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Figure X Typical Floor Layout Plan (Ground floor to 3rd floor)

The maximum bending moment, M* and shear force, V* acting on the slab is determined using
matrix analysis with the assistance of Microsoft Excel. During the analysis, the slab width is taken to
be 1m width between axis 2 and 3. The calculated matrix analysis is then compared with the figures
obtained from Spacegass software. The table below summarizes the loadings calculated before
which is used during matrix analysis.

Table X Material property of slab and loads acting on slab

3.0000
Superimposed Live Load (kN/m)
1.0000
Superimposed Dead Load (kN/m)
3.8400
Slab self-weight (kN/m)
10.3080
Ultimate Limit State Load (kN/m)
6.9400
Service Limit State Load (kN/m)
27000.0000
Elastic Modulus of Slab,E (MPa)
0.0003
Second Moment of Slab,I (m4)
Assumption:

Slab will carry its self-weight, superimposed live load and superimposed dead load
Cantilever length = 0.1m
Secondary beam act as roller, cut in mid-span act as fixed support

Only half span of the slabs is considered for analysis during hand calculation as the structure is
symmetrical.

Table XX General Properties of each element

EI/L^3
Element Length (m) (kN/m)
AB 0.1000 9.2160
BC 2.2667 0.0008
CD 2.2667 0.0008
DE 2.2667 0.0008
EF 2.4000 0.0007
FG 2.4000 0.0007
GH 2.4000 0.0007
Total length 14.1000

The steps taken in matrix analysis for slab are as followed:

1) The degree of freedom present in each element is determined.


2) The equivalent force, {Peq} is calculatedfor each element then the forces in each element
are sum up to find {Pk} for the degree of freedom present only.
3) The element stiffness matrix for each element is generated.
4) The structural Stiffness matrix, K is generated from element stiffness matrix.
5) The displacement, Uu for each degree of freedom is determined using the following
relationship where {Uu}={Pk} x {K}-1
6) The Reaction force for each element is determined then sum together to find the reaction
force in each support then subtract the UDL load acting on the slab.
7) Shear force diagram and Bending moment diagram for slab is generated from the reaction
force calculated.

For hand calculation, the matrix analysis is done in Microsoft Excel as per describe in the step taken
above. The screenshot of the spreadsheet for steps taken can be found in Appendix XX

The shear force diagram and bending moment diagram are shown below in Figure xx and Figure xx

20.0000

15.0000

10.0000

5.0000

0.0000
0.0000 5.0000 10.0000 15.0000 20.0000 25.0000 30.0000
-5.0000

-10.0000

-15.0000

-20.0000

Figure XX: Shear force Diagram (Excel)


8.0000

6.0000

4.0000

2.0000

0.0000
0.0000 5.0000 10.0000 15.0000 20.0000 25.0000 30.0000

-2.0000

-4.0000

-6.0000

Figure xx Bending Moment Diagram (Excel)

Spacegass result

Table XX Maximum N* and M* for both method

Methods Hand calculation (excel) SpaceGass


N* (kN) 14.1304 14.1000
M* (kNm) 5.6002 5.6000

Based on table XX, it is found that both method agrees with each other with minor decimal error due
to rounding off.

5.1 Section moment capacity for bending about a principal axis.


The section moment capacity is calculated in accordance to section 5.2 in AS4100.

Where

= Capacity Factor

Ze = Effective section Modulus (m3)

Fy = yield stress (kN/m2)

The effective section modulus is calculated based on the type of section: compact, non-compact or
slender section. To determine which type of section it belongs, the section slenderness is determine
by evaluating the plasticity limit, yield limit and deformation limit based on the criteria in Table 5.2,
AS 4100. It is assumed that the type of section for our beam is compact section where section
slenderness, s < plasticity slenderness, sp .
The equation used to calculate the compact section are as followed:

= min[, 1.5]
Where

Z = elastic section modulus

S = plastic section modulus

The yield stress, Fy has been determined earlier from BHP table based on the type of beam (universal
beam) and its dimension (530UB82.0).

Detailed calculation can be found in appendix xx

5.2 Member Capacity of Segment


The member capacity of segment is determined by the amount of restraint to resist lateral buckling
when the beam undergo deflection about its major axis. Lateral buckling depends on the shape of
section (b/t), yield stress (fy), beam span (L), boundary condition and cross section type for beam.

The beam design is assumed to have no full lateral restraint as a conservative approach.

For member capacity of segment without full lateral restraint, the calculation is done in accordance
to section 5.6, AS4100. Since the segment of our beam has constant cross section, the nominal
member capacity (Mb) is calculated as follows:

=
Where

m = moment modification factor

s = slenderness reduction factor

Ms = nominal section moment capacity

The moment modification factor, m is calculated using the following equation:



1.7
= 2.5
[ (2 )2 + (3 )3 + (4 )2 ]
Where
M*m = maximum design bending moment in the segment
M*2, M*4 = design bending moments at the quarter points of the segment
M*3 = design bending moment at the midpoint of the segment
The slenderness reduction factor, s is calculated using the following equation:
2
= 0.6 [[( ) + 3] ( )]

Where
Moa = reference buckling moment
The reference buckling moment, Moa is determined as follows:
2 2
[( 2 ) [ + ( 2 )]

Where
E, G = Elastic moduli
Iy, J, and Iw = section constants
le = effective length (m)
The effective length of a beam depends on the restraint condition in each end whether it has
fully restraint (connections: beam to column), laterally restraint (secondary beam comes
into primary), partially restraint or unrestrained. This will determine the relevant factors and
the length of segment in a beam. The restraint condition at each end is taken to be FF with
no lateral restraint on both end.
The effective length (le) of a segment or sub-segment is determined as follows:
=
where
kt = twist restraint factor
kl = load height factor
kr = lateral rotation restraint factor
l = segment length (m)

Detailed calculation can be found in Appendix xx

Preliminary beam selection


During the preliminary stage of beam selection, rules of thumb applies where the span to depth
ratio of the beam (L/d) is used to estimate the size of beam. The slab is continuous and has a
cantilever span, therefore the L/d ratio adopted is 15 (which is in between 28 and 10).

For primary beam 1:


8000
= = 533.3
15
For primary beam 2:
6800
= = 453.3
15
Table XX Results summary for different beam size where Mb needs to be more than M*

8.0 Portal Frame Design

There are two design requirement for portal frame: Determine the rafter size and column size.

The value of M* and N* has been calculated earlier using spacegass, the critical load case will be
used to test against the member for rafter and column. There are several assumptions made to ease
the calculation process and they are as followed:

1) Only 5 identical portal frame at 7.5m spacing.


2) Building is effectively sealed and having non-opening windows.
3) Braced frame for portal frame.
4) Pin-support at the bottom.
5) No hunch (as conservative approach).

The primary beam size used after primary beam calculation is 460UB67.1 and this is used to check
against the design action M* and serviceability where the vertical deflection < total length/250.
The deflection limit is as followed: 30.4/250=121.6mm

The load combination for designing portal frame are as followed:

For strength: 1.2G +W and 1.2G +1.5Q


For serviceability: G+W and G+0.7Q

Where

G = dead load

W= wind load

Q = live load

After checking using spacegass, it is found that the beam size of 460UB67.1 pass the strength check
but failed the deflection check, therefore the size of the beam is revised to 460UB82.1 to meet both
criteria.

Results Summary
Table XX: Results summary for rafter checking

Table XX: Result summary for shear checking

Column design

The column is tested against the design action of N* and M* calculated earlier.

Table XX Results summary for column design

9.0 Composite Floor Slab (One way)


Composite floor comprises of a concrete topping cast onto metal decking. This metal deck will act as
a framework for the concrete, eliminating the need for props and helps mainly in tension
reinforcement for slabs. There are there metal sheeting manufacturers in Australia: Condeck HP,
Bondek II and Conform. Taking a conservative approach, only Condeck HP metal sheeting is
considered as it has the lowest yield point (lowest ysh value). For one way slab, there are 2 important
parameters used to evaluate the composite floor slab which are maximum positive and negative
bending moment. It is then check for serviceability limit state of slab design to ensure deflection of
slab is at acceptable range.

9.1 Loadings on composite slab


The loads acting on the slab is in the form of uniform distributed load, where superimposed live load
and dead load are 3kn/m and 1kn/m respectively. The self-weight of slab is approximately 3.84
kN/m which leads to a total dead load of 4.84 kN/m. The factored load for ultimate limit state is
calculated to be 10.3kN/m.

The maximum positive and negative bending moment is taken from matrix analysis for continuous
slab, the value is shown in the table below:

Table XX Maximum positive and negative bending moment for composite slab
Bending Moment, M* kNm
Positive 5.6002
Negative 4.0848

Figure xx Properties of Condeck HP metal sheet

Sheeting properties

fsy.sh = 550MPa

hr = 55m

ysh= 12.8mm

Hr = 210kPa

= 0.5

After several iteration in excel for all models, the metal sheeting with thickness of 0.75mm is chosen
for our composite slab design. The properties of condeck hp panel is obtained from Figure xx

9.2 Composite Slab Bending Moment Capacity


The bending moment capacity for ultimate limit state of composite slab (positive bending moment)
is calculated using the following equation:
0.5
(+) =
0.85
Where

= capacity factor

Dc = overall depth of the composite slab (including sheeting)

ysh = height at which the sheeting tensile force acts above the bottom of the slab

Tsh = tensile force in the sheeting

B = breath of the slab

fc = concrete compressive strength

In this equation, all parameters are predetermined except the tensile force in the sheeting. There
are 3 possibilities for Tsh at failure
a) The sheeting yield: = . flexural failure
b) The concrete crush: = ( ) flexural failure
c) The sheeting slips: = ( ) longitudinal slip failure

Where

Ash = cross section area of sheeting

Fsy.sh = design yield stress of sheeting = 550MPa for the 3 manufacturers

hr = height of sheeting ribs

Hr = mechanical resistance

= coefficient of friction

R* = vertical reaction at support

Table xx: Summary of different type of tensile failure, Tsh

Type of tensile failure, Tsh Value Units


The sheeting yield 666.05 kN
The concrete crush 2856.00 kN
The sheeting slips 251.25 kN

After calculation using excel, the critical tensile failure is sheeting slip failure. The positive bending
moment capacity is then calculated using equation xx and it is found that Mu(+ve) = 33.28kNm which
meets the criteria of Mu > M*.

Negative moment capacity of slab:



() = . ( ) 1.0
1.7

Where

= capacity factor

Ast.new = area of steel in reinforce slab (mm^2)

fsy = yield stress (MPa)

d = depth of steel reinforcement

p = Concrete to steel ratio

fc = Concrete compressive strength (MPa)

The calculation process are as followed for obtaining negative moment capacity:

1) Find Pmin using the following equation:



( )2
= 0.2


Where
fcf = 0.6 x sqrt(fc)
2) Find depth of steel reinforcement, d using the following equation:
=
Assume concrete cover= 25mm and Radius of bar =5mm (Y10)
3) Find Minimum area of steel reinforcement required, Ast.min using the following
equation:
. =
Where
b= Slab thickness
4) Find the area of each bar (Y10), Abar then find out the number of bars required using
the following equation:
.
=

Where
Abar = d2/4 (d = diameter of bar)
Nb = Number of bars
The number of bars calculated is rounded up to the nearest whole number.
5) The Area of reinforcement, Ast.new is recalculated based on number of bars calculated
after rounded up using the following equation:
. =
6) Pnew. is calculated based on Ast.new using the following equation:
.
=

7) Finally, calculate negative moment capacity of slab using equation 1.0.
For negative bending moment check, the contribution of strength from metal sheet to
composite slab is ignored as a conservative approach. A table summary comprising the
calculated parameters to obtain the negative moment capacity is generated below:
Table XX: Table summary of negative moment capacity parameters

Parameters Value Unit


pmin 0.0035
Depth of steel reinforcement, d 130.0000 mm
Minimum area of steel reinforcement, Ast.min 460.3003 mm2
Number of bars, Nb (rounded up) 6.0000
New area of steel reinforcement, Ast.new 471.2389 mm2
pnew 0.0036
Negative moment capacity, Mu 21.4662 kNm

Discussion
The calculated negative bending moment, Mu(-ve) and positive bending moment, Mu(-ve) is
higher than the design bending moment, M* which indicate that our design is safe for
ultimate limit state of composite slab. All calculation in this section can be found in
Appendix 9.1 and Appendix 9.2. In the following section 9.3, serviceability check is
conducted for composite slab.

9.3 Composite slab serviceability limit state


In serviceability check, the span to depth ratio is calculated and needs to be greater than the actual
value of the beam for SLS as per standards, AS3600.
1/3

( )

= 3 4 [ ]
.

Where

/Lef = deflection limit

Lef = effective span (m)

K3 = 1.0 for a one-way slab

= 0.95 for a two-way flat slab without drop panels

= 1.05 for a two-way flat slab with drop panels, which extend at least L/6 in each
direction on each side of a support centre-line and have an overall depth not less
than 1.3D, where D is the slab thickness beyond the drops

K4 = the deflection constant, which may be taken as

a. For simply supported slabs, 1.6; or


b. For continuous slabs, where in adjoining spans the ratio of the longer span
to the shorter span does not exceed 1.2 and where no end span is longer
than an interior span
(i) 2.0 in an end span; or
(ii) 2.4 in interior spans

Fdef = load per metre, including allowance for shrinkage and creep

= (1.0 + kcs)g + (s + kcs 1)q = [2 1.2 ( )] 0.8

Ec = elastic modulus of slab (MPa)

d = slab depth (m)

Methodology

Based on Table 2.3.2 in AS 3600 /Lef is found to be 1/250 (suitable for all type of member,
deflection considered: total deflection, and deflection limitation is for span)

Lef = effective span (m)

K3 = 1.0 for a one-way slab

= 0.95 for a two-way flat slab without drop panels

= 1.05 for a two-way flat slab with drop panels, which extend at least L/6 in each
direction on each side of a support centre-line and have an overall depth not less
than 1.3D, where D is the slab thickness beyond the drops
K4 = the deflection constant, which may be taken as

a. For simply supported slabs, 1.6; or


b. For continuous slabs, where in adjoining spans the ratio of the longer span
to the shorter span does not exceed 1.2 and where no end span is longer
than an interior span
(i) 2.0 in an end span; or
(ii) 2.4 in interior spans

Fdef = load per metre, including allowance for shrinkage and creep

= (1.0 + kcs)g + (s + kcs 1)q = [2 1.2 ( )] 0.8

Ec = elastic modulus of slab (MPa)

d = slab depth (m)