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REVISED

Introduction

Power System

1.The easiest way to look at the power system is to consider it as a group of nodes, which
we call substations, and linking power carries, for example overhead lines and
underground cables. By means of substations, the power of a generating plant can be
delivered to the system, the power can be separated throughout the linked lines, and the
power can be delivered to the consumers. Also, transformers can be mounted in the
substation in order to interconnect unlike voltage levels.

2. A transmission line is in excess of a group of long, parallel wires. To the electrical


engineer, it is a distributed-parameter physical system, one in which voltage and current,
transmitting communication signals or moving bulk power over an extended distance,
must be considered as continuous functions of place along the given line.

1.Power Systems are the biggest and the greatest complex artificial dynamic method.
Like any dynamic method, the power system is unceasingly exposed to perturbations and
experience transitions after single operating state to another in the form of oscillations. A
simple condition for the power system to keep the stability needs that the oscillations be
checked.

2. Usually, transmission and distribution power systems are categorized according to the
voltage level. In actual power systems, we will find in rural areas power systems that
have the task of transmission system, likewise if the voltage at around 60kv and below.
Power systems with the voltage higher than 220kv deliver the power in heavy load centers
similar to the center large towns.

3. Another main part of the power system is the transmission line. Transmission lines
actually integrate the output of generating plants and the requirements of consumers by
delivering providing lanes for the flow of electric power among various circuits in the
system.
Transmission lines categorized as short, medium and long lines. In short line, the
shunt effect (conductance and capacitance) insignificant. This estimate is valid for lines
up to 80 km in length. A medium line, may be anywhere among 80 and 240 km long.
Lines longer than 240 km are considered as long lines which are obtainable by distributed
parameters.

4. Electric Power Station


It is impossible at the present-day to construct power station (plant) close to the
customers place because of environmental, economical, and reliability problems. As a
result of these problems, power stations are constructed in isolated areas. The energy
created by such plants in transmitted over high-voltage(high-tension) transmission lines
for long distance to customer through the substation system and distribution system.

5. Cables and Accessories


The generation, transmission, and distribution of power involve electrical amenities
devices and components to transmit electrical energy from its generating place to where
it is used. A significant part of this power system is the medium-voltage cable system
that is used exclusively to transmit power from the main substation to load centers.
Low-voltage cable is used to supply power from load centers in conduits and ducts, even
if other method such as cable trays, straight burial for outdoor application, and aerial cable
are used.

6. Electrical power is usually produced at 11kV. While in some cases, power may be
produced at 33kV. This generating voltage is then stepped up to 132kV, 220kV, 400kV
or 765kV etc. Stepping up the voltage level be contingent upon the distance at which
power is to be transferred. Longer the distance, greater will be the voltage level. Stepping
up of voltage is to be decrease the I2R losses in transferring the power (when voltage is
stepped up, the current decrease by a comparative quantity so that the power stays
constant, and therefore I2R loss also decrease). This phase is named as primary
transmission.
The voltage is the stepped down at a receiving station to 33kV or 66kV. Secondary
transmission line emerge from the receiving station to link substation placed close load
centers (cities etc.)

7. At the sub-station (SS) voltage is decrease from 33kV to 3-wire for primary distribution.
Customer whose demands surpasses 50 kVA are typically provided from SS by special
3.3kV feeders. The secondary distribution is made at 400/230 V for which purpose
voltage is decrease after 3.3kV to 400V at the distribution sub-stations. Feeders radiating
from distribution sub-station provide power to distribution networks in their particular
areas. If the distribution network occurs to be at a great distance from subs-station, then
they are provided from the secondary of distribution transformers which also pole-
mounted or other housed in kiosks at appropriate points of the distribution networks. The
most common system for secondary distribution is 400/230-V, 3-phase 4-wire system.

8. It is usual practice now-a-days to interconnect several kinds of generating stations


(thermal and hydroelectric etc.) by means of a usual electrical network control them all in
parallel. This combination of generating state forms what is known as power system.
The different elements as a system like generating stations, transmission lines, the
substation, feeders and distributors etc. become tied into a whole by the combined
process of continuous generation and consumption of electric energy. A system network
(or grid) is the term given to that part of power system which contains of the sub-stations
and transmission lines of various voltage rating.

9. A.C. power transmission is constantly at high voltage and typically by 3-phase system.
The use of single-phase system is limited to single-phase electric railways. Single-phase
power transmission is used merely for short distance and relative low voltages. 3-phase
power transmission needs fewer copper than either single-phase or 2-phase power
transmission. The distribution system starts either at the sub-station where power is
transported by overhead transmission lines and stepped down by transformers or in
certain circumstances at the generating station itself. Where a big area is involved,
primary and secondary distributions may be used.
With regards to phases, the following systems are accessible for the distribution of A.C.
power.
1) Single-phase, 2-wire system.
2) Single-phase, 3-wire system.
3) Two-phase, 3-wire system.
4) Two-phase, 4-wire system.
5) Three-phase, 3-wire system.
6) Three-phase, 4-wire system.

10. The distribution system may be divide into feeders, distributors, sub-distributors and
service mains. Feeders are conductors which links the sub-station (in some cases the
generating station) to the distributors supplying a particular designated area. From
distributors, various tappings are taken. The connecting link among the distributors and
consumers terminals are at service mains. The essential different among a feeder and
a distributor is that whereas the current loading of a feeder is the similar all over its length,
the distributor has a distributed loading which results in variations of current along its total
length. In other words, no straight tappings are taken from a feeder to a consumers
places.

11. Electric energy is useful and efficient for production of lights, mechanical energy and
in information processing. For the first two uses it can be transformed in a clean fashion
(a compared with transferring coal, for example) and economically over long distance
lines so as to be obtainable at the point of use.
Work is done when an thing transfers in a field of force. If the object transfers in the
direction of force, work is done by the force.
Energy. It is the ability for doing work. When a weight is raised gravity, work done by an
external agency in lifting it gets kept in the weight as potential energy.
Power. It is the rate of doing work (i.e. rate of transferring energy). Average of power is:

=

TRANSMISSION
WAYS OF TRANSPORTING

1.Advantage of High Voltage Direct Current Over High Voltage Alternating Current
1. The peak voltage of AC power is similar as the voltage of DC power in steady state
operation of DC power but DC power, although the peak voltage of the DC power can
carry two times the power at steady voltage.
2. AC power radiates and there is some capacitive coupling to the ground and in between
the 3 conductors. This reduces efficiency. High voltage direct current doesnt have this
problem
3. AC high voltage often uses clusters of wires or cables because of incident of skin effect,
however HVDC can have just one large cable which can be cheaper.
2. The most common process of power transmission in the world is AC power, lines create an
electromagnetic field around the wire that are hanged high above the ground, the higher the
voltages, the bigger the electromagnetic field produced around the wire, here are some great
properties that showed that Alternating current is the most applicable for distance transmission:
1. AC power can be easily converted from low to high voltages and back again, higher
voltage are best for pushing power in a conductor because higher voltages lose a
reduced amount of energy along the trip than lower voltages.
2. AC power is suitable for power grids as it delivers itself throughout a grid and can settle
by routing power around an outage are.

High Voltage Direct Current


3.In 1882, High Voltage Direct Current was the first system of long distance transmission, the
technology for sloid state of HVDC systems is relatively new and it is more effective than AC,
HVDC are not in a grid configuration that can evenly deliver power in a net but HVDC systems
contain a single long distance line joining major grids with valves at each end. HVDC is
especially suitable to connect islands like grids cross china, the US and Europe, connecting
major geographic areas.
John D. Harnden Jr. 2008

Wireless power transmission


4.Nikola Tesla and the General Electric Lab prove that sending power wirelessly is possible,
though it is impractical for a number of reasons, it is very ineffective going through the medium
of air, and it is deadly for animals that is passing through high-powered beams. And It is not
suitable to use this technology, particularly in the meantime we are leaping forward with high
voltage direct current that doing remarkable levels of efficiency.

Superconducting technology
5.Superconductive technology is fit to use in super cold temperature like underground, this
technology is fit to use in delivering power though underground cables with almost no power
loss, unlikely this technology is not yet cost effective. Short experimental lines have been placed
in at Albany, New York and other locations in Japan and Germany.
DESIGN CONSIDERATION

1. Transmission Line Design Consideration


An overhead transmission line contains of conductors, insulators, support structures, and,
in most cases, shield wires.
Conductors
Aluminum has substitute cooper as the greatest common conductor metal for overhead
transmission. Even though a larger aluminum cross-sectional area is needed to get the
similar loss as in a copper conductor, aluminum has a lower cost and lighter weight.
Likewise, the supply of aluminum is abundant, whereas that of copper is limited.

One of the most common conductor kind is aluminum conductor, steel-reinforced (ACSR),
which contains of layers of aluminum strands surrounding a middle core of steel strands.
Stranded conducts are easier to produce, meanwhile larger conductor size can be
obtained by just adding successive layers of strands. Stranded conductors are also
easier to handle and more flexible than solid conductors, particularly in bigger sizes. The
use of steel strands gives ACSR conductors a high strength-to-weight ratio. For purpose
of heat dissipation, overhead transmission-line conductors are bare.

2. Shield wires found beyond the phase conductors shield the phase conductors against
lighting. They are typically high- or extra-high-strength steel, alum weld, or ACSR with
much smaller cross section than the phase conductors. The number and location of the
shield wires are chosen so that more or less all lighting strokes end on the shield wires
rather than on the phase conductors. Shield wires are grounded to the tower. As such,
when lightning strikes a shield wire, it run safely to ground, if the tower impedance and
tower footing resistance are small. The points of interconnection of each new line to the
system, along with the power and voltage ratings of each, are selected based on these
studies. Thereafter, transmission-line design is based on optimization of electrical,
mechanical, environmental and economic factors.
3. ELECTRICAL FACTORS
Electrical design mandates the type, size, and number of bundle conductors per phase.
Phase conductors are preferred to have adequate thermal capacity to meet continuous
emergency overload and short-circuit current ratings. For EHV (extra high voltage) lines, the
quantity of bundled conductors per phase are selected to manipulate the voltage gradient at
conductor surfaces, thereby decreasing or excluding corona or power loss.
Electrical design also mandates the number of insulator discs, vertical or V-shaped string
procedure, phase-to-phase clearance, and phase-to-tower clearance, all selected to supply
adequate line insulation. Line insulation possess its characteristics that it must defy transient over
voltages due to lightning and switching surges, even when insulators are taint by fog, salt, or
industrial pollution. Decreased clearances due to conductor swings during winds must also be
considered. The number, type, and location of shield wires are classified to intercept lightning
strokes that would else hit the phase conductors.

4. ECONOMIC FACTORS
The optimum line design suits all the technical design criteria at lowest overall cost, which
entail the complete installed cost of the line besides the cost of the line over the operating life of
the line. Most of the design factors affect cost. Utilities and consulting organizations exercise
digital computer programs combined with specialized knowledge and physical experience to
attain optimum line design.

5. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Environmental factors compromise land usage and visual impact. Selection of line route
should be done by considering these factors: the effect on local communities and population
centers, land values, access to property, wildlife, and use of public parks and facilities. Visual
impact can be decreased by securing aesthetic tower and by blending the line with the
countryside.

6.MECHANICAL FACTORS
Mechanical design pertains on the strength of the conductors, insulator strings, and
support structure. Conductors must be strong to withstand a specified thickness of ice and a
specified wind together with its own weight. To support the phase conductors with ice and wind
loadings from tower to tower, the suspension insulator strings must be strong enough. Suspension
towers are built to support the phase conductors and shield wires with ice and wind loadings.
Angles in the line utilize angle towers with intermediate strength. Conductor fatigue failure and
damage to towers are caused by conductor vibrations.
NETWORK STRUCTURE

Network structure

5. The system structure is framed by the overhead lines, the underground links, the
transformer and the transports between the purposes of force infusion and utilization.
The quantity of voltage change from most elevated amount to the least voltage level
decides the standard system structure of a power framework. Arrange structures can be
recognized in framework parts with single-point boosting and various point supporting.
1. Characteristics of Power Lines
Moving the power from different locations in the grid was the main duty of power lines
when referring to Power Systems. They are applied whether overhead lines or by using cables.
They are different from each other by means of structure and operating conditions, hence their
methods are different. Cables cost much higher than the overhead lines even though they are
carrying the same voltage levels. Thus, many prefer manufacturing overhead lines for its
economical perspective.

2. Transmission and Distribution Network


Overhead transmission lines and underground cables has its own duty, to distribute and
transmit electricity. The design of the transmission and distribution system varies to its total
amount of power and distance over which it has to be transported; the longer the distance and
the more power to be transported, the higher the rated system voltage. The transmission network
which links power plants and substation has the highest voltage rating. The loads get its electrical
energy from the distribution network.
AC TRANSMISSION PARTS
7. Power Line Conductors
The two main components of power circuit are the conductors and insulating system. The
task of the conductors is to carry the current while the insulating system is to guarantee the
necessary insulation of the current carrying parts between themselves (phases) as well as to
ground. Each phase of a transmission line consists of one or multiple conductors. Bundle
conductors refers to several usages of conductors for one phase. Lower series impedance of the
line and in reduced electric field strength at the conductor surface are caused by bundle
conductors. The most usual conductor material used is only aluminum or aluminum alloys. ACSR
(Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) can obtain a high mechanical strength. It also has a
design with a steel core with additional aluminum strands.

Cable construction and Classification


It will be difficult to apply and select the proper cable to power system without going through the
basics of cable insulation and cable components. Therefore, it is a must to refresh our basic
knowledge of the basic components and fundamentals of cables for their application to power
systems. The following discussion will present the materials presently used for cables.
Copper Conductor
The copper material used in cable is purely electrolytic copper which has a 100%
conductivity, which if there is a 1 t long and one circular (1/1000 of in) in cross-sectional area, it
has a resistance of 10.371 OHMs at 20 degrees C.
Aluminum Conductor
Aluminum conductors are made up of 99% aluminum which has a conductivity of 61%.
Some of the advantages of aluminum conductors are the following: low conductivity, high
resistance of aluminum oxide (which then forms very rapidly when aluminum is exposed to air),
cold flow characteristics, and galvanic action (when connected to dissimilar materials).
Three-fourths conductors hard drawn aluminum has strength of 17,000-22,000 psi.

Conductors
Aluminum has substitute cooper as the greatest common conductor metal for overhead
transmission. Even though a larger aluminum cross-sectional area is needed to get the
similar loss as in a copper conductor, aluminum has a lower cost and lighter weight.
Likewise, the supply of aluminum is abundant, whereas that of copper is limited.
SHIELD WIRES
Shield wires found beyond the phase conductors shield the phase conductors against
lighting. They are typically high- or extra-high-strength steel, alum weld, or ACSR with
much smaller cross section than the phase conductors. The number and location of the
shield wires are chosen so that more or less all lighting strokes end on the shield wires
rather than on the phase conductors. Shield wires are grounded to the tower. As such,
when lightning strikes a shield wire, it run safely to ground, if the tower impedance and
tower footing resistance are small. The points of interconnection of each new line to the
system, along with the power and voltage ratings of each, are selected based on these
studies. Thereafter, transmission-line design is based on optimization of electrical,
mechanical, environmental and economic factors.

INSULATORS
1. Suspension-type insulators are above 69kV, these are usually the insulator for
transmission which may be group of string of disc constructed porcelain, toughened glass or
polymer. The standard disc has a 0.254 m (10 in) diameter, a space between centre of adjacent
discs and a mechanical strength of 7500 kg is of 0.146 m (53 4 in). In some contaminated
areas, theres other type of disc that includes larger units with higher mechanical strength and
fog insulators are being used.

SUPPORT STRUCTURES
2. The transmission lines employ different diversity of support structures. A lattice steel tower
used for 500 and 765 kV lines in some typical manner. Double-circuit lines usually with 345 kV
have self-supporting steel towers with the phase arranged either in a triangular configuration to
reduce tower height or in a vertical configuration to reduce tower width. For voltages of 345 kV
and below, Wood frame configurations are commonly used.

J. Duncan Glover, M.S Sarma, TJ Overbye

\
CABLE
Cable Types

6. Power cables are classified regarding to its insulation:

Laminated type of cable uses power, varnished cambric polypropylene, or other types of tape
insulation materials. Paper Insulated lead-covered (PILC) cable is a type of cable which
insulation formed in normally from tapes of papers or other materials or combination of them.

Extruded type used an extrusion process for the insulation of cable. rubber and rubber-like
compounds such as polyethylene (PE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), ethylene propylene
rubber (EPR), etc. are applied.

Paul Gill , Taylor & Francis group 2009

Cable Rating

7. In order to know on how to select and apply cables for distribution and utilization of power
basis of cable rating is the key, the following brief description of cable rating will provide the
basis for selecting and applying cables.

Continuous current-carrying rating of cable is affected by several factors:

1. Maximum allowable temperature


2. Total watt loss (I2 Rc) of the cable
3. Ability to dissipate heat
4. Ambient temperature
The maximum conductor temperature is determined by the maximum temperature, insulation
system can hold up for extended period of time without damage, the maximum temperature in
turn can be affected by the ability to dissolve heat and the ambient temperature of the medium
in which cable is installed to operate. The sum of ambient temperature and temperature rise in
the insulation system should not exceed the allowance temperature of the conductors for safe
operation. For current-carrying capacity aluminum conductors can be conveyed in terms of
copper conductors. The conversion factors to convert the current carrying capacity of the same
size aluminum conductors as copper can be expressed in terms of resistance ratio of copper to
aluminum, that is Rcu/RAL where RCU and RAL are respectively, the resistance of copper and
aluminum conductors at rated temperature.
TRANSFORMER

Power Transformer and Reactors


Basic Construction
`
9. The fundamental parts of the transformer are: (an) iron core, attractive circuit (b)
high-voltage ( HV ) and low voltage ( LV ), or different optional windings, and (c) a tank
for fluid submerged transformers and a fenced in area for dry-sort transformers. The
essential center and coil setup are: core category and shell type. In a center sort
transformer, the center is encompasses the winding coils. The typical plan is a three
stage, three-leg center sort, while a five leg center outline empowers a lessening in
transformer height and a higher zero-succession impedance. Shell sort transformer
were produced for high greatness cut off, for example, generator step up transformers.

` Shoaib Khan

Transformer

10. Transformers are basic divisions in the AC control framework as they make it
possible to change over electrical vitality to various voltage levels with a productivity of
over 99%. That empowers us to produce control at a generally low voltage level ( 10-25
kV, restricted by the protection of the generator ), to transport it at high voltage levels (
110kV-420 kV and higher) to diminish the losses within transportation , though local
utilization can occur at a low and ( pretty much) safe voltage level 400 V and
underneath.
Pieter Schovemaker
Two types of phase shifters

In-quadrature directing transformers


11. - in the main sort, the turns proportion variety of the assistant transformer causes a
Delta Variation and along these lines a voltage stage variety.
II. In-stage and in-quadrature controlling transformers. This last kind of controlling
transformer controls the voltage abundancy and stage.
In-stage controlling transformer ( IPRT) , a first kind of directing transformer or
"booster", which are utilized to control the voltage sufficiency.
Every stage has a winding that is arrangement associated with the transport bar of
which voltage is to be controlled, while the other winding is provided by a similar
transport by means of an assistant transformer with variable turns proportion.
Mircea Eremia, Mohammad Shahidehpour

Normal Service Conditions


Transformers are designed for operation at rated kVA under the following service
conditions:
1. Cooling (ambient) air temperature for liquid immersed or dry-type
transformers.
Average temperature for any 24h period is not to excedd 30
Maximum temperature is not to exceed 40.
2. Cooling-water temperature for water- cooled transformers.
Average water temperature for any 24h period is not to exceed 25.
Maximum water temperature is not exceed 30.
3. Altitude ( elevation )
Altitude is not exceed 1000m ( 3300 ft)
4. Load Current
Load current is approximately sinusoidal.
Harmonic factor does not exceed o.05 per unit.
5. Load power factor.
Load power factor is 80% or higher.
6. Voltage and frequency
Secondary voltage and volts per hertz shall not exceed 110% at no
load and 105% at rated value.
SAFETY

1. Task of Protection
By the involvement of Leanard L. Grigsby, the duties of the protection in electrical power
system are as follows:
To keep persons from hazardous circumstances.
To protect the power system from uncertainties
To keep the parameters of power system

2.Transmission line security

From all other security hardware and devices, transmission line insurance must be
proper from each other component.
The reason for power framework security is to distinguish issues or irregular working
conditions and to start restorative activity. Transfers must have the capacity to measure
a wide range of parameter to build up that corrective activity is required. Clearly, a
transmission can't keep the fault. Its basic role is to identify the fault and make the
essential move to minimize the harm to the hardware or to the framework.
Stanley H.Horowitz

3.Fuses have been utilized for a long time to give transformer liability insurance. For the
most part, it is prescribed that transformer estimated bigger than 10 MVA be ensured
with more delicate devices. Fuses give a low-upkeep, prudent answer for security.

Fuses give restricted security to some inside transformer issues. A circuit is additionally
a solitary stage tool. Certain framework shortcomings may just work one breaker.
Leanard L. Grigsby

Single-Point sustaining system

4. A solitary point sustaining system can have three designs


1. A outspread structure; in which all substations (or customers ) are encouraged by
lines or links associated specifically to one control supply; a system with a spiral
structure is less costly to assemble.

2. A loop structure; in which every single substation inside the framework is


sustained from two bearings; systems with a circle structure are more dependable
however costly to assemble.

1. A multi-circle structure; in which multi-circle structure are exceptionally


dependable in their operation, yet more expensive.
Peter Shauemaker
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

1.Advantage of High Voltage Direct Current Over High Voltage Alternating Current
1. The peak voltage of AC power is similar as the voltage of DC power in steady state
operation of DC power but DC power, although the peak voltage of the DC power can
carry two times the power at steady voltage.
2. AC power radiates and there is some capacitive coupling to the ground and in between
the 3 conductors. This reduces efficiency. High voltage direct current doesnt have this
problem
3. AC high voltage often uses clusters of wires or cables because of incident of skin effect,
however HVDC can have just one large cable which can be cheaper.