
Allergy a damaging immune response by the body to a substance, especially pollen, fur,
a particular food, or dust, to which it has become hypersensitive.

CLASSIFICATION
Type I hypersensitivity
- This is also known as immediate or anaphylactic-type reactions. This may be
caused due to pollen, foods and drugs and insect stings.
Type II hypersensitivity
- This involves specific antibodies called the Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM.
There is binding to and destroying the cell the antibody is bound on.
- This type of reaction is seen after an organ transplant when the body refuses to
see the transplanted organ as its own.
Type III hypersensitivity
- This is an Immune complex-mediated reaction. The immune complex is the
bound form of an antibody and an antigen.
- This leads to a cascade of reactions in the body which goes on to destroy local
tissues. Examples of this condition include glomerulonephritis and systemic lupus
erythematous (lupus, SLE).
Type IV hypersensitivity
- Delayed or cell-mediated reactions are mediated by special immune cells called
the T-cell lymphocytes.
- The T cells take from a few hours to a few days to mount an allergic response.
Examples include contact dermatitiss such as poison ivy rashes.

5. Sign and symptoms of allergy


ANSWER:
Sneezing
shortness of breath
wheezing
runny nose and eyes
pain over the sinuses (at the bridge of the nose, near the eyes, over cheeks and at
the forehead)
coughing
skin rashes (nettle rashes or hives)
swelling of the lips or face
itching eyes, ears, lips, throat and roof of the mouth
nausea
vomiting
6. Major Dermatological reaction
ANSWER:
Itching, urticaria (hives), hyperemia (reddened warm skin).

7. What is poisoning?
ANSWER:
Poisoning is a substance taken into the body by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or
absorption that interferes with normal physiological functions.

8. What is teratogenicity
ANSWER:
Teratogenicity effect from maternal drug administration that causes the development of
physical defects in a fetus.